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Sample records for affect educational outcomes

  1. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.

  2. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  3. Impact of Law-Related Education Materials on Student Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Smith, David L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of an evaluation of a tenth-grade unit developed by the High School Education Law Project (HELP) in Australia. The study measured student attitudes toward the normality of judges, enjoyment of legal studies, and dynamic nature, influenceability, and comprehensibility of the law. Cognitive outcomes were also measured. (KC)

  4. Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, J S; Cumberland, P M; Peckham, C S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine any association of amblyopia with diverse educational, health, and social outcomes in order to inform current debate about population screening for this condition. Design, setting, and participants Comparison of 8432 people with normal vision in each eye with 429 (4.8%) people with amblyopia (childhood unilateral reduced acuity when tested with correction and unaccounted for by eye disease) from the 1958 British birth cohort, with respect to subsequent health and social functioning. Results No functionally or clinically significant differences existed between people with and without amblyopia in educational outcomes, behavioural difficulties or social maladjustment, participation in social activities, unintended injuries (school, workplace, or road traffic accidents as driver), general or mental health and mortality, paid employment, or occupation based social class trajectories. Conclusions It may be difficult to distinguish, at population level, between the lives of people with amblyopia and those without, in terms of several important outcomes. A pressing need exists for further concerted research on what it means to have amblyopia and, specifically, how this varies with severity and how it changes with treatment, so that screening programmes can best serve those who have the most to gain from early identification. PMID:16520328

  5. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes? NBER Working Paper No. 14945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: Though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  6. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  7. Cohorts and Relatedness: Self-Determination Theory as an Explanation of How Learning Communities Affect Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachboard, Martine Robinson; Beachboard, John C.; Li, Wenling; Adkison, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether feelings of relatedness constitute a substantial means by which learning communities (cohorts) improve learning outcomes in higher education. It applies Ryan and Deci's Self-Determination Theory to an analysis of the National Survey of Student Engagement. The SDT hypothesizes that environments that support perceptions…

  8. Language Minority Students at Community College: How Do Developmental Education and English as a Second Language Affect Their Educational Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges play an important role in providing first and second generation immigrants access to higher education and the opportunity to earn a postsecondary credential. However, immigrant students may face obstacles in pursuit of a postsecondary degree, particularly second language challenges that can inhibit their success in college-level…

  9. Didacticism and Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnes, Geraint

    2006-01-01

    This note provides an analysis of the determinants of educational outcomes at age 16, and of subsequent pathways as school pupils transit toward the labour market. There is some evidence that examination results tend to be better where nondidactic teaching methods are used, but there is little evidence to suggest that teaching method has an…

  10. Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mark

    This review explores which facility attributes affect academic outcomes the most and in what manner and degree. The research is examined in six categories: indoor air quality, ventilation, and thermal comfort; lighting; acoustics; building age and quality; school size; and class size. The review concludes that school facilities affect learning.…

  11. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  12. Outcome-Based Education: Another Educational Bandwagon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Traces the roots of outcome-based education in mastery learning. Considers such obstacles as lack of reform preconditions, poor understanding of program features, teacher resistance, teacher domestication, staff mobility, and routinization. (SK)

  13. Motivated behavioral outcomes affect ratings of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Hardy, David J

    2014-12-01

    A relatively new theory of motivation posits that purposeful human behavior may be partly explained by multidimensional individual differences "traits of action" (motives). Its 15 motives can be characterized according to their purpose: individual integrity, competitiveness, and cooperativeness. Existing evidence supports the model on which the motives are based and the reliability and validity of strategies to assess them. This experiment tested whether the hypothetical results of consistent, motivated cooperative and competitive behavior could affect ratings of attractiveness. Male and female participants (N = 98; M age = 18.8, SD = 1.4) were shown 24 opposite-sex facial photos ranging in attractiveness. The photos were paired with one of three conditions representing theoretical outcomes that would result from low, control, and high levels of cooperative and competitive motives. As predicted, outcome descriptions representing high motive strength of six motives statistically significantly affected ratings of attractiveness. This result was independent of sex of participant and consistent with the theory. PMID:25457092

  14. Do learning style and learning environment affect learning outcome?

    PubMed

    DiBartola, L M; Miller, M K; Turley, C L

    2001-01-01

    This study compared learning outcomes of students with different learning styles, as identified by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory indicators, in a traditional in-class environment with those taking the same course via distance education. The above-average scores were evenly distributed, 47% of the in-class group and 43% of the distance group. For three of the four learning styles, there was no relationship to learning outcome or environment. The Diverger group did show a relationship with above-average scores in the distance group (83%). The findings support that the classroom or distance environment did not influence learning outcome. Learning style did not appear to affect learning outcome in either group, except that the Diverger learning style may have a positive relationship to learning in the distance environment.

  15. Ramadan, Fasting and Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterbeek, Hessel; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Using a difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the impact of Ramadan on educational outcomes of Muslim students living in a non-Muslim country. For identification we exploit that the number of Ramadan weeks during the course that we study, varies from year to year, ranging from zero to four. Our main finding is that Ramadan observance…

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  17. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  18. Forces Affecting American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1970-01-01

    The contemporary American school reinforces the real values of the culture. As a consequence, today's educational system appears at worst to be a production line for alienated persons, or, at least, an irrelevant factor in the processing of the coming generations. (JH)

  19. How Do We Measure Affective Learning in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buissink-Smith, Nell; Mann, Samuel; Shephard, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Educational outcomes related to sustainability often include affective attributes such as values, attitudes and behaviours. Educators in higher education who attempt to research, monitor, assess or evaluate learning of affective attributes can face a bewildering array of methodologies and approaches and a research literature that spans several…

  20. Transformational management style positively affects financial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zwingman-Bagley, C

    1999-01-01

    Two specific examples from the author's experience demonstrate the central theme that positive financial outcomes are a function of a transformational leadership style of management. The article focuses on participation competencies utilizing involvement, empowerment, and accountability. Developing staff and empowering them to make decisions about their work and outcomes are necessary to achieve a high-quality, cost-effective outcome, the key to financial success.

  1. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  2. Model Learner Outcomes for Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard C.; Hessler, Edward

    This document provides curriculum planners with models of learner outcomes that can be incorporated into a science curriculum and science essential learner outcomes. The first chapter includes a list of educational system values and learner values, philosophy of education, the mission for public education, and learner goals that describe the…

  3. Case studies in outcome-based education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Margery H; Amin, Zubair; Grande, Joseph P; O'Neill, Angela E; Pawlina, Wojciech; Viggiano, Thomas R; Zuberi, Rukhsana

    2007-09-01

    Outcome-based education is one of the most significant global developments in medical education in recent years. This paper presents four case studies of outcome-based education from medical schools in different parts of the world; Scotland; USA; Pakistan; and Singapore. The outcome-based curricula have either been in place for some time, are evolving or are at the planning proposal stage. The outcomes, change process and implementation of the outcome-based approach are described. Variation in the extent to which each medical school has implemented outcome-based education is discussed and key points for successful implementation are highlighted. This paper is based on the pre-conference symposium "outcome-based curricula: global perspectives" presented by the authors at the 4th Asia Pacific Medical Education Conference (APMEC) in Singapore, 8-11 February, 2007. PMID:18236260

  4. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  5. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  6. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  7. Trait Affect and Job Search Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Stephane; Saks, Alan M.; Zikic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of trait affect in job search. One hundred and twenty-three university students completed measures of positive and negative affectivity, conscientiousness, job search self-efficacy, job search clarity, and job search intensity during their last year of school while on the job market. At the end of the school…

  8. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  9. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  10. Measuring the General Education Outcomes: Practical Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Anne; And Others

    Prepared in an effort to more clearly define and measure general education outcomes at Columbus State Community College, in Ohio, this handbook describes outcomes and associated student behaviors and provides suggestions for assessing the outcomes. Following introductory materials, a list is provided of the college's six general education…

  11. Encountering Science Education's Capacity to Affect and Be Affected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-01-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science…

  12. FINANCIAL LITERACY, FINANCIAL EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the extent to which a competitive market provides incentives for firms to educate consumers or offer products that facilitate informed choice. We review the literature on alternative policies to improve financial outcomes, and compare the evidence to evidence on the efficacy and cost of financial education. Finally, we discuss directions for future research. PMID:23991248

  13. Common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes: some implications for teaching psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Robert; Heiman, Noa; Yager, Joel

    2015-05-01

    The number of psychotherapies classified as "empirically supported treatments" has increased significantly. As the number and scope of empirically supported treatments multiply, it has become impossible to train therapists in all of these specific modalities. Although the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements for psychiatric residents follow an approach based on specific schools of psychotherapy (emphasizing competency in cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and supportive treatments), evidence suggests that we are failing even in these efforts. In developing a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars Track in the residency program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, we opted to focus initially on teaching the common factors in psychotherapy that positively affect psychotherapy outcomes. This article reviews 6 such broad common factors.

  14. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2016-09-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  15. Encountering science education's capacity to affect and be affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve

    2015-12-01

    What might science education learn from the recent affective turn in the humanities and social sciences? Framed as a response to Michalinos Zembylas's article, this essay draws from selected theorizing in affect theory, science education and science and technology studies, in pursuit of diverse and productive ways to talk of affect within science education. These discussions are framed by desires to transcend traditional epistemic boundaries and practices. The article concludes offering some associated ambiguities and tensions involved.

  16. Technology Integration before Student Outcomes: Factors Affecting Teacher Adoption of Technology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Alankar

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1920s, ICTs have been endorsed as solutions to challenges of access and quality in education. Proponents have also supported technology use in education on grounds that it could potentially impact cognitive, affective, and pedagogical outcomes. Based on these perceived benefits, many developed and developing countries have been…

  17. Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education 2013 Educational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Melissa S.; Stowe, Cindy D.; Robinson, Evan T.; DeLander, Gary; Beck, Diane E.; Melchert, Russell B.; Supernaw, Robert B.; Roche, Victoria F.; Gleason, Brenda L.; Strong, Mark N.; Bain, Amanda; Meyer, Gerald E.; Dong, Betty J.; Rochon, Jeffrey; Johnston, Patty

    2013-01-01

    An initiative of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (formerly the Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education) (CAPE), the CAPE Educational Outcomes are intended to be the target toward which the evolving pharmacy curriculum should be aimed. Their development was guided by an advisory panel composed of educators and practitioners nominated for participation by practitioner organizations. CAPE 2013 represents the fourth iteration of the Educational Outcomes, preceded by CAPE 1992, CAPE 1998 and CAPE 2004 respectively. The CAPE 2013 Educational Outcomes were released at the AACP July 2013 Annual meeting and have been revised to include 4 broad domains, 15 subdomains, and example learning objectives. PMID:24159203

  18. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404

  19. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes.

  20. Model Learner Outcomes for Home Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cheryl, Ed.; And Others

    Chapter 1 of this document contains sets of statements adopted by either the Minnesota State Board of Education or the Minnesota State Legislature. They represent the hierarchy used by Department of Education staff as they develop model learner outcomes for each subject area. Contents include learner values, education system values, philosophy for…

  1. Physical Education Performance Outcomes and Cognitive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    This article intends to inform physical education teachers about the current research describing the relationship between physical education performance outcomes as identified by the national physical education standards (i.e., regular participation in physical activity, physical fitness, motor competence; National Association of Physical…

  2. Outcomes in cochlear implantation: variables affecting performance in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Waltzman, Susan B

    2012-02-01

    This article highlights variables that affect cochlear implant performance, emerging factors warranting consideration, and variables shown not to affect performance. Research on the outcomes following cochlear implantation has identified a wide spectrum of variables known to affect pos0timplantation performance. These variables relate to the device itself as well as individual patient characteristics. Factors believed to affect spiral ganglion cell survival and function have been shown to influence postoperative performance. Binaural hearing affects performance. Social and educational factors also affect postoperative performance. Novel variables capable of affecting performance continue to emerge with increased understanding of auditory pathway development and neural plasticity. PMID:22115688

  3. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Suter, Renata S; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Endestad, Tor; Biele, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective) expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus) correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain of the decision to

  4. Application of Matrix Outcome Mapping to Constructively Align Program Outcomes and Course Outcomes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazouz, Abdelkader; Crane, Keenan

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a link between Course Learning Outcomes (LOs) and Program Outcomes (POs) while assessing the course contents and delivery are among the most challenging issues in Higher Education. In the present study two forms were generated based on specific Course Learning Outcomes identified in the syllabus at the beginning of the teaching term:…

  5. Nurse anesthesia education in the new millennium: outcomes of a federally funded advanced nursing education grant.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M; Kost, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Graduate nursing education is evolving in response to multiple societal influences affecting higher education. Nurse anesthesia education has also been affected by these forces. This article describes the planning, implementation, and evaluation of a new graduate track in nurse anesthesia made possible by an academic partnership, and the positive impact that a federally funded grant had on the venture. The excellent academic outcomes, the changes in diversity of the student body, the innovative curriculum, and lessons learned from the project are described.

  6. Migration, Remittances and Educational Outcomes: The Case of Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredl, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates how migration and the receipt of remittances affect educational outcomes in Haiti. Based on a theoretical approach it tries to disentangle the effects of both phenomena that have mostly been jointly modeled in previous literature. The results suggest that remittances play an important role for poor households in…

  7. Socioeconomic Outcomes from Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)

  8. Assessing Higher Education Learning Outcomes in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.; Amaral, Eliana; Knobel, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has developed an encompassing system for quality assessment of higher education, the National System of Higher Education Evaluation (SINAES), which includes a test for assessing learning outcomes at the undergraduate level, the National Exam of Student Performance (ENADE). The present system has been running since 2004, and also serves as…

  9. Variables Affecting Distance Educational Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ellen D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses variables that affect the success of distance education programs in elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education or corporate training environments. Topics addressed include needs assessment, audience analysis, instructional design, course selection and reconfiguration, instructional delivery systems, adapting media and other…

  10. Health Literacy: An Educationally Sensitive Patient Outcome.

    PubMed

    Yin, H Shonna; Jay, Melanie; Maness, Leslie; Zabar, Sondra; Kalet, Adina

    2015-09-01

    We have previously proposed that by identifying a set of Educationally Sensitive Patient Outcomes (ESPOs), medical education outcomes research becomes more feasible and likely to provide meaningful guidance for medical education policy and practice. ESPOs are proximal outcomes that are sensitive to provider education, measurable, and linked to more distal health outcomes. Our previous model included Patient Activation and Clinical Microsystem Activation as ESPOs. In this paper, we discuss how Health Literacy, defined as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions," is another important ESPO. Between one-third and one-half of all US adults have limited health literacy skills. Providers can be trained to adopt a "universal precautions approach" to addressing patient health literacy, through the acquisition of specific skills (e.g., teachback, "chunking" information, use of plain language written materials) and by learning how to take action to improve the "health literacy environment." While there are several ways to measure health literacy, identifying which measurement tools are most sensitive to provider education is important, but challenging and complex. Further research is needed to test this model and identify additional ESPOs. PMID:26173523

  11. Affective Education for Gifted, Culturally Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…

  12. Summary of New Legislation Affecting Education, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This document summarizes major legislation, enacted by the 1993 New York State Legislature, that affected education and its related professions. Eight sections offer brief descriptions of legislation enacted in the following areas: laws affecting school districts generally; cultural education; state aid; taxation and financial administration;…

  13. 1989 Summary of New Legislation Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Counsel.

    This summary of major legislation enacted by the 1989 New York State Legislature affecting education and the professions is organized in eight sections: (1) laws affecting school districts generally; (2) state aid; (3) taxation and financial administration; (4) miscellaneous; (5) laws of local application; (6) higher education; (7) laws affecting…

  14. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  15. Postgraduate Outcomes in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Mary Ann; Laguilles, Jerold S.; Kelly, Heather A.; Walters, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a big-picture view of the postgraduate outcomes landscape. In an effort to promote understanding and to communicate the value of a higher education credential to various stakeholders, five national efforts are described, each of which provides a different perspective for defining, measuring, and collecting postgraduate…

  16. [Educational and social outcome after childhood cancer].

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Jacinthe; Dugas, Karyn; Louis, Aurélien; Morel, Laëtitia; Toughza, Jihane; Frappaz, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate improvement of childhood cancer survivors lead to question about their educational and social outcome. Authors suggest an international review in order to find risk factors of school or social failure after cancer experience. Principal cohort is studied in USA (the Children Cancer Survivor Study). Nevertheless, European studies are also published. The results vary, depending on subpopulation studied and on control choice (siblings or general population). Treatment improvement and supportive care make difficult to compare studies with current situations. Moreover, there are not international standard of education or social outcome. School and social behaviour are influenced by: types of tumor (cerebral tumor but also sometimes hemopathy and osteosarcoma), age at diagnosis (very young children and adolescent), treatments (neurotoxical treatments, hematopoietic stem cell transplant), and social or educational status of the parents.

  17. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.

    1987-11-01

    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy.

  18. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  19. Affect, Citizenship, Politics: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the role of emotions in the constitution of political identity and boundary formation, and discusses the educational implications of that analysis in the context of citizenship education. The author begins by examining how affect is fundamental to the formation of borders, nationhood and citizenship, and discusses the role of…

  20. Acknowledging the Affective in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Colin; Clegg, Sue; Smith, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that we need richer conceptions of students as affective and embodied selves and a clearer theorisation of the role of emotion in educational encounters. These areas are currently under-researched and under-theorised in higher education. The first part of the article explores the literature on emotion. The second reports on a…

  1. 1988 Summary of New Legislation Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Counsel.

    This chapter by chapter summary of legislation enacted by the 1988 New York State Legislature affecting education and the professions has been prepared for use by the education community. Additional legislation may be forthcoming because the Legislature was in temporary recess as of the publication of this report. Sections of the report include…

  2. State Staff Perceptions of Vocational Education Outcomes. Identification and Assessment of Vocational Educational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Barnard, Wynette S.

    A study examined appropriate outcomes for students entering the work force after graduation from high school and for students going on to a community college for advanced training. Fifty-eight staff members of the Department fo Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DAVTE) of the Illinois State Board of Education were asked to write a profile…

  3. Affecting the Affective: Affective Outcomes in the Context of School Effectiveness, School Improvement and Quality Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Carl; Bourke, Sid; Schofield, Neville

    2004-01-01

    The late 20th Century saw the rapid rise of quality assurance and effectiveness measures in most industries and organisations. These trends were very much reflected in education at all levels. An associated emergent trend in primary and secondary education in Australia was growth in the use of standardised measures of student achievement that…

  4. Student outcomes of distance learning in nursing education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne M; Roy, Linda

    2012-09-01

    Distance learning offers a distinctive environment to educate nursing students. While there is a significant body of evidence in the literature related to course, program, and faculty outcomes of distance education, little attention has been given by researchers to evaluate student outcomes, with the exception of student satisfaction. There is a need to evaluate and translate findings related to student outcomes in distance learning into educational practice. Integrative reviews offer one strategy to contribute to evidence-based teaching practice initiatives. A search of available published qualitative and quantitative research on student outcomes of distance learning from 1999 to 2009 was conducted using a number of databases. Astin's Input-Environment-Output conceptual model provided a framework for this review. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Bothcognitive and affective student outcomes emerged. The cognitive outcomes were student learning, learning process, and technology proficiency. Affective outcomes included personal and professional growth, satisfaction, and connectedness. Implications, recommendations, and future research are discussed.

  5. Higher Education Structure and Education Outcomes: Evidence from the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents substantial differences across states in their higher education (HE) structures and highlights several empirical relationships between these structures and individuals' HE outcomes. Not surprisingly, individuals who are exposed to more-fractionalized HE structures are more likely to attend small public universities and…

  6. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  7. Course and cognitive outcome in major affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the course and outcome of major affective illness has clinical as well as theoretical implications. In understanding the pathophysiology of the major affective disorders, an essential question in the interplay between biological, psychological and social factors is whether the individual is changed biologically by experiencing an affective episode or not. A biological change may be reflected in a changed risk of experiencing new episodes and changed chances of recovery from these episodes for the individual, and may possibly also be reflected in persisting altered cognitive function as an expression of brain function affected during a longer period. Previous studies of the course of affective episodes are flawed by a number of drawbacks such as various definitions of recovery and recurrence, various kinds of bias and confounders, low statistical power, and statistical analyses conducted without survival models and without paying attention to diagnostic instability or the individual heterogeneity of the course of episodes. Totally, these drawbacks and pitfalls affect the results of previous studies in unpredictable ways and make it hazardous to draw conclusions about the effect of prior affective episodes on the subsequent course of unipolar and bipolar disorder. The present thesis avoided most of these pitfalls or adjusted for them in analyses of hospital data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, collected nationwide from 1971 to 1993. Hospitalisation was used as an expression of an affective episode. On average, a progressive course with increasing risk of recurrence with every new episode was found for unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Initially, the two types of disorders followed markedly different courses, but later in the course of the illness the risk of recurrence was the same for the two disorders. However, analyses with frailty models revealed that for unipolar men, this progressive course was due to a subgroup of patients

  8. Using AMLO to Improve the Quality of Teacher Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to find ways to improve learning outcomes in teacher education courses by using an Analysis Model for Learning Outcomes (AMLO). It addresses the improvement of the quality of teacher education by analyzing learning outcomes and implementing curriculum modifications related to specific learning objectives and their effects on…

  9. Household Crowding During Childhood and Long-Term Education Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lopoo, Leonard M; London, Andrew S

    2016-06-01

    Household crowding, or having more household members than rooms in one's residence, could potentially affect a child's educational attainment directly through a number of mechanisms. We use U.S. longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to derive new measures of childhood crowding and estimate negative associations between crowding during one's high school years and, respectively, high school graduation by age 19 and maximum education at age 25. These negative relationships persist in multivariate models in which we control for the influence of a variety of factors, including socioeconomic status and housing-cost burden. Given the importance of educational attainment for a range of midlife and later-life outcomes, this study suggests that household crowding during one's high school years is an engine of cumulative inequality over the life course. PMID:27103537

  10. Does Augmented Reality Affect High School Students' Learning Outcomes in Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Jonathan Christopher

    Some teens may prefer using a self-directed, constructivist, and technologic approach to learning rather than traditional classroom instruction. If it can be demonstrated, educators may adjust their teaching methodology. The guiding research question for this study focused on how augmented reality affects high school students' learning outcomes in chemistry, as measured by a pretest and posttest methodology when ensuring that the individual outcomes were not the result of group collaboration. This study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental study design that used a comparison and experimental group. Inferential statistical analysis was employed. The study was conducted at a high school in southwest Colorado. Eighty-nine respondents returned completed and signed consent forms, and 78 participants completed the study. Results demonstrated that augmented reality instruction caused posttest scores to significantly increase, as compared to pretest scores, but it was not as effective as traditional classroom instruction. Scores did improve under both types of instruction; therefore, more research is needed in this area. The present study was the first quantitative experiment controlling for individual learning to validate augmented reality using mobile handheld digital devices that affected individual students' learning outcomes without group collaboration. This topic was important to the field of education as it may help educators understand how students learn and it may also change the way students are taught.

  11. Effective Affective Design for Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvacek, Susan M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the importance of affective considerations when designing instruction for distance education. Topics discussed include learner motivation based on Keller's ARCS model (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction); communication patterns that facilitate interaction between students; and ethics involved with marketing programs,…

  12. Responsive Professional Education: Balancing Outcomes and Opportunities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Joan S.; And Others

    Goals and outcomes in various fields of professional education are considered. Attention is directed to generic outcomes of professional preparation, the emphasis these outcomes receive among professional educators, some problems that concern professional educators, and recommendations for future action and study. The generic outcomes, which were…

  13. Using skinfold calipers while teaching body fatness-related concepts: cognitive and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J R; Eklund, R C; Williams, A C

    2003-12-01

    Body composition testing has been advocated as part of fitness test batteries in an educational effort to promote health-related fitness, and to prevent public health problems like obesity. However, the measurement of the body composition of children and youth, especially involving the use of skinfold calipers, has raised concerns. In two experiments the cognitive and affective consequences of skinfold caliper use in a 7th grade (155 boys, 177 girls, total N = 332) health/physical education context were examined. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the students could be taught to accurately measure a partner and/or significantly learn body fatness-related concepts compared to controls. It was also shown that inexpensive plastic Fat Control calipers produced accurate measurements. Experiment 2 was designed to replicate the significant cognitive outcome effects, and also to test the hypothesis that psychological damage is a likely consequence of skinfold caliper use-and that hypothesis was refuted. Specifically, knowledge scores, and outcome scores on adapted affect scales (e.g., PANAS, MAACL), physical self-esteem scales (CY-PSPP) and on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale supported the premise that skinfold calipers can be used in an educational context to facilitate cognitive learning without causing adverse affective consequences.

  14. Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Surgical Outcome in Tympanoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Naderpour, Masoud; Jabbari Moghadam, Yalda; Ghanbarpour, Ensieh; Shahidi, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tympanoplasty is a standard procedure to repair tympanic membrane perforation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of tympanoplasty (hearing improvement and tympanic membrane closure rate) in patients suffering from chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane by considering the prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, based on the results of tympanoplasty with temporal graft fascia in 60 patients in the ENT department of the Medical Science University of Tabriz, we evaluated prognostic factors, such as age, sex, smoking, size, and site of perforation, for the outcome of this surgery. Results: The rate of surgical success- integration of the graft- was 93.3%. Improvement of hearing, as demonstrated through audiometry, occurred in 93% of cases. We did not find any factors to be statistically significant to affect surgical outcome. Conclusion: Even by considering the influence of different factors on the results of a tympanoplasty operation, according to the statistical results of this study, there is not a significant difference in the results of the operation, neither in the health of the tympanic membrane after surgery nor in hearing development. PMID:27280095

  15. Evaluation in Residential Environmental Education: An Applied Literature Review of Intermediary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biedenweg, Kelly; O'Connor, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Residential environmental education aims to enhance proenvironmental attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, as well as attain outcomes related to personal and interpersonal skills. Although these outcomes may not be evident for months or even years afterward, few program evaluations investigate how the experience and context affect intended outcomes…

  16. Computer Self-Efficacy, Computer Anxiety, Performance and Personal Outcomes of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktag, Isil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the computer self-efficacy, performance outcome, personal outcome, and affect and anxiety level of physical education teachers. Influence of teaching experience, computer usage and participation of seminars or in-service programs on computer self-efficacy level were determined. The subjects of this study…

  17. Can Cooperative Learning Achieve the Four Learning Outcomes of Physical Education? A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ashley; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Physical learning, cognitive learning, social learning, and affective learning are positioned as the legitimate learning outcomes of physical education. It has been argued that these four learning outcomes go toward facilitating students' engagement with the physically active life (Bailey et al., 2009; Kirk, 2013). With Cooperative Learning…

  18. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  19. The impact of otitis media on cognitive and educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Corinne J; Jacobs, Ann M

    2009-11-01

    Otitis media is a common disease in childhood that can adversely affect cognitive and educational outcomes. The literature in this area is equivocal, and findings may be influenced by research design. The impact of otitis media on individual children's development appears to depend on the inter-relationship between several factors. Children who have early-onset otitis media (under 12 months) are at high risk of developing long-term speech and language problems. Otitis media has been found to interact negatively with pre-existing cognitive or language problems. For biological or environmental reasons, some populations have a pattern of early onset, higher prevalence and episodes of longer duration; this pattern leads to a higher risk of long-term speech and language problems. These factors suggest that Indigenous children may be at higher risk of cognitive and educational sequelae than non-Indigenous children.

  20. Outcomes of a breastfeeding educational intervention for baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Dodgson, Joan E; Tarrant, Marie

    2007-11-01

    Educational institutions have the responsibility to provide students with knowledge and practical experiences of best practices and international standards of care. Worldwide, international standards for appropriate and effective breastfeeding promotion and services often have not been met. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an infant feeding educational intervention on student nurses' knowledge levels about (1) evidence-based breastfeeding promotion, (2) evidence-based beliefs about outcomes of breastfeeding and formula-feeding, (3) evidence-based attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula-feeding, and (4) intention to perform evidence-based breastfeeding promotion behaviors. A quasi-experimental intervention with a non-equivalent control group was conducted at a major university in Hong Kong. The intervention group (n=111) received 10h of didactic instruction and an 8-week perinatal clinical rotation while the control group (n=162) did not. The intervention group was significantly more likely to associate breastfeeding with positive maternal and child outcomes. Attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula-feeding were not significantly affected by the educational intervention. On the 19-item knowledge survey, the control group (M=6.84; SD=2.95) scored significantly lower than the intervention group (M=10.30; SD=2.51). A public health breastfeeding promotion strategy frequently overlooked is professional-level curricular interventions. Improving evidence-based practices in nursing programs has the potential to impact many breastfeeding families in the hospital and the community.

  1. Outcomes-Based Education Reexamined: From Structural Functionalism to Poststructuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capper, Colleen A.; Jamison, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    Outcomes-based education (OBE) views itself as drastic break from current inequitable educational practices and means of providing educational success for all students. Reexamines OBE from a multiparadigm perspective of organizations and educational administration. Although certain OBE facets may be empowering to students and teachers, much of the…

  2. Assessing Outcomes in Optometric Education: A Commentary by the Council on Optometric Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optometric Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    A statement of the Council for Optometric Education (COE) defines and characterizes educational outcomes, outcomes assessment, and outcomes data, and explains the reasons for outcomes assessment, its relationship to curricular design, and its function in accreditation of optometry programs. Stated COE standards and expectations of optometry…

  3. Accountability in Continuing Education: Measuring Noncredit Student Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; McConochie, Daniel D.

    1991-01-01

    Although only Ohio has issued statewide standards for noncredit continuing education and a few other states have looked at such a process, most of the literature on student outcomes focuses exclusively on degree-credit programs. A college, university, or state system might want to assess continuing education outcomes for the following reasons: to…

  4. Influences of Mastery Goal and Perceived Competence on Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2014-01-01

    Motivation research has shown significant relations of students' mastery goal orientation and perceived competence to educational outcomes, but has not simultaneously scrutinized their relative influences on various educational outcomes. In the present investigation, a sample of Australian students from 6 secondary schools in Western Sydney…

  5. "Lost in Translation": Learning Outcomes and the Governance of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassnigg, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a critical assessment of the relationship between learning outcomes and the governance of education and training systems. Learning outcomes are defined as an instrument that might work at different levels with different meanings and different results: at the level of education and training practice, they might obtain pedagogical…

  6. Outcomes and Pathways in Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    A project examined the outcomes and pathways of 1992 participants in adult and community education (ACE) courses in Victoria, New South Wales, and South Australia. It explored participant characteristics, vocational skills gained from completing ACE courses, educational and employment outcomes, and personal benefits and benefits to families and…

  7. The Effect of an Economic Crisis on Educational Outcomes: An Economic Framework and Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    This article first provides an economic framework for understanding how an economic crisis affects children's educational outcomes; this framework shows that there are both negative (harmful) effects and positive (beneficial) effects on educational outcomes. A review of the empirical evidence suggests that the negative effects are typically…

  8. Outcome-Reporting Bias in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Williams, Ryan T.; Canada, Dericka D.

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-reporting bias occurs when primary studies do not include information about all outcomes measured in a study. When studies omit findings on important measures, efforts to synthesize the research using systematic review techniques will be biased and interpretations of individual studies will be incomplete. Outcome-reporting bias has been…

  9. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  10. Family, Community, and Educational Outcomes in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review research on the economics and sociology of education to assess the relationships between family and community variables and children's educational outcomes in South Asia. At the family level, we examine the variables of family socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, family structure, and religion and caste. At…

  11. Claiming "Educative Outcomes" in HPE: The Potential for "Pedagogic Action"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DinanThompson, Maree

    2013-01-01

    This paper will propose and privilege "educative outcomes" in Health and Physical Education (HPE), reflecting that one of the five propositions in the "Draft Shape of Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education" (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012a) can be regarded as the bonding…

  12. The Outcomes of Educational Welfare Officer Contact in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Morag; Cheung, Sin Yi; Sharland, Elaine; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The key purpose of educational welfare officers in England is to support students and parents to maximise educational opportunities for young people. However more is known about their role in relation to school attendance than in relation to pupils' educational outcomes. Using the Longitudinal Survey of Young People in England (LSYPE), this paper…

  13. Sex Education Attitudes and Outcomes among North American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…

  14. Understanding the Workforce Outcomes of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for educational programs to show their return on investment is exemplified in the intense debate surrounding gainful employment programs--defined as programs that lead to gainful employment in a recognized occupation and theoretically differ from programs that offer education in the liberal arts or prepare students for further education.…

  15. Can a future choice affect a past measurement's outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-01

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell's theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement's outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  16. Review of National Education Policies: Teacher Quality and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how teacher quality and learning outcomes are included in national education policies. It responds to a set of specific questions focused on strategies to improve learning, links between teacher quality and learning outcomes, and how policy seeks to overcome learning obstacles for the most disadvantaged. The…

  17. The Trouble with Outcomes: Pragmatic Inquiry and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Chris W.

    2012-01-01

    Although outcomes assessment (OA) has become "common sense" in higher education, this article shows that the concept of "outcomes" tends to limit and compromise teaching and learning while serving the interests of institutional management. By contrast, the pragmatic concept of consequences tends to expand our view of teaching and learning, and…

  18. School Choice and Educational Opportunity: Rationales, Outcomes and Racial Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the rationales for school choice, and the significance of choice mechanisms for racial disparities in educational opportunities and outcomes. It identifies tensions between liberty-based rationales and equality-based rationales, and surveys research findings on the outcomes of school choice policies, especially with regard to…

  19. Matrix of Basic Learner Outcomes for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partners in Career Education, Arlington, TX.

    The document provides a means of organizing the career education learner outcomes for Texas students into a scope and sequence to be used as a framework for continued development of learner activities. The 177 learner outcomes (objectives) are presented in the following nine categories: career planning and decision making, career and occupational…

  20. Relations between Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion and Students' Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the effects of emotional exhaustion among teachers have primarily focused on its relations with teacher-related outcome variables but little research has been done for examining its relations with student outcomes. Therefore, this study examines the relations between teachers' emotional exhaustion and educational outcomes…

  1. Interprofessional Education and the Basic Sciences: Rationale and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistlethwaite, Jill E.

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to improve patient outcomes and the quality of care. Interprofessional learning outcomes and interprofessional competencies are now included in many countries' health and social care professions' accreditation standards. While IPE may take place at any time in health professions curricula it tends to focus on…

  2. Administrators' Perceptions of Outcome-Based Education: Outputs, Outcomes and Professional Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail Chase

    This case study explores the impact of outcome-based education (OBE) in one school district 5 years after its adoption. The study is guided by constructivist theory and a perspective that policy studies can have an important problem-finding function. The basic assumption of the OBE approach, that educational improvement depends on a shift in focus…

  3. Applying Outcome Measurements: A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Ezra

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with the application of outcome…

  4. Factors affecting patient outcome in primary cutaneous aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, Alexander M.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary cutaneous aspergillosis (PCA) is an uncommon infection of the skin. There is a paucity of organized literature regarding this entity in regard to patient characteristics, associated Aspergillus species, and treatment modalities on outcome (disease recurrence, disease dissemination, and mortality). We reviewed all published reports of PCA from 1967 to 2015. Cases were deemed eligible if they included the following: patient baseline characteristics (age, sex, underlying condition), evidence of proven or probable PCA, primary treatment strategy, and outcome. We identified 130 eligible cases reported from 1967 to 2015. The patients were predominantly male (63.8%) with a mean age of 30.4 ± 22.1 years. Rates of PCA recurrence, dissemination, and mortality were 10.8%, 18.5%, and 31.5%, respectively. In half of the cases, there was an association with a foreign body. Seven different Aspergillus species were reported to cause PCA. Systemic antifungal therapy without surgery was the most common form of therapy (60% of cases). Disease dissemination was more common in patients with underlying systemic conditions and occurred on average 41.4 days after PCA diagnosis (range of 3–120 days). In a multivariate linear regression model of mortality including only patients with immunosuppressive conditions, dissemination and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were statistically significantly associated with increased mortality. Nearly one-third of patients with PCA die with the disease. Dissemination and host status are critical in patient outcome. PMID:27367980

  5. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  6. Determinants of Adult Functional Outcome in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, H. R.; Johnstone, E. C.; McKirdy, J.; Owens, D. C.; Stanfield, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the role of IQ, autistic traits and challenging behaviours in affecting adult outcomes among adolescents who receive special educational assistance. Methods: A total of 58 participants were recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. All received assessments of IQ, behavioural patterns (using the Childhood…

  7. PISA Proficiency Scores Predict Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbach, Antoine; Keller, Ulrich; Preckel, Franzis; Brunner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA) examines the extent to which 15-year-old students who are near the end of compulsory education have acquired some of the competencies essential for participation in the labor market and society. Given that this participation hinges on educational attainment, it is crucial to empirically…

  8. Model Learner Outcomes for Technology Education/Industrial Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This guide provides model learner outcomes used by communities and schools to improve learning experiences in trade and industrial education. It contains a mission statement for public education in Minnesota and 13 learner goals that must be incorporated into each district's goal statements. The bulk of this document contains model learner…

  9. Research on the Outcomes of Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.; Trudeau, Francois

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of objective assessments of the short- and long-term outcomes of elementary school physical education programs. Evaluations have used a variety of designs, including longitudinal and tracking studies as well as correlational analyses. The short-term effect of physical education on health and…

  10. Well-Being: An Essential Outcome for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    For over a decade, the national Bringing Theory to Practice (BTtoP) project has promoted the idea that well-being is an essential outcome of college students' learning and civic engagement. The project emphasizes the full promise of a liberal education: to be liberally educated is to possess the complex skills and abilities necessary for…

  11. The Effects of Competition on Educational Outcomes. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.

    Competition exists when vendors of a service are available to meet the demands of customers. In the education sector, parents and children are consumers, and schools and districts are the suppliers. Theoretically, more competition should translate into higher quality schooling and enhanced educational outcomes. This digest reviews the literature…

  12. Indigenous Education 1991-2000: Documents, Outcomes and Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunstone, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There is often a disparity in Indigenous Affairs between many documents, such as policies, reports and legislation, and outcomes. This article explores this difference through analysing the policy area of Indigenous education during the period of 1991 to 2000. I examine three key documents relating to Indigenous education. These are the "National…

  13. The Perils of Outcome-Based Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, James M.

    1994-01-01

    Outcome-based education, a labor-intensive process driven by mastery learning, is an unsuitable model for training future teachers. Education professors are too overworked to provide individualized instruction. Although OBE theoretically balances remediation and enrichment, fast learners often "tread water," with little incentive to work beyond…

  14. Investigating ESL Students' Performance on Outcomes Assessments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Joni M.; Elliott, Diane Cardenas; Liu, Ou Lydia

    2012-01-01

    Outcomes assessments are gaining great attention in higher education because of increased demand for accountability. These assessments are widely used by U.S. higher education institutions to measure students' college-level knowledge and skills, including students who speak English as a second language (ESL). For the past decade, the increasing…

  15. Athletes as Students: Ensuring Positive Cognitive and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayles, Joy Gaston; Hu, Shouping

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has become increasingly concerned about the educational experience of student athletes, beyond enforcement of eligibility rules and regulations. Perhaps this growing interest is in response to public criticism of the poor performance--and even misconduct--associated with the…

  16. Race Affects Outcome among Infants with Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Robert H; Balint, Jane; Horslen, Simon; Wales, Paul W.; Soden, Jason; Duggan, Christopher; Li, Ruosha; Belle, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intestinal failure is a rare, devastating condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine if ethnic and racial differences were associated with patient survival and likelihood of receiving an intestinal transplant in a contemporary cohort of children with intestinal failure. Methods This was an analysis of a multicenter cohort study with data collected from chart review conducted by the Pediatric Intestinal Consortium (PIFCon). Entry criteria included infants < 12 mo receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) for > 60 continuous days and followed for at least 2 years. Outcomes included death and intestinal transplant (ITx). Race and ethnicity were recorded as they were in the medical record. For purposes of statistical comparisons and regression modeling, categories of race were consolidated into “white” and “non-white” children. Results Of 272 subjects enrolled, 204 white and 46 non-white children were available for analysis. The 48 month cumulative incidence probability (CIP) of death without ITx was 0.40 for non-white and 0.16 for white children (p<0.001); the CIP of ITx was 0.07 for non-white vs 0.31 for white children (p=0.003). The associations between race and outcomes remained after accounting for low-birth weight, diagnosis, and being seen at a transplant center. Conclusion Race is associated with death and receiving an ITx in a large cohort of children with intestinal failure. This study highlights the need to investigate reasons for this apparent racial disparity in outcome among children with intestinal failure. PMID:24918984

  17. How Fiscal Conservatism Will Affect Educational Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollifield, John

    1981-01-01

    Hank Levin, the director of Stanford University's Institute for Research and Governance, discusses part of his center's research agenda and the pessimistic prospects surrounding educational finance. Condensed from "Educational R&D Report," Fall 1980. (Author/SJL)

  18. Outcomes Assessment in Veterinary Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)

  19. Partisanship, Political Polarization, and State Higher Education Budget Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Luciana; Lee, Dong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore how partisanship affects state higher education policy priorities and expenditures. We assume that party coalitions are heterogeneous and policy preferences/priorities differ via mediating factors. We find that Democratic Party strength positively affects state funding for higher education but that the effect diminishes…

  20. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  1. Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    Summaries of bills pertaining to higher education from the Washington State Senate and House of Representatives are presented. The legislation covers the following: library services to Indian tribes; acquisition of surplus EXPO facilities; creation of the Vocational Education Commission; renaming of the Council for Postsecondary Education;…

  2. Secondary science classroom dissections: Informing policy by evaluating cognitive outcomes and exploring affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allspaw, Kathleen M.

    Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students

  3. Stability and Change in Rural Youths’ Educational outcomes through the Middle and High School Years

    PubMed Central

    Witherspoon, Dawn; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature that examines rural youths’ school transition and adaptation over the middle and high school years. Given rural education challenges, this study examines rural youths’ developmental trajectories of self-reported grades and affective and behavioral educational outcomes (i.e., school belonging, value of education, school misbehavior, and extracurricular activity participation). The cohort-sequential study consisted of 3,312 African American and White youth (50% female) who were surveyed over three and a half years, including the transition to high school. The results reveal significant changes in the outcomes from sixth to twelfth grade. For example, on average, school misbehavior increased over time while perceived school belonging decreased over time. Gender and race differences emerged; African American youth reported placing higher importance on education and less participation in school activities than White youth. The discussion focuses on the importance of examining rural adolescents’ educational pathways during the high school transition. PMID:21140200

  4. Preservice teachers' belief systems toward curricular outcomes for physical education.

    PubMed

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Brusseau, Timothy; Ferry, Matthew; Cothran, Donetta

    2010-06-01

    This study was grounded in the belief systems and physical activity literature and investigated preservice teachers' belief systems toward curricular outcomes for physical education programs. Preservice teachers (N = 486; men = 62%, women = 38%) from 18 U.S. colleges/universities shared their beliefs about curricular outcomes. Preservice teachers completed a previously validated belief systems instrument designed to measure the relative importance of four outcome goals for programs (physical activity/fitness, self-actualization, motor skill development, and social development). Internal consistency reliability for the instrument was .98. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a good fit of the current sample to the hypothesized outcomes model. Multivariate analysis of variance results revealed a significant interaction in outcome preservice teachers' priorities for year in school by region. The teachers' views also differed on the important outcome goals for physical education. Two critical "tensions" are discussed: (a) the need to examine more fully the consistency of preservice teacher/teacher belief systems, and (b) implications for teacher education and professional development programming. It is important to heed prospective teachers' voices and address their belief systems in teacher education programs. PMID:20527304

  5. Peters' Non-Instrumental Justification of Education View Revisited: Contesting the Philosophy of Outcomes-based Education in South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2003-01-01

    Argues that Outcomes-based Education is conceptually trapped in an instrumentally justifiable view of education. Discusses that the process of specifying outcome sin educational discourse lends itself to manipulation and control thereby making the idea of Outcomes-based Education impoverished. Argues for education through rational reflection and…

  6. Learning outcomes for interprofessional education (IPE): Literature review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill; Moran, Monica

    2010-09-01

    As part of a World Health Organization (WHO) initiative we searched the literature to explore defined learning outcomes for interprofessional education between 1988, when the last WHO technical report on interprofessional education was published, and 2009. We describe and synthesize findings from 88 citations over this 21 year period. There is a variety in the way learning outcomes are presented but there are many similarities between specific outcomes and/or objectives. Papers describing educational interventions do not always include specific outcomes or objectives. Our findings have been integrated into a list of learning outcomes with six categories for further debate and discussion. This project is part of a wider initiative initiated by the WHO in 2007 to review the current position of interprofessional education worldwide. It is also a sub-project of a learning and teaching grant funded by the Carrick Institute for Learning and Teaching within Australia. In this paper we use the CAIPE definition of interprofessional education: "Occasions when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care" (Barr, 2002 ).

  7. The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution

  8. Educational Resources and Outcomes in California, by Race and Ethnicity. California Counts Population Trends and Profiles. Volume 6, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This issue of California Counts explores educational resources and outcomes across racial and ethnic groups in the state. Family and school resources, student outcomes, and public policy initiatives affecting California's students from early childhood through university are examined. Several factors that potentially contribute to racial and ethnic…

  9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  10. K-12 Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth Lopez Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across…

  11. Is Outcomes Assessment Hurting Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontuso, James F.; Thornton, Saranna R.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of assessment and how it is becoming such a critical problem for higher education, especially for teachers of the liberal arts. While the common-sense goals of assessment are laudable, the actual consequences of the process are far from beneficial. It is suggested that ongoing assessment diverts teachers from…

  12. The Effects of Technology on Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, LaVada A.

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing question in educational research and policy discussion turns on whether technology-based instruction can improve academic performance. Finding a convincing answer to this question is important because school systems across the country have invested and continue to invest very large sums on new instructional hardware and software.…

  13. Does Family History Of Prostate Cancer Affect Outcomes Following Radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Hilary; Ruth, Karen; Horwitz, Eric M.; Chen, David Y.T.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine family history (FH) as a prognostic factor following radiotherapy (RT). Materials and Methods Between 1989 and 2007, 1,711 men with clinically localized prostate cancer and complete family history who had received RT (median RT dose = 74 Gy) without androgen deprivation therapy were analyzed. FH was defined as any prostate cancer in a first degree relative. For the biochemical failure (BF) outcome, this sample size has 85% power to detect a hazard ratio of 1.56 for positive versus negative FH. Results With a median follow-up of 71 months, there was no significant difference in the distribution of Gleason score (GS) or prostate specific antigen (PSA) based on FH. A positive FH was not an independent predictor of BF, distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM), or overall mortality (OM) in Cox proportional multivariable analysis. On further analysis in a Cox proportional multivariable analysis, men with two or more first degree relatives with prostate cancer had a significantly higher likelihood of BF and DM than those with no FH, although there was no difference in PCSM or OM. Men with a positive FH (23%) were more likely to be younger, have a lower PSA, and non-palpable disease. There was no interaction between a positive FH and neither race nor treatment era (pre-PSA vs. PSA era). Conclusions A positive FH is not a prognostic factor following RT and should not alter standard treatment recommendations. Patients with two or more first degree relatives with prostate cancer had a higher likelihood of BF and DM, but there was no effect on survival. There was no interaction between a positive FH and African American race or treatment era. A positive FH was however, associated with more favorable PSA values and T-stage that may be the result of earlier screening. PMID:24560758

  14. Demography As It Affects Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, James R.

    The paper, originally given at a 1986 Ethnic and Multicultural Symposium, looks at special education and the changing society in terms of ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, birth rate, and school completion. Current and emerging demographic characteristics are related to special education policy, organization, training, research, and…

  15. Teaching Affective Qualities in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, Brent; Welch, Mindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Physical educators at all levels have observed learners in a school-based physical education setting as well as physical activity or sport settings outside of organized school curricula demonstrating behaviors deemed inappropriate or inconsistent with professional standards. Because sport is such a public, social, and international phenomenon,…

  16. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  17. Whiteness as Technology of Affect: Implications for Educational Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus; Zembylas, Michalinos

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the embodiment and affectivity of whiteness, particularly as it implicates educational praxis and social justice in education, focusing on the following questions: In what ways are affect and whiteness constitutive of each other in race dialogue? How does emotion intersect with racial practices and white privilege, and what…

  18. A Case Study of an Affective Education Course in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chin-Chiang; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the components of a framework for affective education implementation based on a positive psychology approach. A fifth grade class of 31 students in a public rural elementary school in Taiwan participated in a 13-week long affective education course that consisted of six units: Self-discovery, Love and…

  19. Midterm Outcome of Femoral Artery Stenting and Factors Affecting Patency

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Seoung; Park, Keun-Myoung; Jeon, Yong Sun; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun; Shin, Woo Young; Choe, Yun-Mee; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and midterm results of superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting with self-expanding nitinol stents and to identify the factors affecting patency. Materials and Methods: SFA stenting was performed in 165 limbs of 117 patients from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were followed-up for the first occurrence of occlusion or stenosis based on computed tomography and duplex scan results and a decrease in ankle brachial index of >15%. Results: During the follow-up period (mean, 15.3±3.2 months), no early thrombotic reocclusions occurred within 30 days, but in-stent restenosis developed in 78 limbs. The primary patency rates at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 78%, 66%, 42%, and 22%, respectively, and the secondary patency rates were 85%, 72%, 58%, and 58%, respectively. TASC II C or D lesions, stent length >8 cm, number of patent tibial arteries and diabetes were significantly associated with reintervention. Conclusion: The midterm results of stenting for SFA occlusive disease were disappointing because the primary and secondary patency rates at two years were 22% and 58%, respectively. Reintervention after SFA stenting remains a major problem, particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus or long TASC II C or D lesions. PMID:26719837

  20. Food stoichiometry affects the outcome of Daphnia–parasite interaction

    PubMed Central

    Aalto, Sanni L; Pulkkinen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for growth in consumers. P-limitation and parasite infection comprise one of the most common stressor pairs consumers confront in nature. We conducted a life-table study using a Daphnia–microsporidian parasite model, feeding uninfected or infected Daphnia with either P-sufficient or P-limited algae, and assessed the impact of the two stressors on life-history traits of the host. Both infection and P-limitation negatively affected some life-history traits tested. However, under P-limitation, infected animals had higher juvenile growth rate as compared with uninfected animals. All P-limited individuals died before maturation, regardless of infection. The numbers of spore clusters of the microsporidian parasite did not differ in P-limited or P-sufficient hosts. P-limitation, but not infection, decreased body phosphorus content and ingestion rates of Daphnia tested in separate experiments. As parasite spore production did not suffer even under extreme P-limitation, our results suggest that parasite was less limited by P than the host. We discuss possible interpretations concerning the stoichiometrical demands of parasite and suggest that our results are explained by parasite-driven changes in carbon (C) allocation of the hosts. We conclude that the impact of nutrient starvation and parasite infection on consumers depends not only on the stoichiometric demands of host but also those of the parasite. PMID:23762513

  1. Perspectives in Theory: Anthology of Theorists affecting the Educational World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicking, Misty M., Ed.; Collins, Brian, Ed.; Fernett, Laura, Ed.; Taylor, Barbara, Ed.; Sutton, Kathleen, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of research papers on theorists that affect the educational world are collected in this anthology. Twenty-one students, through the course of their education class, Social and Psychological Conditions of Learning--EDUC 320, researched and applied their knowledge in the elementary and secondary school environments. The contributing…

  2. Gender Affects Early Postoperative Outcomes of Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hee-Uk; Jung, Jae-Won; Lee, Young-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Background The literature does not provide consistent information on the impact of patients' gender on recovery after rotator cuff repair. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gender affects pain and functional recovery in the early postoperative period after rotator cuff repair. Methods Eighty patients (40 men and 40 women) were prospectively enrolled. Pain intensity and functional recovery were evaluated, using visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and range of motion on each of the first 5 postoperative days, at 2 and 6 weeks and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Perioperative medication-related adverse effects and postoperative complications were also assessed. Results The mean VAS pain score was significantly higher for women than men at 2 weeks after surgery (p = 0.035). For all other periods, there was no significant difference between men and women in VAS pain scores, although women had higher scores than men. Mean forward flexion in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks after surgery (p = 0.033) and the mean degree of external rotation in women was significantly lower than men at 6 weeks (p = 0.007) and at 3 months (p = 0.017) after surgery. There was no significant difference in medication-related adverse effects or postoperative complications. Conclusions Women had more pain and slower recovery of shoulder motion than men during the first 3 months after rotator cuff repair. These findings can serve as guidelines for pain management and rehabilitation after surgery and can help explain postoperative recovery patterns to patients with scheduled rotator cuff repair. PMID:26217471

  3. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients.

  4. The Influence of Sexual Identity on Higher Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgen, Carl H., IV.

    2011-01-01

    This research empirically explores how sexual identity influences higher education outcomes for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) college students. A path model was constructed with structural equation modeling using responses from 1,125 non-heterosexual college students. The model includes four psychological variables (level of sexual…

  5. A Quality of Life Framework for Special Education Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Park, Jiyeon

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for measuring outcomes for students with disabilities using quality of life principles identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, namely: (1) equality of opportunity; (2) full participation; (3) independent living; and (4) economic self-sufficiency. It urges that these goals guide curriculum and…

  6. Engineering Graphics Educational Outcomes for the Global Engineer: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the formulation of educational outcomes for engineering graphics that span the global enterprise. Results of two repeated faculty surveys indicate that new computer graphics tools and techniques are now the preferred mode of engineering graphical communication. Specifically, 3-D computer modeling, assembly modeling, and model…

  7. The Constant Error of the Halo in Educational Outcomes Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    1999-01-01

    Research suggests correlations between student gains and college experiences may be an artifact of halo effect. A study examined whether halo error underlies students' self-reported gains, significance of the error, and its effect on the relationship between college experiences and educational outcomes. Results confirm halo error may be an…

  8. Peer Group Influence on Educational Outcomes: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Judith K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A research synthesis of the influence of peer groups on elementary and high school students' achievement and educational/occupational aspirations is presented. Strength of the peer influence-outcome relationship was higher in urban settings and when peer influence was determined by individuals reporting achievement levels of their best friends.…

  9. Univariate Analysis of Multivariate Outcomes in Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The author examined the prevalence of multiple operational definitions of outcome constructs and an estimate of the incidence of Type I error rates when univariate procedures were applied to multiple variables in educational psychology. Multiple operational definitions of constructs were advocated and wider use of multivariate analysis was…

  10. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  11. One District's Journey to Success with Outcome-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Despite serving growing numbers of at-risk students, Pasco (Washington) School District has been transformed through outcome-based education into a district widely recognized for quality. Pascoe's OBE process demanded a school vision and mission statement; intensive teacher retraining; implementation of mastery learning, reality therapy, and…

  12. High-Leverage Leadership: Improving Outcomes in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongon, Denis; Chapman, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation of world trade, international media, technological innovation and social change are creating opportunities and challenges that today's pupils will inherit and build on. A pupil's academic, technical and social capacity will define their success or failure. Therefore, educational outcomes and well-being for young people across…

  13. Corruption and Educational Outcomes: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis Lim

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is a problem that continues to plague developed and developing countries worldwide. Previous studies have explored the negative implications of corruption on several aspects of human development, but, despite its serious and long-lasting consequences, the impact of corruption on educational outcomes has started to receive attention only…

  14. Economic Analysis of World Bank Education Projects and Project Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vawda, Ayesha Yaqub; Moock, Peter; Gittinger, J. Price; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that World Bank education projects have a higher likelihood of being successful if at the time of appraisal, they underwent good quality economic analysis. Analysis shows a strong relationship between the quality of cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis and the quality of project outcomes. Economic…

  15. Students with Learning Disabilities' Satisfaction, Employment, and Postsecondary Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabren, Karen; Eaves, Ronald C.; Dunn, Caroline; Darch, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the construct of satisfaction as a post-school outcome for students with learning disabilities (LD). More specifically, the effects of postsecondary education or training as well as employment are examined as they contribute to the overall satisfaction of young people with LD, one year after they exit high school. The…

  16. Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…

  17. Learning Outcomes for Sustainable Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svanstrom, Magdalena; Lozano-Garcia, Francisco J.; Rowe, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper sets out to discuss the commonalities that can be found in learning outcomes (LOs) for education for sustainable development in the context of the Tbilisi and Barcelona declarations. The commonalities include systemic or holistic thinking, the integration of different perspectives, skills such as critical thinking, change agent…

  18. Globalization, Learning Outcomes, and Possibilities for Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhrman, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Respecting religious diversity while also staying true to the role of faith in theological practice remains a challenge in contemporary education. This is made more complex by the role of learning outcomes to assess student learning. This article first emphasizes the role of faith in theological discourse and then raises questions about the nature…

  19. Suhrawardi's Epistemological Point of View and Its Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowrozi, Reza Ali; Ardakani, Seyed Hassan Hashemi; Shiri, Ali Shiravani

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates Suhrawardi's epistemological and philosophical point of view in order to analyze and elicit its educational outcomes. His philosophy, which can be called eclectic philosophy (involving intellect and intuition), regularly proposes a different philosophical system with intuitionist outlook. It is the combination of two…

  20. Assessing Baccalaureate Advertising Education Outcome Utilizing Marketing Education Curriculum Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganahl, Dennis J.; Ganahl, Richard J., III

    The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the mission and scope of professional/baccalaureate advertising education with Marketing Education curriculum and instruction strategies to enhance advertising students' outcome. Sixty-five colleges and universities with advertising education departments, sequences, or areas of emphasis…

  1. Interprofessional education and the basic sciences: Rationale and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill E

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) aims to improve patient outcomes and the quality of care. Interprofessional learning outcomes and interprofessional competencies are now included in many countries' health and social care professions' accreditation standards. While IPE may take place at any time in health professions curricula it tends to focus on professionalism and clinical topics rather than basic science activities. However generic interprofessional competencies could be included in basic science courses that are offered to at least two different professional groups. In developing interprofessional activities at the preclinical level, it is important to define explicit interprofessional learning outcomes plus the content and process of the learning. Interprofessional education must involve interactive learning processes and integration of theory and practice. This paper provides examples of IPE in anatomy and makes recommendations for course development and evaluation.

  2. K-12 educational outcomes of immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin

  3. K-12 educational outcomes of immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N López

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth López Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across segments of the immigrant population defined by generational status, race and ethnicity, and national origin. A good deal of evidence points to an immigrant advantage in multiple indicators of academic progress, meaning that many youths from immigrant families outperform their peers in school. This apparent advantage is often referred to as the immigrant paradox, in that it occurs despite higher-than-average rates of social and economic disadvantages in this population as a whole. The immigrant paradox, however, is more pronounced among the children of Asian and African immigrants than other groups, and it is stronger for boys than for girls. Furthermore, evidence for the paradox is far more consistent in secondary school than in elementary school. Indeed, school readiness appears to be one area of potential risk for children from immigrant families, especially those of Mexican origin. For many groups, including those from Latin America, any evidence of the immigrant paradox usually emerges after researchers control for family socioeconomic circumstances and youths' English language skills. For others, including those from Asian countries, it is at least partially explained by the tendency for more socioeconomically advantaged residents of those regions to leave their home country for the United States. Bilingualism and strong family ties help to explain immigrant advantages in schooling; school, community, and other contextual disadvantages may suppress these advantages or lead to immigrant risks. Crosnoe and Turley also discuss several policy efforts targeting young people from immigrant families, especially those of Latin

  4. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  5. Some Problems Affecting Higher Education in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arredondo, Victor A.

    Major problems of higher education in Mexico are addressed in the context of the country's developmental stages, socioeconomic conditions, and demographics. Important factors in modern Mexican history include: population growth, public and private investment to stimulate socioeconomic activities in different regions of the country, and financial…

  6. How Economic Segregation Affects Children's Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics combined with census data found that an increase in income inequality among census tracts in the same state had little effect on overall educational attainment but exacerbated inequality of attainment between high-income and low-income children. Within-tract inequality had little effect on…

  7. Factors affecting treatment outcomes in drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in the Northern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E; Draper, H R; Baitsiwe, P; Claassens, M M

    2014-09-21

    The Northern Cape Province has low cure rates (21%) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We audited the programme to identify factors affecting treatment outcomes. Cases admitted to two drug-resistant TB units from 2007 to 2009 had data extracted from clinical folders. Unfavourable treatment outcomes were found in 58% of the 272 cases. A multivariable regression analysis found that male sex was associated with unfavourable outcome (P = 0.009). Weight at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and oral drug adherence (P < 0.001) were also associated with an unfavourable outcome; however, injectable drug adherence was not (P = 0.395). Positive baseline smear and human immunodeficiency virus positive status were not associated with unfavourable outcome. Shorter, more patient-friendly regimens may go a long way to improving adherence and outcomes.

  8. A Study of the Technological, Instructional, and Motivational Factors Affecting PHR Certification Exam Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have considered the factors affecting other certification exam outcomes, they have not examined those that are related to performance on the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) exam. In response to that need, this study specifically investigates technology and training factors that affect self-efficacy and self-set…

  9. Historic Factors Affecting Educational Administration in Korean Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1999-01-01

    An official of the Korean Education Department Institute analyzes the effect of historic factors on current educational administration in Korea. He suggests that Confucianism, Shinto-Confucianism, Christianity, and Western ideas mainly dominate current Korean educational administration's organizational structure, culture, and leadership, while…

  10. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice. PMID:21368255

  11. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  12. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  13. Does educational indebtedness affect physician specialty choice?

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, G J

    1985-03-01

    There has been much debate over the effect of educational indebtedness on the specialty choices of new physicians, especially in light of the perceived shortage of primary care physicians. This paper explores the theoretical foundations on which this debate is based. In addition, the paper estimates the effects of various types of debt on specialty choice. The results suggest that an increase in debt from subsidized loan sources (i.e., Guaranteed Student Loans, National Direct Student Loans, or Health Professions Student Loans) has mixed effects while an increase in debt from Health Education Assistance Loans reduces the likelihood of becoming a primary care physician. Though these effects are significant, they are very small in magnitude. Economic returns to certain specialties and personal background appear to play a more important role in specialty choice.

  14. Affective Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)

  15. Family and Community Influences on Educational Outcomes among Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Erkanli, Alaattin; Worthman, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown how quantifiable aspects of community context affect a wide range of behaviors and outcomes. Due partially to the historical development of this field, currently published work focuses on urban rather than rural areas. We draw upon data from a longitudinal study of families and health in Appalachia--the Great Smoky…

  16. Promoting Organizational Learning in Higher Education to Achieve Equity in Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Georgia L.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes a project in which teams of faculty, administrators, and staff from fourteen colleges and universities engaged in organizational learning for the purposes of identifying and improving inequitable educational outcomes for African American and Latino students.

  17. Cultural factors affecting diet and pregnancy outcome of Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Y M

    1999-09-01

    A study was conducted to describe the cultural beliefs, nutrition knowledge, food intake, and attitudes about weight gain of Mexican American adolescents, and their relationship to pregnancy weight gain and infant's birth weight. A convenience sample of 46 pregnant adolescents, who were self-identified Mexican American primigravidas aged 13-18 years, were recruited from 6 San Francisco Bay Area and San Jose clinic sites. Data were collected over an 18-month period from Winter 1994 to Spring 1995. Results showed that acculturation affected nutritional knowledge, attitudes about weight gain during pregnancy, and the psychosocial and educational level of pregnant Mexican American adolescents. There were no differences in the quality of diet and pregnancy outcomes, gestational weeks at delivery, or birth weight among acculturated, versus the nonacculturated adolescents. Both benefited from cultural protective factors related to their dependence on the family for emotional, economic, and social support. Nutrition recommendations should emphasize the importance of maintaining traditional food habits and nutritive value information of American foods.

  18. Factors Affecting Native Hawaiian Student Persistence in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Dolwin Haunani Keanu

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the educational outcomes of 515 Native Hawaiian alumni who graduated between 1993 and 1995 from high schools throughout the State of Hawaii. The majority of students graduated from Kamehameha Schools, while the others received postsecondary financial aid from the Ke Alii Pauahi Foundation. Respondents were separated into two…

  19. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Training of affect recognition (TAR) in schizophrenia--impact on functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Sachs, G; Winklbaur, B; Jagsch, R; Lasser, I; Kryspin-Exner, I; Frommann, N; Wölwer, W

    2012-07-01

    Deficits in facial affect recognition as one aspect of social cognitive deficits are treatment targets to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia. According to preliminary results antipsychotics alone show little effects on affect recognition. A few randomized intervention studies have evaluated special psychosocial treatment programs on social cognition. In this study, the effects of a computer-based training of affect recognition were investigated as well as its impact on facial affect recognition and functional outcome, particularly on patients' quality of life. Forty clinically stabilized schizophrenic patients were randomized to a six-week training on affect recognition (TAR) or treatment as usual including occupational therapy (TAU) and completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of emotion recognition, cognition, quality of life and clinical symptoms. Between pre- and post treatment, the TAR group achieved significant improvements in facial affect recognition, in particular in recognizing sad faces and, in addition, in the quality of life domain social relationship. These changes were not found in the TAU group. Furthermore, the TAR training contributes to enhancing some aspects of cognitive functioning and negative symptoms. These improvements in facial affect recognition and quality of life were independent of changes in clinical symptoms and general cognitive functions. The findings support the efficacy of an affect recognition training for patients with schizophrenia and the generalization to social relationship. Further development is needed in the impact of a psychosocial intervention in other aspects of social cognition and functional outcome.

  1. A Feel for Numbers: Affect, Data and Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between commensuration and affect in various contexts of education policy. Commensuration is the process through which disparate qualities are transformed into a common metric and is central to the production of performance data. The rise of governance through numbers in education has resulted in a…

  2. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  3. How Economic Segregation Affects Childrens' Educational Attainment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan

    Economic segregation increased in the United States between 1970 and 1990. Three hypotheses suggest that this would affect low-income children's educational attainment. The political economy of school funding predicts that economically segregated school districts reduce the educational attainment of low-income children. Two other hypotheses…

  4. Students' Views on Factors Affecting Empathy in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winseman, Jeffrey; Malik, Abid; Morison, Julie; Balkoski, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Empathy is a prominent goal of medical education that is too often underachieved. Using concept mapping, the authors constructed a student-generated conceptual model of factors viewed as affecting empathy during medical education. Methods: During the 2005-2006 academic year, 293 medical students and interns answered a brainstorming…

  5. The presence or severity of pulmonary hypertension does not affect outcomes for single-lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Julliard, Walker A; Meyer, Keith C; De Oliveira, Nilto C; Osaki, Satoru; Cornwell, Richard C; Sonetti, David A; Maloney, James D

    2016-01-01

    Advanced lung disease (ALD) that requires lung transplantation (LTX) is frequently associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether the presence of PH significantly affects the outcomes following single-lung transplantation (SLT) remains controversial. Therefore, we retrospectively examined the outcomes of 279 consecutive SLT recipients transplanted at our centre, and the patients were split into four groups based on their mean pulmonary artery pressure values. Outcomes, including long-term survival and primary graft dysfunction, did not differ significantly for patients with versus without PH, even when PH was severe. We suggest that SLT can be performed safely in patients with ALD-associated PH. PMID:26621135

  6. How measurement artifacts affect cerebral autoregulation outcomes: A technical note on transfer function analysis.

    PubMed

    Meel-van den Abeelen, Aisha S S; de Jong, Daan L K; Lagro, Joep; Panerai, Ronney B; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is the mechanism that aims to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion during changes in blood pressure (BP). Transfer function analysis (TFA), the most reported method in literature to quantify CA, shows large between-study variability in outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of measurement artifacts in this variation. Specifically, the role of distortion in the BP and/or CBFV measurementon TFA outcomes was investigated. The influence of three types of artifacts on TFA outcomes was studied: loss of signal, motion artifacts, and baseline drifts. TFA metrics of signals without the simulated artifacts were compared with those of signals with artifacts. TFA outcomes scattered highly when more than 10% of BP signal or over 8% of the CBFV signal was lost, or when measurements contained one or more artifacts resulting from head movement. Furthermore, baseline drift affected interpretation of TFA outcomes when the power in the BP signal was 5 times the power in the LF band. In conclusion, loss of signal in BP and loss in CBFV, affects interpretation of TFA outcomes. Therefore, it is vital to validate signal quality to the defined standards before interpreting TFA outcomes. PMID:26935320

  7. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in basilar artery occlusion: variables affecting recanalization and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gilberti, Nicola; Gamba, Massimo; Premi, Enrico; Costa, Angelo; Vergani, Veronica; Delrio, Ilenia; Spezi, Raffaella; Mardighian, Dikran; Frigerio, Michele; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Magoni, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Ischemic stroke due to basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is frequently associated with a poor prognosis. To date the most effective therapeutic approach has not been established and little is known about the predictors of clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to describe safety and efficacy of intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (IAMT) through latest generation devices in patients with BAO, focusing on those variables that may affect recanalization and clinical outcome. We analyzed retrospectively a series of 32 patients with BAO who underwent IAMT. We assessed the association of some clinical and neuroradiological features with recanalization rate and clinical outcome. Successful recanalization was achieved in 28 out of 32 patients (87.5 %). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) was observed in 2/32 patients (6.3 %) and mortality in the first 3 months was 25.0 %. At 3-month follow up evaluation, 13/32 patients (40.6 %) showed a good functional outcome (mRS score ≤2). There were no statistical differences in term of age, gender, risk factors, cause of stroke, recanalization rate, pre-treatment pc-ASPECTS score and SICH frequencies between patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome. Increased length of thrombi was associated with unfavorable clinical outcome at 3 months. Recanalization rate was not affected by any of the variables considered. In BAO, IAMT through newest generation devices has high recanalization rates and low complication frequencies. Length of BAO is an important predictor of clinical outcome.

  8. Queerying the Affective Politics of Doctoral Education: Toward Complex Visions of Agency and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, James

    2015-01-01

    Higher education (HE) researchers, like their colleagues across the humanities and social sciences, are increasingly tuning in to the political possibilities offered by working with emotion and affect. Reading across this work, it would seem that certain practices, and their associated affects, have achieved an aura of legitimacy, and political…

  9. Culture-Specific Variables That May Affect Employment Outcomes for Mexican-American Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier-Kronick, Nancy

    This paper reviews variables specific to the Mexican-American culture that might influence work-related behavior and outcomes for youths with disabilities from this population. Areas covered include: parental/family network; cultural view of disability; religious influences; acculturation levels; language issues; education and employment…

  10. Generating Outcome Measurements: Economic and Societal. A Guide to Educational Outcomes Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministires, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with generating outcome measurements:…

  11. Childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Duncan

    2015-07-01

    Many South African children experience maltreatment, but we know little about the effects on long-term child development. Using the only representative dataset that includes a module on childhood maltreatment for a metropolitan city in South Africa, we explore the association between different measures of childhood maltreatment and two educational outcomes (numeracy test scores and dropout). Our study provides an estimate of the association between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes in a developing country where maltreatment is high. We control for potential confounders using a range of statistical techniques and add several robustness checks to evaluate the strength of our findings. Our results indicate that children who are maltreated suffer large adverse consequences in terms of their numeracy test scores and probability of dropout and that the estimated effects of maltreatment are larger and more consistent for the most severe type of maltreatment.

  12. Childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes: evidence from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pieterse, Duncan

    2015-07-01

    Many South African children experience maltreatment, but we know little about the effects on long-term child development. Using the only representative dataset that includes a module on childhood maltreatment for a metropolitan city in South Africa, we explore the association between different measures of childhood maltreatment and two educational outcomes (numeracy test scores and dropout). Our study provides an estimate of the association between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes in a developing country where maltreatment is high. We control for potential confounders using a range of statistical techniques and add several robustness checks to evaluate the strength of our findings. Our results indicate that children who are maltreated suffer large adverse consequences in terms of their numeracy test scores and probability of dropout and that the estimated effects of maltreatment are larger and more consistent for the most severe type of maltreatment. PMID:24890398

  13. Toward an Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…

  14. Happiness as a motivator: positive affect predicts primary control striving for career and educational goals.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claudia M; Poulin, Michael J; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2012-08-01

    What motivates individuals to invest time and effort and overcome obstacles (i.e., strive for primary control) when pursuing important goals? We propose that positive affect predicts primary control striving for career and educational goals, and we explore the mediating role of control beliefs. In Study 1, positive affect predicted primary control striving for career goals in a two-wave longitudinal study of a U.S. sample. In Study 2, positive affect predicted primary control striving for career and educational goals and objective career outcomes in a six-wave longitudinal study of a German sample. Control beliefs partially mediated the longitudinal associations with primary control striving. Thus, when individuals experience positive affect, they become more motivated to invest time and effort, and overcome obstacles when pursuing their goals, in part because they believe they have more control over attaining their goals. PMID:22569224

  15. Subnational Variations in Educational Attainment and Labour Market Outcomes. Education Indicators in Focus. No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…

  16. Education Outcomes and Poverty: A Reassessment. Education, Poverty and International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    What do we know about the outcomes of education in developing countries? Where are the gaps in our knowledge, and why are they important to fill? What are the policy challenges that underlie these knowledge gaps, and how can education best contribute to eliminating the problem of widespread poverty in the developing world? This book arises out of…

  17. Student Identification with Business Education Models: Measurement and Relationship to Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R. B.; Wheeler, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Although management scholars have provided a variety of metaphors to describe the role of students in management courses, researchers have yet to explore students' identification with the models and how they are linked to educational outcomes. This article develops a measurement tool for students' identification with business education models and…

  18. Classroom Discourse Analysis and Educational Outcomes in the Era of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Yin-kum; Shum, Mark Shiu-kee

    2009-01-01

    Background: In the era of education reform when new teaching approaches are being advocated, it is important to investigate how different classroom discourse patterns are related to different educational outcomes. Aim: The purpose of the study was to analyse the whole classroom discourse of two teacher interns' writing classes. It was conducted…

  19. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients. PMID:26703412

  20. Teacher Interpersonal Behaviour and Secondary Students' Cognitive, Affective and Moral Outcomes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivan, Atara; Chan, Dennis W. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study validated the Chinese version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) in the Hong Kong context as well as examined the relationship between students' perceptions of interpersonal teacher behaviour and their cognitive, affective and moral learning outcomes. Data were collected with the QTI and four other measures of student…

  1. Coping with Challenge and Hindrance Stressors in Teams: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Matthew J.; Ellis, Aleksander P. J.; Stein, Jordan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize the challenge-hindrance framework to examine the discrete and combined effects of different environmental stressors on behavioral, cognitive, and affective outcomes at the team level. Results from 83 teams working on a command and control simulation indicated that the introduction of a challenge stressor…

  2. Affective Learning Outcomes in Workplace Training: A Test of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Ally, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Research employing an experimental design pilot-tested two delivery platforms, WebCT™ and vClass™, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Using a sample of volunteer participants in the help-desk industry, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two types of delivery software. Thirty-eight subjects…

  3. State Higher Education Performance Funding: Data, Outcomes, and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandberg, David A.; Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    As states explore strategies for increasing educational attainment levels, attention is being paid to performance funding. This study asks, "Does the introduction of performance funding programs affect degree completion among participating states?" Utilizing a quasi-experimental research design we find limited evidence that performance…

  4. Patient characteristics that affect the outcome of total hip arthroplasty: a review

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nancy L.; Cheah, David; Waddell, James P.; Wright, James G.

    1998-01-01

    Objective To review the literature regarding patient factors pertinent to the outcome of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Data sources MEDLINE from 1966 onward (key words “hip prosthesis” and “treatment outcome”) and literature previously known to the authors and cited in papers from all sources. Study selection All identified studies were included provided the methodology permitted assessment of the effect of patient factors and a clear outcome was defined (either prosthesis survival or specific functional outcomes). Data extraction The patient factors, methods and outcomes described in each paper were summarized on a data extraction form. Data synthesis All data were reviewed by one author. This process was repeated by a second author, and the findings were reviewed by the remaining 2 authors to verify the findings. The best functional outcomes and prosthesis survival rates were reported among patients who were between 45 and 75 years of age, weighed less than 70 kg, had strong social support, had a higher educational level, had better preoperative functional status and had no comorbid disease. Conclusion Important research remains to be done to examine the magnitude and interaction of patient factors on the outcome of THA. PMID:9627543

  5. Elevated depressive affect is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes among African Americans with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Michael J.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah H.; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Cooper, Lisa A.; Bruce, Marino A.; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Lash, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of elevated depressive affect on health outcomes among participants with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study. Elevated depressive affect was defined by Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) thresholds of 11 or more, above 14, and by 5-Unit increments in the score. Cox regression analyses were used to relate cardiovascular death/hospitalization, doubling of serum creatinine/end-stage renal disease, overall hospitalization, and all-cause death to depressive affect evaluated at baseline, the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or average from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). Among 628 participants at baseline, 42% had BDI-II scores of 11 or more and 26% had a score above 14. During a 5-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death/hospitalization was significantly greater for participants with baseline BDI-II scores of 11 or more compared with those with scores <11. The baseline, time-varying, and cumulative elevated depressive affect were each associated with a significant higher risk of cardiovascular death/hospitalization, especially with a time-varying BDI-II score over 14 (adjusted HR 1.63) but not with the other outcomes. Thus, elevated depressive affect is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease. PMID:21633409

  6. Linkages between Total Quality Management and the Outcomes-Based Approach in an Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, H. J.; Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

    2005-01-01

    South Africa has embarked on a process of education renewal by adopting outcomes-based education (OBE). This paper focuses on the linkages between total quality management (TQM) and the outcomes-based approach in an education context. Quality assurance in academic programmes in higher education in South Africa is, in some instances, based on the…

  7. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  8. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  9. Developmental Patterns in Affective Recognition: Implications for Affective Education (HYP/POL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neal J.

    Implications for affective education are drawn from an empirical study of 60 upper-middle socioeconomic class 6 to 15 year-olds' responses to questions asking how videotaped actors felt. Percentage frequencies of category use in tape-recorded transcripts coded by two judges revealed no differences by child's sex. Marked developmental differences…

  10. Predictability of a Professional Practice Model to Affect Nurse and Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stallings-Welden, Lois M; Shirey, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patients experience needless deaths and injuries as a result of errors while hospitalized for an unrelated problem. The lack of an established professional practice model (PPM) of nursing may be a contributing factor to patient care quality and safety breaches. The PPM of nursing was tested for its ability to affect nurse and patient outcomes. Using a retrospective/prospective research design, secondary data were collected from 2395 staff nurses on 15 inpatient-nursing units covering a 6-year timeframe. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Pearson correlation. Nurse and patient outcomes on 2 hospital campuses reached statistical significance. Positive correlations were seen between the initiation of a PPM and subsequent nurses' perception of quality of care, nurse interactions, decision making, autonomy, job enjoyment, and patient satisfaction. This study provides empirical evidence that a uniquely designed PPM in alignment with organizational context can indeed impact nurse and patient outcomes in a community health system. PMID:26049597

  11. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  12. State Outlook: Fiscal and Public Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Policy Dynamics; (2) July 2010 Economic Snapshot; (3) State Economic Conditions and Budget Outlook; (4) State Budget Pressures; (5) State Budget Realignment Strategies; (6)…

  13. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  14. Researching Elite Education: Affectively Inferred Belongings, Desires and Exclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on key moments occurring during the course of a three-year study of elite girls' education, with a focus on the power relations that emerged between researchers and elites within the context in which the study was conducted. Central to our analysis is a focus on the affective dimensions of interaction between the researcher and…

  15. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  16. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  17. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  18. Capital, Inequality and Education in Conflict-Affected Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" has brought the issue of inequality to the centre of political debate. This article explores contemporary research on the relationship between education and inequality in conflict-affected contexts with a view to seeing how Piketty's work speaks to these issues as a field of research and…

  19. Does residential mobility improve educational outcomes? Evidence from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Haelermans, Carla; De Witte, Kristof

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the impact of residential mobility on educational outcomes. By considering a large Dutch city with substantial internal residential mobility, we examine how residential mobility influences the decision of students to drop out of school. The paper exploits a rich administrative dataset with extensive information on educational, individual, family, housing and moving characteristics of students. It combines a matching design with a multivariate regression analysis, such that the evaluation draws on a well-comparable control group for the treated students. Accounting for individual, family, educational, neighborhood and housing characteristics, as well as for school and year fixed effects, we observe that residential mobility increases the probability of school dropout in the first few years after moving. The estimated effect changes, however, to a lower risk of early school leaving after an initial period, and then changes again to a higher risk after 6years. This effect remains, regardless the level of education the students attended, or whether the student moves to a better or a worse neighborhood. PMID:26004467

  20. Outcome-based workforce development and education in public health.

    PubMed

    Koo, Denise; Miner, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The broad scope of the public health mission leads to an increasingly diverse workforce. Given the range of feeder disciplines and the reality that much of the workforce does not have formal training in public health science and practice, a pressing need exists for training and education throughout the workforce. Just as we in public health take a rigorous approach to our science, so too should we take a rigorous, evidence-driven approach to workforce development. In this review, we recommend a framework for workforce education in public health, integrating three critical conceptual approaches: (a) adult learning theory; (b) competency-based education; and (c) the expanded Dreyfus model in public health, an addition to the Dreyfus model of professional skills progression. We illustrate the application of this framework in practice, using the field of applied epidemiology. This framework provides a context for designing and developing high-quality, outcome-based workforce development efforts and evaluating their impact, with implications for academic and public health practice efforts to educate the public health workforce.

  1. In-vitro fertilisation treatment: factors affecting its results and outcome.

    PubMed

    Qublan, H S; Malkawi, H Y; Tahat, Y A; Areidah, S; Nusair, B; Khreisat, B M; Al-Quraan, G; Abu-Assaf, A; Hadaddein, M F; Abu-Jassar, H

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors affecting results and outcome of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). In this retrospective study, a total of 891 infertile women underwent IVF/ICSI cycles at the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) between January 2001 and December 2002. Conventional IVF treatment was performed in 64.6% of women and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 35.4%, using a standardised long luteal protocol. Pregnancy rate was analysed according to age, type of infertility, cause of infertility, duration of infertility, number of eggs collected and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. A total of 126 cycles (14.1%) were cancelled. Among 765 cycles continued, fertilisation rate was 73.9%, implantation rate was 15.1% and pregnancy rate was 29.8%. Pregnant women had a multiple pregnancy rate of 28.9%, abortion rate of 13.6% and ectopic pregnancy rate of 1.3%. Duration and type of infertility had no significant effect on the pregnancy rate. Factors which appear to affect significantly the outcome of treatment include the woman's age, cause of infertility, basal concentrations of FSH, adequate ovarian responsiveness and the number of eggs collected. In some cases with poor outcome, the understanding of these factors may predict the results and lead to the development of new strategies to improve the outcome of IVF treatment.

  2. Outcome-Based Education: Its Relevance to State and National Decision Making. Synthesis Report 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massanari, Carol B.

    This paper on identifying education outcomes for students with disabilities proposes a framework for applying an outcome-based approach throughout the education system, by looking at the needs of the three major levels of the system (local, state, and national); defining different uses for the term "outcome" in order to achieve consensus and…

  3. A Review of Educational Outcomes in the Children's Mental Health Treatment Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Brandt, Nicole Evangelista; Stephan, Sharon H.; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the measurement of educational outcomes related to children's mental health treatments. A total of 85 papers describing 88 randomized controlled trials that included at least one educational outcome and one mental health outcome were included in these analyses. Forty-five different measures were identified as the primary educational…

  4. Assessment of Affective Outcomes of Instruction With High School Sophomore Biology Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Lynn W.

    An instrument was developed to determine the teacher's and student's educational objectives in the affective domain for high school biology. The 65 item attitude assessment scale was based on the same subject matter as "Biological Science: Molecules to Man," and structured according to Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's taxonomy. In a pilot study the…

  5. Selected Science Educational Outcomes as a Function of South Dakota Educational Reform Policies 1995-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Tien, K. C.

    2005-05-01

    This research investigates selected South Dakota science educational outcomes as a function of selected educational reform policies. In the state of South Dakota, echoing divergent reform initiatives from "A Nation at Risk" to "No Child Left Behind," new guidelines and requirements have been instituted. Yet, very little effort has been made to assess the progress of these educational changes. In this study, selected educational outcomes-SAT8/9/10 scores-as a function of selected South Dakota educational reform policies were examined. School districts, ranked in the top and bottom five percent of socioeconomic status (SES) in the state, were selected for analysis. Comparison on student's science educational outcomes was also be made between the two major ethnic populations-Caucasians and Native Americans. All research questions were stated in the null form for hypothesis for statistical testing. Critical t was the statistic technique used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed that the selected reform policies in South Dakota appeared to assist students from the higher socioeconomic backgrounds to perform better than pupils from the lower socioeconomic backgrounds. The academic performance for the ethnic and social class minorities remained unchanged within the study timeline for reform. Examined from the prism of Michael Apple's critical theory, the selected South Dakota reform policies have paid little attention to the issues of social equality. Continuing and collective efforts to promote equitable reform policies for enhancing the learning experience of all children in South Dakota seem necessary.

  6. [Introduction of outcome-based education in pharmaceutical education in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kosano, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Although Japanese medical and pharmaceutical educators have been interested in outcome-based education (OBE) in recent years, there are still many difficulties and problematic concepts involved in curriculum building, especially in determining objectives and assessment methods. From 2015, OBE will be incorporated in a model core curriculum of pharmaceutical education in Japan. In this paper, we will introduce the outline of an operative sample of OBE derived from the National Competency Standards Framework for Pharmacists in Australia. The products shown in this paper are examples of standards, elements, and some rubric scales and descriptors in the domain of "Practical ability in pharmaceutical therapy", as presented by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, and as proposed by many participants attending The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan's 3rd advanced workshop for pharmaceutical educators in 2013. We expect a helpful outline will enable each educational institution to design an appropriate OBE curriculum. PMID:25759038

  7. Outcome-Based Education and Student Learning in Managerial Accounting in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Gladie; Shum, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Although Outcome-based Education has not been successful in public education in several countries, it has been successful in the medical fields in higher education in the U.S. The author implemented OBE in her Managerial Accounting course in H.K. Intended learning outcomes were mapped again Bloom's Cognitive Domain. Teaching and learning…

  8. College Sport Participation and Student Educational Experiences and Selected College Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, Jean; Hu, Shouping

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a random sample of first-year students in the 2009 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE), we compared engagement in educationally purposeful activities in college, a set of educational outcomes, and the relationship between student engagement and educational outcomes for nonathletes and student-athletes participating in low-…

  9. Outcome Based Education Enacted: Teachers' Tensions in Balancing between Student Learning and Bureaucracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Linda; Silén, Charlotte; Bolander Laksov, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on how teachers within health sciences education translate outcome-based education (OBE) into practice when they design courses. The study is an empirical contribution to the debate about outcome- and competency-based approaches in health sciences education. A qualitative method was used to study how teachers from 14 different…

  10. Midlife Education, Career, and Family Outcomes of Women Educated at Two Single-Sex Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Lauren E.; Wentworth Phyllis A.; Owen-Smith, Ashli; LaFavor, Theresa

    2002-01-01

    Examined midlife educational, career, and family outcomes of women who attended women's colleges in the 1960s, one with a coed learning environment (CLE) and one with a single-sex environment (SLE). Overall, graduates of both colleges were very accomplished 30 years later. However, those who had experienced a CLE reported more sexism and active…

  11. Improving health outcomes with better patient understanding and education.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert John

    2010-01-01

    A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual's competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly, better means of evaluating the impact of programs on public health is needed. The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework has been

  12. The cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy scar and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa A; Shalaby, Osama E; Elbakary, Molham A; Hashish, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR) and to detect the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: Prospective randomized interventional study included forty patients who were treated by 40 Ex-DCRs. In twenty patients, medial canthal vertical incision was used and in the other twenty cases, subciliary incision was used. The skin was closed using vicryl 6-0 or prolene 6-0 interrupted sutures, and each one was randomly used in twenty patients (10 patients of each incision type). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated 6 months postoperative by the patients and by an oculoplastic surgeon on a four grades scale. Cosmetic results and its correlation to patients’ age, sex, skin complexion, type of incision, and type of skin sutures were studied. Results: The mean scar grading was 0.98 ± 1.0 and 1.3 ± 1.0 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. About 27.5% described their scars as cosmetically significant. The cosmetic outcome was significantly affected by the type of incision with only 5% significant scars in subciliary incision group. Prolene 6-0 suture was associated with better cosmetic results with 15% significant scars. 50% of dark-skinned patients showed cosmetically significant scars. Although no correlation was found between patients’ age and cosmetic outcome, pediatric patients showed higher tendency to scar visibility with mean scar grade 1.2 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 0.9 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. Conclusion: Dark skinned and pediatric patients are more prone to visible Ex-DCR scar. The use of subciliary approach and prolene 6-0 skin sutures is associated with more favorable cosmetic outcome. PMID:27221676

  13. Outcomes Based Education Re-Examined: From Structural Functionalism to Poststructuralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capper, Colleen A.; Jamison, Michael T.

    Outcomes Based Education (OBE) is viewed as a drastic break from current educational practices and a means of providing educational success for all students. OBE is also advocated as a practice that lead to educational inequity. This paper reexamines OBE from a multiparadigm perspective of organizations and educational administration. OBE is based…

  14. Generating Outcome Measurements: Achievement and Attitudes. A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with how to obtain information on…

  15. Cognitive and Affective Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective predictors of treatment dropout and treatment efficacy in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) for PTSD. Study participants were women with PTSD from a sexual assault who received at least one session of either treatment (n=145) as part of a randomized clinical trial. Results revealed that younger age, lower intelligence, and less education were associated with higher treatment dropout, whereas higher depression and guilt at pretreatment were associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptomatology. Results by treatment condition indicated that women with higher anger at pretreatment were more likely to drop out of PE and that older women in PE and younger women in CPT had the best overall outcomes. These findings have implications for efforts to enhance treatment efficacy and retention in CBT treatment protocols. PMID:19595295

  16. Cognitive and affective predictors of treatment outcome in Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Shireen L; Vogt, Dawne S; Resick, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective predictors of treatment dropout and treatment efficacy in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure (PE) for PTSD. Study participants were women with PTSD from a sexual assault who received at least one session of either treatment (n = 145) as part of a randomized clinical trial. Results revealed that younger age, lower intelligence, and less education were associated with higher treatment dropout, whereas higher depression and guilt at pretreatment were associated with greater improvement in PTSD symptomatology. Results by treatment condition indicated that women with higher anger at pretreatment were more likely to dropout of PE and that older women in PE and younger women in CPT had the best overall outcomes. These findings have implications for efforts to enhance treatment efficacy and retention in CBT treatment protocols. PMID:19595295

  17. Endometrial polyps smaller than 1.5 cm do not affect ICSI outcome.

    PubMed

    Isikoglu, M; Berkkanoglu, M; Senturk, Z; Coetzee, K; Ozgur, K

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the presence of endometrial polyps discovered during ovarian stimulation affects the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. This retrospective descriptive study was conducted in a private assisted reproductive technology unit. Medical records of ICSI cycles performed between January 2003 and December 2004 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups: patients with endometrial polyps discovered during ovarian stimulation (group 1, n=15), patients who underwent hysteroscopic polyp resection prior to their ICSI cycle (group 2, n=40) and patients without polyps (group 3, n=956). Main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rates and implantation rates. Age of the patients, age of the husbands, body mass index, total amount of gonadotrophins used, length of stimulation, peak oestradiol concentrations, peak endometrial thickness and number of embryos replaced were not significantly different between the groups, nor were the pregnancy and implantation rates. Only one patient (12.5%) from the first group experienced miscarriage within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In conclusion, endometrial polyps discovered during ovarian stimulation do not negatively affect pregnancy and implantation outcomes in ICSI cycles.

  18. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, p<0.0001). High levels of psychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings.

  19. Risk and protective factors for internalizing and externalizing outcomes among HIV-affected youth in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Li, Michelle; Betancourt, Theresa; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Mukherjee, Joia; Surkan, Pamela J; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to: (1) estimate the levels of internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors among youth affected by HIV in central Haiti; and (2) examine the risk and protective factors associated with these outcomes to identify potential areas of intervention for HIV-affected youth. Baseline data for 492 youth affected by HIV (ages 10-17) and their 330 caregivers were collected for a pilot study of a psychosocial support intervention. Participants were recruited from a list of HIV-positive patients receiving care at Partners In Health/Zanmi Lasante clinic sites. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Demographic, economic, and social indicators were collected using a structured questionnaire administered by trained social workers. Youth affected by HIV in central Haiti displayed high levels of internalizing and, to a lesser degree, externalizing symptoms. Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated risk factors most strongly associated with internalizing symptoms (socioeconomic status, parental depressive symptoms) and externalizing behaviors (household living arrangements, such as living with a stepparent). Social support had a protective effect on externalizing behaviors for both caregiver (β=-0.03, p=0.01) and self-report (β=-0.05, p<0.0001). High levels of psychological distress were observed in this population, especially with respect to internalizing outcomes. Interventions should address the economic security, mental health, and access to antiretroviral therapy for families affected by HIV, as well as emphasize the importance of building supportive caregiver-child relationships to decrease the psychological symptoms and impact of other life stressors experienced by youth affected by HIV in Haiti and similar resource-limited settings. PMID:25950916

  20. Diabetes educators: skilled professionals for improving prediabetes outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sherr, Dawn; Lipman, Ruth D

    2013-04-01

    Unchecked, the increasing prevalence of prediabetes can be predicted to only expand the numbers of people developing type 2 diabetes and all its associated health ramifications. People with obesity and prediabetes who are able to manage their body weight are known to decrease their risk of developing diabetes. However, making the changes to diet and levels of physical activity is a difficult proposition for many people. Diabetes educators are a group of healthcare professionals trained to work with people who have diabetes on appropriate goal-setting around self-care behaviors including healthy eating and physical activity to better enable them to accomplish the changes needed for better health outcomes. Applying this same skill set to people with prediabetes provides a ready means for addressing the needs of this population to help diminish their risk of developing diabetes.

  1. Perspective: Reconsidering the focus on "outcomes research" in medical education: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; West, Colin P

    2013-02-01

    Researchers in medical education have been placing increased emphasis on "outcomes research," or the observable impact of educational interventions on patient care. However, although patient outcomes are obviously important, they should not be the sole focus of attention in medical education research. The purpose of this perspective is both to highlight the limitations of outcomes research in medical education and to offer suggestions to facilitate a proper balance between learner-centered and patient-centered assessments. The authors cite five challenges to research using patient outcomes in medical education, namely (1) dilution (the progressively attenuated impact of education as filtered through other health care providers and systems), (2) inadequate sample size, (3) failure to establish a causal link, (4) potentially biased outcome selection, and (5) teaching to the test. Additionally, nonpatient outcomes continue to hold value, particularly in theory-building research and in the evaluation of program implementation. To educators selecting outcomes and instruments in medical education research, the authors offer suggestions including to clarify the study objective and conceptual framework before selecting outcomes, and to consider the development and use of behavioral and other intermediary outcomes. Deliberately weighing the available options will facilitate informed choices during the design of research that, in turn, informs the art and science of medical education.

  2. SPORT: Does incidental durotomy affect long-term outcomes in cases of Spinal Stenosis?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Atman; Ball, Perry A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Lurie, Jon; Mirza, Sohail K.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Weinstein, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incidental durotomy is a familiar encounter during surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. The impact of durotomy on long-term outcomes remains a matter of debate. Objective To determine the impact of durotomy on the long-term outcomes of patients in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Methods SPORT cohort participants with a confirmed diagnosis of spinal stenosis (SPS), without associated spondylolisthesis, undergoing standard, first-time, open decompressive laminectomy, with or without fusion, were followed from baseline at 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 months and yearly thereafter, at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Patient data from this prospectively gathered database was reviewed. As of May 2009, the mean follow-up among all analyzed patients was 43.8 months. Results 409 patients underwent first-time open laminectomy with or without fusion. 37 (9%) of these patients had an incidental durotomy. No significant differences were observed with or without durotomy in age, sex, race, body mass index, the prevalence of smoking, diabetes and hypertension, decompression level, number of levels decompressed, or whether or not an additional fusion was performed. The durotomy group had significantly increased operative duration, operative blood loss and inpatient stay. There were however, no differences in incidence of nerve root injury, mortality, additional surgeries, primary outcomes (SF-36 scores of body pain or physical function, or Oswestry disability index) at yearly follow ups to 4 years. Conclusions Incidental durotomy during first time lumbar laminectomy for spinal stenosis did not impact long-term outcomes in affected patients. PMID:25692369

  3. Transition care: future directions in education, health policy, and outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Niraj; O'Hare, Kitty; Antonelli, Richard C; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    All youth must transition from pediatric to adult-centered medical care. This process is especially difficult for youth with special health care needs. Many youth do not receive the age-appropriate medical care they need and are at risk during this vulnerable time. Previous research has identified barriers that may prevent effective transition, and protocols have been developed to improve the process. Health outcomes related to successful transition have yet to be fully defined. Health care transition can also be influenced by education of providers, but there are gaps in medical education at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. Current changes in federal health policy allow improved health care coverage, provide some new financial incentives, and test new structures for transitional care, including the evolution of accountable care organizations (ACO). Future work must test how these systems changes will affect quality of care. Finally, transition protocols exist in various medical subspecialties; however, national survey results show no improvement in transition readiness, and there are no consistent measures of what constitutes transition success. In order to advance the field of transition, research must be done to integrate transition curricula at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels; to provide advance financial incentives and pilot the ACO model in centers providing care to youth during transition; to define outcome measures of importance to transition; and to study the effectiveness of current transition tools on improving these outcomes.

  4. Measurement of Affect and the Humanizing of Education. Part I, Background and Overview of the Project. Final Report of the Interstate Educational Resource Service Center Affective Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Educational Resource Service Center, Salt Lake City, UT.

    The document presents an overview of a project to help elementary and secondary school educators evaluate affective aspects of educational programs. The document is presented in ten sections. Section I describes formation of the project by states in the Rocky Mountain area in 1970. Section II identifies project objectives. The major objective was…

  5. Predicted and experienced affective responses to the outcome of the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, Michael B; Corser, Grant C; Gohm, Carol L; VonWaldner, Kristen L; Foreman, Elizabeth L

    2010-12-01

    People typically have intense feelings about politics. Therefore, it was no surprise that the campaign and eventual election of Barack Obama were highly anticipated and emotionally charged events, making it and the emotion experienced afterward a useful situation in which to replicate prior research showing that people typically overestimate the intensity and duration of their future affective states. Consequently, it was expected that Obama supporters and McCain supporters might overestimate the intensity of their affective responses to the outcome of the election. Data showed that while McCain supporters underestimated how happy they would be following the election, Obama supporters accurately predicted how happy they would be following the election. These data provide descriptive information on the accuracy of people's predicted reactions to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. The findings are discussed in the context of the broad literature and this specific and unique event. PMID:21323142

  6. Lifestyle-Related Diseases Affect Surgical Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Hyperlipidemia (HL) and hypertension (HT) lead to systemic atherosclerosis. Not only atherosclerosis but also bone fragility and/or low bone mineral density result from diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine whether these lifestyle-related diseases affected surgical outcomes after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Methods The subjects comprised 122 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The clinical results were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before surgery and at 2 years postoperatively. The fusion status was graded as union in situ, collapsed union, or nonunion at 2 years after surgery. The abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score was assessed using preoperative lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine. Results HL did not significantly affect the JOA score recovery rate. On the other hand, HT and CKD (stage 3 to 4) had a significant adverse effect on the recovery rate. The recovery rate was also lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group, but the difference was not significant. The AAC score was negatively correlated with the JOA score recovery rate. The fusion status was not significantly affected by HL, HT, DM, or CKD; however, the AAC score was significantly higher in the collapsed union and nonunion group than in the union in situ group. Conclusions At 2 years after PLIF, the presence of HT, CKD, and AAC was associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes, and advanced AAC significantly affected fusion status. PMID:26835195

  7. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes.

  8. What Did You Do All Day? Maternal Education and Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrabi, Tahir; Das, Jishnu; Khwaja, Asim Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    Does maternal education have an impact on children's educational outcomes even at the very low levels found in many developing countries? We use instrumental variables analysis to address this issue in Pakistan. We find that children of mothers with some education spend 72 more minutes per day on educational activities at home. Mothers with some…

  9. Model Learner Outcomes for Physical Education. Teaching Learners To Think on Their Feet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This guide is designed to encourage educators as well as parents and community members to view physical education as an integral component of the school's educational program. It can be used for curriculum building and as an example of what represents current best practices in physical education. Model learner outcomes cover eight areas of study:…

  10. Does Faculty Incivility in Nursing Education Affect Emergency Nursing Practice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Pamela

    Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.

  11. Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis in SPORT: Does incidental durotomy affect outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Atman; Ball, Perry A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Lurie, Jon; Mirza, Sohail K.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Weinstein, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of a prospectively collected multi-institutional database. Objective In the present analysis we investigate the impact of incidental durotomy on outcome in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Summary of Background Data Surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis has several potential complications, one of the most common of which is incidental durotomy. The effect of incidental durotomy on outcome, however, remains uncertain. Methods Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial cohort participants with a confirmed diagnosis of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) undergoing standard first-time open decompressive laminectomy, with or without fusion, were followed from baseline at 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 months and yearly thereafter, at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Patient data from this prospectively gathered database was reviewed. As of May 2009, the mean (Standard Deviation) follow-up among all analyzed DS patients was 46.6 (13.1) months (No durotomy: 46.7 vs. Had durotomy: 45.2, p-value=0.49). The median (range) follow-up time among all analyzed DS patients was 47.6 (2.5, 84) months. Results A 10.5% incidence of durotomy was detected among the 389 patients undergoing surgery. No significant differences were observed with or without durotomy in age, race, the prevalence of smoking, diabetes and hypertension, decompression level, number of levels, or whether a fusion was performed. There were no differences in incidence of nerve root injury, post-op mortality, additional surgeries, SF-36 scores of body pain or physical function, or Oswestry disability index at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. Conclusions Incidental durotomy during first time surgery for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis does not appear to impact outcome in affected patients. PMID:21971123

  12. Lung perfusion and emphysema distribution affect the outcome of endobronchial valve therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Christian; Theilig, Dorothea; Herzog, Dominik; Poellinger, Alexander; Doellinger, Felix; Schreiter, Nils; Schreiter, Vera; Schürmann, Dirk; Temmesfeld-Wollbrueck, Bettina; Hippenstiel, Stefan; Suttorp, Norbert; Hubner, Ralf-Harto

    2016-01-01

    The exclusion of collateral ventilation (CV) and other factors affect the clinical success of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR). However, despite its benefits, the outcome of ELVR remains difficult to predict. We investigated whether clinical success could be predicted by emphysema distribution assessed by computed tomography scan and baseline perfusion assessed by perfusion scintigraphy. Data from 57 patients with no CV in the target lobe (TL) were retrospectively analyzed after ELVR with valves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT) were performed on patients at baseline. The sample was grouped into high and low levels at the median of TL perfusion, ipsilateral nontarget lobe (INL) perfusion, and heterogeneity index (HI). These groups were analyzed for association with changes in outcome parameters from baseline to 3 months follow-up. Compared to baseline, patients showed significant improvements in PFT, SGRQ, and 6MWT (all P≤0.001). TL perfusion was not associated with changes in the outcome. High INL perfusion was significantly associated with increases in 6MWT (P=0.014), and high HI was associated with increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), (P=0.012). Likewise, there were significant correlations for INL perfusion and improvement of 6MWT (r=0.35, P=0.03) and for HI and improvement in FEV1 (r=0.45, P=0.001). This study reveals new attributes that associate with positive outcomes for patient selection prior to ELVR. Patients with high perfusions in INL demonstrated greater improvements in 6MWT, while patients with high HI were more likely to respond in FEV1. PMID:27354783

  13. A Synthesis of the Effects of Correctional Education on the Academic Outcomes of Incarcerated Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of correctional education use the distal outcomes of recidivism and post-release employment as the dependent variables (e.g., Aos et al., 2006; Davis et al., 2013). This synthesis sought to determine the effectiveness of correctional education at improving proximal academic outcomes among incarcerated adult…

  14. The Consequences of Central Examinations on Educational Quality Standards and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Veen, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Central examinations--that is, centrally set and marked exams--have often been discussed as an instrument for improving educational outcomes. The aim of our study was to determine whether central exams have an impact not only on educational but also on labour market outcomes. We explain school quality choice through the incentives created by…

  15. Correlate of Resource Utilization and Students' Learning Outcome in Colleges of Education in South West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibukun, W. O.; Akinfolarin, C. A.; Alimi, O. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated resource utilisation in vocational and technical education as a correlate of student learning outcome in selected colleges of education in south west Nigeria. The study examined the relationship between time, space and physical resource utilisation and perceived student learning outcome. The study used the descriptive…

  16. Financial Literacy, Financial Education and Economic Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18412

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  17. Learning Outcomes across Disciplinary Divides and Contrasting National Higher Education Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, Rachel; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    In many quarters, attempts are underway to identify learning outcomes in higher education which are context-neutral or "generic"; such measures could provide new ways to assess and compare outputs from higher education. This paper considers potential challenges in using such broad learning outcomes across contrasting disciplinary and…

  18. Reliability and Validity of Outcome Expectancy-Related Measures in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Liu, Yuanlong; Lodewyk, Ken; Zhang, Tao; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of outcome likelihood, outcome value, and outcome expectancy using data collected from students in secondary school physical education classes. Dependent measures were examined for construct, concurrent, and predictive validity, as well as internal and temporal reliability. The…

  19. Assessing Educational Outcomes in Middle Childhood: Validation of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Method: Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males,…

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Educational Data Mining on Improvements in Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlShammari, Iqbal A.; Aldhafiri, Mohammed D.; Al-Shammari, Zaid

    2013-01-01

    A meta-synthesis study was conducted of 60 research studies on educational data mining (EDM) and their impacts on and outcomes for improving learning outcomes. After an overview, an examination of these outcomes is provided (Romero, Ventura, Espejo, & Hervas, 2008; Romero, "et al.", 2011). Then, a review of other EDM-related research…

  1. Critical Factors Affecting the Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes: A Delphi Study of the Opinions of Community College Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify critically important factors that affect the meaningful assessment of student learning outcomes and study why these factors were critically important. A three-round Delphi process was used to solicit the opinions of individuals who were actively involved in student learning outcomes assessment…

  2. Knowledge Engineering Aspects of Affective Bi-Modal Educational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alepis, Efthymios; Virvou, Maria; Kabassi, Katerina

    This paper analyses the knowledge and software engineering aspects of educational applications that provide affective bi-modal human-computer interaction. For this purpose, a system that provides affective interaction based on evidence from two different modes has been developed. More specifically, the system's inferences about students' emotions are based on user input evidence from the keyboard and the microphone. Evidence from these two modes is combined by a user modelling component that incorporates user stereotypes as well as a multi criteria decision making theory. The mechanism that integrates the inferences from the two modes has been based on the results of two empirical studies that were conducted in the context of knowledge engineering of the system. The evaluation of the developed system showed significant improvements in the recognition of the emotional states of users.

  3. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  4. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  5. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  6. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  7. Importance and Impotence? Learning, Outcomes and Research in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David

    2005-01-01

    One of the defining features of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme is that it 'aims to improve outcomes for learners of all ages in teaching and learning contexts across the UK'. This article argues that, although it is possible to use the terms "outcomes for learners" and "learning outcomes" interchangeably, they have an important…

  8. Obesity Early in Adulthood Increases Risk but Does Not Affect Outcomes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Manal M.; Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Kaseb, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Phan, Alexandria T.; El-Serag, Hashem B.; Hawk, Ernest; Morris, Jeff; Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Lee, Ju-Seog; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Bortus, Gehan; Torres, Harrys A.; Amos, Christopher I.; Wolff, Robert A.; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite the significant association between obesity and several cancers, it has been difficult to establish an association between obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with HCC often have ascites, making it a challenge to accurately determine body mass index (BMI), and many factors contribute to the development of HCC. We performed a case–control study to investigate whether obesity early in adulthood affects risk, age of onset, or outcomes of patients with HCC. METHODS We interviewed 622 patients newly diagnosed with HCC from January 2004 through December 2013, along with 660 healthy controls (frequency-matched by age and sex) to determine weights, heights, and body sizes (self-reported) at various ages before HCC development or enrollment as controls. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent effects of early obesity on risk for HCC and patient outcomes, respectively. BMI was calculated, and patients with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were considered obese. RESULTS Obesity in early adulthood (age, mid-20s to mid-40s) is a significant risk factor for HCC. The estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 2.6 (1.4–4.4), 2.3 (1.2–4.4), and 3.6 (1.5–8.9) for the entire population, men, and women, respectively. Each unit increase in BMI at early adulthood was associated with a 3.89-month decrease in age at HCC diagnosis (P<.001). Moreover, there is a synergistic interaction between obesity and hepatitis virus infection. However, we found no effect of obesity on the overall survival of patients with HCC. CONCLUSION Early adulthood obesity is associated with increased risk of developing HCC at a young age in the absence of major HCC risk factors, with no effect on outcomes of patients with HCC. PMID:25836985

  9. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants’ comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)–no feedback–was on average “slightly uncomfortable”, the other three conditions were “slightly comfortable” (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use. PMID:26824693

  10. Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael; Schäfer, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of visual acuity is a well standardized procedure at least for expert opinions and clinical trials. It is often recommended not giving patients feedback on the correctness of their responses. As this viewpoint has not been quantitatively examined so far, we quantitatively assessed possible effects of feedback on visual acuity testing. In 40 normal participants we presented Landolt Cs in 8 orientations using the automated Freiburg Acuity Test (FrACT, outcome measures were absolute visual acuity (logMAR), its test-retest agreement (limits of agreement) and participants' comfort estimates on a 5-step symmetric Likert scale. Feedback influenced acuity outcome significantly (p = 0.02), but with a tiny effect size: 0.02 logMAR poorer acuity for (D) compared to (A), even weaker effects for (B) and (C). Test-retest agreement was high (limits of agreement: ± 1.0 lines) and did not depend on feedback (p>0.5). The comfort ranking clearly differed, by 2 steps on the Likert scale: the condition (A)-no feedback-was on average "slightly uncomfortable", the other three conditions were "slightly comfortable" (p<0.0001). Feedback affected neither reproducibility nor the acuity outcome to any relevant extent. The participants, however, reported markedly greater comfort with any kind of feedback. We conclude that systematic feedback (as implemented in FrACT) offers nothing but advantages for routine use.

  11. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  12. Through what mechanisms do protected areas affect environmental and social outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2015-01-01

    To develop effective protected area policies, scholars and practitioners must better understand the mechanisms through which protected areas affect social and environmental outcomes. With strong evidence about mechanisms, the key elements of success can be strengthened, and the key elements of failure can be eliminated or repaired. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. This essay assesses what mechanisms have been hypothesized, what empirical evidence exists for their relative contributions and what advances have been made in the past decade for estimating mechanism causal effects from non-experimental data. The essay concludes with a proposed agenda for building an evidence base about protected area mechanisms. PMID:26460122

  13. Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological factors affecting its outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T.; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various factors involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. Methods We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical factors involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using 99mTc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Results Technical factors like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological factors like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can affect the outcome of the scan. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological factors that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy. PMID:25002876

  14. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT.

  15. Exposing physicians to reduced residency work hours did not adversely affect patient outcomes after residency.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Schoemaker, Lena; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-10-01

    In 2003, work hours for physicians-in-training (residents) were capped by regulation at eighty hours per week, leading to the hotly debated but unexplored issue of whether physicians today are less well trained as a result of these work-hour reforms. Using a unique database of nearly all hospitalizations in Florida during 2000-09 that were linked to detailed information on the medical training history of the physician of record for each hospitalization, we studied whether hospital mortality and patients' length-of-stay varied according to the number of years a physician was exposed to the 2003 duty-hour regulations during his or her residency. We examined this database of practicing Florida physicians, using a difference-in-differences analysis that compared trends in outcomes of junior physicians (those with one-year post-residency experience) pre- and post-2003 to a control group of senior physicians (those with ten or more years of post-residency experience) who were not exposed to these reforms during their residency. We found that the duty-hour reforms did not adversely affect hospital mortality and length-of-stay of patients cared for by new attending physicians who were partly or fully exposed to reduced duty hours during their own residency. However, assessment of the impact of the duty-hour reforms on other clinical outcomes is needed.

  16. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  17. Process-outcome interrelationship and standard setting in medical education: the need for a comprehensive approach.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Leif; Karle, Hans; Nystrup, Jørgen

    2007-09-01

    An outcome-based approach to medical education compared to a process/content orientation is currently being discussed intensively. In this article, the process and outcome interrelationship in medical education is discussed, with specific emphasis on the relation to the definition of standards in basic medical education. Perceptions of outcome have always been an integrated element of curricular planning. The present debate underlines the need for stronger focus on learning objectives and outcome assessment in many medical schools around the world. The need to maintain an integrated approach of process/content and outcome is underlined in this paper. A worry is expressed about the taxonomy of learning in pure outcome-based medical education, in which student assessment can be a major determinant for the learning process, leaving the control of the medical curriculum to medical examiners. Moreover, curricula which favour reductionism by stating everything in terms of instrumental outcomes or competences, do face a risk of lowering quality and do become a prey for political interference. Standards based on outcome alone rise unclarified problems in relationship to licensure requirements of medical doctors. It is argued that the alleged dichotomy between process/content and outcome seems artificial, and that formulation of standards in medical education must follow a comprehensive line in curricular planning. PMID:18251034

  18. Construction of Engineering Education Program based on the Alumni's Evaluation of the Educational Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Takehiko; Nishizawa, Hitoshi

    The Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in Toyota National College of Technology has put great emphasis on fundamental subjects, such as “electrical and electronic circuit" and “electromagnetism" more than 40 years. On the other hand, several issues of our college were clarified by the alumni's evaluation of the educational outcome in 2002. The most serious issue was low achievement of English and Social education. The alumni of all generation are dissatisfied with their low skill in English communication. As a part of the educational reforms, our department has constructed a new engineering education program focusing on fundamental ability. We introduced many problem-based-learning experiments and the compulsory subjects such as “English communication for electrical engineers" and “Engineering Ethics" into this program. Great educative results are obtained by these improvements. As a typical example, the scores of all 2nd grade students of advanced engineering course in TOEIC tests became 450 points or more. Our program has been authorized by JABEE since 2004.

  19. Preoperative opioid strength may not affect outcomes of anterior cervical procedures: a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Michael P.; Anderson, Paul A.; Sasso, Rick C.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Object The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between preoperative opioid strength and outcomes of anterior cervical decompressive surgery. Methods A retrospective cohort of 1004 patients enrolled in 1 of 2 investigational device exemption studies comparing cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for single-level cervical disease causing radiculopathy or myelopathy was selected. At a preoperative visit, opioid use data, Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, 36-ltem Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores, and numeric rating scale scores for neck and arm pain were collected. Patients were divided into strong (oxycodone/morphine/meperidine), weak (codeine/propoxyphene/ hydrocodone), and opioid-naïve groups. Preoperative and postoperative (24 months) outcomes scores were compared within and between groups using the paired t-test and ANCOVA, respectively. Results Patients were categorized as follows: 226 strong, 762 weak, and 16 opioid naïve. The strong and weak groups were similar with respect to age, sex, race, marital status, education level, Worker's Compensation status, litigation status, and alcohol use. At 24-month follow-up, no differences in change in arm or neck pain scores (arm: strong –52.3, weak –50.6, naïve –54.0, p = 0.244; neck: strong –52.7, weak –50.8, naïve –44.6, p = 0.355); NDI scores (strong –36.0, weak –33.3, naïve –32.3, p = 0.181); or SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores (strong: 14.1, weak 13.3, naïve 21.7, p = 0.317) were present. Using a 15-point improvement in NDI to determine success, the authors found no between-groups difference in success rates (strong 80.6%, weak 82.7%, naïve 73.3%, p = 0.134). No difference existed between treatment arms (TDA vs ACDF) for any outcome at any time point. Conclusions Preoperative opioid strength did not adversely affect outcomes in this analysis. Careful patient selection can yield good results in this patient

  20. Information Processing, Outcomes-Based Education, and the Management of Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, D. S. G.

    Outcomes-based education (OBE) is growing in stature in Australia and other Westernized nations. In Australia, education systems have adopted OBE within the framework of National Profiles curriculum statements in eight learning areas, including arts, health and physical education, science, English, languages other than English, mathematics,…

  1. State-Level Variability of Educational Outcomes of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the educational environment placement and educational outcomes of students identified as having an emotional disturbance (ED). The sample was drawn from special education enrollment data for students aged 6-21 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC in 2010. Additional economic and demographic state-level variables were…

  2. Does Developmental Education Improve Labor Market Outcomes? Evidence from Two States. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodara, Michelle; Xu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Nationally, about two thirds of community college students are referred to developmental education. Thus far, research on the effectiveness of developmental education has focused on students' academic outcomes; in this paper, we examine the economic consequences of developmental education for students. Using longitudinal student-unit record data…

  3. Model Learner Outcomes for Health Education. A Mission toward Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wandberg, Robert; And Others

    This document provides a structure within which teaching staff can improve students' learning experiences and predict specific learner outcomes in health education. The material is presented in four chapters followed by an appendix. Chapters 1-3 examine the system's values, learner values, philosophy of education, mission for public education and…

  4. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  5. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  6. Longer-Term Outcomes for Individuals Completing Vocational Education and Training Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris

    The longer-term employment and training outcomes of enrollment in vocational education and training (VET) were examined. The study analyzed data from the 1993 "Survey of Training and Education Experience" (STE) and the 1997 "Survey of Education and Training Experience" (SET) which were conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics to collect…

  7. Relationships between Admission Variables and Outcome Variables in a Special Education Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFave, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The need for well-prepared special education teachers has made it important to examine how to best select candidates for special education teacher education programs, or at least to determine which, if any, admission variables relate to program outcome measures. This study used archival data from 148 students to investigate the relationships among…

  8. The Relationship between Continuing Medical Education, Physician Behavior, and Patient Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Edwin F.

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews studies on the relationship between continuing medical education and its impact on physician behavior. These studies have supported the positive impact of education on physician behavior. The author calls for research on the effect of continuing medical education on patient outcomes. (Author/CH)

  9. EDITORIAL: The outcomes of an education in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Honorary Editor Readers should now be fully aware that both The Institute of Physics and the Association for Science Education (ASE) are encouraging members to think hard about what they would like to see in the revised National Curriculum for science. The story of curriculum development in science for the past ten years has been of grand national initiatives which have concentrated, in science at least, on the content of what is taught rather than on the ways in which it might be taught - or how it is learnt. The initiatives have been `top-down', with usually rather hurried `consultation' with no attempt to weigh the value of responses. For example, in deciding upon a common core for A-level physics the Institute of Biology was given as much weighting as the Institute of Physics. What students thought seemed to be irrelevant. But chickens come home to roost, horses led to water don't always drink, and it seems that compelling all children to study physics as part of a science course has not had the effect of making them fall in love with subject and opt to study more of it after age 16. Physics is a growing subject, in terms of what it now covers, as the increase in the number of journal titles over recent years shows. These show that it is also more and more a fragmented subject, and the practitioners of different fragments will have different views on what constitutes a foundation core for further studies. And, of course, fewer than 10% of students at one educational level choose to take the subject in the next. I conclude from this that what physics young people study between age 11 and age 16 doesn't matter as much as the writers of the National Curriculum supposed. We would like to get young people interested in physics (or better, interested by physics) and to develop positive feelings about physics and what physicists do, based on a feeling of success in studying the subject. Different students should be given opportunities to gain satisfaction in different

  10. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792

  11. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  12. Virtuous Subjects: A Critical Analysis of the Affective Substance of Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This essay invites social studies educators to consider critical theoretical insights related to affect, emotions, and feelings from what has been termed "the affective turn" in social sciences and humanities scholarship. Developments in theorizing affect and recent research in social studies education are related to affective elements…

  13. A Portrait of Rural America: Conditions Affecting Vocational Education Policy. Vocational Education Study Publication No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart

    The monograph is an attempt to describe conditions existing today in rural America that can affect the operation and impact of vocational education in rural areas and, thus, should exercise an influence on policy making. It identifies statistical patterns and characteristics common to rural areas, both within regions and those that cut across…

  14. Defining, Valuing, and Teaching Clinical Outcomes Assessment in Professional and Post-Professional Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Alison R.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Sauers, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide a basic introduction for athletic training educators about the importance of clinical outcomes measures and to recommend strategies for implementing clinical outcomes assessment education in professional and post-professional athletic training education programs. Background: Outcomes is a frequently used term amongst…

  15. Confucian Thought Affecting Leadership and Organizational Culture of Korean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    This article examines Confucian thought affecting leadership and organizational culture of Korean higher education in order to understand leadership behavior and ethical values in Korean higher education from a viewpoint of educational administration. The writer evaluates that most of educational administrators in Korean higher education prefer…

  16. Exposure to violence predicts poor educational outcomes in young children in South Africa and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, L.; Hensels, I. S.; Skeen, S.; Tomlinson, M.; Roberts, K. J.; Macedo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence during childhood may affect short and long-term educational factors. There is scant literature on younger children from resource poor settings. Methods This study assessed child violence experiences (harsh punishment and exposure to domestic or community violence) and school enrolment, progress and attendance in children attending community-based organisations in South Africa and Malawi (n=989) at baseline and at 15 months' follow-up, examining differential experience of HIV positive, HIV affected and HIV unaffected children. Results Violence exposure was high: 45.4% experienced some form of psychological violence, 47.8% physical violence, 46.7% domestic violence and 41.8% community violence. Primary school enrolment was 96%. Violence was not associated with school enrolment at baseline but, controlling for baseline, children exposed to psychological violence for discipline were more than ten times less likely to be enrolled at follow-up (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.57). Harsh discipline was associated with poor school progress. For children HIV positive a detrimental effect of harsh physical discipline was found on school performance (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.61). Conclusion Violence experiences were associated with a number of educational outcomes, which may have long-term consequences. Community-based organisations may be well placed to address such violence, with a particular emphasis on the challenges faced by children who are HIV positive. PMID:26678567

  17. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Team-based Internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. OW/OB individuals (N=3,330; 76%female; age=46.1±10.8; BMI=31.2±5.3kg/m2), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2±3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (ICC=.10, p<.001). Moreover, having a greater percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reporting higher social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (p’s≤.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC=0.09;p<.001) and having more teammates in the weight loss division and higher social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (OR=1.06; OR=1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight losses in large-scale team-based weight loss programs. PMID:22310234

  18. Does therapist’s attitude affect clinical outcome of lumbar facet joint injections?

    PubMed Central

    Middendorp, Marcus; Kollias, Konstantinos; Ackermann, Hanns; Splettstößer, Annina; Vogl, Thomas J; Khan, M Fawad; Maataoui, Adel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if the clinical outcome of intra-articular lumbar facet joint injections is affected by the therapist’s attitude. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with facet joint-associated chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. All patients received computed tomography-guided, monosegmental intra-articular facet joint injections. Following the therapeutic procedure, the patients of the experimental group (EG) held a conversation with the radiologist in a comfortable atmosphere. During the dialog, the patients were encouraged to ask questions and were shown four images. The patients of the control group (CG) left the clinic without any further contact with the radiologist. Outcome was assessed using a pain-based Verbal Numeric Scale at baseline, at 1 wk and at 1, 3, and 6 mo after first treatment. RESULTS: The patient demographics showed no differences between the groups. The patients of the EG received 57 interventional procedures in total, while the patients of the CG received 70 interventional procedures. In both groups, the pain scores decreased significantly over the entire observation period. Compared to the CG, the EG showed a statistically significant reduction of pain at 1 wk and 1 mo post-treatment, while at 3 and 6 mo after treatment, there were no significant differences between both groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show a significant effect on pain relief during the early post-interventional period in the EG as compared to the CG. The basic principle behind the higher efficacy might be the phenomenon of hetero-suggestion. PMID:27358691

  19. Aligning Educational Outcomes and Practices. Occasional Paper #26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Pat

    2016-01-01

    The notion of alignment has become increasingly prominent in efforts to improve student learning today. The term, as used in this paper, refers to the linking of intended student learning outcomes with the processes and practices needed to foster those outcomes. Alignment is not a new idea, but it has become more salient as increasing numbers of…

  20. An Application of Outcomes Assessment in Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Cecile A.; Desjardins, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    The outcomes assessment process developed by the New Jersey Dental School is described and discussed, including required resources, selected outcome measures, strengths and weaknesses, and the evolution of ongoing assessment activities. Documentation produced as part of the process is also described so that other health professions schools may…

  1. Factors Affecting Outcome in Acute Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis Treated with Plasma Exchange: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gubensek, Jakob; Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Romozi, Karmen; Ponikvar, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The optimal therapy for hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis, especially the role of plasma exchange (PE), is not entirely clear. The aim of our large, single-center, observational, cohort study was to analyze the factors affecting outcome in hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE. Methods We included 111 episodes of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis treated with PE, which occurred in 103 different patients. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, triglycerides, delay to first PE, and PE treatment details were retrospectively obtained from the patients’ records. The main outcome measures were length of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Results The patients were 47±9 years old and the median APACHE II score at first PE was 4 (inter-quartile range (IQR) 2–7). There was a seasonal variation in the incidence of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis, and the recurrence rate was 1.6% per year. Triglycerides at presentation did not correlate with APACHE II or influence the outcome. The mean reduction in triglycerides during PE was 59% (from 44±31 to 18±15 mmol/l), which was twice the reduction observed during conservative treatment (27% daily). The median hospital stay was 16 days (IQR 10–24) and in-hospital mortality was 5%. The median delay to first PE was 35 hours (IQR 24–52), and there was no difference in mortality in the early and late PE groups (7% vs. 6%, p = 0.79). The group with citrate anticoagulation during PE had a significantly lower mortality than the group with heparin anticoagulation (1% vs. 11%, p = 0.04), and citrate was an independent predictor also in the multivariate model (p = 0.049). Conclusions PE effectively reduced serum triglycerides faster than could be expected with conservative treatment. The delay in PE therapy did not influence survival. We found that citrate anticoagulation during PE was associated with reduced mortality, which should be confirmed in a

  2. The biology of NK cells and their receptors affects clinical outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

    PubMed

    Foley, Bree; Felices, Martin; Cichocki, Frank; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2014-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were first identified for their capacity to reject bone marrow allografts in lethally irradiated mice without prior sensitization. Subsequently, human NK cells were detected and defined by their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity toward transformed or virally infected target cells. Karre et al. later proposed 'the missing self hypothesis' to explain the mechanism by which self-tolerant cells could kill targets that had lost self MHC class I. Subsequently, the receptors that recognize MHC class I to mediate tolerance in the host were identified on NK cells. These class I-recognizing receptors contribute to the acquisition of function by a dynamic process known as NK cell education or licensing. In the past, NK cells were assumed to be short lived, but more recently NK cells have been shown to mediate immunologic memory to secondary exposures to cytomegalovirus infection. Because of their ability to lyse tumors with aberrant MHC class I expression and to produce cytokines and chemokines upon activation, NK cells may be primed by many stimuli, including viruses and inflammation, to contribute to a graft-versus-tumor effect. In addition, interactions with other immune cells support the therapeutic potential of NK cells to eradicate tumor and to enhance outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

  3. Educational attainment has a limited impact on disease management outcomes in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brad; Forkner, Emma; Krasuski, Richard A; Galbreath, Autumn Dawn; Freeman, Gregory L

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether educational attainment moderates outcomes in the intervention group in a trial of disease management in heart failure (HF). Data were collected from a sample of 654 patients enrolled in the disease management arm of a community- based study of HF patients. The full sample was used to analyze two primary outcomes- all-cause mortality and cardiac event-free survival. Two other primary outcomes- rates of HF-related emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions-and secondary outcomes (patient self-confidence in managing HF symptoms and daily dietary sodium intake in milligrams) were analyzed in a smaller sample of 602 patients who completed at least 6 months of disease management. One-way analysis of variance and chi (2) tests were used to assess differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Survival analyses were conducted with proportional hazards regression, while negative binomial regression was used to assess educational differences in ED usage and inpatient admissions. Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to assess whether secondary outcomes differed across educational strata and/or over time. All outcome analyses were adjusted for confounders. Patients with the least education fared the poorest for all-cause mortality, but education- related differences failed to achieve statistical significance. No education-related differences were observed for cardiac event-free survival, or for the rates of inpatient admission and ED usage. For secondary outcomes, sodium intake differed significantly by education (p = 0.04), with the largest drop (-838 mg/day) observed in the least well-educated group. Confidence increased an approximately equal amount (2.1-3.0 points on a 100-point scale) across all educational strata (p = ns). Low educational attainment may not be a barrier to effective disease management.

  4. Labour Market Outcomes of Higher Education Undertaken Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiers-Jenssen, Jannecke; Try, Sverre

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the transferability of higher education undertaken abroad to a domestic labour market. More specifically, how do Norwegians who have undertaken their education abroad cope on the labour market compared to those who have a corresponding education from Norway? To examine this, we analyse short-term labour market…

  5. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  6. The National Health Educator Job Analysis 2010: Process and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Eva I.; Caro, Carla M.; Lysoby, Linda; Auld, M. Elaine; Smith, Becky J.; Muenzen, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Educator Job Analysis 2010 was conducted to update the competencies model for entry- and advanced-level health educators. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Structured interviews, focus groups, and a modified Delphi technique were implemented to engage 59 health educators from diverse work settings and experience…

  7. Quantifiable outcomes from corporate and higher education learning collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, Thomas G.

    The study investigated the existence of measurable learning outcomes that emerged out of the shared strengths of collaborating sponsors. The study identified quantifiable learning outcomes that confirm corporate, academic and learner participation in learning collaborations. Each of the three hypotheses and the synergy indicator quantitatively and qualitatively confirmed learning outcomes benefiting participants. The academic-indicator quantitatively confirmed that learning outcomes attract learners to the institution. The corporate-indicator confirmed that learning outcomes include knowledge exchange and enhanced workforce talents for careers in the energy-utility industry. The learner-indicator confirmed that learning outcomes provide professional development opportunities for employment. The synergy-indicator confirmed that best learning practices in learning collaborations emanate out of the sponsors' shared strengths, and that partnerships can be elevated to strategic alliances, going beyond response to the desires of sponsors to create learner-centered cultures. The synergy-indicator confirmed the value of organizational processes that elevate sponsors' interactions to sharing strength, to create a learner-centered culture. The study's series of qualitative questions confirmed prior success factors, while verifying the hypothesis results and providing insight not available from quantitative data. The direct benefactors of the study are the energy-utility learning-collaboration participants of the study, and corporation, academic institutions, and learners of the collaboration. The indirect benefactors are the stakeholders of future learning collaborations, through improved knowledge of the existence or absence of quantifiable learning outcomes.

  8. Variable Gene Dispersal Conditions and Spatial Deforestation Patterns Can Interact to Affect Tropical Tree Conservation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with ‘Near’ distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  9. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  10. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced. PMID:27626023

  11. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  12. Outcomes and Risk Factors Affecting Mortality in Patients Who Underwent Colorectal Emergency Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nam Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emergency colorectal surgery has a high risk of mortality and morbidity because of incomplete bowel preparation, bacterial proliferation, and contamination. In this study, we investigated the outcomes and the risk factors affecting mortality in patients who had undergone emergency surgery for the treatment of various colorectal diseases. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to survey the clinical results for patients who had undergone emergency colorectal surgery from January 2014 to December 2014. We analyzed various clinicopathologic factors, which were divided into 3 categories: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. Results A total of 50 patients had undergone emergency colorectal surgery during the time period covered by this study. Among them, 10 patients (20%) died during the postoperative period. A simple linear regression analysis showed that the risk factors for mortality were old age, preoperative hypotension, and a high American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) score. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed a high ASA score and preoperative hypotension to be independent risk factors. Conclusion In this study, emergency colorectal surgery showed a relatively high mortality rate. Furthermore, the independent risk factors for mortality were preoperative hypotension and high ASA score; thus, patients with these characteristics need to be evaluated more carefully and receive better care if the mortality rate is to be reduced.

  13. Does Combining School and Work Affect School and Post-School Outcomes? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anlezark, Alison; Lim, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In this report the authors seek to answer the question of whether combining school and work is detrimental or beneficial to a student's school educational performance and labour market outcomes. They find that young people who combine school and work are distributed right across the school population. Results show that individuals can combine…

  14. Assets, Economic Opportunity and Toxic Stress: A Framework for Understanding Child and Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Trina R. Williams; Robinson, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong predictor of school achievement, college graduation and child outcomes in general. Better developmental and health outcomes are strongly associated with family assets, income and education. We introduce a model incorporating a range of theoretical and empirical…

  15. Outcome of Comprehensive Psycho-Educational Interventions for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeseth, Svein

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates comprehensive psycho-educational research on early intervention for children with autism. Twenty-five outcome studies were identified. Twenty studies evaluated behavioral treatment, 3 studies evaluated TEACCH and 2 studies evaluated the Colorado Health Sciences Project. Outcome studies are graded according to their scientific…

  16. Student Outcomes: Investigating Competency-Based Curriculum in Adult Basic Education. Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazell, Pat

    The outcomes attained by Australian adults enrolled in competency-based Certificate in Adult Foundation Education (CAFE) courses were examined. Special attention was paid to the outcomes achieved by students in the two lowest of the CAFE program's four levels. The main data sources were as follows: literature review; enrollment data from the…

  17. The Impact of Digital Skills on Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Performance Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Laura; Argentin, Gianluca; Gui, Marco; Stanca, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Digital skills are increasingly important for labour market outcomes and social participation. Do they also matter for academic performance? This paper investigates the effects of digital literacy on educational outcomes by merging data from the Italian National Assessment in secondary schools with an original data-set on performance tests of…

  18. Cooperative Education and Employment Outcomes for Post-Graduation Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprandel, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined the post-graduation employment outcomes of business undergraduate college students who have participated in a cooperative education (co-op) program. The co-op students' post-graduate employment outcomes were compared to those of non-program (co-op) participants. This data was gathered from the Sam M. Walton College of…

  19. Achievement for All: Improving Psychosocial Outcomes for Students with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA)…

  20. Documenting Impact of Educational Contexts on Long-Term Outcomes for Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Alper, Sandra; Hughes, Carolyn; McDonnell, John

    2012-01-01

    Follow-up studies of students with significant disabilities consistently indicate poor post-school outcomes. Although existing research indicates that services in inclusive general education contexts can result in positive short-term outcomes for these individuals during their school years, there are few investigations of the lives of adults with…

  1. The Effects of Competition on Educational Outcomes: A Review of US Evidence. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.

    This paper systematically reviews the cross-sectional research evidence on the effects of competition on educational outcomes. Competition is typically measured using either the Herfindahl Index or the enrollment rate at an alternative choice (for example, private school). Outcomes are separated into those relating to academic test scores,…

  2. Youth Risk Factors and Educational Outcomes of Mentored and Non-Mentored Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos-Brown, Karen

    2010-01-01

    As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…

  3. Career Education: Some Essential Learner Outcomes. Primary Grades K, 1, 2, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

    This guide, one of a series for various grade levels, contains Some Essential Learner Outcomes (SELOs) for career education in the primary grades in Minnesota. (The SELOs are selected samples of knowledge statements considered as essential learning outcomes for students in each of the subject areas taught in schools.) These SELOs for the primary…

  4. Comparative Analysis of an Online and a Traditional MSW Program: Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Chaffin, Kate M.; Cockerham, Clifford

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the educational outcomes of the University of Tennessee College of Social Work's online and traditional MSW programs ("N" = 345). Knowledge, skill, and satisfaction outcomes were compared for online and traditional students in 3 tracks: full-time, part-time, and advanced standing (AS). There were no significant…

  5. Summary of Outcome Evaluation Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Skills Training (PETC-1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Catherine; Green, David

    This report summarizes the technical report Outcome Evaluation Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Skills Training (PETC-I) which presents the data collected about the three outcome studies of the PETC-I system. This information is primarily summative in nature and is designed to help those who may be considering the system as a…

  6. Educational outcomes from a novel house call curriculum for internal medicine residents: report of a 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Jennifer; Christmas, Colleen; Durso, Samuel C

    2011-07-01

    Physician house calls are an important mode of healthcare delivery to frail homebound older adults and positively affect patient outcomes and learner education, but most physicians receive scant training in home care medicine. A novel longitudinal curriculum in house call medicine for internal medicine residents was implemented in July 2006, and educational outcomes were evaluated over the following 3 years. The 2-year curriculum included didactic and experiential components. Residents made house calls with preceptors and alone and completed a series of computer modules outlining knowledge essential to providing home-based care. They discussed the important features of the modules in regularly scheduled small groups throughout the 2-year experience, and each taught a "house call morning report" in their senior resident year. Evaluation methods included surveys before, during, and at the end of the 2-year curriculum (knowledge and attitudes); direct observation by preceptors during house calls (skills); and an online, anonymous survey at the end of each year (attitudes). Results show statistically significant increases in residents' knowledge, skills, and attitudes relevant to home care medicine. Residents describe educationally significant and positive effects from their house call experiences. This novel curriculum improved medical residents' knowledge, attitudes, and skills in performing house calls for frail elderly individuals. The longer-term outcomes of this intervention will continue to be studied, with the hope that it may be used to help provide educational opportunities to prepare the physician workforce to meet the service needs of a growing segment of the population.

  7. Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Sibley, Margaret H; Babinski, Dara E; Walther, Christine; Cheong, Jeewon; Yu, Jihnhee; Kent, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young adults with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD on educational and occupational outcomes and the predictors of these outcomes. Participants were from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a prospective study with yearly data collection. Significant group differences were found for nearly all variables such that educational and occupational attainment was lower for adults with compared to adults without histories of childhood ADHD. Despite the mean difference, educational functioning was wide-ranging. High school academic achievement significantly predicted enrollment in post-high school education and academic and disciplinary problems mediated the relationship between childhood ADHD and post-high school education. Interestingly, ADHD diagnosis and disciplinary problems negatively predicted occupational status while enrollment in post-high school education was a positive predictor. Job loss was positively predicted by a higher rate of academic problems and diagnosis of ADHD. This study supports the need for interventions that target the child and adolescent predictors of later educational and occupational outcomes in addition to continuing treatment of ADHD in young adulthood targeting developmentally appropriate milestones, such as completing post-high school education and gaining and maintaining stable employment.

  8. New Directions for Higher Education: Challenges, Opportunities, and Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland-Innes, Marta

    Within the last few decades, pervasive technology and significant social and economic development have forever changed our society. Social and economic change has made it increasingly difficult for higher education to operate in insular ways; attention to changing demographics, global economies, and new social mores is required (Keller 2008). The potential reach of technology seems limitless and has already changed higher education institutions in "the way we organize ourselves, our policies, our culture, what faculty do, the way we work, and those we serve" (Ikenberry 1999, p. 63). Change in higher education to accommodate broader societal changes requires new ways of thinking about economic issues, accountability, technology, and the teaching-learning process. This chapter makes the challenges currently facing higher education explicit. It outlines the leadership traits and behaviors that are moving higher education into a hybrid version of traditional and distance institutions. Six principles of sound strategic planning for creating a new higher education enterprise are reviewed.

  9. Affective Learning Profiles in Compulsory High School Physical Education: An Instructional Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Mindrila, Diana; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning is a major focus of the national K-12 physical education (PE) content standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE, 2004]). Understanding how students might fit into different affective learning subgroups would help extend affective learning theory in PE and suggest possible intervention strategies for…

  10. Learning in Educational Computer Games for Novices: The Impact of Support Provision Types on Virtual Presence, Cognitive Load, and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, Claudia; Bastiaens, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Embedding support devices in educational computer games has been asserted to positively affect learning outcomes. However, there is only limited direct empirical evidence on which design variations of support provision influence learning. In order to better understand the impact of support design on novices' learning, the current study…

  11. Impact of Arts Education on Children's Learning and Wider Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Kokotsaki, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Almost every educational system in the world regards numeracy and literacy as more important than the arts. In the UK arts interest groups and politicians have, for years, asked for arts education to be accorded the same priority arguing that arts contribute to learning and development of useful skills. It is not clear if these claims were based…

  12. Analysis of Special Education Tribunal Outcomes Using Luhmann's Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeo, Angela; Underwood, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines Special Education Tribunals, in Ontario, Canada through a Luhmannian theoretical lens. At total of 58 Special Education Tribunal summary hearings were analyzed using the constant comparative method through NVivo software. The results revealed that these Tribunals appear to favour the assessment testimony of teachers and other…

  13. Sexual Identity and Postsecondary Education: Outcomes, Institutional Factors, and Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leigh Everett

    2012-01-01

    Sociological literature has not paid the same attention to the educational attainment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons, despite their status as a socially marginalized group. Through the application of sociological methods and theories, my dissertation argues that sexual identity's effect on educational attainment is…

  14. Memories as Useful Outcomes of Residential Outdoor Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…

  15. Understanding Participant and Practitioner Outcomes of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental education can deliver benefits to individuals, society and the environment, but few studies have asked practitioners or participants what they feel these benefits are. This research compares the perspectives of practitioners and participants in environmental education projects, using questionnaires, focus groups and participant…

  16. Report on Evaluating Educational Outcomes: A Nazareth College Alumni Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Virginia

    To assess the college's impact on graduates, Nazareth College administered the American College Testing Program's Educational Services Alumni Survey to a sample of recent graduates. While there was particular interest in exploring perceptions of the general education program before and after a major curricular innovation called the McGrail Plan,…

  17. Distance Learners in Higher Education: Institutional Responses for Quality Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chere Campbell, Ed.

    The contributors to this book, administrators and faculty from a variety of higher education institutions in North America, reflect on current research and practices in distance higher education, and address specific facets of the distance learner. Following an introduction by Michael G. Moore, eight chapters include the following: (1) Distance…

  18. Improving Educational Outcomes for Minority Males in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Ralph, III; Rizzi, Gleides Lopes; Council, Morris, III

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the academic underachievement and disproportionate special education placement of minority males. Causes and consequences for poor academic performance by minority males are reviewed. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind Act are discussed in relation to minority male academic achievement.…

  19. Impact of Physician Asthma Care Education on Patient Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers…

  20. Improving Educational Aspirations and Outcomes through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…

  1. Rehabilitation Education Program for Stroke (REPS): Learning and Practice Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Sara; Szurek, Kristina; Polatajko, Helene J.; Rappolt, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: New research knowledge acquired from Web-based sources may have a better chance of being translated into practice when accompanied by additional educational strategies. This study was undertaken to investigate that hypothesis. Methods: The Rehabilitation Education Program for Stroke (REPS) combines a self-directed online learning…

  2. Outcomes-Based Education in the English Second Language Classroom in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlebusch, Gawie; Thobedi, Motsamai

    2004-01-01

    The re-birth of South Africa in 1994 has brought the implementation of effective educational policies. Simultaneously, the Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) approach has been introduced to advance the teaching and learning of the Learning areas in schools in South Africa. This article focuses on the learning of English as a Second Language (ESL) in…

  3. The Collection of Post-Release Outcome Data for the Evaluation of Correctional Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Ogle, J. Todd

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights several issues related to the collection of post-release outcome data in the evaluation of correctional education programs and identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods of collecting data related to recidivism, employment/earnings, and further education/training. The use of traditional follow-up in…

  4. Enhancing the Relevance and Value of Marketing Curriculum Outcomes to a Liberal Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Could marketing coursework be part of the general education requirements for all college students? This article describes the ways in which the professional school marketing curriculum model (Schibrowsky, Peltier, & Boyt, 2002) can complement and enhance liberal arts education outcomes. First, the general relationship between liberal arts…

  5. Does Preschool Education Exposure Predict Children's Academic and Behavioural Outcomes in China?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanfang; Lv, Ying; Huntsinger, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between exposure to preschool education and children's academic and social outcomes have been documented in Western countries. There is a lack of comparable research in China, where preschool education is relatively formal, but rather flexible in arrangement. We conducted research at six public kindergartens in a large Chinese…

  6. Longitudinal Impact of Two Universal Preventive Interventions in First Grade on Educational Outcomes in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Zmuda, Jessika H.; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of 2 first-grade universal preventive interventions on academic outcomes (e.g., achievement, special education service use, graduation, postsecondary education) through age 19 in a sample of 678 urban, primarily African American children. The classroom-centered intervention combined the Good Behavior…

  7. Adult Role Models: Feasibility, Acceptability, and Initial Outcomes for Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarossi, Lisa; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Dean, Randa; Perez, Amanda; Rivera, Angelic

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the feasibility and acceptability of a parent sexuality education program led by peer educators in community settings. They also report the results of an outcome evaluation with 71 parents who were randomized to the intervention or a control group and surveyed one month prior to and six months after the four-week intervention.…

  8. Family Background, Forms of Capital, and Educational Outcomes of Children of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ling

    Family background as a single entity, as distinguished from schooling in its effect, has been found to play a dominant role in children's educational outcomes on such indices as academic achievement, school persistence, and educational attainment. What are the mechanisms and/or processes through which family background creates and reproduces these…

  9. The Impact of Children's Public Health Insurance Expansions on Educational Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14671

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Phillip B.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of public health insurance expansions through both Medicaid and SCHIP on children's educational outcomes, measured by 4th and 8th grade reading and math test scores, available from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). We use a triple difference estimation strategy, taking advantage of the…

  10. Experiences of Higher Education Faculty Engaged in Undergraduate Student Learning Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study sought to describe the lived experiences of full- time faculty engaged in undergraduate learning outcomes assessment at the program or general education level in baccalaureate or master's nonprofit or public institutions of higher education regionally accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. The ten…

  11. Education Abroad in China: Literature Review of Study Abroad Program Types, Outcomes and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2013-01-01

    While there has been an increase in students studying abroad in China, this increase has not been seen in the respective number of articles published in scholarly journals on education abroad in China. This paper summarizes articles from journals on the types of education abroad programs in China, organized by topic, and by the outcomes and…

  12. Final Outcome Evaluation Report. Demonstration and Implementation Sites. Experience-Based Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Joe E.; Kessel, Phyllis

    Evaluation of the Appalachia Educational Laboratory's (AEL) Experience-Based Career Education (EBCE) program focused on outcome data pertaining to students, parents, and employers collected at the demonstration site at AEL, and implementation sites located in Bremen, Georgia; Crowley, Louisiana; Ames, Iowa; and Staten Island, Ithaca, and North…

  13. Increases in Maternal Education and Low-Income Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jessica F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head…

  14. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  15. Outcome (Competency) Based Education: An Exploration of Its Origins, Theoretical Basis, and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morcke, Anne Mette; Dornan, Tim; Eika, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Outcome based or competency based education (OBE) is so firmly established in undergraduate medical education that it might not seem necessary to ask why it was included in recommendations for the future, like the Flexner centenary report. Uncritical acceptance may not, however, deliver its greatest benefits. Our aim was to explore the…

  16. Alabama High School Graduation Exam Outcomes: Agricultural Education and Its Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolin, Joshua Brock

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is possible a relationship between agricultural education class credits obtained by students and their subsequent outcome on the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE). Also, the perceptions of Alabama agricultural educators regarding 1) student test taking preparation 2) academic standard integration…

  17. Educational Outcomes, Policy Reform and Cultural Capital in Italian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polesel, John

    2010-01-01

    Italy's poor performance in various indicators of educational achievement, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has featured strongly in analyses of Italian education policy, and its progress towards the Lisbon objectives has been slow. With weak outcomes often linked to a highly stratified system of upper secondary…

  18. Outcome-Based Education. Has It Become More Affliction than Cure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manno, Bruno V.

    Many on both "the left" and "the right" passionately oppose an outcome-based approach to education, although their reasons are different. A focus on results, on what children actually learn and how well they learn it, enables taxpayers to hold educators accountable for results. But this apparent good idea has led to considerable conflict. A major…

  19. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  20. Harmonisation of the Educational Concept "Learning Outcome" in the Lithuanian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Smetona, Antanas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an example of translation of the English term "learning outcome" into the Lithuanian system of educational terms is used to discuss semantic peculiarities of translating professional terms. Consistency of a concept signifier and content of a concept, as well as their tune with already existing systems of educational terms are…

  1. Broadening Educational Outcomes: Social Relations, Skills Development, and Employability for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejaeghere, Joan; Wiger, Nancy Pellowski; Willemsen, Laura Wangsness

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that, if a global development aim is to address educational inequalities, the post-2015 agenda needs to conceptually and practically broaden the focus of learning to include social relations as important processes and outcomes for achieving educational equity. We draw on Sen's capability approach and Bourdieu's forms of capital…

  2. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  3. The Educational Context and Outcomes for High School Students with Disabilities: Special Education Programs and the Perceptions of Special Education Teachers. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean B.; Lenz, B. Keith; Bulgren, Janis A.; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Marquis, Janet; Deshler, Donald D.

    The fourth in a series of studies investigating the educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities (SWDs), this study examined types of courses in which SWDs are being enrolled, and the role perception of special education teachers. Twenty-one special education teachers from three high schools in urban areas, three in…

  4. Does neonatal morphine use affect neuropsychological outcomes at 8 to 9 years of age?

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joke; van Lingen, Richard A; Valkenburg, Abraham J; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Groot Jebbink, Liesbeth; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tibboel, Dick; van Dijk, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Morphine is widely used to treat severe pain in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Animal studies suggest adverse long-term side effects of neonatal morphine, but a follow-up study of 5-year-old children who participated in a morphine-placebo controlled trial as newborns found no such effects on the child's general functioning. This study indicated that morphine may negatively affect response inhibition, a domain of executive functions. Therefore, we performed a second follow-up study in the same population at the age of 8 to 9 years, focused on the child's general functioning in terms of intelligence, visual motor integration, and behavior and on executive functions. Children in the morphine group showed significantly less externalizing problems according to the parents but more internalizing behavior according to the teachers, but only after adjustment for intelligence quotient (IQ), potential confounders using a propensity score, and additional open-label morphine. Morphine-treated children showed significantly fewer problems with executive functions in daily life as rated by parents for the subscales inhibition and organization of materials and for planning/organizing as rated by the teachers. After adjustment for IQ and the propensity score, executive functioning as rated by the parents remained statistically significantly better in the morphine-treated group. The influence of the additional morphine given was not of a significant influence for any of the outcome variables. Overall, the present study demonstrates that continuous morphine infusion of 10 μg/kg/h during the neonatal period does not harm general functioning and may even have a positive influence on executive functions at 8 to 9 years.

  5. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  6. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals.

  7. Fighting while Parasitized: Can Nematode Infections Affect the Outcome of Staged Combat in Beetles?

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  8. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. PMID:27194659

  9. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends.

  10. Testing self-determined motivation as a mediator of the relationship between psychological needs and affective and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2007-10-01

    Self-determination theory suggests that when psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are met, participants experience more self-determined types of motivation and more positive outcomes. Limited research has examined this mediational role of self-determined motivation in adult physical activity participants, and very few studies have included assessments of relatedness. This study tested the hypothesis that self-determined motivation would mediate the relationship between psychological need fulfillment and affective and behavioral outcomes. Adult dragon boaters (N = 558) between the ages of 19 and 83 completed a questionnaire on motivational aspects of dragon boating. Competence, relatedness, and autonomy all significantly predicted self-determined motivation, but self-determined motivation only partially mediated their relationship with positive and negative affect. These findings demonstrate the importance of all three needs in adult activity motivation and suggest that the relationships between needs, self-determination, and outcomes may be complex.

  11. The Effects of Spiritual/Religious Engagement on College Students' Affective Outcomes: Differences by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennick, Liz A.; Smedley, Cynthia Toms; Fisher, Dan; Wallace, Elizabeth; Young, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the general and differential effects of spiritual/religious engagement on affective college outcomes (i.e., leadership skills, interpersonal skills, social satisfaction, sense of belonging, and psychological well-being) across different gender and racial groups among undergraduate students at research universities. The study…

  12. The Effect of Grouping and Program Type on Scholastic and Affective Outcomes in the Mawhiba Schools Partnership Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have struggled for decades to determine whether ability grouping is helpful or harmful; however, study findings have been inconsistent. To assess the effect of grouping and program type on scholastic and affective outcomes, three grouping types (gifted separate-class enrichment, pull-out gifted enrichment, and no enrichment), three…

  13. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  14. Linking Affective Commitment, Career Self-Efficacy, and Outcome Expectations: A Test of Social Cognitive Career Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Amanda M.; Dahling, Jason J.; Garcia, Pablo A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a model based on the satisfaction model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) that links college students' affective commitment to their major (the emotional identification that students feel toward their area of study) with career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and career outcome expectations. Results indicate that CDSE…

  15. Education Data in Conflict-Affected Countries: The Fifth Failure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montjourides, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Poor-quality, or completely absent, data deny millions of children the right to an education. This is often the case in conflict-ridden areas. The 2011 Education for All Global Monitoring Report (UNESCO 2011b) identified four failures that are holding back progress in education and damaging millions of children's lives: failures of protection,…

  16. How Group Experience Affects Outcomes from NOLS Programs: A Means-End Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Marni; Soule, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Using means-end theory, this study evaluates how being part of a group influences outcomes of National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) participants. This study examines outcomes from NOLS courses during the summer of 2006 in the Wind River Mountain Range of Wyoming. Immediately following 2006 course completion, a convenience sample of 345…

  17. Educational Outcomes and Research from 1:1 Computing Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebell, Damian; O'Dwyer, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in 1:1 computing initiatives, relatively little empirical research has focused on the outcomes of these investments. The current special edition of the Journal of Technology and Assessment presents four empirical studies of K-12 1:1 computing programs and one review of key themes in the conversation about 1:1 computing…

  18. The Relationship of Rurality and Education Accountability Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peevely, Gary; Ray, John R.

    This paper examines accountability outcomes of Tennessee school districts, comparing rural versus urban districts and litigant versus nonlitigant districts from a 1993 fiscal equity lawsuit. School districts were assigned a measure of rurality using the Cleland Rurality Index, and comparisons were made among the 29 low-rurality districts, 66…

  19. Partnership for Improving Outcomes in Indigenous Education: Relationship or Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma Rhea, Zane

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Australian government's Indigenous policy by interrogating the concept of partnership between governments and Indigenous communities through three examples. Increasingly, the Australian federal government is focusing attention on the poor literacy and numeracy outcomes for Indigenous children in remote and very remote…

  20. Changing Minds? Reassessing Outcomes in Free-Choice Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksdieck, Martin; Ellenbogen, Kirsten; Heimlich, Joe E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses three case studies--an exhibition on biodiversity, a hotel water conservation program, and a partnership between a nature center and urban public schools--to establish parameters for designing learning experiences that accommodate the varied worldviews and attitudes of learners. Positive outcomes occurred in all three cases,…

  1. Effects of Class Size on Alternative Educational Outcomes across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Dorothy A.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to use self-reported ratings of student learning, instructor recommendations, and course recommendations as the outcome measure to estimate class size effects, doing so across 24 disciplines. Fixed-effects models controlling for heterogeneous courses and instructors reveal that increasing enrollment has negative and…

  2. The Use of Outcome Mapping in the Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Outcome Mapping is intended to measure the process by which change occurs, it shifts away from the products of the program to focus on changes in behaviors, relationships, actions, and/or activities of the people involved in the treatment program. This process-oriented methodology, most often used in designing and evaluating community development…

  3. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  4. Behavioral and Cognitive Predictors of Educational Outcomes in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Anne B.; Peterson, Robin L.; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M.; Wade, Shari L.

    2014-01-01

    Research reveals mixed results regarding the utility of standardized cognitive and academic tests to predict educational outcomes in youth following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, deficits in everyday school-based outcomes are prevalent after pediatric TBI. The current study used path modeling to test the hypothesis that parent ratings of adolescents’ daily behaviors associated with executive functioning (EF) would predict long-term functional educational outcomes following pediatric TBI, even when injury severity and patient demographics were included in the model. Furthermore, we contrasted the predictive strength of the EF behavioral ratings with that of a common measure of verbal memory. A total of 132 adolescents who were hospitalized for moderate to severe TBI were recruited to participate in a randomized clinical intervention trial. EF ratings and verbal memory were measured within 6 months of the injury; functional educational outcomes were measured 12 months later. EF ratings and verbal memory added to injury severity in predicting educational competence post injury but did not predict post-injury initiation of special education. The results demonstrated that measurement of EF behaviors is an important research and clinical tool for prediction of functional outcomes in pediatric TBI. PMID:23790158

  5. How do you deliver a good obstetrician? Outcome-based evaluation of medical education.

    PubMed

    Asch, David A; Nicholson, Sean; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Herrin, Jeph; Epstein, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of medical education is the production of a workforce capable of improving the health and health care of patients and populations, but it is hard to use a goal that lofty, that broad, and that distant as a standard against which to judge the success of schools or training programs or particular elements within them. For that reason, the evaluation of medical education often focuses on elements of its structure and process, or on the assessment of competencies that could be considered intermediate outcomes. These measures are more practical because they are easier to collect, and they are valuable when they reflect activities in important positions along the pathway to clinical outcomes. But they are all substitutes for measuring whether educational efforts produce doctors who take good care of patients.The authors argue that the evaluation of medical education can become more closely tethered to the clinical outcomes medical education aims to achieve. They focus on a specific clinical outcome-maternal complications of obstetrical delivery-and show how examining various observable elements of physicians' training and experience helps reveal which of those elements lead to better outcomes. Does it matter where obstetricians trained? Does it matter how much experience they have? Does it matter how good they were to start? Each of these questions reflects a component of the production of a good obstetrician and, most important, defines a good obstetrician as one whose patients in the end do well.

  6. Foreign language affects the contribution of intentions and outcomes to moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Geipel, Janet; Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Surian, Luca

    2016-09-01

    We examine whether the use of a foreign language, as opposed to the native language, influences the relative weight intentions versus outcomes carry in moral evaluations. In Study 1, participants were presented with actions that had positive outcomes but were motivated by dubious intentions, while in Study 2 with actions that had negative outcomes but were motivated by positive intentions. Participants received the materials either in their native or a foreign language. Foreign language prompted more positive moral evaluations in Study 1 and less positive evaluations in Study 2. These results show that foreign language reduces the relative weight placed on intentions versus outcomes. We discuss several theoretical accounts that are consistent with the results such as that foreign language attenuates emotions (triggered by intentions) or it depletes cognitive resources. PMID:27232522

  7. Can Rational Prescribing Be Improved by an Outcome-Based Educational Approach? A Randomized Trial Completed in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmaily, Hamideh M.; Silver, Ivan; Shiva, Shadi; Gargani, Alireza; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Wahlstrom, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: An outcome-based education approach has been proposed to develop more effective continuing medical education (CME) programs. We have used this approach in developing an outcome-based educational intervention for general physicians working in primary care (GPs) and evaluated its effectiveness compared with a concurrent CME program in…

  8. Does family group decision making affect child welfare outcomes? Findings from a randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs (FGDM; Fresno n = 60; Riverside n = 50) administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that children were not worse than those receiving traditional services; outcomes examined were related to child safety, placement stability, and permanence. PMID:19391466

  9. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and growing body of…

  10. Outcome-based residency education: teaching and evaluating the core competencies in plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Gregory N; Basu, C Bob; Leong, Mimi; Mateo, Carol; Hollier, Larry H; Stal, Samuel

    2008-06-01

    Through its oversight of residency education in the United States, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has mandated new structural changes in resident education with its newly created core competencies and an emphasis on outcomes-based education. These core competencies represent the central areas in which the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education believes a plastic surgery resident should receive adequate and appropriate education and training. In addition, as part of this outcomes-based education, residents are to be evaluated on their level of mastery in these core competencies. Increasingly, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education will assess the ability of residency programs to integrate the teaching and evaluating of the core competencies in their accreditation process of plastic surgery residency programs. This shift in residency evaluation initiated by the Outcomes Project by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education will have a significant impact in how plastic surgery residents are taught and, as importantly, evaluated in the coming years. The objectives of this work were as follows: (1) to outline the different methods available to foster a core competency-based plastic surgery training curriculum and (2) to serve as a primer to help both full-time academic and clinical faculty to further develop their curriculum to successfully teach and constructively evaluate their residents in the core competencies in accordance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines. At the conclusion of this review, the reader should have a better understanding of what is necessary to formulate and help foster a plastic surgery core competency curriculum, particularly with an emphasis on the contemporary methods used for outcomes evaluations.

  11. Intensive Education: How It Affects Teachers' and Students' Work Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Karin

    This qualitative study of a high school using intensive education shows how teaching and learning were improved when teachers taught and students attended one class daily for 6 weeks. Intensive education is an alternative scheduling and organizational format that reduces class size and extends class length by having teachers and students in one…

  12. Factors Affecting Attitudinal Patterns Toward Education in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bardin H.; And Others

    A sample of 380 urban, suburban, and rural persons living in the Province of Santiago, the Dominican Republic, were interviewed to determine their attitudes toward education. A 15 statement attitude instrument, using a Likert response scale, was developed. The major findings of the study were that attitudes toward education were significantly…

  13. How Methodological Features Affect Effect Sizes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    As evidence becomes increasingly important in educational policy, it is essential to understand how research design might contribute to reported effect sizes in experiments evaluating educational programs. A total of 645 studies from 12 recent reviews of evaluations of preschool, reading, mathematics, and science programs were studied. Effect…

  14. Leadership Misplacement: How Can This Affect Institutions of Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Sedivy-Benton, Amy Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Well-reasoned leadership theories are described in many academic books, yet they may not apply specifically to practices in higher education. In higher education, the absence of tailored leadership theories is compounded by the lack of technical skills or leadership ethics, resulting in leadership issues that impact the organization. To illustrate…

  15. Does Webinar-Based Financial Education Affect Knowledge and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carrie L.; Schumacher, Joel B.

    2016-01-01

    Using webinar delivery for Extension financial education programs allows educators to reach a broader range of clientele. It can, however, be difficult to gauge participants' learning of concepts in an online environment. Evaluations of two webinar series, one in Montana and the other in South Dakota, sought to determine the effectiveness of using…

  16. Does Career and Technical Education Affect College Enrollment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Stefanie; Plank, Stephen; Estacion, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) and its transcript component, we examine vocational education (now known as career and technical education, or CTE) for a recent cohort of youths. We describe and distinguish between CTE coursetaking and participation in particular career-related programs of courses and activities…

  17. Theme: Trends and Issues Affecting the Future of Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Articles discuss trends and issues in agricultural education, community and technical colleges, career/technical studies, Australian agriculture, agricultural science and technology programs in urban areas, genetic engineering, the impact of changing technologies on agricultural education, volunteers, and performance-based assessment. (JOW)

  18. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  19. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  20. How Methodological Features Affect Effect Sizes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan; Slavin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    As evidence-based reform becomes increasingly important in educational policy, it is becoming essential to understand how research design might contribute to reported effect sizes in experiments evaluating educational programs. The purpose of this study was to examine how methodological features such as types of publication, sample sizes, and…

  1. Does Participative Decision Making Affect Lecturer Performance in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukirno, D. S.; Siengthai, Sununta

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between participation and job performance has captured the interest of not only business researchers but also education researchers. However, the topic has not gained significant attention in the educational management research arena. The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the impact of participation in…

  2. Cognitive Dissonance and the Affective Domain in Collegiate Compensatory Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavin, Alonzo

    In addressing the problems faced by compensatory education programs in getting financially and academically disadvantaged students through postsecondary education, this paper explores three common myths about schools and schooling: (1) academic success is highly correlated to intelligence; (2) families of these students are not supportive of…

  3. What We Know about Developmental Education Outcomes. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Stacey, Georgia West

    2014-01-01

    Many recent high school graduates who enter community college are required to take remedial or developmental education courses before enrolling in college-level courses. Developmental courses essentially reteach high school- and junior high school-level content in reading, writing, and math. In some cases, students are referred to two or even…

  4. "Geography of Opportunity": Poverty, Place, and Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William F., IV

    2008-01-01

    This article is an expanded version of the 2008 American Educational Research Association's Presidential Address. The purpose of the article is to describe the geography of opportunity in two metropolitan regions of the United States that are engaged in significant efforts to transform their local political economies. Both metropolitan regions…

  5. Improving Educational Outcomes for Children in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Christina; Kabler, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Recent statistics estimate that there are 783,000 children living in foster care in the United States. This vulnerable population is at risk for academic failure as well as internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Compared to their peers, foster youth face significant educational difficulties, including lower levels of academic…

  6. Educational Outcomes of Social Studies Programs in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Stanley E.

    Performance of rural 13-year-olds on the 1971-1972 social studies assessment by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) were reviewed in terms of three major exercise themes. Performance on skill exercises revealed rural strengths in source selection and human affairs insights, but weaknesses in reading maps and graphs. Fewer than…

  7. Trusting Our Judgment: Measurement and Accountability for Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policymakers across the country face an urgent problem: we know there is wide disparity in teacher effectiveness, but we lack meaningful tools to identify and reward the most effective teachers or to ensure that the least effective improve or leave the classroom. Purpose: This article considers the value of the…

  8. Relationship between Teacher Fidelity and Physical Education Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of scientifically based curricula intended for the physical education (PE) classroom, researchers should consider fidelity, or the extent to which teachers who are implementing a PE curricular intervention adhere to the model of curriculum and instruction inherent in the research design. The purpose of this study was to…

  9. Vocational Education Outcomes for Eleven Grossmont College Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry; Dean, Winston

    In 1992, a study was conducted at Grossmont College (GC) in El Cajon, California, to determine employment positions and incomes of former students who had left/graduated during the 3 academic years 1985-86, 1986-87, and 1987-1988 and had been enrolled in one of the following 11 vocational education programs: Accounting, Administration and Justice,…

  10. Career Academies: Impacts on Labor Market Outcomes and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Career Academies offer high schools--particularly those in urban communities that struggle to keep students in school and to prepare them for post-secondary education and employment opportunities--a systematic approach to addressing a range of challenges. Typically serving between 150 and 200 students from grades 9 or 10 through grade 12, Career…

  11. Asthma Education for Rural School Nurses: Resources, Barriers, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelstein, Marilyn L.; Quartey, Ruth; Pham, Luu; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Lewis, Cassia; Hill, Kimberly; Butz, Arlene

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a school-based asthma education program for rural elementary school nurses. The program was designed to teach school nurses in 7 rural counties in Maryland how to implement and to reinforce asthma management behaviors in children with asthma and their caregivers. Rural nurses who participated in this program increased their…

  12. Distance, Online and Campus Higher Education: Reflections on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhee, Iain; Soderstrom, Tor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss performance in postgraduate education in Sweden and Scotland. Drawing on two cases, the paper considers three themes: differences in students' performance by study mode, differences in students' performance by length of study, and finally comparing performance by study mode between modules in…

  13. Recess, Physical Education, and Elementary School Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dills, Angela K.; Morgan, Hillary N.; Rotthoff, Kurt W.

    2011-01-01

    Today's children experience a decreased amount of time at recess and fewer physical education (PE) classes throughout the school day. Breaks for physical activity limit class time for academics, potentially reducing learning. However, breaks may improve alertness and achievement. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Kindergarten Class of…

  14. Improving Student Outcomes: Restoring America's Education Potential. Strategy Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Michael; Looney, Adam; Shevlin, Paige

    2011-01-01

    For decades, investments in public education have boosted U.S. productivity and earnings, forged a path out of poverty for many families, helped disadvantaged students narrow the learning gap with their peers, and developed a workforce that continues to be among the most productive and innovative on Earth. More recently, this engine of growth has…

  15. Three Accelerated Developmental Education Programs: Features, Student Outcomes, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle; Cho, Sung-Woo; Xu, Di

    2015-01-01

    To support the long-term success of underprepared students, many community colleges are experimenting with accelerated developmental education models, which allow students to complete remediation and enroll in college-level math and English within a shorter time frame. This study examines three developmental acceleration programs, including two in…

  16. Linguistic and Metalinguistic Outcomes of Intense Immersion Education: How Bilingual?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermanto, Nicola; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Anglophone children in Grades 2 and 5 who attended an intensive French immersion program were examined for linguistic and metalinguistic ability in English and French. Measures of linguistic proficiency (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) were consistently higher in English and remained so even after 5 years of immersion education in French.…

  17. An Approach to Measuring Cognitive Outcomes across Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Kuh, George; Chun, Marc; Hamilton, Laura; Shavelson, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, state legislatures have experienced increasing pressure to hold higher education accountable for student learning. This pressure stems from several sources, such as increasing costs and decreasing graduation rates. To explore the feasibility of one approach to measuring student learning that emphasizes program improvement, we…

  18. Improving K-12 STEM Education Outcomes through Technological Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Michael J., Ed.; Falvo, David A., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The application of technology in classroom settings has equipped educators with innovative tools and techniques for effective teaching practice. Integrating digital technologies at the elementary and secondary levels helps to enrich the students' learning experience and maximize competency in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

  19. Achievement Motivation and Outcome in Social Work Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Anne E.; Lee, Mingun; Cavazos, Alonzo

    2005-01-01

    For this study, 188 students from 4 social work programs completed a questionnaire about their motivation and performance in field practicum. Achievement motivation included task value, intrinsic motivation, perception of task difficulty, confidence, and self-efficacy. Students were more satisfied with field education and rated their social work…

  20. Determinants and outcomes of motivation in health professions education: a systematic review based on self-determination theory

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at conducting a systematic review in health professions education of determinants, mediators and outcomes of students’ motivation to engage in academic activities based on the self-determination theory’s perspective. Methods: A search was conducted across databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases), hand-search of relevant journals, grey literature, and published research profile of key authors. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they reported research in health professions education focused on determinants, mediators, and/or outcomes of motivation from the self-determination and if meeting the quality criteria. Results: A total of 17 studies met the inclusion and quality criteria. Articles retrieved came from diverse locations and mainly from medical education and to a lesser extent from psychology and dental education. Intrapersonal (gender and personality traits) and interpersonal determinants (academic conditions and lifestyle, qualitative method of selection, feedback, and an autonomy supportive learning climate) have been reported to have a positive influence on students’ motivation to engage in academic activities. No studies were found that tested mediation effects between determinants and students’ motivation. In turn, students’ self-determined motivation has been found to be positively associated with different cognitive, affective, and behavioural outcomes. Conclusion: This study has found that generally, motivation could be enhanced by changes in the educational environment and by an early detection of students’ characteristics. Doing so may support future health practitioners’ self-determined motivation and positively influence how they process information and their emotions and how they approach their learning activities. PMID:27134006

  1. Yield and quality grade outcomes as affected by molecular breeding values for commercial beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Thompson, N M; DeVuyst, E A; Brorsen, B W; Lusk, J L

    2015-05-01

    Although genetic tests for many economically important beef cattle traits are commercially available, additional information is needed to help the industry better understand how the results from these tests translate into phenotypic outcomes. This information has important implications for marker-assisted management. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between molecular breeding values (MBV) characterizing yield grade and marbling and distributions of phenotypic outcomes for yield grade and quality grade. Using data collected from commercially-fed cattle, mixed-model regression equations were estimated for yield grade and quality grade outcomes for both the full sample of commercial cattle (n= 8,995) and a subsample of black-hided steers (n = 4,790). Significant yield grade (P < 0.01) and marbling (P < 0.01) MBV effects were found. However, the yield grade MBV held up better at predicting phenotypic outcomes than the marbling MBV. Estimated conditional probability mass functions of yield and quality grade outcomes for the general population and black-hided steers were similar. Since distributions for black-hided steers were expected to be more applicable from a management perspective, we focused our analysis on these animals. For example, black-hided steers with "low" genetic potential for yield grade and marbling had about a 29% chance of achieving the base price or better on a price grid (yield grade 3 or lower and quality grade Low Choice or better). Increasing genetic potential for marbling increased the likelihood of achieving this same outcome. However, increasing genetic potential for yield grade was unlikely to increase overall carcass quality given its large deleterious effect on quality grade outcomes. Instead, simultaneous improvements in genetic potential for yield grade and marbling offered much more reliable improvements in overall carcass quality. For example, an animal with "moderate" genetic potential for both yield

  2. Financing Education for Children Affected by Conflict: Lessons from Save the Children's Rewrite the Future Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Janice; Ndaruhutse, Susy

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, prioritized education for children affected by conflict through its Rewrite the Future Campaign. By significantly scaling up the resources allocated to programmes in conflict-affected countries, the organization has grown its education programmes in these contexts. Thus it has…

  3. Governing the Potentials of Life Itself? Interrogating the Promises in Affective Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunaes, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    This article critically explores how educational leadership is becoming increasingly affective in order to cultivate pupil potential and thereby meet the challenge of creating the best schools in the world. It critically analyses policy and handbook approaches to affective educational leadership technologies by showing the difficulty in keeping…

  4. Interprofessional education: a survey of students' collaborative competency outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Maureen J; Durham, Carol Fowler

    2013-12-01

    This study examines students' collaborative competencies after participating in an interprofessional education (IPE) course offered to undergraduates in nursing, medicine, and pharmacy. Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) was foundational to the course. The Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey was administered to 33 students who had successfully completed the interprofessional education course; 17 students completed the survey, for a response rate of 52%. The students' collaborative competencies in the core areas of communication, collaboration, roles and responsibilities, collaborative patient- and family-centered approach, conflict management and resolution, and team functioning significantly improved (n = 17, p < 0.001) after course completion, compared with their collaborative competencies before the course. The findings suggest that students' perceptions of their development of interprofessional and collaborative competencies significantly improved after course completion. This may influence their professional practice at the point of care and enhance patient safety. PMID:24256003

  5. Factors Affecting Teachers' Adoption of Educational Computer Games: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2010-01-01

    Even though computer games hold considerable potential for engaging and facilitating learning among today's children, the adoption of modern educational computer games is still meeting significant resistance in K-12 education. The purpose of this paper is to inform educators and instructional designers on factors affecting teachers' adoption of…

  6. Mixed tenure communities as a policy instrument for educational outcomes in a deprived urban context?

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Oonagh; Kearns, Ade; Gray, Linsay; Bond, Lyndal; Henderson, Marion

    2016-01-01

    This article considers mixed community strategies, enacted through planning and regeneration policies, as a policy approach to the improvement of educational outcomes in schools. Analysis is undertaken of educational outcomes across secondary schools in Glasgow. The level of owner occupation in the catchment is positively associated with both examination results at S4 and positive destinations post-school, particularly at the more deprived end of the school spectrum. The results suggest that tenure mix may be both directly and indirectly related to school performance, with neighbourhood context effects not being entirely mediated through the school context. PMID:27499807

  7. Attitudes Affecting Online Learning Implementation in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Betty; Geva-May, Iris

    2009-01-01

    This study explores attitudes towards and affecting online learning implementation (OLI). In recent years there has been greater acceptance of online learning (OL) by institutional decision-makers, as evidenced by higher levels of institutional involvement; nevertheless, the increase in faculty acceptance lags behind. This gap affects the…

  8. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  9. Neighborhoods and Youth: How Neighborhood Demographics and Social Processes Affect Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Researchers over the past two decades have increasingly recognized the importance of neighborhood contexts for youth development. For example, living in a disadvantaged neighborhood has been associated with a wide range of negative outcomes throughout the early years of the life course. However, neighborhoods likely have very different effects,…

  10. Behavior Therapy and the Transdermal Nicotine Patch: Effects on Cessation Outcome, Affect, and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Process and outcome of a smoking cessation program using behavior therapy along (BT) or behavior therapy plus the nicotine patch (BTP) was studied in 64 participants. Abstinence was significantly higher for the BTP group from the end of behavioral treatment (79% vs. 63%) through the three-month follow-up, with the effects weakening at the six- and…

  11. Do Neighbours Affect Teenage Outcomes? Evidence from Neighbourhood Changes in England. CEE DP 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo; Weinhardt, Felix

    2010-01-01

    There are large disparities between the achievements, behaviour and aspirations of children growing up in different neighbourhoods. This has contributed to the view that neighbourhoods can determine individuals' outcomes. Notably, in the long run these effects could lead to larger social inequality and reduce social mobility, which is why they…

  12. Does Surgical Management of the Hand in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Affect Functional Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Judith C.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Haga, Nienke; Verheij, Nienke P.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the literature on the effects of surgery of the spastic hand in children with cerebral palsy on functional outcome and muscle coordination. We performed a search of the relevant literature in Medline, Embase, and Biological Abstracts from 1966 to June 2006. The search resulted in eight studies on the effect of…

  13. Does Family Group Decision Making Affect Child Welfare Outcomes? Findings from a Randomized Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; Cohen, Ed; Thomas, Karen; Dawson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of two family group decision-making programs administered under the California Title IV-E Waiver Demonstration Project. This is the only evaluation using random assignment to examine FGDM. Overall, results did not indicate more positive outcomes for children receiving the intervention, but did indicate that…

  14. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  15. Can a future choice affect a past measurement’s outcome?

    SciTech Connect

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-15

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell’s theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement’s outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  16. Views from the Field: Conservation Educators' and Practitioners' Perceptions of Education as a Strategy for Achieving Conservation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Heimlich, Joe E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data from a mixed-methods study that collected data through surveys (n = 656), interviews (n = 15), and discussion groups (n = 75) to explore the use of social strategies such as education and outreach by non-governmental organizations and government agencies to reach outcomes related to biodiversity conservation and resource…

  17. The Educational Context and Outcomes for High School Students with Disabilities: The Perceptions of General Education Teachers. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgren, Janis A.; Lenz, B. Keith; McKnight, Melinda; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Marquis, Janet; Deshler, Donald D.; Schumaker, Jean B.

    The seventh in a series of studies investigating the educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities (SWDs), this study examined the high school context within which students with and without disabilities must succeed and the supports in place for assisting them. A questionnaire was administered to 70 high school…

  18. Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Higher Education: A Comparative Review of Selected Practices. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusche, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced increasing pressures to provide accountability data and consumer information on the quality of teaching and learning. Existing ratings and rankings of HEIs tend to neglect information on student learning outcomes. Instead, they focus on inputs, activities and research outputs, such as resources…

  19. Understanding Outcome-Based Education Changes in Teacher Education: Evaluation of a New Instrument with Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneen, Christopher; Brown, Gavin T. L.; Bond, Trevor G.; Shroff, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-based education (OBE) is a current initiative in Hong Kong universities, with widespread backing by governments and standards bodies. However, study of students' perceptions of OBE and validation of understanding these perceptions are lacking. This paper reports on the validation of an OBE-specific instrument and resulting preliminary…

  20. Multimodality and interactivity: connecting properties of serious games with educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ritterfeld, Ute; Shen, Cuihua; Wang, Hua; Nocera, Luciano; Wong, Wee Ling

    2009-12-01

    Serious games have become an important genre of digital media and are often acclaimed for their potential to enhance deeper learning because of their unique technological properties. Yet the discourse has largely remained at a conceptual level. For an empirical evaluation of educational games, extra effort is needed to separate intertwined and confounding factors in order to manipulate and thus attribute the outcome to one property independent of another. This study represents one of the first attempts to empirically test the educational impact of two important properties of serious games, multimodality and interactivity, through a partial 2 x 3 (interactive, noninteractive by high, moderate, low in multimodality) factorial between-participants follow-up experiment. Results indicate that both multimodality and interactivity contribute to educational outcomes individually. Implications for educational strategies and future research directions are discussed.

  1. The Educational Context and Outcomes for High School Students with Disabilities: General Education Classes and the Satisfaction of General Education Teachers. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean B.; Bulgren, Janis A.; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Marquis, Janet; Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    The fifth in a series of studies investigating the educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities, this study examined instruction provided in inclusive general education classes in three high schools in urban areas, three in suburban areas, and three in rural areas. Five ninth-grade classes, including biology,…

  2. Academic Outcome Measures of a Dedicated Education Unit Over Time: Help or Hinder?

    PubMed

    Smyer, Tish; Gatlin, Tricia; Tan, Rhigel; Tejada, Marianne; Feng, Du

    2015-01-01

    Critical thinking, nursing process, quality and safety measures, and standardized RN exit examination scores were compared between students (n = 144) placed in a dedicated education unit (DEU) and those in a traditional clinical model. Standardized test scores showed that differences between the clinical groups were not statistically significant. This study shows that the DEU model is 1 approach to clinical education that can enhance students' academic outcomes.

  3. Generalizability of Gottman and Colleagues' Affective Process Models Of Couples' Relationship Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Crosby, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The generalizability of the affective process models of J. M. Gottman et al. (1998) was examined using a community-based sample of 85 married or cohabiting couples with at-risk backgrounds. Predictive associations between affective processes assessed at about age 21 years and relationship status and satisfaction assessed approximately 2.5 years…

  4. Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Giladi, Nir; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Pezzoli, Gianni; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), patients were divided into: group 1—normal cognition (score 27–30), group 2—mild cognitive impairment (score 21–26), group 3—moderate or severe cognitive impairment (score ≤ 20). According to Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), subjects were divided into patients with normal (score ≥13.8) and pathological (score <13.8) executive functions. The outcome measures were: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Parkinson’s Disease Disability Scale (PDDS), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results: All scales had worse values with the increase of cognitive impairment and passing from normal to pathological executive functions. After rehabilitation, all the outcome measures improved in all groups (p < 0.0001). Between groups, the percentage of improvement was significantly different for total UPDRS (p = 0.0009, best improvement in normal MMSE group; p = 0.019, best improvement in normal FAB group), and BBS (p < 0.0001, all pairwise comparisons significant, best improvement in patients with worse MMSE score; p < 0.0001, best improvement in patients with pathological FAB). TUG (p = 0.006) and BBS (p < 0.0001) improved in patients with pathological FAB score, more than in those with normal FAB score. Conclusions: Patients gain benefit in the rehabilitative outcomes, regardless of cognition

  5. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, S H; Munafò, M R; Roiser, J P; Curran, H V

    2016-02-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾ 50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested.

  6. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, SH; Munafò, MR; Roiser, JP; Curran, HV

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested. PMID:26739345

  7. An Analysis of Factors That Affect the Educational Performance of Agricultural Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understanding of the direction and magnitude with which each of these factors impacts student success. Improved…

  8. Strategies for Developing the Affective Work Competencies of Marketing Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl C.

    Effective strategies for developing the affective work competencies of marketing education students include teaching procedures, acquisition of skills and materials for teaching in the affective domain, and implementation considerations. Affective concerns in marketing can be grouped into three broad types of performance categories--self-concept,…

  9. A Structure for the Affective Domain in Relation to Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Leopold E.

    A classification scheme for the affective domain in relation to science education is presented in this article to clarify student's affective behaviors and their representative phenomena. Discussion is made in connection with the content-objectives grid in the cognitive domain. An analogous grid for the affective domain is delineated by a…

  10. Cognitive and Affective Dimensions in Health Related Education. Proceedings of a Conference (Gainesville, Florida, January 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Margaret K., Ed.; And Others

    Ten papers dealing with various aspects of cognitive and affective dimensions of the allied health student are presented. They are: "A Review of Research on Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Education for the Health Related Professions" by Margaret K. Morgan, "Methodological Problems in the Study of Affective and Cognitive Characteristics of…

  11. Does alteration in biodiversity really affect disease outcome? - A debate is brewing.

    PubMed

    Zargar, U R; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, Fayaz; Rather, M I

    2015-01-01

    How changes in biodiversity alter the transmission of infectious diseases is presently under debate. Epidemiologists and ecologists have put a lot of effort to understand the mechanism behind biodiversity-disease relationship. Two important mechanisms, i.e. dilution and amplification theories have in some manner made it clear that biodiversity and disease outcome have an intimate relationship. The dilution effect theory seems to answer some overarching questions, but paucity of information about many disease systems is a real obstacle for its acceptance. Also, there is hardly any agreement on host population threshold and critical community size vis-à-vis wild life diseases. We suggest a multidimensional approach whereby the same disease system needs to be studied in different ecological zones and then the effect of biodiversity on disease outcome needs to be ascertained. Nonetheless, caution is to be taken while jumping to any conclusion as biodiversity-disease relationship is a multifactorial process.

  12. Standardized testing tools to support quality educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Beth L; Zangrilli, Belen F; Taboas, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Student success or failure in nursing education, and perhaps subsequent professional practice, can be difficult to predict and likely depends on complex relationships between several variables. Identifying and controlling for these variables is a continuing challenge for college faculty and administrators. Many colleges of nursing across the United States now use standardized, external assessment programs to help students prepare for professional licensure examinations (National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses [NCLEX-RN]), as one means of predicting academic success in a particular nursing program, and as a component of continuous quality improvement efforts within a school. This article reviews recent literature related to NCLEX-RN success and discusses several commercially available testing and remediation programs used today. In addition, the authors discuss the ways in which a testing program supports the college's mission and goals and efforts to continuously evaluate and improve the quality of the program.

  13. Method of induction could affect emotional outcomes: comment on markey, chin, vanepps, and loewenstein (2014 ).

    PubMed

    Bench, Shane W; Yaugher, Ashley C; Lench, Heather C

    2015-04-01

    Markey, Chin, Vanepps, and Loewenstein (2014) demonstrated six methods for the induction of boredom. However, a clear and testable definition of boredom should be established prior to experimental manipulation of the construct. Defining boredom from a functional emotion perspective is one approach that affords a definition separable from the outcomes associated with boredom and insight into which manipulations may effectively target the construct. PMID:25730196

  14. Geographic Distribution of Regional Metastatic Nodes Affects Outcome of Trimodality-Eligible Patients with Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Hironori; Slack, Rebecca; Sudo, Kazuki; Elimova, Elena; Wadhwa, Roopma; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Skinner, Heath D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Weston, Brian; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Blum, Mariela A.; Rogers, Jane E.; Maru, Dipen M.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malignant nodes in patients with localized esophageal adenocarcinoma (L-EAC) portend a poor prognosis. We assessed the distribution of nodes to correlate with outcome of patients undergoing chemoradiation/surgery (trimodality). Methods We studied 209 L-EAC patients who had confirmed or suspicious nodes at baseline staging. All patients had trimodality therapy. Patients were grouped by nodal geography: above the diaphragm (AD), below the diaphragm (BD), or above and below the diaphragm (ABD). Survival estimates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The outcomes in subgroups were assessed by the log-rank test. Results Patients were primarily Caucasians (91%), men (93%), and had baseline stage III L-EAC (89%). The median follow-up was 2.8 years (range, 0.4 to 11.7 years). Of the 209 patients, 35% (n=73) had nodes AD, 20% (n=41) had nodes BD, and 45% (n=95) had nodes ABD. ABD patients had the 5-year overall survival rate of 33% compared to AD patients (55%) and BD (60%; P=0.02). Patients with higher histology grade were also at higher risk of relapse and had poor survival (P<0.01 for both). Conclusions L-EAC patients in the ABD group had worst outcome after trimodality compared to those in the AD or BD group. Novel strategies are needed for ABD patients. PMID:25765098

  15. Effect of a Family Intervention on Psychological Outcomes of Children Affected by Parental HIV

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children’s self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families, consisting of 79 children, 88 PLH and 79 family members, were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children’s reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children’s outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children’s psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies. PMID:24643313

  16. Nonsurgical scar management of the face: does early versus late intervention affect outcome?

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2013-01-01

    Special emphasis is placed on the clinical management of facial scarring because of the profound physical and psychological impact of facial burns. Noninvasive methods of facial scar management include pressure therapy, silicone, massage, and facial exercises. Early implementation of these scar management techniques after a burn injury is typically accepted as standard burn rehabilitation practice, however, little data exist to support this practice. This study evaluated the timing of common noninvasive scar management interventions after facial skin grafting in children and the impact on outcome, as measured by scar assessment and need for facial reconstructive surgery. A retrospective review of 138 patients who underwent excision and grafting of the face and subsequent noninvasive scar management during a 10-year time frame was conducted. Regression analyses were used to show that earlier application of silicone was significantly related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale scores, specifically in the subscales of vascularity and pigmentation. Early use of pressure therapy and implementation of facial exercises were also related to lower Modified Vancouver Scar Scale vascularity scores. No relationship was found between timing of the interventions and facial reconstructive outcome. Early use of silicone, pressure therapy, and exercise may improve scar outcome and accelerate time to scar maturity. PMID:23816994

  17. Effect of a family intervention on psychological outcomes of children affected by parental HIV.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children's outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children's psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies. PMID:24643313

  18. Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect the outcome of arthroscopic Bankart repair?

    PubMed

    Blomquist, J; Solheim, E; Liavaag, S; Baste, V; Havelin, L I

    2014-12-01

    To achieve pain control after arthroscopic shoulder surgery, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a complement to other analgesics. However, experimental studies have raised concerns that these drugs may have a detrimental effect on soft tissue-to-bone healing and, thus, have a negative effect on the outcome. We wanted to investigate if there are any differences in the clinical outcome after the arthroscopic Bankart procedure for patients who received NSAIDs prescription compared with those who did not. 477 patients with a primary arthroscopic Bankart procedure were identified in the Norwegian shoulder instability register and included in the study. 32.5% received prescription of NSAIDs post-operatively. 370 (78%) of the patients answered a follow-up questionnaire containing the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI). Mean follow-up was 21 months. WOSI at follow-up were 75% in the NSAID group and 74% in the control group. 12% of the patients in the NSAID group and 14% in the control group reported recurrence of instability. The reoperation rate was 5% in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Prescription of short-term post-operative NSAID treatment in the post-operative period did not influence on the functional outcome after arthroscopic Bankart procedures. PMID:24750379

  19. Effect of a family intervention on psychological outcomes of children affected by parental HIV.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children's outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children's psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies.

  20. Outcome based education enacted: teachers' tensions in balancing between student learning and bureaucracy.

    PubMed

    Barman, Linda; Silén, Charlotte; Bolander Laksov, Klara

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on how teachers within health sciences education translate outcome-based education (OBE) into practice when they design courses. The study is an empirical contribution to the debate about outcome- and competency-based approaches in health sciences education. A qualitative method was used to study how teachers from 14 different study programmes designed courses before and after OBE was implemented. Using an interpretative approach, analysis of documents and interviews was carried out. The findings show that teachers enacted OBE either to design for more competency-oriented teaching-learning, or to further detail knowledge and thus move towards reductionism. Teachers mainly understood the outcome-based framework as useful to support students' learning, although the demand for accountability created tension and became a bureaucratic hindrance to design for development of professional competence. The paper shows variations of how teachers enacted the same outcome-based framework for instructional design. These differences can add a richer understanding of how outcome- or competency-based approaches relate to teaching-learning at a course level.

  1. Mindfulness-Based Interventions and the Affective Domain of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Thanks largely to the work of Kabat-Zinn and associates applications of mindfulness-based practices have grown exponentially over the last decade or so, particularly in the fields of education, psychology, psychotherapy and mind-body health. Having its origins in Buddhist traditions, the more recent secular and therapeutic applications of the…

  2. Campus Attacks: Targeted Violence Affecting Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Diana A.; Modzeleski, William; Simons, Andre B.

    2010-01-01

    On the third anniversary of the tragic shooting at Virginia Tech, the U.S. Secret Service, the U.S. Department of Education and the Federal Bureau of Investigation released this study of targeted violence incidents on U.S. campuses of higher learning. The three entities wanted to know how the prevalence of the incidents of targeted violence affect…

  3. Researching Emotion and Affect in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobe, Noah W.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory paper was prepared for a symposium held at the 2011 ISCHE conference in which participants were asked to envision future challenges in the historiography of education, to predict where the field was moving, and to imagine what innovations and new interests would arise in the subsequent 30 years. While the paper is playfully…

  4. Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

  5. Do Prepaid Tuition Plans Affect State Support for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Katherine E.

    2006-01-01

    Subsidies to higher education in the United States have long been guided by the belief that policy should encourage college attendance. In principle, if not always in practice, policy has for some time sought to accomplish this by addressing college affordability. General subsidies that keep tuition at public institutions low are coupled with…

  6. How Values in Education Affect Children's Environmental Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraza, Laura; Cuaron, Alfredo D.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we analysed the familiarity and understanding of 10 environmental concepts amongst Mexican and English school children (aged 7 to 9). The investigation considered the impact of the educational system and the school ethos on the formation of environmental concepts. Results reveal that in general, children of this age have a low to…

  7. The Educational Context and Outcomes for High-School Students with Disabilities: The Perceptions of Administrators. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Adams, Gary; Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Bulgren, Janis A.; Marquis, Janet; Lenz, B. Keith

    The sixth in a series of studies investigating the educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities (SWDs), this study compared views of general education and special education administrators on the educational programs for SWDs and other at-risk students. Administrators in three high schools in urban areas, three in…

  8. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  9. Students' Motivational Profiles and Achievement Outcomes in Physical Education: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boiche, Julie C. S.; Sarrazin, Philippe G.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Chanal, Julien P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in education have inspected the relations between students' autonomous versus controlled motivation and relevant outcomes. In most of those studies a global index of self-determined motivation was created. The purpose of this article was to examine (a) how the different types of motivation proposed by Self-Determination Theory…

  10. A Millennium Learning Goal for Education Post-2015: A Question of Outcomes or Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Angeline M.

    2011-01-01

    As the target year for the current Millennium Development Goal of universal completion of primary education approaches, three World Bank economists have proposed its replacement with a Millennium Learning Goal. This is part of a trend of increased privileging of learning outcomes. The proposal is assessed from the perspective of human rights-based…

  11. Young Adult Educational and Vocational Outcomes of Children Diagnosed with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyan, Aparajita B.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Babinski, Dara E.; Walther, Christine; Cheong, JeeWon; Yu, Jihnhee; Kent, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased success at work and educational attainment by adulthood are of concern for children with ADHD given their widely documented academic difficulties; however there are few studies that have examined this empirically and even fewer that have studied predictors and individual variability of these outcomes. The current study compares young…

  12. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  13. Quality of Education Outcomes: The Role of the Graduate Management Admission Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Buyinza, Mukadasi

    2013-01-01

    Although the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is considered by leading business institutions worldwide as a predictor of success in graduate programs, an issue of contention is whether the introduction of the examination enhances the quality of education outcomes. This study sought to obtain an understanding of this issue, focusing on…

  14. Teacher Education and PK Outcomes: Are We Asking the Right Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogard, Kimber; Traylor, Fasaha; Takanishi, Ruby

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies do not find consistent relationships between teacher degree, major, and certification, and PK outcomes (Early, D. M., Bryant, D. M., Pianta, R. C., Clifford, R. M., Burchinal, M. R., Ritchie, S., et al. (2006). Are teachers' education, major, and credentials related to classroom quality and children's academic gains in…

  15. A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Students' Learning Outcomes during a Cooperative Education Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Katherine T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the learning outcomes of the cooperative-education experience from an Information Technology student's perspective at a large Fortune 500 manufacturing/sales company located in the Midwest United States. Open-ended interview questions were developed based on the four-component model…

  16. Examining Student Spiritual Outcomes as a Result of a General Education Religion Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Plummer, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which part-time faculty are becoming a higher proportion of the teaching faculty on most campuses, this study addressed the question of whether student learning outcomes in religious education courses are significantly influenced by whether the instructor teaches in a full- or part-time capacity in the Department of Religion. We…

  17. The Relationship between ISO 9000 Participation and Educational Outcomes of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The study seeks to examine the relationship between the implementation of the ISO 9000 quality management system and educational outcomes of schools, measured by student achievement on the state-mandated tests and school attendance rates--graduation rates, in the case of high schools. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted…

  18. Children with Cochlear Implants in Australia: Educational Settings, Supports, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punch, Renee; Hyde, Merv

    2010-01-01

    This Australian study examined the communication, academic, and social outcomes of pediatric cochlear implantation from the perspectives of teachers working with children with cochlear implants. The children were aged from 1 to 18 years and attended a range of educational settings in early intervention, primary, and secondary schooling. One…

  19. The Effects of Two Teaching Styles on College Students' Achievement of Selected Physical Education Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the influence of two teaching styles and class composition on college students' achievement of physical education outcomes. No significant differences were uncovered between teaching style and class composition on the motor task. Significant differences were revealed on the written test. (SM)

  20. Using Social Media Applications for Educational Outcomes in College Teaching: A Structural Equation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yingxia; Ajjan, Haya; Hong, Paul

    2013-01-01

    As more and more faculty members jump on the wagon of social media, an increasing number of publications began to investigate the adoption of social media applications and its motivators in and out of the classrooms. However, little research has paid close attention to the educational outcomes of social media utilization in college teaching. Thus,…

  1. Exploring the Link among Behavior Intervention Plans, Treatment Integrity, and Student Outcomes under Natural Educational Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Mayer, G. Roy; Wright, Diana Browning; Kraemer, Bonnie; Wallace, Michele D.; Dart, Evan; Collins, Tai; Restori, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Several researchers have argued that the functional behavior assessment (FBA) and behavior intervention plan (BIP) mandates in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act of 2004 have gone beyond the current research base. For instance, although BIPs have been shown to improve student outcomes when implemented with strict control and oversight…

  2. Racial Segregation and Educational Outcomes in Metropolitan Boston. Metro Boston Equity Initiative. Issue Summary No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chungmei

    2004-01-01

    This report takes a look at the issues concerning racial segregation and educational outcomes in Metropolitan Boston. Despite the fact that metro Boston is overwhelmingly white, its public schools are highly segregated by race and language. Segregated minority schools in metro Boston are profoundly unequal, with high poverty levels, with lower…

  3. Trading Places: The Impact and Outcomes of Market Reform in Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Damon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate, from a national perspective, the impact and outcomes of market reform in vocational education and training (VET), particularly the introduction of competitive tendering and "user choice". It does so by examining the structure, composition and dynamics of contestable or "quasi-markets" for VET, assessing…

  4. Self-Managed Learning Groups in Higher Education: Students' Perceptions of Process and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizzio, Alf; Wilson, Keithia

    2005-01-01

    Background: Self-managed learning groups are increasingly used in higher education. There is a need for more systematic investigation of university students' perceptions of the processes and outcomes of this learning method. Aims: This study aimed to identify the domains of process issues that students perceive as relevant to their participation…

  5. Evaluating Engagement with Graduate Outcomes across Higher Education Institutions in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spronken-Smith, R.; Bond, C.; McLean, A.; Frielick, S.; Smith, N.; Jenkins, M.; Marshall, S.

    2015-01-01

    Our research addressed two aims: to develop a systematic way to evaluate institutional engagement with graduate outcomes and to explore such engagement in higher education institutions in Aotearoa/New Zealand. An online survey was completed by 14/29 institutions with nine follow-up interviews to gather information on institutional engagement with…

  6. Does Prison-Based Adult Basic Education Improve Postrelease Outcomes for Male Prisoners in Florida?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Rosa Minhyo; Tyler, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The authors use administrative data from Florida to determine the extent to which prison-based adult basic education (ABE) improves inmate's postrelease labor market outcomes, such as earnings and employment. Using two nonexperimental comparison groups, the authors find evidence that ABE participation is associated with higher postrelease…

  7. Quality Indicators for Competitive Employment Outcomes: What Special Education Teachers Need to Know in Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, Valerie Ann; Revell, Grant; Wehman, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The quality of job outcomes achieved by youth with disabilities who are transitioning into employment varies widely across the country. Special education teachers, youth with disabilities, families, community rehabilitation program (CRP) staff providing employment services, and others involved in assisting transitioning youth can benefit from a…

  8. Assessing Educational Outcomes: Are We Doing Good, Can We Do Better? IHE Newsletter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    The United States is not doing as well as it could in assessing educational outcomes in the 1980s. The assessment movement of the 1980s indicates that its institutional memory is poor, and when coping with outside pressures, it is slow to recall how it coped the last time it was under pressure. It is important to remember such events and pressures…

  9. Socioeconomic Background, Education, and Labor Force Outcomes: Evidence from a Regional US Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Cortina, Kai S.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term association of family socioeconomic status (SES), educational, and labor force outcomes in a regional US longitudinal sample (N = 2264). The results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the role of family SES in transitions from secondary schooling to early work experiences. It was found that the academic…

  10. Assessing the Quality of the Learning Outcome in Vocational Education: The Expero Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervai, Sara; Cian, Luca; Berlanga, Alicia; Borelli, Massimo; Kekale, Tauno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an innovative model to evaluate the quality of the learning outcome in vocational education and training (VET) considering a wide approach that includes, in particular, stakeholders' expectations and perceptions. Design/methodology/approach: The Expero model was implemented in various kinds of vocational schools…

  11. Defining the Community-Based Education Alliance: Outcomes, Values, Purposes, and Operating Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fina, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the stakeholder values, desired student outcomes, organizational purposes, and operating model of the Community-based Education Alliance (CBEA), a transition program operated by a partnership between the Center for Disabilities Studies of the University of Delaware, and two school districts in New Castle County, Delaware. The…

  12. Professional Development through Self-Directed Expatriation: Intentions and Outcomes for Young, Educated Eastern Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felker, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of young, well-educated Eastern Europeans who have moved to Western Europe in search of opportunities for professional development, opportunities that, for the most part, are not available in their home countries. The focus of this paper is on the resulting outcome of downskilling, where these individuals work…

  13. Students' Learning Outcomes and Learning Experiences through Playing a Serious Educational Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Annetta, Len

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine students' learning outcomes and their learning experiences through playing a Serious Educational Game. A mixed-method research design was employed collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 98 middle-school students ranging from sixth to eighth grades participated through paper-and-pencil…

  14. Uncovering Learning Outcomes: Explicating Obscurity in Learning of Aesthetics in Design and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, Grietjie; Blignaut, Seugnet

    2008-01-01

    Education and training interventions can be evaluated through the success of learning outcomes. Kirkpatrick's four-level model is a widely accepted and highly popular evaluation tool. However, some criticise the model's shortcomings. This article will examine the extent to which the four-level model can evaluate design and technology students'…

  15. Career Education: Some Essential Learner Outcomes. Senior High Grades 10, 11, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, W. Wesley; And Others

    This guide, one of a series for various grade levels, contains Some Essential Learner Ouctomes (SELOs) for career education in high schools in Minnesota. (The SELOs are selected samples of knowledge statements considered as essential learning outcomes for students in each of the subject areas taught in schools.) These SELOs for the senior high…

  16. Reading and Language Outcomes of a Multiyear Randomized Evaluation of Transitional Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy; Calderon, Margarita; Chamberlain, Anne; Hennessy, Megan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a multiyear study comparing the English and Spanish language and reading performance of Spanish-dominant children randomly assigned, beginning in kindergarten, to transitional bilingual education (TBE) or structured English immersion (SEI) for periods of up to 5 years. On the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and…

  17. ICT Expenditures and Education Outputs/Outcomes in Selected Developed Countries: An Assessment of Relative Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristovnik, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to review some previous researches examining ICT efficiency and the impact of ICT on educational output/outcome as well as different conceptual and methodological issues related to performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach: This paper adopts a non-parametric methodology, i.e. data envelopment analysis…

  18. Inquiry-Based Science Education as Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Chapman, Angela; Vernaza-Hernandez, Vanessa; Ozalp, Dilek; Alshehri, Fayez

    2012-01-01

    The article provides the basis for a model of inquiry-based science education in which K-12 teachers' and pupils' engage in authentic science experiences as participants of a scientific research project, which we refer to as Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL). We provide the basis for the model for inquiry based…

  19. The Role of Teachers' Support in Predicting Students' Motivation and Achievement Outcomes in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Solmon, Melinda A.; Gu, Xiangli

    2012-01-01

    Examining how teachers' beliefs and behaviors predict students' motivation and achievement outcomes in physical education is an area of increasing research interest. Guided by the expectancy-value model and self-determination theory, the major purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of teachers' autonomy, competence, and…

  20. Mid-Career Outcomes of Graduates of Virginia Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) has produced new reporting tools of graduate wage outcomes out to twenty years post completion. These reports are available at the statewide level by program discipline (two-digit level of the Classification of Instructional Programs). It was found that reported wages increase by level of…