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Sample records for affect egg viability

  1. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest. PMID:27419079

  2. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  3. Seasonal factors affecting egg production and viability of eggs of Acartia tonsa Dana from East Lagoon, Galveston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambler, Julie Weills

    1985-06-01

    Egg production and hatching success were determined between March 1981 and March 1982 for the copepod Acartia tonsa Dana from East Lagoon, Galveston, Texas. During three-day experiments in the laboratory, field collected females were fed diets of (1) natural particles collected over the water column, (2) some modification of this and (3) the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. The latter served to isolate the effects of temperature and salinity from the effects of the natural particle diets on egg production. Specific rates of egg production, i.e. μg egg biomass/μg body biomass/time, were consistently higher per unit carbon than nitrogen. The influence of seasonal factors on egg production was compared. Salinity was inversely correlated with egg production, but had less effect than temperature. Positive correlations with temperature were always higher for specific rates per unit nitrogen than carbon. At 15°C, females produced ˜0·25 of their body carbon (or nitrogen) as eggs per day, whereas at 28°C, they produced at least their own biomass as eggs per day (up to 1·80). These high rates of A. tonsa were probably due to its reproductive biology and adaptation to the subtropical habitat as well as the high temperatures and food concentrations. The correlation between specific egg production rate and temperature was less with the natural particle diets than with the unialgal diet. This indicated that the quantity or quality of natural particle assemblages in East Lagoon influenced egg production. Egg viability was highest in the spring, but was not related to diet or the percentage of females with spermatophores.

  4. The metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline affects Schistosoma mansoni motor activity, egg laying and viability.

    PubMed

    Day, T A; Chen, G Z

    1998-04-01

    The Zn(2+)-chelating metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline, 5-150 microM) elicited dose-dependent contraction of the longitudinal and circular (transverse) musculature of adult male schistosomes. At the same concentrations, phenanthroline did not cause contraction of dispersed individual muscle fibres. The phenanthroline-induced contractions were reduced by the inclusion of 100 or 300 microM Zn2+ in the extracellular medium. Phenanthroline (0.5-150 microM) also inhibited the egg production of adult worm pairs in vitro, with a 98% reduction at 50 microM. When worm pairs were exposed to phenanthroline, the males detached from the dish and released the females, resulting in unpaired worms. At the higher concentrations (50 and 150 microM), the worms were killed in vitro. Worm burdens were reduced by over 50% in infected mice injected with phenanthroline (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days), but twice the dose resulted in only a 25% reduction. Phenanthroline injections also induced an hepatic shift and an unpairing of adult worms in infected mice, and the female worms appeared degenerate and lacked gut pigmentation. Mice fed a diet containing 0.3% phenanthroline received significant protection from infection when challenged with schistosome cercaria, where phenanthroline-fed mice had 94% fewer adult worms than control mice. The broad range of phenanthroline effects on schistosomes suggests broad and important functions for metalloproteases in these worms. PMID:9585934

  5. Experiments with the Viability of Chicken Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garigliano, Leonard J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the results of an experiment designed to test two hypotheses: (1) a delay of two weeks at room temperature will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs and (2) refrigeration will have no effect on the viability of fertile chicken eggs. Experimenters were the author and two ninth-grade students. (PEB)

  6. Influence of food quality on egg production and viability of the marine planktonic copepod Acartia omorii [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jang, Min-Chul; Jang, Pung-Kuk; Ju, Se-Jong; Lee, Tea-Kyun; Chang, Man

    2003-06-01

    Egg production, egg viability and fecal pellet production were determined for individual Acartia omorii, which were fed diets of two species of diatoms ( Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and three species of dinoflagellates ( Scrippsiella trochoidea, Heterocapsa triquetra and Cochlodinium polykrikoides). Diets were analyzed for fatty acid content as an indicator of food quality. Depending on the diet, egg production of A. omorii varied over time, diminishing with some diets ( S. trochoidea, C. polykrikoides, P. tricornutum). This rate of reduction was much more rapid for a diet of C. polykrikoides, which caused egg production to decrease to ca. 2.4 eggs f -1 d -1 in only four days. As for all diets, egg viability was high at the beginning but with the C. polykrikoides and P. tricornutum diets, it rapidly decreased with time. Fecal pellet production also varied with time, depending on the diet. Egg production rate was closely correlated with fecal pellet production. There was no direct relationship between egg viability and egg production rate, but both egg production and viability were affected by the nutritional quality of food. Egg viability was also highly dependent on the composition of fatty acids in the eggs. Egg viability showed positive correlation with the ratio of ω3:ω6 groups among egg fatty acids, and negative correlation with the ratio of 20:5 ( n-3) : 22:6 ( n-3). While comparing several diets, egg production rate was higher on diets ( H. triquetra and S. trochoidea) containing ample amounts of essential fatty acids such as 18:4 ( n-3) and 22:6 ( n-3). The results suggest that fertility of A. omorii was dependent upon the quality of the food, and dinoflagellate diets, with the exception of C. polykrikoides, were preferable to diatom diets.

  7. Nutrient and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in American alligator eggs and their associations with clutch viability.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Wiebe, Jon J; Wiebe, Janet E; Honeyfield, Dale C; Gross, Timothy S

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1900s, the lakes of the Ocklawaha basin in central Florida have experienced ecological degradation due to anthropogenic development. One species affected by this degradation is the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis, which has suffered from poor clutch viability and embryo mortality. Although some studies indicate that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) may be involved, OCPs do not account for all of the variation seen in hatch rates. Indeed, nutrition and non-OCP contaminants have been associated with developmental problems in fish and birds. Our study evaluated embryo mortality in alligators at reference and OCP-contaminated sites as a function of exposure to OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with egg nutrients (Zn, Se, and vitamins A, E, and B1). The four-pronged study consisted of a case-control cohort study, an expanded field study, a topical egg treatment thiamine amelioration experiment, and a topical egg treatment thiamine antagonist experiment. The results from the two field studies suggested that the total thiamine levels in the eggs were positively associated with clutch viability and negatively associated with the lipid content and certain OCPs measured in egg yolks. In addition, PCBs, PAHs, Zn, Se, and vitamins A and E were not found to be associated with the observed clutch viability defects. The thiamine levels in the eggs explained 38% of the variation in clutch survival in the case-control cohort study and 27% in the expanded field study. The topical egg treatment experiments were successful in elevating the thiamine concentrations in the albumin but not the yolk. No significant differences were noted among treatment groups in either egg treatment experiment with respect to clutch survival. In summary, thiamine egg concentrations explain some of the variation in the clutch viability of free-ranging alligators, but the cause-effect relationships are still unclear. PMID

  8. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; P<0.001) and the calculated time to cero viability is 36 days. The eggs in the intestinal system of each beetle were counted and tested for viability. Taenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  9. Egg viability and worker policing in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Pirk, Christian W W; Neumann, Peter; Hepburn, Randall; Moritz, Robin F A; Tautz, Jürgen

    2004-06-01

    In many species of social Hymenoptera, unmated workers can lay eggs that will produce males by parthenogenesis. Nevertheless, in queenright honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera), worker reproduction is low. One possible mechanism for this difference is worker policing, the removal of worker-laid eggs by other workers. This behavior can evolve in species in which queens are multiply mated, where workers are more closely related to the sons of their mother than those of their sisters. Another possible mechanism of the low level of worker reproduction is worker-laid eggs being less viable than queen-laid eggs. We show that this difference in quality is the case for honey bees.

  10. Fatty acid composition of eggs and its relationships to egg and larval viability from domesticated common sole (Solea solea) breeders.

    PubMed

    Parma, L; Bonaldo, A; Pirini, M; Viroli, C; Parmeggiani, A; Bonvini, E; Gatta, P P

    2015-04-01

    The study of lipids and fatty acids (FAs) has been used in the assessment of egg quality because their composition can influence the fertilization rate, hatching, survival and growth of marine fish larvae. For these reasons, the lipid content (TL) and fatty acid composition of common sole (Solea solea) eggs were measured and correlated to egg and larval viability parameters throughout an entire reproductive season. Seventeen batches of fertile eggs obtained from natural spawning of captive breeders were characterized for the TL, FA profile, hatching rate (HR) and survival rate of larvae (SR) at 0-6 days post-hatching (dph). The egg FA composition reflected the composition of the feed supplied to the broodstock during summer and autumn (before and during vitellogenesis) rather than that supplied during the spawning season. In general, the egg FA profile showed minimal differences among the early-, mid- and late-spawning periods (possibly due to the change of the diet and/or water temperature) indicating that it is possible to obtain a similar egg quality in terms of egg FA profile over 2 months of spawning. Saturated FAs and monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) were positively correlated with HR, while TL, 22 : 6n-3 (DHA), 20 : 4n-6 (ARA), polyunsaturated FAs of the (n-3) series (n-3 PUFA) and polyunsaturated FAs of the (n-6) series were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). MUFA, 20 : 5n-3 (EPA), n-6/n-3 were positively correlated with SR, while DHA, n-3 PUFA, DHA/EPA were negatively correlated (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the feed supplied before and during vitellogenesis has a major role in determining the egg FA profile in common sole. The relationships found between TL and FAs with egg and larval viability parameters differ from many other farmed marine fish species, which may suggest the need for a specific broodstock feed for this species.

  11. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  12. Egg Viability, Mating Frequency and Male Mating Ability Evolve in Populations of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Resistance to Cold Shock

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karan; Kochar, Ekta; Prasad, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ability to resist temperature shock is an important component of fitness of insects and other ectotherms. Increased resistance to temperature shock is known to affect life-history traits. Temperature shock is also known to affect reproductive traits such as mating ability and viability of gametes. Therefore selection for increased temperature shock resistance can affect the evolution of reproductive traits. Methods We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for resistance to cold shock. We then investigated the evolution of reproductive behavior along with other components of fitness- larval survivorship, adult mortality, fecundity, egg viability in these populations. Results We found that larval survivorship, adult mortality and fecundity post cold shock were not significantly different between selected and control populations. However, compared to the control populations, the selected populations laid significantly higher percentage of fertile eggs (egg viability) 24 hours post cold shock. The selected populations had higher mating frequency both with and without cold shock. After being subjected to cold shock, males from the selected populations successfully mated with significantly more non-virgin females and sired significantly more progeny compared to control males. Conclusions A number of studies have reported the evolution of survivorship in response to selection for temperature shock resistance. Our results clearly indicate that adaptation to cold shock can involve changes in components of reproductive fitness. Our results have important implications for our understanding of how reproductive behavior can evolve in response to thermal stress. PMID:26065704

  13. Effect of heat treatment on viability of Taenia hydatigena eggs.

    PubMed

    Buttar, Birpal S; Nelson, Mark L; Busboom, Jan R; Hancock, Dale D; Walsh, Douglas B; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2013-04-01

    Effects of heat treatments on activation and infectivity of Taenia hydatigena eggs were assessed. Eggs containing oncospheres were used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine the response to 5min of heat treatment, ranging from room temperature (22°C) to 60°C. The study demonstrated 99.47% and 100% reduction in oncosphere activation or infectivity after 5min of heat treatment at 60°C and 57.38°C under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. Similar results between the two approaches indicted the appropriateness of the in vitro methods to identify oncosphericidal treatments of practical significance. Similar heat treatments may also be effective against Taenia saginata and help to reduce occurrence of beef cysticercosis.

  14. In vivo viability of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs in a rodent model after different thermo-treatments.

    PubMed

    Federer, Karin; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Hoby, Stefan; Wenker, Christian; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a serious and emerging zoonotic disease in many parts of the northern hemisphere. Humans but also primates and other accidental hosts can acquire the infection by the ingestion of eggs excreted by the carnivore definitive hosts, e.g. after hand contact with egg-contaminated environments or by consumption of contaminated food or beverages. The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive in vivo method to determine the viability of E. multilocularis eggs and to establish suitable conditions (optimal temperature, exposure time and humidity) for their (prophylactic) inactivation. The sensitivity of a rodent model was evaluated and, conclusively, C57Bl/6 mice were most susceptible to subcutaneous inoculation of small numbers of sodium hypochlorite-resistant oncospheres, even more than to oral inoculation of mature eggs. In the second part of the study, various combinations of exposure temperature (between 45 °C and 80 °C), times (between 30 min and 180 min) and relative humidity (70% vs. suspended in water) were tested. After heat treatment in an incubator, the sodium hypochlorite resistance test was used to assess in vitro egg viability at the time of inoculation. Subsequently, the infectivity of the oncospheres was evaluated by subcutaneous inoculation in mice. Eggs exposed to increasing temperatures were more resistant to heat if suspended in water as compared to eggs exposed on a filter paper at 70% relative humidity. As survival of eggs in water droplets on the vegetables cannot be excluded, further experiments were performed with eggs suspended in water only. Eggs were infectious after heat exposure at 65 °C for up to 120 min, however, no echinococcosis developed after treatment of the eggs at 65 °C for 180 min or at 70, 75 and 80 °C for 7.5, 15 or 30 min.

  15. Effect of storage temperature and duration on viability of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M K; Sharma, H C

    2007-02-01

    The ability to store different insect stadia for prolonged periods provides considerable flexibility and ability to conduct experiments properly. Therefore, studies were undertaken to determine the effect of storage temperature and duration on viability of eggs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). The percentage egg hatch and incubation period were significantly (P=0.01) influenced by egg age, storage temperature, and storage duration. Egg hatch ranged from 0.0 to 96.8% across temperatures and storage durations. None of the eggs hatched when stored at -20 and 0 degrees C. The regression model with the optimum Mallow Cp statistic for any of the identified linear and quadratic terms did not improve the precision of prediction in egg hatch beyond 67.0%. Forecasting of incubation period based on egg age, storage duration, and durationxtemperature was quite effective (R2=84.2%). Day degrees required for egg hatching decreased with an increase in temperature from 10 to 27 degrees C, and egg age from 0 to 3 days. The day degree requirements were highest for 0-day-old eggs at 10 degrees C, and lowest at 27 degrees C. Although the incubation period was higher, the hatchability was lower for 0- and 1-day-old eggs stored at constant 10 degrees C, these eggs can be stored for 10 days at 10 degrees C, with a hatchability of >75.0%. It was safer to store the H. armigera eggs for 10 days at 10 degrees C, which will hatch within 1.6 to 2.0 days after restoration at 27 degrees C with a hatchability of >75.0%. This information will be useful in planning and execution of experiments involving H. armigera on various aspects of research in entomology. PMID:17298682

  16. In vitro viability test for the eggs of Echinococcus granulosus: a rapid method.

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan

    2012-02-01

    In this study an attempt was made to develop an efficient, rapid, simple, and reproducible method for the in vitro viability test of Echinococcus granulosus eggs. The eggs were obtained from an experimentally infected dog and kept at 4°C until use. To prepare the dead or damaged eggs, the eggs were heated in hot water (69-72°C for 10 min), preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol (16 days) or exposed to direct sunlight (18 h). Sodium hypochlorite (0.5-0.7%) was used for the hatching process, and the hatched oncospheres were stained with 0.1% eosin for the viability test. With 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, the hatching rates for viable eggs and eggs killed or damaged by heat (69°C), 70% ethyl alcohol, and direct sunlight were 96%, 97.5%, 91.5%, and 94.6% respectively and there was no significant difference between the hatching rate for viable and dead or damaged eggs (p > 0.05). After staining with 0.1% eosin, the rates of the viable oncospheres hatched from viable eggs and the eggs killed or damaged by heat (69°C), 70% ethyl alcohol, and direct sunlight were 97.5% 3.6%, 7%, and 10.5%, respectively. The difference between the rates of viable oncospheres hatched from viable and dead or damaged eggs was extremely significant (P < 0.0001). With 0.7% sodium hypochlorite, the hatching rates for viable and dead eggs (killed by 72°C for 10 min) were 99.1% and 99.9%, respectively. In this condition, the rate of viable oncospheres was an average of 98.5% for viable eggs and 0.0% for dead ones. The results of this study showed that hatching of eggs by 0.7% sodium hypochlorite and staining of hatched oncospheres by 0.1% eosin are practical methods for the differentiation of viable and nonviable (dead) eggs of Echinococcus granulosus.

  17. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.

  18. The Effect of Salinity on Egg Development and Viability of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea).

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Natalie E; Barber, Iain

    2016-02-01

    Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids commonly infect three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in brackish and freshwaters, but infections are typically absent from marine populations. Here we provide an experimental test of the salinity tolerance of S. solidus eggs, to determine the role of salinity in limiting the distribution of infection in coastal zones. We find that S. solidus eggs, derived from the in vitro culture of 3 different plerocercoids, developed normally in salinities of up to 12.5‰, but above this egg viability dropped rapidly, and no egg hatching was observed at salinities above 20‰. Our results are consistent with the distribution of infections in natural stickleback populations and add resolution to previous descriptive observations on salinity tolerance in S. solidus. They also demonstrate that S. solidus presents a novel disease challenge to marine populations of three-spined sticklebacks entering brackish and freshwater environments.

  19. The Effect of Salinity on Egg Development and Viability of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea).

    PubMed

    Simmonds, Natalie E; Barber, Iain

    2016-02-01

    Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids commonly infect three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in brackish and freshwaters, but infections are typically absent from marine populations. Here we provide an experimental test of the salinity tolerance of S. solidus eggs, to determine the role of salinity in limiting the distribution of infection in coastal zones. We find that S. solidus eggs, derived from the in vitro culture of 3 different plerocercoids, developed normally in salinities of up to 12.5‰, but above this egg viability dropped rapidly, and no egg hatching was observed at salinities above 20‰. Our results are consistent with the distribution of infections in natural stickleback populations and add resolution to previous descriptive observations on salinity tolerance in S. solidus. They also demonstrate that S. solidus presents a novel disease challenge to marine populations of three-spined sticklebacks entering brackish and freshwater environments. PMID:26418088

  20. Assessment of viability of the nematode eggs (Ascaris, Toxocara, Trichuris) in sewage sludge with the use of LIVE/DEAD Bacterial Viability Kit.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Cencek, Tomasz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludges from wastewater treatment plants may contain live parasite eggs, which can be a source of humans and animals infection. According to the current rules, parasitological examination includes detection of the Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp. and Toxocara spp. eggs and estimation of their viability. The viability assessment based only on the incubation and observation of isolated egg is long and imprecise. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and less labour-intensive methods for assessing viability of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. eggs in sewage sludge. For this purpose, LIVE/DEAD Kit was used. Firstly, the possibility of distinguishing between live and dead eggs in water was assessed. Secondly, an appropriate amount of dyeing mixture needed to distinguish the live and dead eggs in the sewage sludge was determined using experimentally enriched samples and naturally contaminated samples of sludge. Eggs were isolated from the samples by own method which was a combination of flotation and sedimentation, preceded by a long mixing. After the last stage of the procedure, sediment containing the eggs of parasites was stained by LIVE/DEAD kit according to the manufacturer instructions, but with the use of different variants of dyes mixture concentration. The investigation showed that live and dead eggs of these three parasites could be differed by this method with the use of proper concentration of dyes. Live eggs were stained in green (Ascaris and Trichuris) and green-blue (Toxocara). However, all types of dead eggs were red coloured. The study demonstrated that after some modifications (resulted from the nature of the samples) the LIVE/DEAD kit is useful for assessing the viability of Toxocara, Ascaris and Trichuris eggs occurring in the sludge. PMID:24742037

  1. Viability of Rhodococcus equi and Parascaris equorum eggs exposed to high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Laurent; Cauchard, Julien; Doligez, Pauline; Quitard, Lola; Laugier, Claire; Petry, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    There is great concern about the potential pathogen contamination of horse manure compost spread in the same fields horses graze in. To ensure that pathogen destruction occurs, temperatures need to be sufficiently high during composting. Here, we investigated the survival rate of two marker organisms, Rhodococcus equi and Parascaris equorum eggs, exposed to temperatures potentially encountered during horse manure composting. Our results show that the time required to achieve a 1 log10 reduction in R. equi population (D-value) are 17.1 h (+/-1.47) at 45 degrees C, 8.6 h (+/-0.28) at 50 degrees C, 2.9 h (+/-0.04) at 55 degrees C and 0.7 h (+/-0.04) at 60 degrees C. For P. equorum eggs we show that at 45 and 50 degrees C, 2 log10 reduction of viability is reached between 8 and 24 h of incubation and that it takes less than 2 h at 55 and 60 degrees C to achieve a viability reduction of 2 log10. These results are useful for identifying composting conditions that will reduce the risk of environmental contamination by R. equi and P. equorum eggs.

  2. Standardisation of egg-viability assays for Fasciola hepatica and Calicophoron daubneyi: A tool for evaluating new technologies of parasite control.

    PubMed

    Chryssafidis, Andreas Lazaros; Fu, Yan; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace

    2015-05-30

    Fasciola hepatica and Calicophoron daubneyi, liver and rumen flukes respectively, infect ruminants throughout Europe. There is considerable interest in the development of vaccines and in testing new potential anthelmintic agents against these species. One potential target of new control measures is the parasite egg, as interference at this stage of the life cycle could aid in blocking the transmission of infection, and some experimental vaccines have been shown to affect egg viability. In this study, we describe the standardisation of protocols to evaluate the viability of eggs of these two parasites. Eggs were recovered from adult parasites collected in a commercial abattoir, from naturally infected cattle. A protocol for in vitro development of F. hepatica eggs was optimised based on previously published methods, with variations in duration and temperature of incubation. A new protocol for measurement of rumen fluke egg development in vitro was designed, based on testing different temperatures and periods of incubation, with or without light exposure. The protocols described here may be used in the future for comparing experimental groups when new technologies for parasite control are tested. In addition, the methods described for C. daubneyi present new information on the biology of this parasite.

  3. Low evolutionary potential for egg-to-adult viability in Drosophila melanogaster at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Torsten N; Overgaard, Johannes; Lassen, Jan; Hoffmann, Ary A; Sgrò, Carla

    2015-03-01

    To cope with the increasing and less-predictable temperature forecasts under climate change, many terrestrial ectotherms will have to migrate or rely on adaptation through plastic or evolutionary means. Studies suggest that some ectotherms have a limited potential to change their upper thermal limits via evolutionary shifts, but research has mostly focused on adult life stages under laboratory conditions. Here we use replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster and a nested half-sib/full-sib quantitative genetic design to estimate heritabilities and genetic variance components for egg-to-adult viability under both laboratory and seminatural field conditions, encompassing cold, benign, and hot temperatures in two separate populations. The results demonstrated temperature-specific heritabilities and additive genetic variances for egg-to-adult viability. Heritabilities and genetic variances were higher under cold and benign compared to hot temperatures when tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Tendencies toward lower evolutionary potential at higher temperatures were also observed under seminatural conditions although the results were less clear in the field setting. Overall the results suggest that ectotherms that already experience temperatures close to their upper thermal tolerance limits have a restricted capacity to adapt to higher temperatures by evolutionary means.

  4. Analyzing variation in egg-to-adult viability in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1989-03-01

    Selective culling in populations of most organisms is rank-order: individuals of low rank on a scale of potential fitnesses tend to be eliminated during early development, whereas surviving adults (whose number reflects the carrying capacity of the environment) are generally drawn from the distribution's upper end. Haldane pointed out [Haldane, J.B.S. (1932) The Causes of Evolution (Harper & Row, New York)] that selection which favors individuals in the upper tail of a composite distribution curve tends to favor members of the more variable of two populations, rather than members of a less variable one, even though the latter may possess the higher mean. In addition to reviewing earlier observations bearing on Haldane's argument, the present report describes an analysis of the comparative egg-to-adult viabilities of flies (Drosophila melanogaster) carrying combinations of second chromosomes obtained from one or another of eight experimental populations. Overall, the viabilities of flies carrying combinations of chromosomes one of which is shared (i/j vs. j/k) are as different as those of flies carrying combinations of independently sampled chromosomes (i/j vs. k/l). Episodes seemingly occurred within the populations during which flies carrying combinations that shared a chromosome differed more in their viabilities than flies carrying unrelated combinations. Such episodes could reflect the occurrence of selection of the sort described by Haldane. PMID:2494660

  5. Comparison of Meldola’s Blue staining and hatching assay with potato root diffusate for assessment of Globodera sp. egg viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-based methods to test egg viability include staining with Meldola’s Blue and/or juvenile (J2) hatching assays using potato root diffusate (PRD). These two methods have not been tested under identical conditions to directly compare their assessments of Globodera egg viability. Using two ...

  6. Zearalenone exposure affects epigenetic modifications of mouse eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Hou, Yan-Jun; Han, Jun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-11-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium fungi, which has been shown to cause several cases of mycotoxicosis in farm animals and humans. However, there is no evidence regarding the effect of ZEA on mouse egg developmental competence. In this study, we found that the activation rate of maturated oocytes was affected in mice by ZEA treatment, indicating that ZEA affects egg developmental competence. And we explored possible mechanisms of low mouse maturated oocyte developmental competence after ZEA treatment from an epigenetic modification perspective. The fluorescence intensity analysis showed that 5-methyl cytosine level increased after ZEA treatment, indicating that the general DNA methylation level increased in the treated eggs. Moreover, histone methylations were also altered: H3K4me2 as well as H3K9me3 and H4K20me1, me2, me3 levels decreased in eggs that were cultured in high-dose ZEA medium. Thus, our results indicated that ZEA decreased egg developmental competence by affecting the epigenetic modifications. PMID:25155023

  7. Rice stripe virus affects the viability of its vector offspring by changing developmental gene expression in embryos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuo; Wang, Shijuan; Wang, Xi; Li, Xiaoli; Zi, Jinyan; Ge, Shangshu; Cheng, Zhaobang; Zhou, Tong; Ji, Yinghua; Deng, Jinhua; Wong, Sek-Man; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Plant viruses may affect the viability and development process of their herbivore vectors. Small brown planthopper (SBPH) is main vector of Rice stripe virus (RSV), which causes serious rice stripe disease. Here, we reported the effects of RSV on SBPH offspring by crossing experiments between viruliferous and non-viruliferous strains. The life parameters of offspring from different cross combinations were compared. The hatchability of F1 progeny from viruliferous parents decreased significantly, and viruliferous rate was completely controlled by viruliferous maternal parent. To better elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms, the morphology of eggs, viral propagation and distribution in the eggs and expression profile of embryonic development genes were investigated. The results indicated that RSV replicated and accumulated in SBPH eggs resulting in developmental stunt or delay of partial eggs; in addition, RSV was only able to infect ovum but not sperm. According to the expression profile, expression of 13 developmental genes was regulated in the eggs from viruliferous parents, in which two important regulatory genes (Ls-Dorsal and Ls-CPO) were most significantly down-regulated. In general, RSV exerts an adverse effect on SBPH, which is unfavourable for the expansion of viruliferous populations. The viewpoint is also supported by systematic monitoring of SBPH viruliferous rate. PMID:25601039

  8. Viability and DNA fragmentation of rainbow trout embryos (Oncorhynchus mykiss) obtained from eggs stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Ubilla, A; Valdebenito, I; Árias, M E; Risopatrón, J

    2016-05-01

    In vitro storage of salmonid eggs leads to aging of the cells causing a decline in quality and reducing their capacity to develop and produce embryos. The quality of salmonid embryos is assessed by morphologic analyses; however, data on the application of biomarkers to determine the cell viability and DNA integrity of embryos in these species are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on embryo development, viability and DNA fragmentation in the embryonic cells of in vitro storage time at 4 °C of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. The embryos were obtained by IVF from eggs stored for 0 (control), 48, and 96 hours at 4 °C. At 72 hours after fertilization, dechorionated embryos were examined to determine percentages of developed embryos (embryos with normal cell division morphology), viability (LIVE/DEAD sperm viability kit), and DNA integrity (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT] dUTP nick-end labeling assay). The percentage of developing embryos decreased (P < 0.05) with storage time of the eggs (95.10 ± 2.55; 88.14 ± 4.50; 79.99 ± 6.60 for 0, 48, and 96 hours, respectively). Similarly, cell viability decreased (P < 0.05; 96.07 ± 7.15; 80.42 ± 8.55; 77.47 ± 7.88 for 0, 48, and 96 hours, respectively), and an increase (P < 0.05) in DNA fragmentation in the embryos was observed at 96-hour storage. A positive correlation was found between cell DNA fragmentation and storage time (r = 0.8173; P < 0.0001). The results revealed that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT] dUTP nick-end labeling assay technique is reliable mean to assess the state of the DNA in salmonid embryos and that in vitro eggs storage for 96h reduces embryo development and cell DNA integrity. DNA integrity evaluation constitutes a biomarker of the quality of the ova and resulting embryos so as to predict their capacity to produce good-quality embryos in salmonids, particularly under culture conditions. PMID:26893166

  9. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  10. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  11. The discrimination of fish egg quality and viability by using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-03-01

    Sexual reproductive body can be produced from a fertilized ovum. Once the ovum is fertilized with sperm, it runs through the cell division, differentiates to all kinds of cells, and goes to make a complete body. However, not all of them are viable and some of them stop to ontogenesis showing the developmental abnormality. In order to discriminate the egg quality, we apply Raman spectroscopy for fish egg. After the measurement, these Raman data are checked up with the information about the eggs can survive or not, and we examine what factors are important in egg components to distinguish between "good quality" and "not good quality". We present the results of assessment of egg quality, and investigate whether Raman spectroscopy can be used to a discriminate of egg quality.

  12. Effect of methylmercury on egg and juvenile viability in two populations of killifish Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Weis, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    Killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) eggs from a polluted creed (Piles Creek (PC)) and a relatively pristine estuary in Long Island (LI) were exposed for 20 min to various concentrations of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) prior to combination with untreated sperm. PC killifish eggs showed a higher LC/sub 50/ value (1.7 mg/liter) than LI eggs (0.7 mg/liter). PC eggs that were fertilized by nontreated sperm after exposure to 1.0 or 2.5 mg/liter meHg and then placed in clean sea water (15 parts per thousand) for 1 week showed a 5 and 7% malformations of the embryos, respectively. However, exposure of LI eggs to 1.0 mg/liter prior to fertilization caused 32% malformations of the embryos, and at 2.5 mg/liter almost all the embryos died. The data indicate that LI killifish eggs are less tolerant to meHg than PC eggs. This is in keeping with previous data on embryonic tolerance to meHg in these two populations. However, 96-hr LC/sub 50/ values of juvenile fish (25-45 mm standard length) did not differ between these two populations.

  13. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.

  14. Effect of cadmium on oviposition and egg viability in Chironomus riparius (diptera: chironomidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Green, D.W.J.; Pascoe, D.; Gower, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Although the importance of toxicity data on freshwater macroinvertebrates for establishing water quality criteria is now well recognized few attempts have been made to determine the relative sensitivities of different life stages or ages within a species. Previous work with insects has suggested that earlier life stages may be more sensitive than later ones although toxicant effects on the egg itself have been virtually ignored. The selection of water of a suitable quality for egg-laying has been demonstrated in mosquitoes. However, there is virtually no information available on oviposition behavior in relation to toxicant stress or water quality although some authors have speculated on the presence of chemo-receptors in insect antennae and their possible involvement in testing water quality prior to oviposition. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of selection by Chironomus riparius females between a range of cadmium solutions as sites for oviposition and the effect of cadmium on egg hatching.

  15. Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  16. Physical and chemical changes in the foreshore of an estuarine beach: Implications for viability and development of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, N.L.; Smith, D.R.; Nordstrom, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of conditions that favor development of eggs is important for management of species whose population growth is sensitive to early life history survival. Viability and development of the eggs of horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus on a sand and gravel beach were evaluated using data gathered on Delaware Bay, USA, from 18 May to 19 June 2004. Eggs were transplanted to pouches and buried in the foreshore for up to 6 wk. Viability and developmental stage were estimated as a function of oxygen and temperature gradients across the foreshore. These gradients were related to the characteristics of the intertidal foreshore sediments, beach water table changes, and frequency of inundation due to tide and swash/backwash processes. Results demonstrate the importance of interstitial temperature for development to larvae and the passive role of sediment characteristics on moisture retention and temperature. Percentage of eggs remaining in egg stage was similar across the foreshore, but more eggs developed to embryos at 0.45 of foreshore width, where moisture and gravel content were greater and interstitial temperature was lower. More eggs developed to larvae at 0.60 and 0.75 of foreshore width, where moisture and gravel content were less but interstitial temperature was higher. The beach above 0.75 of foreshore width came under the influence of wave action or full tidal inundation only during high wave heights or spring tides, and pouches at 0.75 of foreshore width were inundated only 19% of the time. Periodic wetting at this elevation did not reduce overall viability of the eggs. High wave energy events resulted in sediment activation depths to pouches at 0.30 of foreshore width, where loss of eggs due to wave activation was the most important control on the development of eggs. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  17. Metformin selectively affects human glioblastoma tumor-initiating cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Würth, Roberto; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Gatti, Monica; Bajetto, Adirana; Corsaro, Alessandro; Parodi, Alessia; Sirito, Rodolfo; Massollo, Michela; Marini, Cecilia; Zona, Gianluigi; Fenoglio, Daniela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Filaci, Gilberto; Daga, Antonio; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cell theory postulates that a small population of tumor-initiating cells is responsible for the development, progression and recurrence of several malignancies, including glioblastoma. In this perspective, tumor-initiating cells represent the most relevant target to obtain effective cancer treatment. Metformin, a first-line drug for type II diabetes, was reported to possess anticancer properties affecting the survival of cancer stem cells in breast cancer models. We report that metformin treatment reduced the proliferation rate of tumor-initiating cell-enriched cultures isolated from four human glioblastomas. Metformin also impairs tumor-initiating cell spherogenesis, indicating a direct effect on self-renewal mechanisms. Interestingly, analyzing by FACS the antiproliferative effects of metformin on CD133-expressing subpopulation, a component of glioblastoma cancer stem cells, a higher reduction of proliferation was observed as compared with CD133-negative cells, suggesting a certain degree of cancer stem cell selectivity in its effects. In fact, glioblastoma cell differentiation strongly reduced sensitivity to metformin treatment. Metformin effects in tumor-initiating cell-enriched cultures were associated with a powerful inhibition of Akt-dependent cell survival pathway, while this pathway was not affected in differentiated cells. The specificity of metformin antiproliferative effects toward glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells was confirmed by the lack of significant inhibition of normal human stem cells (umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells) in vitro proliferation after metformin exposure. Altogether, these data clearly suggest that metformin exerts antiproliferative activity on glioblastoma cells, showing a higher specificity toward tumor-initiating cells, and that the inhibition of Akt pathway may represent a possible intracellular target of this effect. PMID:23255107

  18. Good genes and sexual selection in dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus): genetic variance in egg-to-adult and adult viability.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W

    2011-01-18

    Whether species exhibit significant heritable variation in fitness is central for sexual selection. According to good genes models there must be genetic variation in males leading to variation in offspring fitness if females are to obtain genetic benefits from exercising mate preferences, or by mating multiply. However, sexual selection based on genetic benefits is controversial, and there is limited unambiguous support for the notion that choosy or polyandrous females can increase the chances of producing offspring with high viability. Here we examine the levels of additive genetic variance in two fitness components in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found significant sire effects on egg-to-adult viability and on son, but not daughter, survival to sexual maturity, as well as moderate coefficients of additive variance in these traits. Moreover, we do not find evidence for sexual antagonism influencing genetic variation for fitness. Our results are consistent with good genes sexual selection, and suggest that both pre- and postcopulatory mate choice, and male competition could provide indirect benefits to females.

  19. The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2013-12-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 μm and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species.

  20. Laying performance and egg quality of blue-shelled layers as affected by different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Zheng, J X; Ning, Z H; Qu, L J; Xu, G Y; Yang, N

    2009-07-01

    Blue-shelled eggs are gaining popularity as the consumption demand diversifies in some countries. This study was carried out to investigate the laying performance and egg quality of the blue-shelled egg layers as well as the effects of different housing systems on egg production and quality traits. One thousand pullets from Dongxiang blue-shelled layers were divided into 2 even groups and kept in different housing systems (outdoor vs. cage). Daily laying performance was recorded from 20 to 60 wk of age. External and internal egg quality traits were examined at 26, 34, 42, and 50 wk. Yolk cholesterol concentration and whole egg cholesterol content were measured at 40 wk of age. Average laying rate from 20 to 60 wk for the cage (54.7%) was significantly higher than that of outdoor layers (39.3%). Among all of the egg quality traits, only eggshell color was affected by housing system. Interaction between housing system and layer age was found in egg weight, eggshell color, eggshell ratio, yolk color, and yolk weight. Meanwhile, cholesterol concentration in yolk was 8.64 +/- 0.40 mg/g in the outdoor eggs, which was significantly lower than that of eggs from the cage birds (10.32 +/- 0.48 mg/g; P < 0.05). Whole egg cholesterol content in the outdoor eggs (125.23 +/- 6.32 mg/egg) was also significantly lower than that of eggs from the caged layers (158.01 +/- 8.62 mg/egg). The results demonstrated that blue-shelled layers have lower productivity in the outdoor system than in the cage system. Blue-shelled layers have lower egg weight, larger yolk proportion, and lower cholesterol content compared with commercial layers. In a proper marketing system, lower productivity could be balanced by a higher price for the better quality of blue-shelled eggs. PMID:19531721

  1. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 ??l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this

  2. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  3. Forecasting the viability of sea turtle eggs in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Pike, David A

    2014-01-01

    Animals living in tropical regions may be at increased risk from climate change because current temperatures at these locations already approach critical physiological thresholds. Relatively small temperature increases could cause animals to exceed these thresholds more often, resulting in substantial fitness costs or even death. Oviparous species could be especially vulnerable because the maximum thermal tolerances of incubating embryos is often lower than adult counterparts, and in many species mothers abandon the eggs after oviposition, rendering them immobile and thus unable to avoid extreme temperatures. As a consequence, the effects of climate change might become evident earlier and be more devastating for hatchling production in the tropics. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) have the widest nesting range of any living reptile, spanning temperate to tropical latitudes in both hemispheres. Currently, loggerhead sea turtle populations in the tropics produce nearly 30% fewer hatchlings per nest than temperate populations. Strong correlations between empirical hatching success and habitat quality allowed global predictions of the spatiotemporal impacts of climate change on this fitness trait. Under climate change, many sea turtle populations nesting in tropical environments are predicted to experience severe reductions in hatchling production, whereas hatching success in many temperate populations could remain unchanged or even increase with rising temperatures. Some populations could show very complex responses to climate change, with higher relative hatchling production as temperatures begin to increase, followed by declines as critical physiological thresholds are exceeded more frequently. Predicting when, where, and how climate change could impact the reproductive output of local populations is crucial for anticipating how a warming world will influence population size, growth, and stability.

  4. Water-triacylglycerol interactions affect oil body structure and seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are investigating interactions between water and triacylglycerols (TAG) that appear to affect oil body stability and viability of seeds. Dried seeds are usually stored at freezer temperatures (-20oC) for long-term conservation of genetic resources. This globally accepted genebanking practice is...

  5. Membrane damage and viability loss of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella enteritidis in liquid egg by thermal death time disk treatment.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Jin, Tony; Zhang, Howard

    2008-10-01

    Bacterial injury, including leakage of intracellular substance and viability loss, of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 23716) and Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 13076) inoculated in liquid egg white and liquid whole egg was determined by thermal death time disk. E. coli K-12 and Salmonella Enteritidis were inoculated in liquid egg white and liquid whole egg to a final count of 7.8 log CFU/ml and were thermally treated with thermal death time disks at room temperature (23"C), 54, 56, 58, and 60 degrees C from 0 to 240 s. Sublethal injury, leakage of intracellular substances, and viability loss of E. coli K-12 and Salmonella Enteritidis was investigated by plating 0.1 ml on selective trypticase soy agar containing 3% NaCl, 5% NaCl, sorbitol MacConky agar, and xylose lysine sodium tetradecylsulfate and nonselective trypticase soy agar. No significant (P > 0.05) differences on percent injury or viability loss for E. coli K-12 and Salmonella populations were determined in all samples treated at 23 degrees C. Sublethal injury occurred in E. coli and Salmonella populations at 54 degrees C or above for 120 s. Viability losses for both bacteria averaged 5 log at 54 degrees C or above for 180 s, and the surviving populations were below detection (<10 CFU/ml). Thermal treatment at 40 degrees C and above led to membrane damage, leakage, and accumulation of intracellular ATP from 2 to 2.5 log fg/ml and UV-absorbing substances of 0.1 to 0.39 in the treated samples. These results indicate similar thermal injury/damage on both E. coli and Salmonella membranes as determined by the amount of inactivation, viability loss, and leakage of intracellular substances of bacteria.

  6. Negative synergism of rainfall patterns and predators affects frog egg survival.

    PubMed

    Touchon, Justin Charles; Warkentin, Karen Michelle

    2009-07-01

    1. The importance of rainfall is recognized in arid habitats, but has rarely been explored in ecosystems not viewed as rainfall limited. In addition, most attempts to study how rainfall affects organismal survival have focused on long-term rainfall metrics (e.g. monthly or seasonal patterns) instead of short-term measures. For organisms that are short lived or are sensitive to desiccation, short-term patterns of rainfall may provide insight to understanding what determines survival in particular habitats. 2. We monitored daily rainfall and survival of arboreal eggs of the treefrog Dendropsophus ebraccatus at two ponds during the rainy season in central Panama. Desiccation and predation were the primary sources of egg mortality and their effects were not independent. Rainfall directly reduced desiccation mortality by hydrating and thickening the jelly surrounding eggs. In addition, rainfall reduced predation on egg clutches. 3. To elucidate the mechanism by which rainfall alters predation, we exposed experimentally hydrated and dehydrated egg clutches to the two D. ebraccatus egg predators most common at our site, ants and social wasps. Ants and wasps preferentially preyed on dehydrated clutches and ants consumed dehydrated eggs three times faster than hydrated eggs. 4. Rainfall patterns are expected to change and the responses of organisms that use rainfall as a reliable cue to reproduce may prove maladaptive. If rainfall becomes more sporadic, as is predicted to happen during this century, it may have negative consequences for desiccation-sensitive organisms. PMID:19486379

  7. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    PubMed

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p < 0.001) and larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs.

  8. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    PubMed

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p < 0.001) and larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs. PMID:26348409

  9. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior.

  10. Experimental manipulation of egg carotenoids affects immunity of barn swallow nestlings.

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Nicola; Ferrari, Raffaella; Romano, Maria; Martinelli, Roberta; Møller, Anders Pape

    2003-01-01

    The yolk of bird eggs contains maternal carotenoids that may act as antioxidants thus influencing offspring performance and survival. However, to our knowledge, this hypothesis has not been subjected to experimental tests and the function of transmission of carotenoids to the egg is largely unknown. We directly manipulated the concentration of the main carotenoid (lutein) in the eggs of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) and analysed the effect of experimental manipulation on growth of nestlings and two fundamental components of their acquired immunity. Nestlings hatched from lutein-inoculated eggs had larger T-cell-mediated immune response compared with those of two control groups. T-cell-mediated immune response predicted nestling survival until fledging. However, lutein inoculation did not affect antibody response to an immunogen, body mass, tarsus length or plumage development. Nestling body mass and plumage development declined with egg laying order, but the effects of lutein inoculation were independent of egg laying order for all traits. Our results show that maternal yolk carotenoids can have a major effect in promoting a fundamental component of immunity that predicts offspring survival and suggests that adaptive early maternal effects can be mediated by transmission of antioxidants to eggs. PMID:14667340

  11. Immunization of mice and baboons with the recombinant Sm28GST affects both worm viability and fecundity after experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, D; Reid, G D; Sturrock, R F; Wolowczuk, I; Balloul, J M; Grezel, D; Pierce, R J; Otieno, M F; Guerret, S; Grimaud, J A

    1991-09-01

    A member of the glutathione S-transferase family, Sm28GST has previously demonstrated a good ability to protect rodents against experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni. In order to evaluate its efficacy in a model closer to man, two different protocols of immunization with recombinant Sm28GST were tested on baboons in a large-scale trial. Three injections in the presence of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant resulted in a significant 38% reduction in the adult worm burden together with a trend for a lower percentage of inflammatory tissue in the liver. Individual levels of protection, ranging from 0 to 80%, underlined the heterogeneity of the immune response to this purified molecule in outbred primates. On the other hand, two injections of Sm28GST in the presence of aluminium hydroxide and Bordetella pertussis reduced female schistosome fecundity by 33%, with a more pronounced effect (66%) on faecal egg output; there was also a trend, in this protocol, for decrease of the mean granuloma surface in the liver. Individual anti-Sm28GST IgG antibodies were apparently unrelated to levels of immunity, but there was partial evidence that cytophilic IgE might play a role in the immune mechanisms affecting worm viability, but not fecundity. In the mouse model, Sm28GST vaccination resulted in a lower hatching ability of tissue eggs recovered from immunized mice whereas passive transfer of specific anti-Sm28GST T-lymphocytes, one day before infection, significantly reduced the number of eggs in the liver of mice. We propose that different protocols of immunization with a recombinant molecule can impede Schistosoma mansoni worm viability and fecundity, but can also affect miracidium physiology, with important consequences for disease transmission and granuloma-derived pathology.

  12. Plant volatiles induced by herbivore egg deposition affect insects of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Fatouros, Nina E; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Pashalidou, Foteini G; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Gols, Rieta; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant's volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels. PMID:22912893

  13. Plant Volatiles Induced by Herbivore Egg Deposition Affect Insects of Different Trophic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros, Nina E.; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Pashalidou, Foteini G.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Gols, Rieta; Huigens, Martinus E.

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant’s volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels. PMID:22912893

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on the viability and phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated into specific-pathogen-free eggs.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elizabeth C P; Souza, Mauro C L; Toledo, Sandro S; Barbosa, Celso G; Reis, Eliane M F; Rodrigues, Dalia P; Lázaro, Norma S

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of gamma irradiation on the phenotypic characteristics of 20 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated separately into specific-pathogen-free shell eggs. Bacterial strains were inoculated into egg yolks and exposed to (60)Co radiation at doses of 0.49 to 5.0 kGy. The eggs were maintained at 25°C and analyzed for the presence of Salmonella on days 1, 2, 4, and 7, and the recovered Salmonella isolates were characterized biochemically. All strains were resistant to doses of 0.49, 0.54, 0.59, 0.8, and 1 kGy; colony counts were ≥10(5) CFU/ml of egg yolk except for one strain, which was detected at 96 h and at 7 days after irradiation at 1 kGy, with a population reduction of 2 log CFU/ml. For the other evaluated doses, 12 strains (60.0%) were resistant at 1.5 kGy and 7 strains (35.0%) were resistant at 3.0 kGy. Among all analyzed strains, 5.0 kGy was more effective for reducing and/or eliminating the inoculated bacteria; only two (10%) strains were resistant to this level of irradiation. Salmonella colony counts were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) with increasing doses from the day 1 to 7 of observation, when microbial growth peaked. Loss of mobility, lactose fermentation, citrate utilization, and hydrogen sulfide production occurred in some strains after irradiation independent of dose and postirradiation storage time. Increases in antibiotic susceptibility also occurred: seven strains became sensitive to β-lactams, two strains became sensitive to antifolates, and one strain each became sensitive to fluoroquinolone, phenicol, nitrofurans, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. The results indicate that up to 5.0 kGy of radiation applied to shell eggs inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis at 4 log CFU per egg is not sufficient for complete elimination of this pathogen from this food matrix.

  15. Proposed method for evaluating the effects of PCBs in sediment on egg mass viability and reproductive success in frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.S.; Henning, M.H.; Ebert, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    A proposed study design for evaluating the effect of PCBs in the sediments of a large New England river on reproductive success in frogs is described. Depending on field conditions and species abundance, the study will use either bullfrogs, Rana catesbiana; spring peepers, Hyla pickeringii; or green frogs, Rana claymitans as the study model. A selected number of gravid females will be collected from both the target area and a reference area matched with respect to a number of key variables including, but not limited to, stream flow, temperature, pH, substrate type, depth, surrounding land use, and organic carbon content of sediments. The gravid frogs will be transferred to a laboratory, where the egg masses will be stripped following induced ovulation, and then fertilized using semen from males collected in the field. Egg masses will be maintained under static renewal conditions for a period up to and including 7 days post hatch, during which mortality and gross morphological appearance will be evaluated. In the event that statistically significant differences in these endpoints are noted, a dose response model will be developed to relate observed effects to previously determined PCB concentrations in egg masses and maternal tissues. The results of this study will be of significant utility in evaluating reproductive toxicity of PCBs in ecological risk assessment.

  16. Combined immunization using DNA-Sm14 and DNA-Hsp65 increases CD8+ memory T cells, reduces chronic pathology and decreases egg viability during Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected diseases found in developing countries and affects 249 million people worldwide. The development of an efficient vaccination strategy is essential for the control of this disease. Previous work showed partial protection induced by DNA-Sm14 against Schistosoma mansoni infection, whereas DNA-Hsp65 showed immunostimulatory properties against infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, cancer and antifibrotic properties in an egg-induced granuloma model. Methods C57BL/6 mice received 4 doses of DNA-Sm14 (100 μg/dose) and DNA-Hsp65 (100 μg/dose), simultaneously administrated, or DNA-Sm14 alone, once a week, during four weeks. Three groups were included: 1- Control (no immunization); 2- DNA-Sm14; 3- DNA-Sm14/DNA-Hsp65. Two weeks following last immunization, animals were challenged subcutaneously with 30 cercariae. Fifteen, 48 and 69 days after infection splenocytes were collected to evaluate the number of CD8+ memory T cells (CD44highCD62low) using flow cytometry. Forty-eight days after challenge adult worms were collected by portal veins perfusion and intestines were collected to analyze the intestinal egg viability. Histological, immunohistochemical and soluble quantification of collagen and α-SMA accumulation were performed on the liver. Results In the current work, we tested a new vaccination strategy using DNA-Sm14 with DNA-Hsp65 to potentiate the protection against schistosomiasis. Combined vaccination increased the number of CD8+ memory T cells and decreased egg viability on the intestinal wall of infected mice. In addition, simultaneous vaccination with DNA-Sm14/DNA-Hsp65 reduced collagen and α-SMA accumulation during the chronic phase of granuloma formation. Conclusion Simultaneous vaccination with DNA-Sm14/DNA-Hsp65 showed an immunostimulatory potential and antifibrotic property that is associated with the reduction of tissue damage on Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection. PMID

  17. Bisphenol S alters embryonic viability, development, gallbladder size, and messenger RNA expression in chicken embryos exposed via egg injection.

    PubMed

    Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Williams, Kim L

    2016-06-01

    Amid concerns about the toxicological effects and environmental prevalence of bisphenol A (BPA), efforts to find suitable, safer replacement alternatives are essential. Bisphenol S (BPS) is a potential chemical substitute for BPA; however, few studies are available confirming that it has a more desirable ecotoxicological profile. In the present study, BPS was injected into the air cell of unincubated, fertilized chicken embryos at 6 concentrations ranging from 0 μg/g to 207 μg/g egg to determine effects on pipping success, development, hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations. Concentrations of BPS increased in a dose-dependent manner in whole-embryo homogenates, and exposure to the highest dose, 207 μg/g, resulted in decreased pipping success (estimated median lethal dose  = 279 μg/g; 95% confidence interval = 161-486 μg/g). Exposure to BPS also reduced growth metrics including embryo mass and tarsus length, whereas the most pronounced phenotypic effect was the concentration-dependent, significant increase in gallbladder size at concentrations ≥52.8 μg/g. These adverse phenotypic outcomes were associated with the modulation of gene targets from a chicken ToxChip polymerase chain reaction array, which are involved with xenobiotic metabolism, lipid homeostasis, bile acid synthesis, and the thyroid hormone pathway. Expression levels of 2 estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin, were too low at the sampling time point assessed (i.e., pipping embryos) to quantify changes, and no effects were observed on circulating free thyroxine or bile acid concentrations. The present study provides novel, whole-animal toxicological data for a BPA replacement alternative that is not well characterized. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1541-1549. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Glufosinate does not affect floral morphology and pollen viability in glufosinate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine whether glufosinate treatments to glufosinate-resistant cotton caused changes in floral morphology, pollen viability, and seed set. Four glufosinate treatments were included: (1) glufosinate applied postemergence over the top (POST) at the four-leaf stage, (2) glu...

  19. The response of an egg parasitoid to substrate-borne semiochemicals is affected by previous experience

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Ezio; Salerno, Gianandrea; Slimani, Takoua; Frati, Francesca; Conti, Eric; Colazza, Stefano; Cusumano, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Animals can adjust their behaviour according to previous experience gained during foraging. In parasitoids, experience plays a key role in host location, a hierarchical process in which air-borne and substrate-borne semiochemicals are used to find hosts. In nature, chemical traces deposited by herbivore hosts when walking on the plant are adsorbed by leaf surfaces and perceived as substrate-borne semiochemicals by parasitoids. Chemical traces left on cabbage leaves by adults of the harlequin bug (Murgantia histrionica) induce an innate arrestment response in the egg parasitoid Trissolcus brochymenae characterized by an intense searching behaviour on host-contaminated areas. Here we investigated whether the T. brochymenae response to host walking traces left on leaf surfaces is affected by previous experience in the context of parasitoid foraging behaviour. We found that: 1) an unrewarded experience (successive encounters with host-contaminated areas without successful oviposition) decreased the intensity of the parasitoid response; 2) a rewarded experience (successful oviposition) acted as a reinforcing stimulus; 3) the elapsed time between two consecutive unrewarded events affected the parasitoid response in a host-gender specific manner. The ecological role of these results to the host location process of egg parasitoids is discussed. PMID:27250870

  20. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Carla; Clericuzio, Marco; Borghesi, Barbara; Cornara, Laura; Ribulla, Stefania; Gosetti, Fabio; Marengo, Emilio; Burlando, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:26693247

  1. Could a Factor That Does Not Affect Egg Recognition Influence the Decision of Rejection?

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Soler, Manuel; Sánchez-Pérez, Lucía Ll; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Rejection of the parasitic egg is the most important defence of hosts against brood parasites. However, this response is variable among and within species, and egg discrimination is not always followed by egg rejection. Low risk of parasitism and high risk of rejection costs may lead to the acceptance of the parasitic egg even if it has been previously recognized. The main aim of this paper is to answer a relevant question: can a single egg trait provoke the acceptance of an experimental egg previously recognized as foreign? Increased egg mass should hamper the ejection of an egg that has been discriminated because ejection of a heavy egg may imply higher rejection costs for hosts. We have tested this prediction by experimentally parasitizing natural nests of Common Blackbirds (Turdus merula) with non-mimetic model eggs of different mass (heavy, normal-weight, and light) while controlling for potential confounding factors such as egg size and colour. Our results showed that blackbirds more frequently accepted heavy eggs, even when previously recognized. This differential acceptance may be related to insufficient motivation to assume the higher costs that the ejection of a heavy egg could impose.

  2. Could a Factor That Does Not Affect Egg Recognition Influence the Decision of Rejection?

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Soler, Manuel; Sánchez-Pérez, Lucía Ll.; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Rejection of the parasitic egg is the most important defence of hosts against brood parasites. However, this response is variable among and within species, and egg discrimination is not always followed by egg rejection. Low risk of parasitism and high risk of rejection costs may lead to the acceptance of the parasitic egg even if it has been previously recognized. The main aim of this paper is to answer a relevant question: can a single egg trait provoke the acceptance of an experimental egg previously recognized as foreign? Increased egg mass should hamper the ejection of an egg that has been discriminated because ejection of a heavy egg may imply higher rejection costs for hosts. We have tested this prediction by experimentally parasitizing natural nests of Common Blackbirds (Turdus merula) with non-mimetic model eggs of different mass (heavy, normal-weight, and light) while controlling for potential confounding factors such as egg size and colour. Our results showed that blackbirds more frequently accepted heavy eggs, even when previously recognized. This differential acceptance may be related to insufficient motivation to assume the higher costs that the ejection of a heavy egg could impose. PMID:26295481

  3. Differing statistical approaches affect the relation between egg consumption, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Associations between food patterns and adiposity are poorly understood. Two statistical approaches were used to examine the potential association between egg consumption and adiposity. Two statistical approaches were used to examine the potential association between egg consumption and adiposity. Pa...

  4. Behavior of Avirulent Yersinia pestis in Liquid Whole Egg as Affected by Antimicrobials and Thermal Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia spp. is a psychrotrophic bacterium that can grow at temperatures as low as minus two degrees Celsius, and is known to contaminate shell eggs in the United States and shell eggs and liquid egg in South America. A study was performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of avirulent Yersinia...

  5. Loss of all 3 Extended Synaptotagmins does not affect normal mouse development, viability or fertility.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Michel G; Moss, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The extended synaptotagmins, E-Syt1, 2 and 3, are multiple C2 domain membrane proteins that are tethered to the endoplasmic reticulum and interact in a calcium dependent manner with plasma membrane phospholipids to form endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junctions. These junctions have been implicated in the exchange of phospholipids between the 2 organelles. The E-Syts have further been implicated in receptor signaling and endocytosis and can interact directly with fibroblast growth factor and other cell surface receptors. Despite these multiple functions, the search for a requirement in vivo has been elusive. Most recently, we found that the genes for E-Syt2 and 3 could be inactivated without effect on mouse development, viability, fertility or morphology. We have now created insertion and deletion mutations in the last of the mouse E-Syt genes. We show that E-Syt1 is specifically expressed throughout the embryonic skeleton during the early stages of chrondrogenesis in a pattern quite distinct from that of E-Syt2 or 3. Despite this, E-Syt1 is also not required for mouse development and propagation. We further show that even the combined inactivation of all 3 E-Syt genes has no effect on mouse viability or fertility in the laboratory. However, this inactivation induces an enhancement in the expression of the genes encoding Orp5/8, Orai1, STIM1 and TMEM110, endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junction proteins that potentially could compensate for E-Syt loss. Given the multiple functions suggested for the E-Syts and their evolutionary conservation, our unexpected findings suggest that they may only provide a survival advantage under specific conditions that have as yet to be identified.

  6. Loss of all 3 Extended Synaptotagmins does not affect normal mouse development, viability or fertility

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Michel G.; Moss, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extended synaptotagmins, E-Syt1, 2 and 3, are multiple C2 domain membrane proteins that are tethered to the endoplasmic reticulum and interact in a calcium dependent manner with plasma membrane phospholipids to form endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junctions. These junctions have been implicated in the exchange of phospholipids between the 2 organelles. The E-Syts have further been implicated in receptor signaling and endocytosis and can interact directly with fibroblast growth factor and other cell surface receptors. Despite these multiple functions, the search for a requirement in vivo has been elusive. Most recently, we found that the genes for E-Syt2 and 3 could be inactivated without effect on mouse development, viability, fertility or morphology. We have now created insertion and deletion mutations in the last of the mouse E-Syt genes. We show that E-Syt1 is specifically expressed throughout the embryonic skeleton during the early stages of chrondrogenesis in a pattern quite distinct from that of E-Syt2 or 3. Despite this, E-Syt1 is also not required for mouse development and propagation. We further show that even the combined inactivation of all 3 E-Syt genes has no effect on mouse viability or fertility in the laboratory. However, this inactivation induces an enhancement in the expression of the genes encoding Orp5/8, Orai1, STIM1 and TMEM110, endoplasmic reticulum - plasma membrane junction proteins that potentially could compensate for E-Syt loss. Given the multiple functions suggested for the E-Syts and their evolutionary conservation, our unexpected findings suggest that they may only provide a survival advantage under specific conditions that have as yet to be identified. PMID:27399837

  7. Food availability affects the maternal transfer of androgens and antibodies into eggs of a colonial seabird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gasparini, J.; Boulinier, T.; Gill, V.A.; Gil, D.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Roulin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mothers can improve the quality of their offspring by increasing the level of certain components in their eggs. To examine whether or not mothers increase deposition of such components in eggs as a function of food availability, we food-supplemented black-legged kittiwake females (Rissa tridactyla) before and during egg laying and compared deposition of androgens and antibodies into eggs of first and experimentally induced replacement clutches. Food-supplemented females transferred lower amounts of androgens and antibodies into eggs of induced replacement clutches than did non-food-supplemented mothers, whereas first clutches presented no differences between treatments. Our results suggest that when females are in lower condition, they transfer more androgens and antibodies into eggs to facilitate chick development despite potential long-term costs for juveniles. Females in prime condition may avoid these potential long-term costs because they can provide their chicks with more and higher quality resources. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  8. Viability selection affects black but not yellow plumage colour in greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Männiste, Marju

    2016-01-01

    Much of the debate surrounding the selective forces responsible for the expression of conspicuous plumage colouration is centred on the question of precisely which individual qualities are signalled by carotenoid- and melanin-based pigments. To examine this and other related issues, we performed viability selection analyses in wild-caught captive male greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) in Estonia during winters between 2003 and 2014. Based on our measurements, birds with a darker black eumelanin-based colouration of tail feathers survived better than those whose tail feathers had a paler black colouration. The carotenoid-based yellow colouration of the same feathers was not associated with mortality in captivity and showed much less between-year variation in the field than the black colouration. Between year-variation in the black (but not yellow) colouration of feathers was parallel in wild-grown feathers (on birds in the wild) and laboratory-grown ones (on birds held temporarily in captivity). Taken together, these findings imply that eumelanotic colouration in greenfinches is currently under selection and suggest the presence of sufficient genetic variation for a rapid response to selection. In particular, tail feathers have become darker black since the emergence of avian trichomonosis, which is known to selectively kill paler individuals. PMID:26386701

  9. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer.

  10. Identification of the Key Weather Factors Affecting Overwintering Success of Apolygus lucorum Eggs in Dead Host Tree Branches

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009–2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer. PMID

  11. A mixture of environmental organic contaminants in lake sediments affects hatching from Daphnia resting eggs.

    PubMed

    Möst, Markus; Chiaia-Hernandez, Aurea C; Frey, Martin P; Hollender, Juliane; Spaak, Piet

    2015-02-01

    Despite the relevance of resting eggs for ecology and evolution of many aquatic organisms and their exposure to contaminants accumulating in sediments, ecotoxicological studies using resting eggs are vastly underrepresented. The authors established a method to perform exposure assays with resting eggs produced by the Daphnia longispina species complex, key species in large lake ecosystems. A mixture of organic contaminants previously detected in sediments of Lake Greifensee was selected to test the potential effect of organic contaminants present in sediments on the hatching process. Resting eggs were exposed to a mix of 10 chemicals, which included corrosion inhibitors, biocides, pesticides, and personal care products, for a period of 15 d. Using an automated counting software, the authors found a significant increase in hatching success in the exposed resting eggs compared with controls. Such an effect has not yet been reported from ecotoxicological assays with resting eggs. Possible mechanistic explanations as well as the potential implications on the ecology and evolution of aquatic species that rely on a resting egg banks are discussed. Observed increased mortality and developmental abnormalities for hatchlings in the exposure treatments can be explained by toxic contaminant concentrations. The results of the present study highlight the need for additional studies assessing the effects of organic contaminants on resting egg banks and aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Does magnesium hardness in hatching waters affect the fertilization and hatching success of hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioitic parameter, suggested to have a major effect on egg development and embryo survival. Ca2+ and Mg2+ contribute to water har...

  13. Factors affecting settling, survival, and viability of black bears reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wear, B.J.; Eastridge, R.; Clark, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry and population modeling techniques to examine factors related to population establishment of black bears (Ursus americanus) reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Arkansas. Our objectives were to determine whether settling (i.e., establishment of a home range at or near the release site), survival, recruitment, and population viability were related to age class of reintroduced bears, presence of cubs, time since release, or number of translocated animals. We removed 23 adult female black bears with 56 cubs from their winter dens at White River NWR and transported them 160 km to man-made den structures at Felsenthal NWR during spring 2000–2002. Total movement and average circuity of adult females decreased from 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year post-emergence (F2,14 =19.7, P < 0.001 and F2,14 =5.76, P=0.015, respectively). Mean first-year post-release survival of adult female bears was 0.624 (SE = 0.110, SEinterannual = 0.144), and the survival rate of their cubs was 0.750 (SE = 0.088, SEinterannual = 0.109). The homing rate (i.e., the proportion of bears that returned to White River NWR) was 13%. Annual survival for female bears that remained at the release site and survived >1-year post-release increased to 0.909 (SE = 0.097, SEinterannual=0.067; Z=3.5, P < 0.001). Based on stochastic population growth simulations, the average annual growth rate (λ) was 1.093 (SD = 0.053) and the probability of extinction with no additional stockings ranged from 0.56-1.30%. The bear population at Felsenthal NWR is at or above the number after which extinction risk declines dramatically, although additional releases of bears could significantly decrease time to population reestablishment. Poaching accounted for at least 3 of the 8 adult mortalities that we documented; illegal kills could be a significant impediment to population re-establishment at Felsenthal NWR should poaching rates escalate.

  14. The geomagnetic environment in which sea turtle eggs incubate affects subsequent magnetic navigation behaviour of hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Davidoff, Kyla R; Mangiamele, Lisa A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2014-09-22

    Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta) use regional magnetic fields as open-ocean navigational markers during trans-oceanic migrations. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of this behaviour. As a first step towards investigating whether the magnetic environment in which hatchlings develop affects subsequent magnetic orientation behaviour, eggs deposited by nesting female loggerheads were permitted to develop in situ either in the natural ambient magnetic field or in a magnetic field distorted by magnets placed around the nest. In orientation experiments, hatchlings that developed in the normal ambient field oriented approximately south when exposed to a field that exists near the northern coast of Portugal, a direction consistent with their migratory route in the northeastern Atlantic. By contrast, hatchlings that developed in a distorted magnetic field had orientation indistinguishable from random when tested in the same north Portugal field. No differences existed between the two groups in orientation assays involving responses to orbital movements of waves or sea-finding, neither of which involves magnetic field perception. These findings, to our knowledge, demonstrate for the first time that the magnetic environment present during early development can influence the magnetic orientation behaviour of a neonatal migratory animal.

  15. The geomagnetic environment in which sea turtle eggs incubate affects subsequent magnetic navigation behaviour of hatchlings

    PubMed Central

    Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Davidoff, Kyla R.; Mangiamele, Lisa A.; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings (Caretta caretta) use regional magnetic fields as open-ocean navigational markers during trans-oceanic migrations. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of this behaviour. As a first step towards investigating whether the magnetic environment in which hatchlings develop affects subsequent magnetic orientation behaviour, eggs deposited by nesting female loggerheads were permitted to develop in situ either in the natural ambient magnetic field or in a magnetic field distorted by magnets placed around the nest. In orientation experiments, hatchlings that developed in the normal ambient field oriented approximately south when exposed to a field that exists near the northern coast of Portugal, a direction consistent with their migratory route in the northeastern Atlantic. By contrast, hatchlings that developed in a distorted magnetic field had orientation indistinguishable from random when tested in the same north Portugal field. No differences existed between the two groups in orientation assays involving responses to orbital movements of waves or sea-finding, neither of which involves magnetic field perception. These findings, to our knowledge, demonstrate for the first time that the magnetic environment present during early development can influence the magnetic orientation behaviour of a neonatal migratory animal. PMID:25100699

  16. In situ viability detection assays induce heat-shock protein 70 expression in spermatozoa without affecting the chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Y; Honguntikar, S D; Uppangala, S; Salian, S R; Kumar, D; Kalthur, G; Adiga, S K

    2015-10-01

    To differentiate dead spermatozoa from viable but immotile spermatozoa, several techniques are being used during ICSI. As processed spermatozoa from poor-quality ejaculate are confronted with a higher risk of experiencing stress on exposure to altered osmotic conditions or chemicals, this study was undertaken to determine the expression of stress response gene Hsp70 and chromatin integrity in spermatozoa subjected to in situ viability assays such as hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, modified hypo-osmotic swelling (M-HOS) test and pentoxifylline in 25 fresh and frozen-thawed asthenozoospermic ejaculates. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence detection of Hsp70 were performed to elucidate the expression and localisation of Hsp70 in spermatozoa, whereas DNA fragmentation analysis was performed by sperm chromatin dispersion assay. Exposure of fresh and frozen-thawed asthenozoospermic spermatozoa to M-HOS and pentoxifylline significantly increased Hsp70 expression as evidenced by increased RNA expression and immunolocalisation of Hsp70 protein in sperm head (P < 0.05-0.001). However, chromatin integrity was not significantly affected in any groups until 6 h of post-exposure time period. Our results suggest that conventional HOS may be preferred for the in situ detection of the viability as there was no immediate stress response and chromatin instability in the exposed spermatozoa.

  17. APEH Inhibition Affects Osteosarcoma Cell Viability via Downregulation of the Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Rosanna; Gogliettino, Marta; Cocca, Ennio; Iannitti, Roberta; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Ruvo, Menotti; Balestrieri, Marco; Rossi, Mosè; Palmieri, Gianna

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is a multienzymatic complex that controls the half-life of the majority of intracellular proteins, including those involved in apoptosis and cell-cycle progression. Recently, proteasome inhibition has been shown to be an effective anticancer strategy, although its downregulation is often accompanied by severe undesired side effects. We previously reported that the inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) by the peptide SsCEI 4 can significantly affect the proteasome activity in A375 melanoma or Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cell lines, thus shedding new light on therapeutic strategies based on downstream regulation of proteasome functions. In this work, we investigated the functional correlation between APEH and proteasome in a panel of cancer cell lines, and evaluated the cell proliferation upon SsCEI 4-treatments. Results revealed that SsCEI 4 triggered a proliferative arrest specifically in osteosarcoma U2OS cells via downregulation of the APEH–proteasome system, with the accumulation of the typical hallmarks of proteasome: NF-κB, p21Waf1, and polyubiquitinylated proteins. We found that the SsCEI 4 anti-proliferative effect involved a senescence-like growth arrest without noticeable cytotoxicity. These findings represent an important step toward understanding the mechanism(s) underlying the APEH-mediated downregulation of proteasome in order to design new molecules able to efficiently regulate the proteasome system for alternative therapeutic strategies. PMID:27669226

  18. Histopathology of growth anomaly affecting the coral, Montipora capitata: implications on biological functions and population viability.

    PubMed

    Burns, John H R; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1-93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8-67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2-29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8-46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7-49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  19. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infects Rat Astrocytes but Does Not Affect Their Viability

    PubMed Central

    Potokar, Maja; Korva, Miša; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Zorec, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most dangerous human neuroinfections in Europe and Asia. To infect neurons it must cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), and presumably also cells adjacent to the BBB, such as astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type. However, the knowledge about the viral infection of glial cells is fragmental. Here we studied whether TBEV infects rat astrocytes. Rats belong to an animal group serving as a TBEV amplifying host. We employed high resolution quantitative fluorescence microscopy to investigate cell entry and cytoplasmic mobility of TBEV particles along with the effect on the cell cytoskeleton and cell survival. We report that infection of astrocytes with TBEV increases with time of exposure to TBEV and that with post-infection time TBEV particles gained higher mobility. After several days of infection actin cytoskeleton was affected, but cell survival was unchanged, indicating that rat astrocytes resist TBEV-mediated cell death, as reported for other mammalian cells. Therefore, astrocytes may present an important pool of dormant TBEV infections and a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24465969

  20. Secondary metabolites from nonhost plants affect the motility and viability of phytopathogenic Aphanomyces cochlioides zoospores.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Tofazzal

    2008-01-01

    The motile zoospores of the damping-off pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides aggregate on host plants (e.g., sugar beet, spinach) guided by the host-specific plant signal cochliophilin A before infection. To assess the potential role of secondary metabolites in nonhost resistance, acetone extracts of 200 nonhost traditional medicinal plants from Chinese and Bangladeshi origins were tested for the motility behaviour of A. cochlioides zoospores using a particle bioassay method. Nearly one third of the tested plant extracts exhibited diverse deleterious activities such as repellent, stimulant, motility halting and lysis against A. cochlioides zoospores. Among these active plants, an extract of the Chinese medicinal plant Dalbergia odorifera displayed potent repellent activity toward zoospores. Chromatographic separation of D. odorifera constituents revealed that the repellent activity was regulated by the cumulative effect of three motility-affecting isoflavonoids, viz. (+/-)-medicarpin (repellent at 150 microg/ml), (-)-claussequinone (stimulant at 100 microg/ml) and formononetin (stimulant and attractant at 50 microg/ml). A mixture (1:1:1, w/w/w) of these three compounds exhibited only repellent activity toward zoospores at a concentration lower than 50 microg/ml. These results suggest that nonhost plants might possess potential bioactive secondary metabolites to ward off zoosporic phytopathogens. PMID:18533468

  1. APEH Inhibition Affects Osteosarcoma Cell Viability via Downregulation of the Proteasome.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Rosanna; Gogliettino, Marta; Cocca, Ennio; Iannitti, Roberta; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Ruvo, Menotti; Balestrieri, Marco; Rossi, Mosè; Palmieri, Gianna

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is a multienzymatic complex that controls the half-life of the majority of intracellular proteins, including those involved in apoptosis and cell-cycle progression. Recently, proteasome inhibition has been shown to be an effective anticancer strategy, although its downregulation is often accompanied by severe undesired side effects. We previously reported that the inhibition of acylpeptide hydrolase (APEH) by the peptide SsCEI 4 can significantly affect the proteasome activity in A375 melanoma or Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cell lines, thus shedding new light on therapeutic strategies based on downstream regulation of proteasome functions. In this work, we investigated the functional correlation between APEH and proteasome in a panel of cancer cell lines, and evaluated the cell proliferation upon SsCEI 4-treatments. Results revealed that SsCEI 4 triggered a proliferative arrest specifically in osteosarcoma U2OS cells via downregulation of the APEH-proteasome system, with the accumulation of the typical hallmarks of proteasome: NF-κB, p21(Waf1), and polyubiquitinylated proteins. We found that the SsCEI 4 anti-proliferative effect involved a senescence-like growth arrest without noticeable cytotoxicity. These findings represent an important step toward understanding the mechanism(s) underlying the APEH-mediated downregulation of proteasome in order to design new molecules able to efficiently regulate the proteasome system for alternative therapeutic strategies. PMID:27669226

  2. Oviposition diapause and other factors affecting the egg-laying of Phlebotomus papatasi in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Schlein, Y; Borut, S; Jacobson, R L

    1990-01-01

    Stimuli which modulate oviposition of P. papatasi were investigated to improve insectary breeding efficiency. Oviposition and survival of gravid females were observed weekly during April-December 1987, in plastic cages at 28 +/- 1 degrees C with L:D 17:7. Oviposition of controls was subject to seasonal variation despite the relatively uniform insectary conditions. From April to mid-October (summer), mean weekly oviposition ranged from 11.6 to 18.6 eggs per fly, dropping to 1.4 eggs/fly in November (winter). Monthly yields of eggs were found to correlate with the seasonal cycle of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight. This was attributed to an endogenous rhythm since the flies were not normally exposed to UV under insectary conditions. Short exposure to UV sources of 254 nm and 312 nm, but not white light, raised the low rate of oviposition in October-November from 1.4 to 16.8-29.6 eggs/female/week, but female mortality also increased highly significantly. It is suggested that the seasonal oviposition cycle of P.papatasi is set by levels of UV irradiation. In the warm season oviposition was promoted, as compared to controls, by furrows in plaster of Paris lining the bottom of cages (29.6 v. 10.2 eggs/female) and by cow manure in the cages (39.7 v. 18.2 eggs/female), but the combination of both stimuli gave no greater fecundity (40.9 v. 20.9 eggs/female). Oviposition decreased when larvae were present (3.9 v. 15.0 eggs/female) and in half-volume cages (3.9 v. 12.5 eggs/female/week). Under standard insectary conditions, mean weekly mortality-rates of P.papatasi females were 18.3 +/- 4.8% in October-November and 36.5-59.1% during the warmer months. None of the experimental conditions yielded any significant improvement in survival-rates. PMID:2132971

  3. High temperatures and absence of light affect the hatching of resting eggs of Daphnia in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Paes, Thécia A S V; Rietzler, Arnola C; Pujoni, Diego G F; Maia-Barbosa, Paulina M

    2016-03-01

    Temperature and light are acknowledged as important factors for hatching of resting eggs. The knowledge of how they affect hatching rates of this type of egg is important for the comprehension of the consequences of warming waters in recolonization of aquatic ecosystems dependent on dormant populations. This study aimed at comparing the influence of different temperature and light conditions on hatching rates of Daphnia ambigua andDaphnia laevis resting eggs from tropical environments. The ephippia were collected in the sediment of three aquatic ecosystems, in southeastern Brazil. For each lake, the resting eggs were exposed to temperatures of 20, 24, 28 and 32 °C, under light (12 h photoperiod) and dark conditions. The results showed that the absence of light and high temperatures have a negative influence on the hatching rates. Statistical differences for hatching rates were also found when comparing the studied ecosystems (ranging from 0.6 to 31%), indicating the importance of local environmental factors for diapause and maintenance of active populations.

  4. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. C.; Zhang, H. J.; Wu, S. G.; Yue, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Li, J.; Qi, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness. PMID:26580286

  5. Genetic selection to increase bone strength affects prevalence of keel bone damage and egg parameters in commercially housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, A; Fröhlich, E K F; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Harlander-Matauschek, A; Würbel, H; Toscano, M J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of keel bone damage as well as external egg parameters of 2 pure lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) bone strength were investigated in 2 aviary systems under commercial conditions. A standard LSL hybrid was used as a reference group. Birds were kept mixed per genetic line (77 hens of the H and L line and 201 or 206 hens of the LSL line, respectively, per pen) in 8 pens of 2 aviary systems differing in design. Keel bone status and body mass of 20 focal hens per line and pen were assessed at 17, 18, 23, 30, 36, 43, 52, and 63 wk of age. External egg parameters (i.e., egg mass, eggshell breaking strength, thickness, and mass) were measured using 10 eggs per line at both 38 and 57 wk of age. Body parameters (i.e. tarsus and third primary wing feather length to calculate index of wing loading) were recorded at 38 wk of age and mortality per genetic line throughout the laying cycle. Bone mineral density (BMD) of 15 keel bones per genetic line was measured after slaughter to confirm assignment of the experimental lines. We found a greater BMD in the H compared with the L and LSL lines. Fewer keel bone fractures and deviations, a poorer external egg quality, as well as a lower index of wing loading were found in the H compared with the L line. Mortality was lower and production parameters (e.g., laying performance) were higher in the LSL line compared with the 2 experimental lines. Aviary design affected prevalence of keel bone damage, body mass, and mortality. We conclude that selection of specific bone traits associated with bone strength as well as the related differences in body morphology (i.e., lower index of wing loading) have potential to reduce keel bone damage in commercial settings. Also, the housing environment (i.e., aviary design) may have additive effects. PMID:26944960

  6. Genetic selection to increase bone strength affects prevalence of keel bone damage and egg parameters in commercially housed laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stratmann, A; Fröhlich, E K F; Gebhardt-Henrich, S G; Harlander-Matauschek, A; Würbel, H; Toscano, M J

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of keel bone damage as well as external egg parameters of 2 pure lines divergently selected for high (H) and low (L) bone strength were investigated in 2 aviary systems under commercial conditions. A standard LSL hybrid was used as a reference group. Birds were kept mixed per genetic line (77 hens of the H and L line and 201 or 206 hens of the LSL line, respectively, per pen) in 8 pens of 2 aviary systems differing in design. Keel bone status and body mass of 20 focal hens per line and pen were assessed at 17, 18, 23, 30, 36, 43, 52, and 63 wk of age. External egg parameters (i.e., egg mass, eggshell breaking strength, thickness, and mass) were measured using 10 eggs per line at both 38 and 57 wk of age. Body parameters (i.e. tarsus and third primary wing feather length to calculate index of wing loading) were recorded at 38 wk of age and mortality per genetic line throughout the laying cycle. Bone mineral density (BMD) of 15 keel bones per genetic line was measured after slaughter to confirm assignment of the experimental lines. We found a greater BMD in the H compared with the L and LSL lines. Fewer keel bone fractures and deviations, a poorer external egg quality, as well as a lower index of wing loading were found in the H compared with the L line. Mortality was lower and production parameters (e.g., laying performance) were higher in the LSL line compared with the 2 experimental lines. Aviary design affected prevalence of keel bone damage, body mass, and mortality. We conclude that selection of specific bone traits associated with bone strength as well as the related differences in body morphology (i.e., lower index of wing loading) have potential to reduce keel bone damage in commercial settings. Also, the housing environment (i.e., aviary design) may have additive effects.

  7. Membrane damage and viability loss of Escherichia coli K-12 and Salmonella entertidis in liquid egg by thermal death time disk treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on mechanisms of bacteria inactivation by heat using the Thermal-Death-Time (TDT) disk method are limited and is urgently needed by the regulatory agencies. In order to understand the mechanism of inactivation of bacteria by heat using the TDT disk processing, liquid egg white and liquid whole ...

  8. Foraging mode affects the evolution of egg size in generalist predators embedded in complex food webs.

    PubMed

    Verdeny-Vilalta, O; Fox, C W; Wise, D H; Moya-Laraño, J

    2015-06-01

    Ecological networks incorporate myriad biotic interactions that determine the selection pressures experienced by the embedded populations. We argue that within food webs, the negative scaling of abundance with body mass and foraging theory predict that the selective advantages of larger egg size should be smaller for sit-and-wait than active-hunting generalist predators, leading to the evolution of a difference in egg size between them. Because body mass usually scales negatively with predator abundance and constrains predation rate, slightly increasing egg mass should simultaneously allow offspring to feed on more prey and escape from more predators. However, the benefits of larger offspring would be relatively smaller for sit-and-wait predators because (i) due to their lower mobility, encounters with other predators are less common, and (ii) they usually employ a set of alternative hunting strategies that help to subdue relatively larger prey. On the other hand, for active predators, which need to confront prey as they find them, body-size differences may be more important in subduing prey. This difference in benefits should lead to the evolution of larger egg sizes in active-hunting relative to sit-and-wait predators. This prediction was confirmed by a phylogenetically controlled analysis of 268 spider species, supporting the view that the structure of ecological networks may serve to predict relevant selective pressures acting on key life history traits.

  9. Factors Affecting Egg Hatch of Heterodera mediterranea and Differential Responses of Olive Cultivars to Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, P.; Vovlas, N.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of temperature and olive root exudates on Heterodera mediterranea egg hatch and the effects of H. mediterranea on the growth of two olive cultivars (Arbequina and Picual) were investigated. Egg hatch occurred over a temperature range of 10 to 30°C and was optimal at 20 to 25°C. There were no differences in egg hatch between sterile deionized distilled water or root exudate dilutions (undiluted, diluted 1:1, and 1:2) of Arbequina and Picual at 20°C. Heterodera mediterranea reproduced on both olive cultivars in growth chambers at 25°C. Soil and root final nematode populations, as well as total number of cysts per plant and reproduction rate, were significantly higher in Arbequina than in Picual. Shoot dry and root fresh weights as well as increases of shoot height, trunk diameter, and numbers of nodes were significantly suppressed by infection with 10,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles/pot in Arbequina but not in Picual. PMID:19265924

  10. Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

    2000-05-01

    Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

  11. Foraging mode affects the evolution of egg size in generalist predators embedded in complex food webs.

    PubMed

    Verdeny-Vilalta, O; Fox, C W; Wise, D H; Moya-Laraño, J

    2015-06-01

    Ecological networks incorporate myriad biotic interactions that determine the selection pressures experienced by the embedded populations. We argue that within food webs, the negative scaling of abundance with body mass and foraging theory predict that the selective advantages of larger egg size should be smaller for sit-and-wait than active-hunting generalist predators, leading to the evolution of a difference in egg size between them. Because body mass usually scales negatively with predator abundance and constrains predation rate, slightly increasing egg mass should simultaneously allow offspring to feed on more prey and escape from more predators. However, the benefits of larger offspring would be relatively smaller for sit-and-wait predators because (i) due to their lower mobility, encounters with other predators are less common, and (ii) they usually employ a set of alternative hunting strategies that help to subdue relatively larger prey. On the other hand, for active predators, which need to confront prey as they find them, body-size differences may be more important in subduing prey. This difference in benefits should lead to the evolution of larger egg sizes in active-hunting relative to sit-and-wait predators. This prediction was confirmed by a phylogenetically controlled analysis of 268 spider species, supporting the view that the structure of ecological networks may serve to predict relevant selective pressures acting on key life history traits. PMID:25882583

  12. Eggs and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The total U. S. egg production in 2009 was 78.5 billion table eggs, with 24 billion broken for the production of egg products. Shell eggs have many uses in homes, restaurants, and institutions, either alone or as ingredients in other foods. Egg products are also popular with consumers and are used i...

  13. Characterization of cspB, a Bacillus subtilis inducible cold shock gene affecting cell viability at low temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Willimsky, G; Bang, H; Fischer, G; Marahiel, M A

    1992-01-01

    A new class of cold shock-induced proteins that may be involved in an adaptive process required for cell viability at low temperatures or may function as antifreeze proteins in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified. We purified a small Bacillus subtilis cold shock protein (CspB) and determined its amino-terminal sequence. By using mixed degenerate oligonucleotides, the corresponding gene (cspB) was cloned on two overlapping fragments of 5 and 6 kb. The gene encodes an acidic 67-amino-acid protein (pI 4.31) with a predicted molecular mass of 7,365 Da. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence comparisons revealed 61% identity to the major cold shock protein of E. coli and 43% identity to a family of eukaryotic DNA binding proteins. Northern RNA blot and primer extension studies indicated the presence of one cspB transcript that was initiated 119 bp upstream of the initiation codon and was found to be induced severalfold when exponentially growing B. subtilis cell cultures were transferred from 37 degrees C to 10 degrees C. Consistent with this cold shock induction of cspB mRNA, a six- to eightfold induction of a cspB-directed beta-galactosidase synthesis was observed upon downshift in temperature. To investigate the function of CspB, we inactivated the cold shock protein by replacing the cspB gene in the B. subtilis chromosome with a cat-interrupted copy (cspB::cat) by marker replacement recombination. The viability of cells of this mutant strain, GW1, at freezing temperatures was strongly affected. However, the effect of having no CspB in GW1 could be slightly compensated for when cells were preincubated at 10 degrees C before freezing. These results indicate that CspB belongs to a new type of stress-inducible proteins that might be able to protect B. subtilis cells from damage caused by ice crystal formation during freezing. Images PMID:1400185

  14. A systematic review of the key factors affecting tissue viability and rehabilitation outcomes of the residual limb in lower extremity traumatic amputees.

    PubMed

    Butler, Katrina; Bowen, Catherine; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Torah, Russel; Ayala, Ivo; Tudor, John; Metcalf, Cheryl D

    2014-08-01

    Most traumatic lower limb amputees ambulate using a prosthetic limb. Comfort, appearance of the missing limb and function are confirmed as being important during rehabilitation post-amputation. Emerging evidence suggests that impaired tissue viability of the stump affects rehabilitation and thus clinical ability to provide optimum care. The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify key factors relating to tissue viability of the residual limb in lower extremity traumatic amputees. A secondary objective was to identify factors that affect rehabilitation post-amputation. In total, 218 studies were assessed; 37 met pre-determined criteria. Studies were classified according to the WHO ICF framework and the NHMRC level of evidence. Five key themes emerged; Prosthetic Fit; The Residuum; Quality of Life; Amputee Care and Prosthetic Use. The evidence indicates that high frequencies of skin problems affecting tissue viability within this population are inherently linked to intolerance of the prosthesis. Stump integrity, amputee care regimen and pain were also identified as impacting on quality of life, affecting rehabilitation and the ability to become independently mobile. Levels of evidence within all studies were low and indicative of the majority being non-randomised cohort studies or case-control studies. As there are a limited number of interventional studies, further development of robust outcome measures, clinical trials and prospective studies are of utmost importance to unravel the links between tissue viability and the other key factors. This will inform clinical management strategies and help develop targeted therapies and care pathways. PMID:25193657

  15. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  16. Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to

  17. Wolbachia infections in natural Anopheles populations affect egg laying and negatively correlate with Plasmodium development

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, W. Robert; Marcenac, Perrine; Childs, Lauren M.; Buckee, Caroline O.; Baldini, Francesco; Sawadogo, Simon P.; Dabiré, Roch K.; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    The maternally inherited alpha-proteobacterium Wolbachia has been proposed as a tool to block transmission of devastating mosquito-borne infectious diseases like dengue and malaria. Here we study the reproductive manipulations induced by a recently identified Wolbachia strain that stably infects natural mosquito populations of a major malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, in Burkina Faso. We determine that these infections significantly accelerate egg laying but do not induce cytoplasmic incompatibility or sex-ratio distortion, two parasitic reproductive phenotypes that facilitate the spread of other Wolbachia strains within insect hosts. Analysis of 221 blood-fed A. coluzzii females collected from houses shows a negative correlation between the presence of Plasmodium parasites and Wolbachia infection. A mathematical model incorporating these results predicts that infection with these endosymbionts may reduce malaria prevalence in human populations. These data suggest that Wolbachia may be an important player in malaria transmission dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27243367

  18. Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work.

    PubMed

    Skrip, Megan M; Seeram, Navindra P; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that experienced during normal activity in an aviary; (2) a supplemented non-exercised group fed a water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant-supplemented diet with no exercise; (3) a non-supplemented exercised group fed a standard diet and trained to perform daily endurance flight for 6 weeks; and (4) a supplemented exercised group fed an antioxidant-supplemented diet and trained to perform daily flight for 6 weeks. After flight training, birds were paired within treatment groups for breeding. We analyzed eggs for lutein and vitamin E concentrations and the plasma of parents throughout the experiment for non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage. Exercised birds had higher oxidative damage levels than non-exercised birds after flight training, despite supplementation with dietary antioxidants. Supplementation with water-soluble antioxidants decreased the deposition of lipid-soluble antioxidants into eggs and decreased yolk size. Flight exercise also lowered deposition of lutein, but not vitamin E, to eggs. These findings have important implications for future studies of wild birds during migration and other oxidative challenges.

  19. Dietary antioxidants and flight exercise in female birds affect allocation of nutrients to eggs: how carry-over effects work.

    PubMed

    Skrip, Megan M; Seeram, Navindra P; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-09-01

    Physiological challenges during one part of the annual cycle can carry over and affect performance at a subsequent phase, and antioxidants could be one mediator of trade-offs between phases. We performed a controlled experiment with zebra finches to examine how songbirds use nutrition to manage trade-offs in antioxidant allocation between endurance flight and subsequent reproduction. Our treatment groups included (1) a non-supplemented, non-exercised group (control group) fed a standard diet with no exercise beyond that experienced during normal activity in an aviary; (2) a supplemented non-exercised group fed a water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant-supplemented diet with no exercise; (3) a non-supplemented exercised group fed a standard diet and trained to perform daily endurance flight for 6 weeks; and (4) a supplemented exercised group fed an antioxidant-supplemented diet and trained to perform daily flight for 6 weeks. After flight training, birds were paired within treatment groups for breeding. We analyzed eggs for lutein and vitamin E concentrations and the plasma of parents throughout the experiment for non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage. Exercised birds had higher oxidative damage levels than non-exercised birds after flight training, despite supplementation with dietary antioxidants. Supplementation with water-soluble antioxidants decreased the deposition of lipid-soluble antioxidants into eggs and decreased yolk size. Flight exercise also lowered deposition of lutein, but not vitamin E, to eggs. These findings have important implications for future studies of wild birds during migration and other oxidative challenges. PMID:27582563

  20. Egg intensity and freeze-thawing of fecal samples affect sensitivity of Echinococcus multilocularis detection by PCR.

    PubMed

    Klein, C; Liccioli, S; Massolo, A

    2014-10-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is one of the most relevant zoonotic parasites with about 18,000 human cases per year. Its detection in wild host is crucial for disease prevention. The present study aimed to determine factors affecting the sensitivity of E. multilocularis detection by PCR using DNA extracted from fecal samples of coyotes (Canis latrans). Fecal samples were screened for the presence of Taeniidae eggs through centrifugation and sedimentation. DNA was extracted from fecal samples with and without prior freeze-thawing of the sample and then subjected to PCR targeting a mitochondrial gene (nad1) and a multi-loci microsatellite marker (EmsB). The presence of PCR inhibitors was determined through internal amplification control. Subjecting the sample to repeated freeze-thaw cycles significantly increased the sensitivity of the PCR by 20%. Likewise, egg intensity had a significant effect on PCR, an effect which was more pronounced for samples not subjected to freeze-thawing. Two or more eggs per gram of feces significantly increased the odds for a positive PCR outcome. The presence of PCR inhibitors had no effect on PCR in samples subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, whereas in samples not subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, the presence of PCR inhibitors was associated with a 0.78 lower odds ratio of positive PCR outcome. Targeting a nuclear versus a mitochondrial gene did not have a significant effect on the sensitivity of PCR. We recommend freeze-thawing samples prior to DNA extraction to become a standard procedure for E. multilocularis detection in canid feces. PMID:25082017

  1. A new type of quinoxalinone derivatives affects viability, invasion, and intracellular growth of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rivera Fernández, Norma; Mondragón Castelán, Mónica; González Pozos, Sirenia; Ramírez Flores, Carlos J; Mondragón González, Ricardo; Gómez de León, Carmen T; Castro Elizalde, Kitzia N; Marrero Ponce, Yovani; Arán, Vicente J; Martins Alho, Miriam A; Mondragón Flores, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    Quinoxalinone derivatives, identified as VAM2 compounds (7-nitroquinoxalin-2-ones), were evaluated against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites of the RH strain. The VAM2 compounds were previously synthesized based on the design obtained from an in silico prediction with the software TOMOCOMD-CARDD. From the ten VAM2 drugs tested, several showed a deleterious effect on tachyzoites. However, VAM2-2 showed the highest toxoplasmicidal activity generating a remarkable decrease in tachyzoite viability (in about 91 %) and a minimal alteration in the host cell. An evident inhibition of host cell invasion by tachyzoites previously treated with VAM2-2 was observed in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, remarkable alterations were observed in the pellicle parasite, such as swelling, roughness, and blebbing. Toxoplasma motility was inhibited, and subpellicular cytoskeleton integrity was altered, inducing a release of its components to the soluble fraction. VAM2-2 showed a clear and specific deleterious effect on tachyzoites viability, structural integrity, and invasive capabilities with limited effects in host cells morphology and viability. VAM2-2 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) was determined as 3.3 μM ± 1.8. Effects of quinoxalinone derivatives on T. gondii provide the basis for a future therapeutical alternative in the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:26888289

  2. A new type of quinoxalinone derivatives affects viability, invasion, and intracellular growth of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rivera Fernández, Norma; Mondragón Castelán, Mónica; González Pozos, Sirenia; Ramírez Flores, Carlos J; Mondragón González, Ricardo; Gómez de León, Carmen T; Castro Elizalde, Kitzia N; Marrero Ponce, Yovani; Arán, Vicente J; Martins Alho, Miriam A; Mondragón Flores, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    Quinoxalinone derivatives, identified as VAM2 compounds (7-nitroquinoxalin-2-ones), were evaluated against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites of the RH strain. The VAM2 compounds were previously synthesized based on the design obtained from an in silico prediction with the software TOMOCOMD-CARDD. From the ten VAM2 drugs tested, several showed a deleterious effect on tachyzoites. However, VAM2-2 showed the highest toxoplasmicidal activity generating a remarkable decrease in tachyzoite viability (in about 91 %) and a minimal alteration in the host cell. An evident inhibition of host cell invasion by tachyzoites previously treated with VAM2-2 was observed in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, remarkable alterations were observed in the pellicle parasite, such as swelling, roughness, and blebbing. Toxoplasma motility was inhibited, and subpellicular cytoskeleton integrity was altered, inducing a release of its components to the soluble fraction. VAM2-2 showed a clear and specific deleterious effect on tachyzoites viability, structural integrity, and invasive capabilities with limited effects in host cells morphology and viability. VAM2-2 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) was determined as 3.3 μM ± 1.8. Effects of quinoxalinone derivatives on T. gondii provide the basis for a future therapeutical alternative in the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  3. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract. PMID:27507502

  4. The food matrix affects the anthocyanin profile of fortified egg and dairy matrices during processing and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Nau, Françoise; Guerin-Dubiard, Catherin; Jardin, Julien; Lechevalier, Valérie; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Guadarrama, Alberto; Tóth, Tamás; Csavajda, Éva; Hingyi, Hajnalka; Karakaya, Sibel; Sibakov, Juhani; Capozzi, Francesco; Bordoni, Alessandra; Dupont, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand to what extent the inclusion of anthocyanins into dairy and egg matrices could affect their stability after processing and their release and solubility during digestion. For this purpose, individual and total anthocyanin content of four different enriched matrices, namely custard dessert, milkshake, pancake and omelettete, was determined after their manufacturing and during in vitro digestion. Results showed that anthocyanin recovery after processing largely varied among matrices, mainly due to the treatments applied and the interactions developed with other food components. In terms of digestion, the present study showed that the inclusion of anthocyanins into food matrices could be an effective way to protect them against intestinal degradation, and also the incorporation of anthocyanins into matrices with different compositions and structures could represent an interesting and effective method to control the delivery of anthocyanins within the different compartments of the digestive tract.

  5. Is it possible to increase the n-3 fatty acid content of eggs without affecting their technological and/or sensorial quality and the laying performance of hens?

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Lessire, M; Meteau, K; Chesneau, G; Guillevic, M; Mourot, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) content of eggs without affecting their sensorial and/or technological properties or the laying performance of hens. Laying hens from line 477 were divided into 5 groups corresponding to 5 different diets over the laying period: control diet (C) and diets containing extruded linseed with a high level of fibre (ELHF), extruded linseed with a low level of fibre (ELLF), microalgae, or a combination of 75% ELLF and 25% MA (ELLF+MA). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the laying performance, hen body weight or egg white viscosity. The egg yolks produced by hens fed the diet containing microalgae were redder than egg yolks from the other groups, suggesting the presence of red pigments in the microalgae preparation. However, the colour difference was low and not perceptible to the human eye. Moreover, colour measurement of egg yolks by sensorial analysis panellists using the Roche colour fan did not reveal a diet effect on this parameter. Egg yolk lipid content was not affected by diet. The egg yolk of hens fed on diets containing linseed and/or microalgae had greater n-3 FA content (×2.5 to 2.9 compared to group C). Linseed mainly increased the linolenic acid content (×3.0 to 3.4 compared to group C) and the microalgae increased the LC n-3 FA content (×4.1 compared to group C). Dietary enrichment with n-3 FA had no effect on the sensorial quality of shell cooked eggs except for the "unusual flavour" criterion for which the score was higher for the MA group compared to the other groups and corresponded to a fishy flavour.

  6. Mutations Affecting Potassium Import Restore the Viability of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holD Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    Mutants lacking the ψ (HolD) subunit of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) have poor viability, but a residual growth allows the isolation of spontaneous suppressor mutations that restore ΔholD mutant viability. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of two suppressor mutations in the trkA and trkE genes, involved in the main E. coli potassium import system. Viability of ΔholD trk mutants is abolished on media with low or high K+ concentrations, where alternative K+ import systems are activated, and is restored on low K+ concentrations by the inactivation of the alternative Kdp system. These findings show that the ΔholD mutant is rescued by a decrease in K+ import. The effect of trk inactivation is additive with the previously identified ΔholD suppressor mutation lexAind that blocks the SOS response indicating an SOS-independent mechanism of suppression. Accordingly, although lagging-strand synthesis is still perturbed in holD trkA mutants, the trkA mutation allows HolD-less Pol III HE to resist increased levels of the SOS-induced bypass polymerase DinB. trk inactivation is also partially additive with an ssb gene duplication, proposed to stabilize HolD-less Pol III HE by a modification of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) binding mode. We propose that lowering the intracellular K+ concentration stabilizes HolD-less Pol III HE on DNA by increasing electrostatic interactions between Pol III HE subunits, or between Pol III and DNA, directly or through a modification of the SSB binding mode; these three modes of action are not exclusive and could be additive. To our knowledge, the holD mutant provides the first example of an essential protein-DNA interaction that strongly depends on K+ import in vivo. PMID:27280472

  7. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920)

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez-Vottelerd, P.; Anton, Y.; Salazar-Lugo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd) effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV) and acid soluble thiols levels (AST) in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill) was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate) were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l-1). We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman’s method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions. PMID:26623384

  8. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920).

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Vottelerd, P; Anton, Y; Salazar-Lugo, R

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Ancistrus brevifilis, which is found in Venezuelan rivers, is considered a potential sentinel fish in ecotoxicological studies. The cadmium (Cd) effect on the mitochondrial viability (MV) and acid soluble thiols levels (AST) in A. brevifilis tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and gill) was evaluated. Forty-two fish with similar sizes and weights were randomly selected, of which 7 fish (with their respective replicate) were exposed for 7 and 30 days to a Cd sublethal concentration (0.1 mg.l(-1)). We determined the MV through a Janus Green B colorimetric assay and we obtained the concentration of AST by Ellman's method. Mitochondrial viability decreased in fish exposed to Cd for 30 days with the liver being the most affected tissue. We also detected a significant decrease in AST levels was in fishes exposed to Cd for 7 days in liver and kidney tissues; these results suggests that AST levels are elevated in some tissues may act as cytoprotective and adaptive alternative mechanism related to the ROS detoxification, maintenance redox status and mitochondrial viability. Organ-specifics variations were observed in both assays. We conclude that the Cd exposure effect on AST levels and MV, vary across fish tissues and is related to the exposure duration, the molecule dynamics in different tissues, the organism and environmental conditions. PMID:26623384

  9. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  10. Factors affecting the efficacy of pressure inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds and seed viability.

    PubMed

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang

    2009-05-31

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure technology as a seed decontamination technology was evaluated. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with approximately 10(5) CFU/g of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were subjected to oscillatory pressure treatments at 600 MPa and 20 degrees C for up to five cycles with a holding time of 2 min/cycle. However, oscillatory pressurization was not able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7. The application of pressure treatment at 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 degrees C in the presence of chemicals such as calcium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, lactic acid or sodium acid sulfate was subsequently investigated and it was demonstrated that this "multiple hurdle" approach was unable to decontaminate alfalfa seeds. Soaking seeds prior to pressure treatment was found to play a critical role on enhancing the pressure inactivation of E. coli O157:H7; seeds soaked in water for 60 min followed by treatment at 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 degrees C were decontaminated and had a germination rate of 91% which was 4% lower than that of the untreated seeds (not statistically significant, P>0.05). It was further demonstrated that a process involving soaking seeds in water for > or = 10 min followed by treatment at 600 MPa for 15 min at 20 degrees C was equally effective with respect to E. coli O157:H7 elimination and viability retention of the seeds.

  11. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells. PMID:27603212

  12. Mugil cephalus roe oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction affects the lipid profile and viability in cancer HeLa and B16F10 cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Piras, A; Nieddu, M; Putzu, D; Cesare Marincola, F; Falchi, A M

    2016-09-14

    We explored the changes in viability and lipid profile occurring in cancer cells, murine melanoma cells (B16F10 cells) and human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa cells), when exposed to 24 h-treatments with an n-3 PUFA-rich oil obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2 from Mugil cephalus processed roe (bottarga). The composition of the major lipid classes of bottarga oil was determined by the (13)C NMR technique. Reversed-phase HPLC with DAD/ELSD detection was performed to analyze cells' total fatty acid profile and the levels of phospholipids, total/free cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and cholesteryl esters. Cell-based fluorescent measurements of intracellular membranes and lipid droplets were performed on bottarga oil-treated cells using the Nile red staining technique. The treatments of cancer cells with bottarga oil reduced the viability and affected the fatty acid profile, with a significant n-3 PUFA increase in treated cells. Mullet roe oil uptake modulated the cancer cell lipid composition, inducing a remarkable incorporation of health beneficial n-3 PUFA in the polar and neutral lipid fractions. Bottarga oil treatment influenced the synthesis of intracellular membranes and accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in cancer cells.

  13. Viability of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in delicatessen salads and hummus as affected by sodium content and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Mann, David A; Beuchat, Larry R

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine survival and growth behavior of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in commercially prepared mayonnaise-based potato salad, macaroni salad, and coleslaw and in hummus (initial mean pH values were 4.80 to 4.94, 4.18 to 4.31, 3.87, and 4.50 to 4.52, respectively) as affected by sodium concentration (133 to 364, 190 to 336, 146 to 272, and 264 to 728 mg/100 g, respectively) and storage at 4 or 10°C for up to 27 days. Salmonella did not grow in any of the test products. Initial populations (2.02 to 2.38 log CFU/g) decreased in coleslaw to undetectable levels (<1 CFU/25 g) within 13 days and in most formulations of macaroni salad within 20 to 27 days. Salmonella survived in highest numbers in potato salad and hummus. The presence of added sodium in macaroni salad stored at 4°C and hummus stored at 4 or 10°C appeared to protect Salmonella against inactivation. L. monocytogenes, at an initial population of 1.86 to 2.23 log CFU/g, did not grow in test products, but with the exception of coleslaw containing sodium at a concentration used in the standard (control) recipe, this pathogen was detected by direct plating (≥ 1.0 log CFU/g) in all products stored at 4 or 10°C for 27 days. L. monocytogenes populations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in potato salad and hummus with no added sodium than in test products with added sodium after storage at 4°C. Sodium concentration did not markedly affect aerobic plate counts over the 27-day storage period. Results confirm that the acidic pH of mayonnaise-based salads and hummus is a major factor preventing growth and influencing rates of inactivation of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. In the absence of added sodium, death of these bacteria may be more rapid. However, in general decreasing or increasing the sodium concentration in selected delicatessen salad and hummus recipes does not markedly affect the behavior of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes when products are stored at 4 or 10

  14. Metformin selectively affects human glioblastoma tumor-initiating cell viability: A role for metformin-induced inhibition of Akt.

    PubMed

    Würth, Roberto; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Gatti, Monica; Bajetto, Adirano; Corsaro, Alessandro; Parodi, Alessia; Sirito, Rodolfo; Massollo, Michela; Marini, Cecilia; Zona, Gianluigi; Fenoglio, Daniela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Filaci, Gilberto; Daga, Antonio; Barbieri, Federica; Florio, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cell theory postulates that a small population of tumor-initiating cells is responsible for the development, progression and recurrence of several malignancies, including glioblastoma. In this perspective, tumor-initiating cells represent the most relevant target to obtain effective cancer treatment. Metformin, a first-line drug for type II diabetes, was reported to possess anticancer properties affecting the survival of cancer stem cells in breast cancer models. We report that metformin treatment reduced the proliferation rate of tumor-initiating cell-enriched cultures isolated from four human glioblastomas. Metformin also impairs tumor-initiating cell spherogenesis, indicating a direct effect on self-renewal mechanisms. Interestingly, analyzing by FACS the antiproliferative effects of metformin on CD133-expressing subpopulation, a component of glioblastoma cancer stem cells, a higher reduction of proliferation was observed as compared with CD133-negative cells, suggesting a certain degree of cancer stem cell selectivity in its effects. In fact, glioblastoma cell differentiation strongly reduced sensitivity to metformin treatment. Metformin effects in tumor-initiating cell-enriched cultures were associated with a powerful inhibition of Akt-dependent cell survival pathway, while this pathway was not affected in differentiated cells. The specificity of metformin antiproliferative effects toward glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells was confirmed by the lack of significant inhibition of normal human stem cells (umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells) in vitro proliferation after metformin exposure. Altogether, these data clearly suggest that metformin exerts antiproliferative activity on glioblastoma cells, showing a higher specificity toward tumor-initiating cells, and that the inhibition of Akt pathway may represent a possible intracellular target of this effect.

  15. Egg-Laying “Intermorphs” in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    PubMed Central

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  16. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  17. Phenotypic developmental plasticity induced by preincubation egg storage in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Branum, Sylvia R; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-02-01

    The developing chicken blastoderm can be temporarily maintained in dormancy below physiological zero temperature. However, prolonged preincubation egg storage impairs normal morphological and physiological development of embryos in a potential example of fetal programming (in this case, "embryonic programming"). We investigated how preincubation egg storage conditions (temperature, duration, hypoxia, and hypercapnia) affects viability, body mass, and physiological variables and functions in day 15 chicken embryos. Embryo viability was impaired in eggs stored for 2 and 3 weeks, with the effects greater at 22°C compared to 15°C. However, embryo size was reduced in eggs stored at 15°C compared with 22°C. Phenotypic change resulting from embryonic programming was evident in the fact that preincubation storage at 15°C diminished hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell concentration ([RBC]), and hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Storage duration at 15°C more severely affected the time course (2, 6, and 24 h) responses of Hct, [RBC], and [Hb] to progressive hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by submersion compared with storage duration at 22°C. The time-specific regulation of acid-base balance was changed progressively with storage duration at both 22 and 15°C preincubation storages. Consequently, preincubation egg storage at 22°C resulted in poor viability compared with eggs stored at 15°C, but size and physiological functions of embryos in eggs stored for 1-2 weeks were worse in eggs stored in the cooler than stored under room conditions. Avian eggs thus prove to be useful for examining developmental consequences to physiology of altered preincubation thermal environment in very early stages of development (embryonic programming). PMID:26908714

  18. Ureaplasma diversum infection in vitro alters prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a production by bovine endometrial cells without affecting cell viability.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J J; Quinn, P A; Fortier, M A

    1994-01-01

    Bovine epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium were inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum, pathogenic strain 2312, at 10(6) or 10(3) color-changing units (ccu)/ml in the presence of 1% fetal bovine serum (depleted of steroids by dextran-charcoal treatment) to assess the effect of infection on prostaglandin biosynthesis. When the inoculum of U. diversum was 10(6) ccu/ml, the concentration of U. diversum in the culture medium decreased with time. U. diversum was found on the epithelial and stromal cell monolayers, increasing in titer 100-fold, indicating that attachment and eventually growth occurred. When the inoculum was 10(3) ccu/ml, the titer of U. diversum remained the same or increased in the supernatant and increased on epithelial and stromal cells. The effect of infection was evaluated by measurement of the primary prostaglandin produced by each cell type, prostaglandin F2a for epithelial cells and prostaglandin E2 for stromal cells. Infection with U. diversum significantly decreased prostaglandin F2a accumulation, by 44.7% +/- 6.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005) and 15.8% +/- 5.3% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.05) in epithelial cells. Prostaglandin E2 accumulation by stromal cells was decreased by 34.0% +/- 4.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.001) and by 13.5% +/- 2.7% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005). Infection with 10(6) ccu/ml did not alter endometrial cell viability, as shown by protein measurement, trypan blue dye exclusion, and cell plating efficiency tests. Thus, alterations in prostaglandin production were not due to cell deterioration. These observations suggest that U. diversum can alter prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a patterns in primary cultures of bovine endometrial cells without affecting cell viability. PMID:8168914

  19. Parental environmental exposure leads to glycometabolic disturbances that affect fertilization of eggs in the silkworm Bombyx mori: the parental transcript legacy.

    PubMed

    Tao, H; Liu, H J; Cheng, Y Q; Sima, Y H; Yin, W M; Xu, S Q

    2015-01-01

    Parental transcript legacy plays an important role in fertilization and development of the early embryo. Parental environmental exposure affects the fertilization of eggs, but the underlying biochemical mechanism is largely unresolved. In this study, the parental environmental effects on fertilization of eggs were explored in the silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), an ideal lepidopteran animal model. The results showed that the rate of fertilization decreased after the parents were exposed to a poor environment at 32 °C with continuous illumination for 72 h on days 6-9 of the pupal stage, which is a key period for germ cell maturation. This was likely attributable to lower energy charge values, obstructed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) regeneration and inactive tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), leading to accumulation of large amounts of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. This effect was related to energy metabolism via glycolysis; in particular disruption of pyruvate metabolism. In conclusion, this study showed parental exposure to an abnormal environment during germ cell maturation affected glycolysis and the subsequent fertilization of eggs via the parental transcript legacy in B. mori.

  20. Illuminance and UV-A exposure during rearing affects egg production in broiler breeders transferred to open-sided adult housing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D; Ghebremariam, W; Gous, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. Broiler breeders were reared in light-proof accommodation on 8-h photoperiods at an illuminance of 10 (W10), 40 (W40) or 100 lux (W100) from warm-white fluorescent lamps, or 10 lux (UV10) from Arcadia bird lamps (white light plus UV-A emission). At 20 weeks, 200 birds from each group were transferred to open-sided housing and a 16-h mixture of natural and warm-white fluorescent light. 2. Mortality during rearing and body weight at 20 weeks were similar for all groups. 3. The W10 birds matured 2 d later, had inferior rates of lay over peak production and laid 9 fewer eggs to 60 weeks than the other groups. Mean egg weight, extra large egg production and mortality between 20 and 60 weeks were unaffected by lighting during the rearing period. The UV10 birds had a significantly better rate of lay between 52 and 60 weeks than any of the groups reared on white light. 4. The findings suggest that ultraviolet radiation does not directly affect hypothalamic activity, but that retinally received UV during the rearing period prolongs the laying cycle through a modification of the hormonal control of photorefractoriness.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Affects Acetic Acid Production during Anaerobic Fermentation of Waste Activated Sludge by Altering Activity and Viability of Acetogen.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jingyang; Chen, Yinguang; Feng, Leiyu

    2016-07-01

    Till now, almost all the studies on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for bioproducts generation focused on the influences of operating conditions, pretreatment methods and sludge characteristics, and few considered those of widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sludge, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Herein, phenanthrene, which was a typical PAH and widespread in WAS, was selected as a model compound to investigate its effect on WAS anaerobic fermentation for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation. Experimental results showed that the concentration of SCFAs derived from WAS was increased in the presence of phenanthrene during anaerobic fermentation. The yield of acetic acid which was the predominant SCFA in the fermentation reactor with the concentration of 100 mg/kg dry sludge was 1.8 fold of that in the control. Mechanism exploration revealed that the present phenanthrene mainly affected the acidification process of anaerobic fermentation and caused the shift of the microbial community to benefit the accumulation of acetic acid. Further investigation showed that both the activities of key enzymes (phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase) involved in acetic acid production and the quantities of their corresponding encoding genes were enhanced in the presence of phenanthrene. Viability tests by determining the adenosine 5'-triphosphate content and membrane potential confirmed that the acetogens were more viable in anaerobic fermentation systems with phenanthrene, which resulted in the increased production of acetic acid. PMID:27267805

  2. The movement and distribution of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae on pea plants is affected by egg placement and flowering.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L E; Cribb, B W; Hanan, J; Zalucki, M P

    2010-10-01

    The distribution and movement of 1st instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on whole garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants were determined in glasshouse trials. This economically-important herbivore attacks a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural and indigenous plants. To investigate the mechanisms underlying larval intra-plant movement, we used early-flowering and wild-type plant genotypes and placed eggs at different vertical heights within the plants, one egg per plant. Leaf water and nitrogen content and cuticle hardness were measured at the different plant heights. Of 92 individual larvae, 41% did not move from the node of eclosion, 49% moved upwards and 10% moved downwards with the distance moved being between zero and ten plant nodes. Larvae from eggs placed on the lower third of the plant left the natal leaf more often and moved further than larvae from eggs placed in the middle or upper thirds. The low nutritive value of leaves was the most likely explanation for more movement away from lower plant regions. Although larvae on flowering plants did not move further up or down than larvae on non-flowering plants, they more often departed the leaflet (within a leaf) where they eclosed. The final distribution of larvae was affected by plant genotype, with larvae on flowering plants found less often on leaflets and more often on stipules, tendrils and reproductive structures. Understanding intra-plant movement by herbivorous insects under natural conditions is important because such movement determines the value of economic loss to host crops. Knowing the behaviour underlying the spatial distribution of herbivores on plants will assist us to interpret field data and should lead to better informed pest management decisions.

  3. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole.

  4. Isolation of Fungi from Heterodera glycines and in vitro Bioassays for Their Antagonism to Eggs.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S L; Huettel, R N; Sayre, R M

    1990-10-01

    Twenty fungi were assayed in vitro for antagonism to eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eight of the fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of H. glycines during the current study, one was isolated from Panagrellus redivivus, and eleven were obtained from other researchers or collections. The bioassays were conducted on eggs from nematodes that had been grown monoxenically on excised root tips. Phoma chrysanthemicola, one strain of Verticillium chlamydosporium, and one strain of V. lecanii caused a decrease (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05, respectively) in the number of viable eggs, although no hyphae were observed colonizing live eggs. Trichoderma polysporum infected live eggs but enhanced (P < 0.05) egg survival. Acremonium bacillisporum, Chaetomium sp., Drechmeria coniospora (two strains), Epicoccum sp., Exophiala jeanselmei, Fusarium sp., Neocosmospora vasinfecta, Scytalidium fulvum, Trichoderma harzianum (two strains), V. chlamydosporium (one strain), V. lecanii (three strains), and an unidentified fungus did not measurably affect egg viability, even though hyphae of five of these fungi were seen in live eggs. The bioassay provides a useful step in the selection of a biological control agent for this major nematode pest. PMID:19287754

  5. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  6. Docosahexaenoic Acid Sensitizes Leukemia Lymphocytes to Barasertib and Everolimus by ROS-dependent Mechanism Without Affecting the Level of ROS and Viability of Normal Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Ivanova, Donika; Lazarova, Desislava; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was: (i) to investigate the possibility of sensitizing leukemia lymphocytes to anticancer drugs using docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); (ii) to find combinations with synergistic cytotoxic effect on leukemia lymphocytes, without or with only very low cytotoxicity towards normal lymphocytes; (iii) and to clarify the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of apoptosis and cytotoxicity by such combinations. The study covered 15 anticancer drugs, conventional and new-generation. Well-expressed synergistic cytotoxic effects were observed after treatment of leukemia lymphocytes (Jurkat) with DHA in combination with: barasertib, lonafarnib, everolimus, and palbociclib. We selected two synergistic combinations, DHA with everolimus or barasertib, and investigated their effects on viability of normal lymphocytes, as well as on the production of ROS and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines (leukemia and normal). At the selected concentrations, DHA, everolimus and barasertib (applied separately) were cytotoxic towards leukemia lymphocytes, but not normal lymphocytes. In leukemia cells, the cytotoxicity of combinations was accompanied by strong induction of apoptosis and production of ROS. In normal lymphocytes, drugs alone and in combination with DHA did not affect the level of ROS and did not induce apoptosis. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report synergistic ROS-dependent cytotoxicity between DHA and new-generation anticancer drugs, such as everolimus and barasertib, that is cancer cell-specific (particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells Jurkat). These combinations are harmless to normal lymphocytes and do not induce abnormal production of ROS in these cells. The data suggest that DHA could be used as a supplementary component in anticancer chemotherapy, allowing therapeutic doses of everolimus and barasertib to be reduced, minimizing their side-effects. PMID:27069145

  7. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  8. Feed form and energy concentration of the diet affect growth performance and digestive tract traits of brown-egg laying pullets from hatching to 17 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, B; Guzmán, P; Cámara, L; García, J; Mateos, G G

    2015-08-01

    The influence of feed form and energy concentration of the diet on growth performance and the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was studied in brown-egg laying pullets. Diets formed a 2 x 5 factorial with 2 feed forms (mash vs. crumbles) and 5 levels of energy differing in 50 kcal AMEn/kg. For the entire study (0 to 17 wk of age) feeding crumbles increased ADFI (52.9 vs. 49.7 g; P < 0.001) and ADG (12.7 vs. 11.6 g; P < 0.001) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR; 4.18 vs. 4.27; P < 0.001). An increase in the energy content of the diet decreased ADFI linearly (P < 0.001) and improved FCR quadratically (P < 0.01) but energy intake (kcal AMEn/d) was not affected. BW uniformity was higher (P < 0.05) in pullets fed crumbles than in those fed mash but was not affected (P > 0.05) by energy content of the diet. At 5, 10, and 17 wk of age, the relative weight (RW, % BW) of the GIT and the gizzard, and gizzard digesta content were lower (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) and gizzard pH was higher (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) in pullets fed crumbles than in pullets fed mash. Energy concentration of the diet did not affect any of the GIT variables studied. In summary, feeding crumbles improved pullet performance and reduced the RW of the GIT and gizzard, and increased gizzard pH at all ages. An increase in the energy content of the diet improved FCR from 0 to 17 wk of age. The use of crumbles and the increase in the AMEn content of the diet might be used adventageously when the objetive is to increase the BW of the pullets. However, crumbles affected the development and weight of the organs of the GIT, which might have negative effects on feed intake and egg production at the beginning of the egg laying cycle.

  9. A quantitative survey of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAS) in intertidal egg masses from temperate rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Przeslawski, R; Benkendorff, K; Davis, A R

    2005-10-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) have been reported as functional chemical sunscreens in a variety of marine organisms, but their role in development of marine embryos and larvae remains largely unexplored. In this study, we quantified MAAs from intertidal egg masses of 46 species of mollusks, two species of polychaetes, and one species of fish from southeastern Australia. We aimed to elucidate potential patterns of occurrence and variation based on egg mass maturity, adult diet, spawning habitat, phylogeny, and viability. Our analyses revealed that maturity and spawning habitat did not affect MAA composition within egg masses. In contrast, adult diet, phylogeny, and viability affected MAA composition. Herbivores had higher levels of certain MAAs than carnivores; similarly, viable egg masses had higher levels of some MAAs than inviable ones. MAA composition varied according to the taxonomic group, with nudibranchs and anaspids showing different MAA composition compared to that of neogastropods, sacoglossans, and polychaetes. Basommatophoran egg masses had more porphyra-334 than the other taxa, and anaspids had more mycosporine-2-glycine than the other groups. MAAs occurred in relatively high concentrations in intertidal molluskan egg masses when compared to adult mollusks and other common intertidal organisms. Despite the complexity of factors affecting MAA composition, the prevalence of MAAs in some species is consistent with protection afforded to offspring against negative effects of UV radiation. PMID:16195852

  10. Effects of experimentally increased in ovo lysozyme on egg hatchability, chicks complement activity, and phenotype in a precocial bird.

    PubMed

    Javůrková, Veronika; Krkavcová, Eva; Kreisinger, Jakub; Hyršl, Pavel; Hyánková, Ludmila

    2015-10-01

    In birds, spectrum of egg white proteins deposited into the egg during its formation are thought to be essential maternal effects. Particularly, egg white lysozyme (LSM), exhibiting great between and within species variability, is considered to be essential for developing avian embryos due to its physiological, antimicrobial, and innate immune defense functions. However, there have been few studies investigating effects of LSM on early post-hatching phenotype, despite its broad physiological and protective role during embryogenesis. Here, we test how experimentally increased concentrations of egg white LSM affect hatchability in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and chick phenotype immediately after hatching (particularly body weight, tarsus length, plasma LSM concentration, and plasma complement activity). Chicks from eggs with increased LSM concentration displayed reduced tarsus length compared to chicks from control eggs while hatchability, body weight and plasma LSM concentration were unaffected. It is worth noting that no effect of increased in ovo lysozyme on eggs hatchability could be related to pathogen-free environment during artificial incubation of experimental eggs causing minimal pressure on embryo viability. While tangible in vivo mechanisms during avian embryogenesis remain to be tested, our study is the first to document experimentally that egg white LSM appears to have growth-regulation role during embryo development, with possible underlying phenotypic consequences in the early post-hatching period in precocial birds.

  11. Acid adaptation affects the viability of Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14846 and Salmonella Typhimurium BCRC 10747 exposed to disinfectants at 25°C and 40°C.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Hsuan; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, Listeria monocytogenes BCRC 14846 and Salmonella Typhimurium BCRC 10747 were subjected to acid adaptation at pH 5.5 at 37°C for 1 and 4 h, respectively. The viability of the acid-adapted cells of test organisms exposed to Clidox-S, a chlorine-containing disinfectant, and Quatricide, a quaternary ammonium compound, was examined and compared with that of the control cells at 25°C and 40°C. Results revealed that acid adaptation significantly enhanced the viability of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium exposed to the disinfectants under investigation. Both pathogens examined were more susceptible to Clidox-S and Quatricide at 40°C than at 25°C. Further, L. monocytogenes was more susceptible to Quatricide than Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was more susceptible to Clidox-S than L. monocytogenes.

  12. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... out. If it's not treated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Egg allergy usually first shows up when kids are very young. Most kids outgrow an egg allergy by the time they're 5 years old, but some people stay allergic. The viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken ...

  13. Stressor timing, not cortisol, is an important embryo viability determinant in female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, L R; Elliott, M; Nagler, J J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the timing of elevated cortisol levels in adult female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, achieved by silastic implants within the body cavity, had an effect on embryo viability. Cortisol-implanted fish experienced a significant increase in circulating levels of plasma cortisol compared with sham-implanted fish, and plasma cortisol remained elevated relative to sham-implanted fish for 4 months in each of the three treatment groups (0-4, 4-8 and 8-12 months). There were no significant differences in embryo viability, egg diameters or plasma 17β-oestradiol levels between the cortisol and sham-implanted treatments in any of the groups. There was a significant difference in the number of subfertile females (<80% embryo viability) when the three treatments were compared. The majority of the females (75%) implanted immediately postspawn (0-4 months) produced subfertile eggs, which was significantly higher than those treated 4-8 (33%) or 8-12 (17%) months postspawn. These results imply that silastic implantation can affect oocyte development, independent of plasma cortisol levels, leading to a reduction in embryo viability.

  14. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  15. In Vitro Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Different Storage Media.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Forty-five mature premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups according to the storage medium: milk (control), rice water and egg white. After placing extracted teeth for 30 min in storage media, the scrapings of the periodontal ligament (PDL) were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffer saline and were incubated for 30 min and centrifuged for 5 min at 800 rpm. Cell viability was analyzed by Trypan blue exclusion. Rice water had a significantly higher number of viable cells compared to egg white and milk. There was no statistically significant difference between egg white and milk. Rice water may be able to maintain PDL cell viability of avulsed teeth better than egg white or milk. PMID:27652702

  16. The conditioned medium from osteo-differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells affects the viability of triple negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Librizzi, Mariangela; Tobiasch, Edda; Luparello, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of conditioned media (CM) from osteo-differentiating and adipo-differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from lipoaspirates of healthy female donors on the viability of triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB231. The CM of undifferentiated and differentiating MSCs were collected after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of culture. The effects of MSC CM on cell proliferation were assessed using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 24 h. The effects of osteo-differentiating cell CM on apoptotic promotion, cell cycle impairment, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, production of reactive oxygen species and autophagosome accumulation were analysed by flow cytometry and Western blot. MTT assay showed that only CM collected from osteo-induced cells at day 28 (d28O-CM) reduced tumour cell viability. Treatment with d28O-CM restrained cell cycle progression through G2 phase, elicited a caspase-8-driven apoptotic effect already after 5 h of culture, and down-regulated autophagosome accumulation and beclin-1 expression. The finding that factor(s) secreted by osteo-differentiating MSCs shows properties of an apoptotic inducer and autophagy inhibitor on triple-negative breast cancer cells may have an important applicative potential that deserves further investigation.

  17. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  18. Photosynthesis, water use, and root viability under water stress as affected by expression of SAG12-ipt controlling cytokinin synthesis in Agrostis stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Merewitz, Emily B; Gianfagna, Thomas; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    Water stress reduces endogenous cytokinin (CK) content and may inhibit CK production. Maintenance of endogenous CK levels by genetic transformation with ipt in leaves and roots undergoing senescence may promote stress tolerance. This study was designed to determine the physiological effects of ipt expression on immature and mature leaves and in roots for plants exposed to different levels of water stress for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants containing the ipt gene, encoding the enzyme adenine isopentenyl phosphotransferase for CK synthesis ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12), and wild-type 'Penncross' (WT) were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber and exposed to water stress by weekly additions of polyethylene glycol 8000 to reduce the growing solution osmotic potential from -0.05 to -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -1.0, and -1.4 MPa. Immature and mature leaves and roots of SAG12-ipt creeping bentgrass were evaluated for ipt expression, CK content, leaf relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content (Chl), photochemical efficiency (F(v)F(m)), osmotic adjustment (OA), photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), and root viability. Expression of ipt was detected in all plant parts and a higher CK content, primarily in the form of isopentyladenine (iPa), was found in SAG12-ipt plants but not in the WT plants under water stress. Immature leaves exhibited higher iPa and OA at all treatment levels. Mature leaves of SAG12-ipt plants maintained higher OA, Pn, Chl, WUE, and Δ, whereas g(s) and E were relatively unaffected compared to the WT. Roots of SAG12-ipt plants had higher levels of iPa and greater root viability than the WT. The results demonstrate that expression of ipt enhanced the tolerance of creeping bentgrass to water stress, which could be attributed to the positive effects on osmotic adjustment, efficient water use, and maintaining higher

  19. Photosynthesis, water use, and root viability under water stress as affected by expression of SAG12-ipt controlling cytokinin synthesis in Agrostis stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Merewitz, Emily B.; Gianfagna, Thomas; Huang, Bingru

    2011-01-01

    Water stress reduces endogenous cytokinin (CK) content and may inhibit CK production. Maintenance of endogenous CK levels by genetic transformation with ipt in leaves and roots undergoing senescence may promote stress tolerance. This study was designed to determine the physiological effects of ipt expression on immature and mature leaves and in roots for plants exposed to different levels of water stress for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants containing the ipt gene, encoding the enzyme adenine isopentenyl phosphotransferase for CK synthesis ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12), and wild-type ‘Penncross’ (WT) were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber and exposed to water stress by weekly additions of polyethylene glycol 8000 to reduce the growing solution osmotic potential from –0.05 to –0.3, –0.5, –0.7, –1.0, and –1.4 MPa. Immature and mature leaves and roots of SAG12-ipt creeping bentgrass were evaluated for ipt expression, CK content, leaf relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content (Chl), photochemical efficiency (FvFm), osmotic adjustment (OA), photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), and root viability. Expression of ipt was detected in all plant parts and a higher CK content, primarily in the form of isopentyladenine (iPa), was found in SAG12-ipt plants but not in the WT plants under water stress. Immature leaves exhibited higher iPa and OA at all treatment levels. Mature leaves of SAG12-ipt plants maintained higher OA, Pn, Chl, WUE, and Δ, whereas gs and E were relatively unaffected compared to the WT. Roots of SAG12-ipt plants had higher levels of iPa and greater root viability than the WT. The results demonstrate that expression of ipt enhanced the tolerance of creeping bentgrass to water stress, which could be attributed to the positive effects on osmotic adjustment, efficient water use, and maintaining

  20. [Denaturation of egg antigens by cooking].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Akaboshi, Chie; Sekido, Haruko; Tanaka, Kouki; Tanaka, Kazuko; Shimojo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Changes in egg protein contents by cooking were measured with an ELISA kit using Tris-HCl buffer in model foods including cake, meatballs, pasta and pudding made with whole egg, egg-white and egg-yolk. The egg protein contents were lowest in the deep-fried model foods of cakes and meatballs. Ovalbumin (OVA) was undetectable (<1 µg/g) and ovomucoid (OVM) was lowest in pouched meatballs, suggesting that processing temperature and uniform heat-treatment affect the detection of egg protein. Furthermore, egg protein contents were below 6 µg/g in the pouched meatballs and pasta made with egg-yolk, and OVA and OVM were not detected by Western blotting analysis with human IgE from patients' serum. On the other hand, processed egg proteins were detected with an ELISA kit using a surfactant and reductant in the extract buffer.

  1. Surviving a flood: effects of inundation period, temperature and embryonic development stage in locust eggs.

    PubMed

    Woodman, J D

    2015-08-01

    The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker), is an important agricultural pest and oviposits into compacted soil across vast semi-arid and arid regions prone to irregular heavy summer rainfall. This study aimed to quantify the effects of flooding (control, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days) at different temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C) and embryonic development stages (25 and 75%) on egg viability, hatchling nymph body mass and survival to second-instar. Egg viability after flooding was dependent on temperature and flood duration. Eggs inundated at 15°C showed ≥53.5% survival regardless of flood duration and development stage compared with ≤29.6% for eggs at 25°C for ≥21 days early in development and ≥14 days late in development. Hatchling nymphs did not differ in body mass relative to temperature or flood duration, but weighed more from eggs inundated early in development rather than late. Survival to second-instar was ≤55.1% at 15 and 20°C when eggs were flooded for ≥28 days late in development, ≤35.6% at 25°C when flooded for ≥28 days early in development, and zero when flooded for ≥21 days late in development. These results suggest that prolonged flooding in summer and early autumn may cause very high egg mortality and first-instar nymph mortality of any survivors, but is likely to only ever affect a small proportion of the metapopulation. More common flash flooding for ≤14 days is unlikely to cause high mortality and have any direct effect on distribution and abundance. PMID:25827579

  2. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance.

  3. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  4. Cholesterol level determines viability and mitogenicity, but it does not affect sodium butyrate-dependent sensitization of Colo 205 cells to TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Orzechowska, S; Pajak, B; Gajkowska, B; Orzechowski, A

    2011-02-01

    Transient treatment of human adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells with lipit raft (LR) modulators (MßCD, NY, IMP) was followed by the challenge with metabolic inhibitors and selected anti-cancer drugs. To overturn cholesterol chelation, the MßCD, NY treatment was followed by cholesterol conjugates (CHOL-MßCD or CHOL-PEG). The TNF-α- and P(Ser473)-PKB/Akt1/2-mediated effects initiated at LR were evaluated with regard to cell viability and mitogenicity. Cholesterol chelators reversibly reduced cell survival, whereas some of the tested compounds had weak effects (CIS, CLA), stimulated (EGCG) or reduced (NaB) cell survival. Cellular localizations of LR-associated molecules (ceramides, Gαi-2 heterotrimeric protein, and TNF-R1) in different cellular compartments including the plasma membrane were observed in the respective photographs from TEM and SEM. Evidence from SEM also showed that TNF-R1 is clustered on the surface of COLO 205 cells without presence of cognate ligand but clustering is promoted by TNF-α, while it vanished after IMP treatment. COLO 205 cells remained immune to TNF-α-induced apoptosis unless NaB was added, in which case NaB-induced cell death was further potentiated by TNF-α. Combined NaB and TNF-α treatment was associated with marked changes in the expression of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that initial excess of prosurvival signals could be diminished by cholesterol chelators, whereas LR-independent cell survival could be targeted by NaB. Apparently, lipid rafts do not participate in NaB-dependent cell death.

  5. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  6. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells. PMID:27681649

  7. Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) did not affect cell viability despite increased androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene expression in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Cardenas, H; Orihuela, P A

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aqueous extract of Lepidium meyenii (red Maca) could inhibit growth, potentiate apoptotic activity of two anticancer drugs Taxol and 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) or change mRNA expression for the androgen target genes, androgen receptor (Ar) and prostate-specific antigen (Psa) in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Red Maca aqueous extract at 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml was added to LNCaP cells, and viability was evaluated by the MTS assay at 24 or 48 hr after treatment. Furthermore, LNCaP cells were treated with 80 μg/ml of red Maca plus Taxol or 2ME 5 μM and viability was assessed 48 hr later. Finally, LNCaP cells were treated with red Maca 0, 20, 40 or 80 μg/ml, and 12 hr later, mRNA level for Ar or Psa was assessed by real-time PCR. Treatment with red Maca did not affect viability of LNCaP cells. Apoptotic activity induced by Taxol and 2ME in LNCaP cells was not altered with red Maca treatment. Relative expression of the mRNA for Ar and Psa increased with red Maca 20 and 40 μg/ml, but not at 80 μg/ml. We conclude that red Maca aqueous extract does not have toxic effects, but stimulates androgen signalling in LNCaP cells.

  8. Frequency-dependent viability in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Curtsinger, J W; Sheen, F M

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the effects of genotypic frequencies on egg-to-adult viabilities in pairwise combinations of four strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The experiments involved mixture of a total of 42,000 eggs in varying proportions under controlled densities and observation of surviving adults. Viabilities were found to depend on frequencies in several genotypic combinations. In the most extreme case, the absolute viability of cn;bw females increased monotonically from 54% when common to 70% when rare. The results illustrate several statistical and methodological problems that might explain why some experiments have failed to detect frequency-dependent viabilities. These problems include heterogeneity between replications, sex differences in susceptibility to competition, and strong dependence of the experimental outcome on the choice of competitor genotypes. PMID:1901577

  9. A multi-pronged approach to the search for an alternative to formaldehyde as an egg disinfectant without affecting worker health, hatching, or broiler production parameters.

    PubMed

    Keïta, A; Huneau-Salaün, A; Guillot, A; Galliot, P; Tavares, M; Puterflam, J

    2016-07-01

    Research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of 4 hatching eggs disinfection processes (i.e., disinfecting products and administration method) using a multi-pronged approach assessing the reduction of microbial eggshell contamination, the effects on worker exposure, hatching results and broiler performance, and, finally, suitability for use in commercial hatcheries. The 4 disinfection processes were: sodium dichlorocyanurate (DC) by thermonebulization, hydrogen peroxide 6% by nebulization (HP6), electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) by fogging, and hydrogen peroxide 30% vapor (HP30). In order to meet commercial hatchery conditions, the tested products were applied in an experimental hatchery by aerial disinfection in a dedicated room, not sprayed directly onto the eggs. Compared to the untreated control group, eggshell microbial load was significantly decreased by over 1 log10 cfu per egg in groups DC and HP30. These results were confirmed during a second experiment. In addition, these 2 products comply with legal requirements on worker exposure. Fertility and hatching results were significantly higher in group HP30 than in group DC, with no impact on chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Under these study conditions, the disinfection process (i.e., administration of the product, contact with the eggs and aeration) lasted 65 min in group DC vs. 135 min in group HP30. When considering commercial hatchery conditions, this difference in application time confers a clear advantage on the DC process. Moreover, the investment required for HP30 is much higher than for DC. Overall, HP30 presented a clear advantage for hatching results whereas DC is a relatively more practical and less expensive disinfection process. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of hydrogen peroxide vapor as an egg disinfection process. Further research is needed to confirm the results of this study under commercial hatchery conditions. PMID:26944969

  10. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  11. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  12. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  13. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-01

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p < 0.05) the rate of egg laying, day egg weight, mean egg weight, egg Se content, and egg GPX activity but also decreased (p < 0.05) the feed:egg ratio and egg cholesterol content. The egg Se content was gradually increased (p < 0.05) along with the increasing level of dietary Se. The SP supplementation also slowed down (p < 0.05) the drop of Haugh units (HU) of eggs stored at room temperature. The egg GPX activity had a positive correlation (p < 0.01) with egg Se content and a negative correlation (p < 0.01) with egg HU drop. These results suggested that Se contents, GPX activity, and HU of eggs were affected by the dietary Se level, whereas the egg-laying performance and egg cholesterol content were affected by the dietary probiotics. It was concluded that this SP is an effective feed additive that combines the organic Se benefit for hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:21942342

  14. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  15. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  16. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  17. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  18. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  19. Analysis of the effect of soil saprophytic fungi on the eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis.

    PubMed

    Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Hernández, José A; Arroyo, Fabián L; Miguélez, Silvia; Romasanta, Ángel; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Arias, María S

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a soil-transmitted helminth mainly found in raccoons (Procyon lotor) which can also affect other domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as humans, when the eggs released in the feces of parasitized raccoons are accidentally ingested. Three assays have been conducted to assess the effect of three saprophytic fungi, Mucor circinelloides, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Verticillium sp., on the eggs of B. procyonis. Firstly, their ovicidal effect was in vitro ascertained by placing 1 mL with 2 × 10(6) spores of each fungus in Petri plates with water-agar (2 %) and simultaneously adding 200 eggs of Baylisascaris/plate. Two in vivo probes were carried out, by spraying the fungal spores (3 mL containing about 2 × 10(6) spores/mL) on the feces of raccoons and coatis (Nasua narica) passing eggs of B. procyonis in a zoological park; the other assay consisted of evaluating the activity of the fungi after adding sand to fecal samples from raccoons. An ovicidal type 3 activity characterized by morphological damage of the eggshell with hyphal penetration, internal egg colonization, and embryo alteration was observed for all the tested fungi. In the plate assays, viability of Baylisascaris eggs reduced significantly by 53-69 % with Mucor, 45-62 % with Paecilomyces, and 52-67 % with Verticillium. A similar ovicidal effect was detected in the feces with sand. These results demonstrate the usefulness of spraying spores of M. circinelloides, Pa. lilacinus, or Verticillium sp. on the feces of animals infected by Baylisascaris to decrease the numbers of viable eggs and, thus, the risk of infection.

  20. Fate of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Salmonella enterica on the surface of eggs as affected by chicken feces, storage temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhyung; Choi, Seonyeong; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    We compared the microbiological quality of chicken eggshells obtained from a traditional wholesale market and a modern supermarket. We also determined the survival and growth characteristics of naturally occurring mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and artificially inoculated Salmonella enterica on eggshells under various environmental conditions (presence of chicken feces, temperature [4, 12, or 25 °C], and relative humidity [RH; 43 or 85%]). The populations of MAB, coliforms, and molds and yeasts on eggshells purchased from a traditional wholesale market were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher than those from a modern supermarket. In the second study, when we stored uninoculated eggs under various storage conditions, the population of MAB on eggshells (4.7-4.9 log CFU/egg) remained constant for 21 days, regardless of storage conditions. However, when eggshells were inoculated with S. enterica and stored under the same conditions, populations of the pathogen decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) under all tested conditions. Survival of S. enterica increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in the presence of feces, at low temperatures, and at low RH. These observations will be of value when predicting the behavior of microorganisms on eggshells and selecting storage conditions that reduce the populations of S. enterica on eggshells during distribution.

  1. Influence of freshwater flows on the distribution of eggs and larvae of black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri within a drought-affected estuary.

    PubMed

    Williams, J; Hindell, J S; Swearer, S E; Jenkins, G P

    2012-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that variable freshwater flow in the Gippsland Lakes, Australia, influences the location and extent of environmental conditions suitable for spawning and larval development of black bream, Acanthopagrus butcheri. Freshwater flow had a large influence on the salinity and level of stratification (difference between bottom and surface salinity) in the Gippsland Lakes. Freshwater flows throughout this study varied from no or low flows through to major flooding in 2007. Eggs of A. butcheri were found in similar concentrations throughout the lakes and rivers. More than 99% of larvae, however, were collected from within rivers, with very few larvae being collected from the lakes. A comparison of two spawning seasons revealed that the year with higher freshwater flows also had greater spawning activity and higher concentrations of larvae. Interestingly, there was a significant relationship between the distribution of eggs and larvae with the level of stratification. The highest concentrations of larvae occurred at sites with a difference in bottom and surface salinities of 15-20. This study demonstrates that despite A. butcheri spawning in the lakes and rivers, it is only locations with a halocline that function as larval nursery habitat. PMID:22551182

  2. EGGS and SCIENCE in Katmandu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Georgeanne; Lonsdale, Stephen M.

    1986-01-01

    Provides examples of science experiments and demonstrations that are centered on the theme of eggs. Activity explanations include: (1) the floating egg; (2) egg-in-the-bottle; (3) walking on eggs; and (4) egg balancing. (ML)

  3. Equine Metabolic Syndrome Affects Viability, Senescence, and Stress Factors of Equine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells: New Insight into EqASCs Isolated from EMS Horses in the Context of Their Aging

    PubMed Central

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Basinska, Katarzyna; Czyrek, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Currently, equine metabolic syndrome (EMS), an endocrine disease linked to insulin resistance, affects an increasing number of horses. However, little is known about the effect of EMS on mesenchymal stem cells that reside in adipose tissue (ASC). Thus it is crucial to evaluate the viability and growth kinetics of these cells, particularly in terms of their application in regenerative medicine. In this study, we investigated the proliferative capacity, morphological features, and accumulation of oxidative stress factors in mesenchymal stem cells isolated from healthy animals (ASCN) and horses suffering from EMS (ASCEMS). ASCEMS displayed senescent phenotype associated with β-galactosidase accumulation, enlarged cell bodies and nuclei, increased apoptosis, and reduced heterochromatin architecture. Moreover, we observed increased amounts of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these cells, accompanied by reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. We also found in ASCEMS an elevated number of impaired mitochondria, characterized by membrane raptures, disarrayed cristae, and vacuole formation. Our results suggest that the toxic compounds, accumulating in the mitochondria under oxidative stress, lead to alternations in their morphology and may be partially responsible for the senescent phenotype and decreased proliferation potential of ASCEMS. PMID:26682006

  4. Eggs under pressure: components of water potential of chameleon eggs during incubation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Geoffrey K; Andrews, Robin M; Noble, Lydia M

    2010-01-01

    Water exchange of squamate eggs is driven by the difference between the water potentials of eggs and of their nest environment. While osmotic potential is generally assumed to dominate the net water potential of eggs, resistance of the eggshell to stretching also affects egg water potential. We therefore determined osmotic potentials and pressure potentials (mechanical pressure) of eggs of the veiled chameleon Chamaeleo calyptratus over the course of incubation. Because embryos are diapausing gastrulae when eggs are laid and diapause persists several months, the water potential of eggs can be evaluated before it is influenced by the developing embryo. Water uptake during the first 2 wk of incubation was rapid as a result of the large difference between the total water potential of the egg (-848 kPa) and that of its incubation substrate. After about 2 wk, water potential of the egg stabilized at -460 kPa. By day 80 of incubation, the developing embryo and allantois affected water exchange of the egg. The allantoic fluid was initially very dilute, but its osmotic potential decreased to about -200 kPa by the end of incubation. Pressure potential of the egg averaged 25 kPa, with no systematic trend during incubation. The pressure potential exerted by the eggshell reduced the difference between the water potential of the egg and the water potential of the environment, that is, the ability of eggs to take up water. At the time of oviposition, this effect was relatively small, producing a 4%-6% reduction in water potential difference. Once the yolk osmotic potential stabilized, however, the reduction was 12% or more. This observation means that the dynamics of water uptake by squamate eggs cannot be fully understood without consideration of the pressure that is exerted on the contents of eggs by their shells.

  5. Intraspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito eggs of Australian origin.

    PubMed

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes preferentially oviposit in natural and artificial receptacles where their eggs are able to withstand drying as water levels fluctuate. Desiccation-resistant eggs also increase the potential for establishment in non-native habitats while providing logistical impediments to control programs. Viability and mean survival times of eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days were investigated among three field-derived colonies of Australian Ae. aegypti to understand variation in desiccation survival. Further investigations compared egg survival between an established colony and its wild counterpart. Our results confirmed that Ae. aegypti eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods of time with approximately 2-15% egg viability recorded after one year and viability remaining above 88% under all conditions through 56 days. Intraspecific variations in egg survival times were recorded, suggesting local adaptation while each of the colonies demonstrated a consistent preference for higher humidity. Egg volume varied between the populations, suggesting a relationship between egg volume and survival time, with the marginally larger eggs (Charters Towers and Innisfail) having greater desiccation resistance over the range of conditions. The strong survivorship of Charters Towers eggs in dry, warm conditions demonstrates the adaptive significance of a desiccation-resistant egg. PMID:26611964

  6. Intraspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito eggs of Australian origin.

    PubMed

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes preferentially oviposit in natural and artificial receptacles where their eggs are able to withstand drying as water levels fluctuate. Desiccation-resistant eggs also increase the potential for establishment in non-native habitats while providing logistical impediments to control programs. Viability and mean survival times of eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days were investigated among three field-derived colonies of Australian Ae. aegypti to understand variation in desiccation survival. Further investigations compared egg survival between an established colony and its wild counterpart. Our results confirmed that Ae. aegypti eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods of time with approximately 2-15% egg viability recorded after one year and viability remaining above 88% under all conditions through 56 days. Intraspecific variations in egg survival times were recorded, suggesting local adaptation while each of the colonies demonstrated a consistent preference for higher humidity. Egg volume varied between the populations, suggesting a relationship between egg volume and survival time, with the marginally larger eggs (Charters Towers and Innisfail) having greater desiccation resistance over the range of conditions. The strong survivorship of Charters Towers eggs in dry, warm conditions demonstrates the adaptive significance of a desiccation-resistant egg.

  7. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  8. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  9. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  10. Irradiation of shell egg on the physicochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white.

    PubMed

    Min, B; Nam, K C; Jo, C; Ahn, D U

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of irradiation of shell eggs on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white during storage. Color and textural parameters of irradiated liquid egg white after cooking were also determined. Shell eggs were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 kGy using a linear accelerator. Egg white was separated from yolk and stored in at 4°C up to 14 d. Viscosity, pH, turbidity, foaming properties, color, and volatile profile of liquid egg white, and color and texture properties of cooked egg white were determined at 0, 7, and 14 d of storage. Irradiation increased the turbidity but decreased viscosity of liquid egg white. Foaming capacity and foam stability were not affected by irradiation at lower dose (2.5 kGy), but were deteriorated at higher doses (≥5.0 kGy) of irradiation. Sulfur-containing volatiles were generated by irradiation and their amounts increased as the irradiation dose increased. However, the sulfur volatiles disappeared during storage under aerobic conditions. Lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased, but greenness (-a* value) increased in cooked egg white in irradiation dose-dependent manners. All textural parameters (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) of cooked egg white increased as the irradiation dose increased, but those changes were marginal. Our results indicated that irradiation of shell egg at lower doses (up to 2.5 kGy) had little negative impact on the physiochemical and functional properties of liquid egg white, but can improve the efficiency of egg processing due to its viscosity-lowering effect. Therefore, irradiation of shell eggs at the lower doses has high potential to be used by the egg processing industry to improve the safety of liquid egg without compromising its quality.

  11. The Egg Joust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  12. Polyandry increases offspring viability and mother productivity but does not decrease mother survival in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Gowaty, Patricia Adair; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Rawlings, Jessica; Anderson, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Polyandrous mating is common, but the benefits for females of polyandry remain controversial. To test whether mating with multiple males affects female fitness, we compared lifetime components of fitness of three experimental sets of Drosophila pseudoobscura females: monogamous females allowed to copulate one time (MOC); monogamous females held with a male over her entire life and experiencing many copulations (MMC); and polyandrous females with a different male over each day of their lives and also experiencing many copulations (PMC). Consistent with previous studies in this species, females in treatments in which multiple copulations occurred, MMC and PMC, had offspring with significantly higher egg-to-adult survival (i.e., offspring viability) and higher numbers of adult offspring (i.e., productivity) than MOC females, showing that multiple inseminations enhance offspring and mother fitness. In addition, although MMC females laid significantly more eggs than polyandrous (PMC) females, percent egg-to-adult survival and number of adult offspring were higher for PMC than MMC females, showing that polyandrous mating enhances the fitness of females more than multiply mating with only one male. Inconsistent with the cost of reproduction, lifespan was not significantly longer for MOC females than for MMC or PMC females. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine simultaneously in outbred WT Drosophila pseudoobscura the lifetime costs and benefits to females of polyandry, monogamy with a single copulation, and monogamy with repeat copulations. PMID:20643932

  13. Polyandry increases offspring viability and mother productivity but does not decrease mother survival in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    PubMed

    Gowaty, Patricia Adair; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Rawlings, Jessica; Anderson, W W

    2010-08-01

    Polyandrous mating is common, but the benefits for females of polyandry remain controversial. To test whether mating with multiple males affects female fitness, we compared lifetime components of fitness of three experimental sets of Drosophila pseudoobscura females: monogamous females allowed to copulate one time (MOC); monogamous females held with a male over her entire life and experiencing many copulations (MMC); and polyandrous females with a different male over each day of their lives and also experiencing many copulations (PMC). Consistent with previous studies in this species, females in treatments in which multiple copulations occurred, MMC and PMC, had offspring with significantly higher egg-to-adult survival (i.e., offspring viability) and higher numbers of adult offspring (i.e., productivity) than MOC females, showing that multiple inseminations enhance offspring and mother fitness. In addition, although MMC females laid significantly more eggs than polyandrous (PMC) females, percent egg-to-adult survival and number of adult offspring were higher for PMC than MMC females, showing that polyandrous mating enhances the fitness of females more than multiply mating with only one male. Inconsistent with the cost of reproduction, lifespan was not significantly longer for MOC females than for MMC or PMC females. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine simultaneously in outbred WT Drosophila pseudoobscura the lifetime costs and benefits to females of polyandry, monogamy with a single copulation, and monogamy with repeat copulations.

  14. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    PubMed

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  15. Life-history consequences of egg size in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R B; French, V; Partridge, L

    1997-08-01

    We used a novel approach to study the effects of egg size on offspring fitness components in Drosophila melanogaster. Populations that differed genetically in egg size were crossed, and the female offspring from these reciprocal crosses were examined for life-history traits. These flies expressed effects of egg size, because they developed from eggs of different sizes as a result of maternal genetic effects, but displayed an equivalent range of nuclear genetic variation. The crosses used four independent pairs of outbred populations that differed in the pattern of covariation between egg size and life-history traits, so that the maternal genetic effects of egg size on offspring characters could be contrasted to the associations present among the parental populations. Egg size showed positive maternal genetic effects on embryonic viability and development rate, hatchling weight and feeding rate, and egg-larva and egg-adult development rate but no consistent effects on larval competitive ability, adult weight, or egg size in the offspring. Our method revealed a pattern of causality that could not be deduced from interpopulation comparisons and therefore provides a good way of disentangling the causes and consequences of variation in egg size while controlling for zygotic genetic effects.

  16. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  17. Environmental constraints influencing survival of an African parasite in a north temperate habitat: effects of temperature on egg development.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, R C; York, J E; Everard, A L E; Stott, L C; Chapple, S J; Tinsley, M C

    2011-07-01

    Factors affecting survival of parasites introduced to new geographical regions include changes in environmental temperature. Protopolystoma xenopodis is a monogenean introduced with the amphibian Xenopus laevis from South Africa to Wales (probably in the 1960s) where low water temperatures impose major constraints on life-cycle processes. Effects were quantified by maintenance of eggs from infections in Wales under controlled conditions at 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 and 25°C. The threshold for egg viability/ development was 15°C. Mean times to hatching were 22 days at 25°C, 32 days at 20°C, extending to 66 days at 15°C. Field temperature records provided calibration of transmission schedules. Although egg production continues year-round, all eggs produced during >8 months/ year die without hatching. Output contributing significantly to transmission is restricted to 10 weeks (May-mid-July). Host infection, beginning after a time lag of 8 weeks for egg development, is also restricted to 10 weeks (July-September). Habitat temperatures (mean 15·5°C in summer 2008) allow only a narrow margin for life-cycle progress: even small temperature increases, predicted with 'global warming', enhance infection. This system provides empirical data on the metrics of transmission permitting long-term persistence of isolated parasite populations in limiting environments.

  18. Culture of chicken embryo in interspecific surrogate egg white.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Zu, J; Baskar, V; Wernery, U; Chang, I K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of interspecific egg white on the development of chicken embryos was investigated in a surrogate eggshell culture system. Egg yolks were separated from fertile White Leghorn chicken eggs and cultured in different egg whites from turkey (group TK), guineafowl (group GF), and duck (group DK), and chicken (group CK) was used as control. The viability of chicken embryos in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK after 3 d culture in system II was 98.3, 90.2, 96.1, and 91.1%. The whole contents (egg yolk and surrogate egg white) were further transferred into an eggshell from a 1.5 times heavier chicken egg with air space (system III), and incubated for further 16 d, before moving them to a hatcher. No significant difference between the 4 groups was found in their viabilities, which ranged between 72.9 and 81.3%, until 14 d postincubation (P > 0.05). After 21 d, the viability decreased to 60.4, 57.4, 50.0, and 27.7% in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK. The viability in group DK was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Weight loss in system III was approximately 12% in all the 4 groups without significant difference (P > 0.05). Hatchability of the chicken embryo was 60.4, 55.3, 47.9, and 19.1% in groups CK, TK, GF, and DK, respectively, and that in group DK was significantly lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). There was no difference between the other groups (P > 0.05). These results show that chicken embryos can develop to hatch in duck, guineafowl, and turkey egg whites. However, the hatchability decreases according to the phylogenetic distance. The present study will provide a tool for manipulation of avian embryos and eventual conservation of endangered wild birds.

  19. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila.

  20. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  1. Light Dulls and Darkens Bird Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Johanna Y.; Lahti, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula) to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250–800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color. PMID:25541724

  2. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was <5% after 8 days at 0.63 μl/ml furfural. The same furfural concentrations after 12 h caused 57.25% loss of viability in J2. Moreover, the penetration rate of juveniles to pea roots was suppressed when furfural was even applied at low rates. In pot experiments, furfural was applied as liquid (direct) or vapor (indirect) treatments at rates of 0-1.5 ml/kg soil. Significant reduction in galling, egg production and population density of M. incognita observed when furfural was applied at rates >0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate

  3. The Egg Joust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  4. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  5. Motion compensated image processing and optimal parameters for egg crack detection using modified pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  6. Viability studies on actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Taddei, A; Tremarias, M M; Hartung de Capriles, C

    Eighty-nine Actinomycetes strains were tested for their viability, morphological and physiological characteristics after being kept under paraffin oil overlay and distilled water for a period between 10-30 years. Most of the studied strains belong to the "Lorenzo De Montemayor" collection. Almost all the recovered strains were 28-30 years old and had never been subcultured since the paraffin oil was overlaid. 71.4% of viable Streptomycetes strains had been kept on Sabouraud-dextrose agar and 28.6% were kept on Negroni and Bonfiglioli-medium. Streptomyces violaceusruber produced its characteristic pigment even after 28 years under these conditions. All of the recovered strains were tested for their biological activity, but only Streptomyces lavendulae showed growth-inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis.

  7. Hatchability tests with eggs from captive wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doty, H.A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of diet and artificial incubation on fertility and hatchability of wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs and survival of young was measured. Hatchability of eggs from hens fed a diet containing 37 percent protein was increased significantly (P <0.05) over that of hens fed a diet containing 17 percent protein. Hatchability was also significantly (P<0.005) greater for eggs incubated 10 days under hens before being placed in an incubator than for eggs placed in an incubator for the entire period. Ducklings that hatched from naturally started incubation survived at a much higher rate (P<0.001). Egg fertility was not affected by the diets.

  8. Factors affecting efficiency of introducing foreign DNA and RNA into parthenogenetic or in vitro-fertilized porcine eggs by cytoplasmic microinjection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, XiaoQun; Huang, HaiYan; Liu, QingYou; Su, XiaoPing; Zhu, Peng; Li, HongLi; Cui, KuiQing; Xie, BingKun; Shi, DeShun

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic microinjection (CI) of foreign gene into in vivo fertilized zygotes has emerged as a useful tool for transgenic pig production. In the current study, we investigated factors affecting transgenic efficiency and developmental potential of parthenogenetic (PA) and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) porcine embryos produced by CI. These factors included adding of RNase inhibitor, DNA or RNA concentration, injection time, and different structures of plasmids. Our results showed that adding of 1-4 U/μL of RNase inhibitor did not have negative effect on development potential of CI-PA embryos, and RNase inhibitor injection significantly increased EGFP expressing rate of CI-PA embryos. High injection DNA concentration and long injection interval after PA significantly reduced blastocyst formation. Different molecular structures such as DNA or RNA affected CI-PA embryos development, and RNA had little harmful effect on pig's early embryonic development. EGFP expression rate of CI-IVF embryos was improved following the increase of foreign DNA concentration, but blastocyst formation rate was decreased. Injection time after IVF did not show any significant difference on embryonic development, but longer interval resulted in a significantly lower EGFP expressing rate. Cas9 mRNA and myostatin (GDF-8) sgRNA co-injection indicated that the mutation rate of CI-IVF group was significantly higher than that of CI-PA. The CI-IVF-generated embryos were then transferred to six recipient pigs, but no live piglets were obtained. The following pronuclear formation assessment showed more than 76.1% IVF zygotes were polyspermy. These results demonstrate that CI-PA and CI-IVF were effective methods for production of transgenic pig embryos. However, polyspermic fertilization and poor quality of porcine IVF blastocysts are still the main problem of resulting in pregnancy failure.

  9. Factors affecting efficiency of introducing foreign DNA and RNA into parthenogenetic or in vitro-fertilized porcine eggs by cytoplasmic microinjection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, XiaoQun; Huang, HaiYan; Liu, QingYou; Su, XiaoPing; Zhu, Peng; Li, HongLi; Cui, KuiQing; Xie, BingKun; Shi, DeShun

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic microinjection (CI) of foreign gene into in vivo fertilized zygotes has emerged as a useful tool for transgenic pig production. In the current study, we investigated factors affecting transgenic efficiency and developmental potential of parthenogenetic (PA) and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) porcine embryos produced by CI. These factors included adding of RNase inhibitor, DNA or RNA concentration, injection time, and different structures of plasmids. Our results showed that adding of 1-4 U/μL of RNase inhibitor did not have negative effect on development potential of CI-PA embryos, and RNase inhibitor injection significantly increased EGFP expressing rate of CI-PA embryos. High injection DNA concentration and long injection interval after PA significantly reduced blastocyst formation. Different molecular structures such as DNA or RNA affected CI-PA embryos development, and RNA had little harmful effect on pig's early embryonic development. EGFP expression rate of CI-IVF embryos was improved following the increase of foreign DNA concentration, but blastocyst formation rate was decreased. Injection time after IVF did not show any significant difference on embryonic development, but longer interval resulted in a significantly lower EGFP expressing rate. Cas9 mRNA and myostatin (GDF-8) sgRNA co-injection indicated that the mutation rate of CI-IVF group was significantly higher than that of CI-PA. The CI-IVF-generated embryos were then transferred to six recipient pigs, but no live piglets were obtained. The following pronuclear formation assessment showed more than 76.1% IVF zygotes were polyspermy. These results demonstrate that CI-PA and CI-IVF were effective methods for production of transgenic pig embryos. However, polyspermic fertilization and poor quality of porcine IVF blastocysts are still the main problem of resulting in pregnancy failure. PMID:27130683

  10. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  11. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  12. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  13. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  14. Productive performance of brown-egg laying pullets from hatching to 5 weeks of age as affected by fiber inclusion, feed form, and energy concentration of the diet.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Mandalawi, H A; Pérez-Bonilla, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of fiber inclusion, feed form, and energy concentration of the diet on the growth performance of pullets from hatching to 5 wk age were studied in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, there was a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal, and 6 extra diets that included 2 or 4% of cereal straw, sugar beet pulp (SBP), or sunflower hulls (SFHs) at the expense (wt/wt) of the whole control diet. From hatching to 5 wk age fiber inclusion increased (P<0.05) ADG and ADFI, and improved (P<0.05) energy efficiency (EnE; kcal AMEn/g ADG), but body weight (BW) uniformity was not affected. Pullets fed SFH tended to have higher ADG than pullets fed SBP (P=0.072) with pullets fed straw being intermediate. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better (P<0.05) with 2% than with 4% fiber inclusion. In Experiment 2, 10 diets were arranged as a 2×5 factorial with 2 feed forms (mash vs. crumbles) and 5 levels of AMEn (2,850, 2,900, 2,950, 3,000, and 3,050 kcal/kg). Pullets fed crumbles were heavier and had better FCR than pullets fed mash (P<0.001). An increase in the energy content of the crumble diets reduced ADFI and improved FCR linearly, but no effects were detected with the mash diets (P<0.01 and P<0.05 for the interactions). Feeding crumbles tended to improve BW uniformity at 5 wk age (P=0.077) but no effects were detected with increases in energy concentration of the diet. In summary, the inclusion of moderate amounts of fiber in the diet improves pullet performance from hatching to 5 wk age. The response of pullets to increases in energy content of the diet depends on feed form with a decrease in feed intake when fed crumbles but no changes when fed mash. Feeding crumbles might be preferred to feeding mash in pullets from hatching to 5 wk age. PMID:25602026

  15. Productive performance of brown-egg laying pullets from hatching to 5 weeks of age as affected by fiber inclusion, feed form, and energy concentration of the diet.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Mandalawi, H A; Pérez-Bonilla, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of fiber inclusion, feed form, and energy concentration of the diet on the growth performance of pullets from hatching to 5 wk age were studied in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, there was a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal, and 6 extra diets that included 2 or 4% of cereal straw, sugar beet pulp (SBP), or sunflower hulls (SFHs) at the expense (wt/wt) of the whole control diet. From hatching to 5 wk age fiber inclusion increased (P<0.05) ADG and ADFI, and improved (P<0.05) energy efficiency (EnE; kcal AMEn/g ADG), but body weight (BW) uniformity was not affected. Pullets fed SFH tended to have higher ADG than pullets fed SBP (P=0.072) with pullets fed straw being intermediate. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better (P<0.05) with 2% than with 4% fiber inclusion. In Experiment 2, 10 diets were arranged as a 2×5 factorial with 2 feed forms (mash vs. crumbles) and 5 levels of AMEn (2,850, 2,900, 2,950, 3,000, and 3,050 kcal/kg). Pullets fed crumbles were heavier and had better FCR than pullets fed mash (P<0.001). An increase in the energy content of the crumble diets reduced ADFI and improved FCR linearly, but no effects were detected with the mash diets (P<0.01 and P<0.05 for the interactions). Feeding crumbles tended to improve BW uniformity at 5 wk age (P=0.077) but no effects were detected with increases in energy concentration of the diet. In summary, the inclusion of moderate amounts of fiber in the diet improves pullet performance from hatching to 5 wk age. The response of pullets to increases in energy content of the diet depends on feed form with a decrease in feed intake when fed crumbles but no changes when fed mash. Feeding crumbles might be preferred to feeding mash in pullets from hatching to 5 wk age.

  16. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  17. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  18. Egg Bungee Jump!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  19. A saltwater flotation technique to identify unincubated eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devney, C.A.; Kondrad, S.L.; Stebbins, K.R.; Brittingham, K.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Field studies on nesting birds sometimes involve questions related to nest initiation dates, length of the incubation period, or changes in parental incubation behavior during various stages of incubation. Some of this information can be best assessed when a nest is discovered before the eggs have undergone any incubation, and this has traditionally been assessed by floating eggs in freshwater. However, because the freshwater method is not particularly accurate in identifying unincubated eggs, we developed a more reliable saltwater flotation method. The saltwater method involves diluting a saturated saltwater solution with freshwater until a salt concentration is reached where unincubated eggs sink to the bottom and incubated eggs float to the surface. For Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 39.0% (N = 251) of eggs that were subsequently found by candling to have undergone incubation prior to collection. By contrast, in a separate collection of gull eggs, no eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 225) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. For Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 15.6% (N = 250) of eggs that had undergone incubation prior to collection, whereas in a separate collection, none of the eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 85) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. Immersion of eggs in saltwater did not affect embryo survival. Although use of the saltwater method is likely limited to colonial species and requires calibrating a saltwater solution, it is a faster and more accurate method of identifying unincubated eggs than the traditional method of floating eggs in freshwater.

  20. Selenium interactions with essential and toxic elements in egg yolk from commercial and fortified eggs.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Marchesi, Isabella; Rizzi, Laura; Cauteruccio, Laura; Masironi, Roberto; Simioli, Marco; Borella, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between selenium concentration in both commercial and Se-enriched eggs and other essential/toxic elements (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Pb, and Cd), taking into account a possible synergic action of iodine. Commercial eggs were purchased from several sale points or directly from the producers (farmyard eggs). Fortified eggs were obtained by supplementing chickenfeed for 6 weeks with Se as sodium selenite (1.0 microg/g Se) or Se plus iodine (1.0 microg/g Se+3.7 microg/g I). Se in experimental egg yolks significantly increased over the basic value by 39% in the Se group and 61% in the Se+I group, suggesting that I addition may enhance Se absorption. Levels of Se in commercial yolks were identical in free-range, barn or battery eggs, but significantly lower in farmyard and higher in organic eggs where the Se content approximated that found in Se fortified eggs. A significant reduction in Cd was observed in Se+I treated yolks compared to both control and Se alone diet, thus suggesting a high sensitivity of Cd to the detoxifying effect of Se combined with I. Furthermore, Se+I supplementation was associated with a significant Zn reduction, a finding which needs clarification to avoid attempts to maximize one component affecting the levels of other essential elements.

  1. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-24

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  2. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food. PMID:26404361

  3. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  4. Oxidative stability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched eggs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuan; Perez, Tulia I; Zuidhof, Martin J; Renema, Robert A; Wu, Jianping

    2013-11-27

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) enriched eggs have a growing market share in the egg industry. This study examined the stability of n-3 PUFA enriched eggs fortified with antioxidants (vitamin E or organic Selenium [Sel-Plex] or both) following cooking and storage. The total fat content was not affected by cooking or simulated retail storage conditions, whereas, n-3 fatty acids were reduced. The content of n-3 fatty acids in boiled eggs was higher than in fried eggs. Lipid oxidation was significantly affected by the different cooking methods. Fried eggs contained higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, 2.02 μg/kg) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs, 13.58 μg/g) compared to boiled (1.44 and 10.15 μg/kg) and raw eggs (0.95 and 9.03 μg/kg, respectively, for MDA and COPs). Supplementation of antioxidants reduced the formation of MDA by 40% and COPs by 12% in fried eggs. Although the content of MDA was significantly increased after 28 days of storage, COPs were not affected by storage. Our study indicated that the n-3 PUFA in enriched eggs was relatively stable during storage and home cooking in the presence of antioxidants. PMID:24164329

  5. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  6. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  7. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  8. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  9. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  10. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  11. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  12. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  13. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  14. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing liquid eggs that conform to § 160.115, with such precautions that the finished food is free of...

  15. Molecular diagnosis of egg allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects up to 2.5% of young children and is potentially life-threatening. Several phenotypes of egg allergy have been identified, including those who tolerate extensively heated egg in bakery products. Diagnosis and monitoring for resolution often requires oral food challenges, which can result in anaphylaxis. Newer approaches, such as component-resolved diagnostics, microarray analysis and epitope mapping, are being evaluated to determine if these strategies can replace or reduce the need for oral food challenges. Studies suggest that elevated levels of ovomucoid IgE indicate an inability to tolerate extensively heated forms of egg. Egg protein-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios may be helpful in predicting tolerance. Additionally, patients with conformational epitopes to hen's egg are more likely to resolve their allergy compared with those with IgE binding to sequential epitopes. The pairing of microarray technology to epitope mapping is a potential tool to improve diagnosis. This review examines the current body of literature on these tools. PMID:25975845

  16. New insights into the amphibious life of Biomphalaria glabrata and susceptibility of its egg masses to fungal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg masses of an aquatic snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, matured, and juveniles subsequently eclosed and were mobile in a stable water film of transitory habitats simulated by two different simple test devices described here. The viability of eggs maintained in an unstable film due to low ambient mois...

  17. The Eagle's EGGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    stars already forming inside dark clouds before the intense ultraviolet radiation of the nearby massive hot stars swept over the pillars? Or did that radiation compress empty clumps in those clouds and trigger the birth of the stars? In either case, those young stars will soon be exposed to the full fury of the ionisation storm as the columns are evaporated. How will their fate have been affected? Ripped prematurely from the cloud, they will be cut off from the reservoir of material from which they grew, and thus may end up smaller than would otherwise be expected. Also, the dense disks of gas and dust known to girdle young stars will suddenly be heated and boiled away by the ultraviolet radiation, as has been seen happening in the Orion Nebula, perhaps preventing the formation of planets around those stars. Theoreticians studying these problems now have some new data to work with. Nevertheless, to keep things in perspective, it is important to remember that the towering pillars cover only a small fraction of the Eagle Nebula. While a few tens of new stars may be forming in the pillars today, at least a thousand young stars were born in the adjacent NGC 6611 cluster within the last few million years, including the massive stars themselves. The story of the formation of that cluster may be something else altogether, but perhaps just as spectacular. More information The research described in this press release is presented in more detail in a research paper ("The Eagle's EGGs: fertile or sterile?"), to be submitted to the European research journal "Astronomy & Astrophysics Letters". The work has been carried under the auspices of the European Commission Research Training Network "The Formation and Evolution of Young Stellar Clusters" (HPRN-CT-2000-00155) [4]. Notes [1] The Hubble Space Telescope team consisted of Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University, USA) and 21 collaborators. Their M16 image was made at visible wavelengths using the Wide-Field Planetary

  18. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  19. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  20. Effects of No. 2 fuel oil on common eider eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An oil spill near a breeding colony could result in the transfer of oil from the plumage and feet of incubating birds to their eggs. Microlitre amounts of No. 2 fuel oil were applied externally to common eider eggs in an island breeding colony in Maine. Clutches of eggs treated with 20 ?l of fuel oil had significantly greater embryonic mortality than the control clutches when they were examined 7 days after treatment. The results are similar to those of an earlier study of artificially incubated common eider eggs and indicate that nest site conditions do not affect embryotoxicity of No. 2 fuel oil.

  1. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    PubMed

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  2. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  3. Egg allergy: are all childhood food allergies the same?

    PubMed

    Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elizabeth; Kemp, Andrew Stewart

    2007-04-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood affecting about 1-2% of preschool children and differs in a number of ways from other common childhood food allergies such as cows milk and peanut. Common egg allergens are altered both by heat and gastric enzymes. Compared with peanuts/tree nuts and milk, egg allergy appears less likely to cause severe life-threatening reactions or fatal anaphylaxis. Children are much more likely to outgrow egg allergy by school age as compared with peanut allergy. While the MMR vaccine is no longer contraindicated in egg allergy, influenza vaccine is contraindicated in children with anaphylaxis to egg. An understanding of the similarities and differences in these common food allergies of childhood is helpful in the management of these common and increasing problems.

  4. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  5. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  6. Different Temperature and Cooling Patterns at the Blunt and Sharp Egg Poles Reflect the Arrangement of Eggs in an Avian Clutch

    PubMed Central

    Šálek, Miroslav E.; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is an energetically demanding process during which birds apply heat to their eggs to ensure embryonic development. Parent behaviours such as egg turning and exchanging the outer and central eggs in the nest cup affect the amount of heat lost to the environment from individual eggs. Little is known, however, about whether and how egg surface temperature and cooling rates vary among the different areas of an egg and how the arrangement of eggs within the clutch influences heat loss. We performed laboratory (using Japanese quail eggs) and field (with northern lapwing eggs) experiments using infrared imaging to assess the temperature and cooling patterns of heated eggs and clutches. We found that (i) the sharp poles of individual quail eggs warmed to a higher egg surface temperature than did the blunt poles, resulting in faster cooling at the sharp poles compared to the blunt poles; (ii) both quail and lapwing clutches with the sharp poles oriented towards the clutch centre (arranged clutches) maintained higher temperatures over the central part of the clutch than occurred in those clutches where most of the sharp egg poles were oriented towards the exterior (scattered clutches); and (iii) the arranged clutches of both quail and lapwing showed slower cooling rates at both the inner and outer clutch positions than did the respective parts of scattered clutches. Our results demonstrate that egg surface temperature and cooling rates differ between the sharp and blunt poles of the egg and that the orientation of individual eggs within the nest cup can significantly affect cooling of the clutch as a whole. We suggest that birds can arrange their eggs within the nest cup to optimise thermoregulation of the clutch. PMID:25658846

  7. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs.

  8. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed.

  9. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  10. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  11. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  12. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  13. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  14. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  15. Avian eggs: barriers to the exchange of heat and mass.

    PubMed

    Sotherland, P R; Spotila, J R; Paganelli, C V

    1987-01-01

    Measured boundary-layer conductance to heat exchange for bird eggs varies with egg mass to the 0.53 power. Calculations based on the Nusselt-Reynolds relationship for a sphere and the thermal properties of air indicate that the conductance of the boundary layer to heat and to mass at any wind speed other than still air should scale with mass to the 0.53 power. Although the boundary layer contributes little to the total barrier to mass flux between bird eggs and their environment, we show that it is the major barrier to the exchange of heat. From these observations we infer that birds incubating eggs in natural nests can alter only the gradient affecting mass flux between their eggs and the environment while having the capability to change both the gradient and conductance affecting heat flux.

  16. Viability and Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Exposed to Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Selcuk; Lete, Luis

    2015-09-01

    is not a sufficient measure for potential impact on biocontrol efficacy as other characters such as virulence may be severely affected even when viability remains high. PMID:26527839

  17. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  18. Development and reproduction of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on the genetically modified soybean (Bt) MON 87701×MON 89788.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, O C; Silva, G V; de Freitas Bueno, A; Pomari, A F; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Carvalho, R A; Barbosa, G C

    2014-12-01

    Genetically modified crops with insect resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt-plants) are increasingly being cultivated worldwide. Therefore, it is critical to improve our knowledge of their direct or indirect impact not only on target pests but also on non-target arthropods. Hence, this study evaluates comparative leaf consumption and performance of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), a species that is tolerant of the Cry1Ac protein, fed with Bt soybean, MON 87701×MON 89788 or its near [corrected] non-Bt isoline. Using this species as a model, we assessed [corrected] the comparative performance of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon on eggs of S. eridania produced from individuals that fed on these two soybean genotypes [corrected] as larvae. Results showed that Bt soybean did not affect pest foliage consumption, but did reduce larvel duration by two days despite larvae in both treatments having six instars. Nevertheless, survival of S. eridania larvae, pupal weight, sex ratio, fecundity and longevity of female moths, and egg viability did not differ between Bt and non-Bt soybeans. Adult longevity of S. eridania males was increased when caterpillars were fed with Bt soybean versus the near isoline. No adverse effects of this technology were observed for the egg parasitoid T. remus. [corrected].

  19. Viability of the Vulnerability Thesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Frank W.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the viability of the vulnerability thesis as a tool in accounting for school superintendent behavior today, suggesting how the thesis can be built on in order to better understand the political world of superintendency. The paper suggests some social and political theories that might extend the thesis, further clarifying the…

  20. Nest inundation from sea-level rise threatens sea turtle population viability.

    PubMed

    Pike, David A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Bell, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Contemporary sea-level rise will inundate coastal habitats with seawater more frequently, disrupting the life cycles of terrestrial fauna well before permanent habitat loss occurs. Sea turtles are reliant on low-lying coastal habitats worldwide for nesting, where eggs buried in the sand remain vulnerable to inundation until hatching. We show that saltwater inundation directly lowers the viability of green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas) collected from the world's largest green turtle nesting rookery at Raine Island, Australia, which is undergoing enigmatic decline. Inundation for 1 or 3 h reduced egg viability by less than 10%, whereas inundation for 6 h reduced viability by approximately 30%. All embryonic developmental stages were vulnerable to mortality from saltwater inundation. Although the hatchlings that emerged from inundated eggs displayed normal physical and behavioural traits, hypoxia during incubation could influence other aspects of the physiology or behaviour of developing embryos, such as learning or spatial orientation. Saltwater inundation can directly lower hatching success, but it does not completely explain the consistently low rates of hatchling production observed on Raine Island. More frequent nest inundation associated with sea-level rise will increase variability in sea turtle hatching success spatially and temporally, due to direct and indirect impacts of saltwater inundation on developing embryos. PMID:26587269

  1. Nest inundation from sea-level rise threatens sea turtle population viability.

    PubMed

    Pike, David A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Bell, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Contemporary sea-level rise will inundate coastal habitats with seawater more frequently, disrupting the life cycles of terrestrial fauna well before permanent habitat loss occurs. Sea turtles are reliant on low-lying coastal habitats worldwide for nesting, where eggs buried in the sand remain vulnerable to inundation until hatching. We show that saltwater inundation directly lowers the viability of green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas) collected from the world's largest green turtle nesting rookery at Raine Island, Australia, which is undergoing enigmatic decline. Inundation for 1 or 3 h reduced egg viability by less than 10%, whereas inundation for 6 h reduced viability by approximately 30%. All embryonic developmental stages were vulnerable to mortality from saltwater inundation. Although the hatchlings that emerged from inundated eggs displayed normal physical and behavioural traits, hypoxia during incubation could influence other aspects of the physiology or behaviour of developing embryos, such as learning or spatial orientation. Saltwater inundation can directly lower hatching success, but it does not completely explain the consistently low rates of hatchling production observed on Raine Island. More frequent nest inundation associated with sea-level rise will increase variability in sea turtle hatching success spatially and temporally, due to direct and indirect impacts of saltwater inundation on developing embryos.

  2. Nest inundation from sea-level rise threatens sea turtle population viability

    PubMed Central

    Pike, David A.; Roznik, Elizabeth A.; Bell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary sea-level rise will inundate coastal habitats with seawater more frequently, disrupting the life cycles of terrestrial fauna well before permanent habitat loss occurs. Sea turtles are reliant on low-lying coastal habitats worldwide for nesting, where eggs buried in the sand remain vulnerable to inundation until hatching. We show that saltwater inundation directly lowers the viability of green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas) collected from the world's largest green turtle nesting rookery at Raine Island, Australia, which is undergoing enigmatic decline. Inundation for 1 or 3 h reduced egg viability by less than 10%, whereas inundation for 6 h reduced viability by approximately 30%. All embryonic developmental stages were vulnerable to mortality from saltwater inundation. Although the hatchlings that emerged from inundated eggs displayed normal physical and behavioural traits, hypoxia during incubation could influence other aspects of the physiology or behaviour of developing embryos, such as learning or spatial orientation. Saltwater inundation can directly lower hatching success, but it does not completely explain the consistently low rates of hatchling production observed on Raine Island. More frequent nest inundation associated with sea-level rise will increase variability in sea turtle hatching success spatially and temporally, due to direct and indirect impacts of saltwater inundation on developing embryos. PMID:26587269

  3. Clinostat exposure and symmetrization of frog eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nace, G. W.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Since the orientation of unfertilized eggs and the righting of eggs after grey crescent formation do not affect the axes, attention here is directed toward a comparative study of the initial rotation of the fertilized egg, the so-called rotation of orientation (R-of-O). The goal of the investigation is to determine the timing and dynamics of the R-of-O (as distinct from inversion rotations), to confirm prior observations, and to examine the influence of gravity compensation at periods that might be crucial. Gravity compensation for 1 hr during the R-of-O is found to yield fewer abnormalities. It is hypothesized that it changes the axes and that return to normal conditions permits regulation. Longer exposure is found to yield more abnormalities, perhaps by perturbing both the action of the aster and regulation.

  4. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  5. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  6. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  7. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  8. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  9. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  10. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  11. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  12. Temperature sequence of eggs from oviposition through distribution: processing--part 2.

    PubMed

    Koelkebeck, K W; Patterson, P H; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J; Carey, J B; Ahn, D U; Ernst, R A; Kuney, D R; Jones, D

    2008-06-01

    location can affect the temperature of eggs during shell egg processing and should be a component in future assessments of egg safety.

  13. Temperature sequence of eggs from oviposition through distribution: processing--part 2.

    PubMed

    Koelkebeck, K W; Patterson, P H; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J; Carey, J B; Ahn, D U; Ernst, R A; Kuney, D R; Jones, D

    2008-06-01

    location can affect the temperature of eggs during shell egg processing and should be a component in future assessments of egg safety. PMID:18493010

  14. Application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics for dried egg-pasta characterization and egg content quantification.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Bucci, Remo; Materazzi, Stefano; Marini, Federico

    2013-10-15

    Dried egg pasta is an important and traditional food in the Italian cuisine, and the eggs in pasta improve its nutritional value and organoleptic properties. For this reason the percentage of eggs present in the products sold as "egg pasta" has to always be clearly reported in the label. In this respect, the present research addresses the possibility of developing a method which would allow fast, simple and economic determination of egg content in dried egg-pasta, using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. However, as it is very likely that the spectroscopic fingerprint can also be affected by the manufacturing process of this product, in particular by drying temperature and time, the effect of the manufacturing process on the spectral profile of egg-pasta samples was thoroughly investigated, using experimental design coupled to a multivariate exploratory data analytical technique called ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Moreover, once confirmed the significance of the drying effect on spectral shape, with the aim of building a calibration model to quantify the egg content in pasta samples irrespective of the manufacturing protocol adopted, a non-linear approach based on local regression, namely LWR-PLS, was investigated. This method allowed the determination of the egg content in external validation samples with low error (RMSEP=1.25), resulting in predictions more accurate and precise than those obtained by a global PLS model.

  15. Hatching Eggs in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    This article provides detailed instructions on how to hatch chicken eggs. Sections include: (1) making the incubator; (2) making the brooder; (3) guidelines for hatching eggs; (4) from incubator to brooder; and (5) recommended readings. (JMK)

  16. Egg Bungee Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the spirit of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), many teachers attempt to have their students experience science in a constructivist, inquiry-oriented manner. The egg bungee jump activity will certainly support that mode of teaching, and has the added benefit of providing a concrete context within which students can explore…

  17. Egg Donation Brokers

    PubMed Central

    Holwell, Eve; Keehn, Jason; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Sauer, Mark V.; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare Websites of agencies that broker the services women who provide human eggs for in vitro fertilization versus clinics that recruit egg providers. STUDY DESIGN We examined 207 websites, of which 128 were egg provider agency (40%) or clinic (60%) websites that recruited providers online. We compared them regarding several variables related to adherence to American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines. RESULTS According to their respective websites, agencies were more likely than clinics to mention ASRM guidelines, be located in the West/Pacific, indicate compensation, offer a fee range, set their minimum > $5,000, specify preferable traits, cap provider age at ≤ 31,require an education minimum, allow both parties to meet, discuss short-term risks, and not acknowledge a possible cancer risk. Only 25.5% of agencies and 19.5% of clinics mention psychological/emotional risks, and 11.8% and 5.2%, respectively, mention risks, to future fertility. CONCLUSIONS This research, the first to systematically compare several key aspects of egg provider agencies versus clinics, suggests significant differences in adherence to guidelines, raising several concerns and suggesting needs for consideration of improved monitoring and regulation by ASRM or others. PMID:25552124

  18. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  19. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    PubMed Central

    Reetha, T. Lurthu; Rajeswar, J. Johnson; Harikrishnan, T. J.; Sukumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Kirubakaran, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg. PMID:27651681

  20. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    PubMed Central

    Reetha, T. Lurthu; Rajeswar, J. Johnson; Harikrishnan, T. J.; Sukumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Kirubakaran, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  1. Effects of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Tharrington, J B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Keener, K M; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cryogenic cooling on shell egg quality. Gaseous nitrogen (GN), liquid nitrogen (LN), and gaseous carbon dioxide (GC) were utilized to rapidly cool eggs in a commercial egg processing facility and were compared to traditional cooling (TC). A modified food freezer was attached to existing egg processing equipment in order to expose eggs to the selected cryogen. In Experiment 1, eggs were treated with GN, LN, and TC then stored and tested over 10 wk. Experiment 2 eggs were treated (GC and TC) and evaluated for 12 wk. Quality factors that were measured included Haugh units, vitelline membrane strength and deformation at rupture, and USDA shell egg grades for quality defects. Haugh unit values were greater for cryogenically treated eggs as compared to traditionally cooled eggs (Experiment 1: 73.27, GN; 72.03, LN; and 71.4, TC and Experiment 2: 74.42, GC and 70.18, TC). The percentage of loss eggs in the GN treatment was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than those of the LN and TC treatments. Vitelline membrane strength was greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs versus traditional processing. Vitelline membrane breaking strength decreased over storage time. Vitelline membrane deformation at rupture was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs compared to the traditional eggs in each experiment. Use of the technology could allow for egg quality to be maintained for a longer time, which could increase international markets and potentially lead to extended shelf lives.

  2. Methods for external disinfection of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs prior to use in wound debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Brundage, Adrienne L; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-03-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided; yet the external surface of Calliphoridae eggs is often heavily contaminated with bacteria. Studies of external disinfection of dipteran eggs have been reported, but neither their efficacy nor effect on egg viability has been adequately assessed. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ten disinfection techniques involving immersion, rinse, or a combination of both in formalin, Lysol, formaldehyde, bleach, ethanol, Sporgon, or benzalkonium chloride. All techniques resulted in significant decreases in culturable, aerobic bacterial load on Lucilia cuprina eggs. For L. cuprina, a 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion was the most efficacious, disinfecting 96.67% of egg samples, while resulting in 31.84% egg mortality. The 5% formalin immersion was least efficacious, disinfecting only 3.33% of L. cuprina egg samples, while resulting in 33.51% egg mortality. A formaldehyde immersion, one of the most commonly used disinfection techniques, was moderately effective, disinfecting 66.7% of egg samples, while resulting in 40.16% egg mortality. For Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria egg samples, the 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion disinfected 100% of the samples, and for Lucilia sericata, 80% of egg samples, while resulting in 33.97%, 7.34%, and 36.96% egg mortality, respectively. H2 CO disinfected 16.67% of Ch. rufifacies, 26.67% of C. macellaria, and 56.67% of L. sericata egg samples, while resulting in 21.98%, 10.18%, and 32.19% egg mortality, respectively. Due to its high disinfection efficacy and relatively low egg mortality, a 10 minutes 3% Lysol immersion is recommended for sterilizing Calliphoridae eggs prior to rearing of larvae for use in MDT.

  3. Egg forensics: an appraisal of DNA sequencing to assist in species identification of illegally smuggled eggs.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Parkinson, Liza; Haile, James; Spencer, Peter B S; Bunce, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are charismatic birds, their plumage and capacity for learning make them highly sought after pets. The illegal trade in parrots and cockatoos poses a serious threat to the viability of native populations; in addition, species transported to non-endemic areas may potentially vector disease and genetically 'pollute' local native avifauna. To reduce the logistical difficulties associated with trafficking live birds, smugglers often transport eggs. This creates a problem for authorities in elucidating accurate species identification without the laborious task of incubation and hand rearing until a morphological identification can be made. Here, we use 99 avian eggs seized from carriers coming into and within Australia, as a result of suspected illegal trade. We investigate and evaluate the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to accurately identify eggs to family, genus or species level. However, Identification of a species based on percentage mtDNA similarities is difficult without good representations of the inter- and intra-levels of species variation. Based on the available reference database, we were able to identify 52% of the eggs to species level. Of those, 10 species from eight genera were detected, all of which belong to the parrot (Psittacidae) and cockatoo (Cacatuidae) families. Of the remaining 48%, a further 36% of eggs were identified to genus level, and 12% identified to family level using our assignment criteria. Clearly the lack of validated DNA reference sequences is hindering our ability to accurately assign a species identity, and accordingly, we advocate that more attention needs to be paid to establishing validated, multi locus mtDNA reference databases for exotic birds that can both assist in genetic identifications and withstand legal scrutiny.

  4. Recovery and Longevity of Egg Masses of Meloidogyne incognita during Simulated Winter Survival

    PubMed Central

    Starr, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of soil matrix potential on longevity of egg masses of Meloidogyne incognita were determined during simulated winter conditions. Egg masses were recovered from isolated root fragments incubated in field soil at matrix potentials of -0.1, -0.3, -1.0, and -4.0 bars throughout winter survival periods of 10 weeks for tomato roots and 12 weeks for cotton roots. Egg masses were more superficial on cotton roots than on tomato roots and were more easily dislodged from cotton roots during recovery of root fragments by elutriation. The rate of decline in numbers of eggs and J2 per egg mass was greater in wet as compared to dry soils (P = 0.01), with the relationship between numbers of eggs and J2 per egg mass and time being best described by quadratic models. Percentage hatch of recovered eggs declines linearly with time at soil matrix potentials of -0.1 and -0.3 bars, but at -1.0 and -4.0 bars the percentage hatch of recovered eggs increased before declining. Effects of soil matrix potential on numbers of eggs per egg mass and percentage hatch of recovered eggs were consistent with previous reports that low soil moisture inhibits egg hatch before affecting egg development. Estimations of egg population densities during winter survival periods will be affected by ability to recover infected root fragments from the soil without dislodging associated egg masses. There is a need for procedures for extraction of egg masses not attached to roots from the soil. PMID:19279764

  5. Egg colour mimicry in the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus as revealed by modelling host retinal function.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Jesús M

    2008-10-22

    Some parasite cuckoo species lay eggs that, to the human eye, appear to mimic the appearance of the eggs of their favourite hosts, which hinders discrimination and removal of their eggs by host species. Hitherto, perception of cuckoo-host egg mimicry has been estimated based on human vision or spectrophotometry, which does not account for what the receivers' eye (i.e. hosts) actually discriminates. Using a discrimination model approach that reproduces host retinal functioning, and museum egg collections collected in the south of Finland, where at least six different races of the European cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) coexist, I first assess whether the colour design of cuckoo eggs of different races maximizes matching for two favourite avian hosts, viz. the redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and the pied wagtail (Motacilla alba). Second, I assess the role of nest luminosity on host perception of mimicry by the same two hosts. Phoenicurus-cuckoo eggs showed a better chromatic matching with the redstart-host eggs than other cuckoo races, and in most cases can not be discriminated. Sylvia-cuckoo eggs, however, showed better achromatic matching with redstart-host eggs than Phoenicurus-cuckoo eggs. Also, Motacilla-cuckoo eggs showed poorer chromatic and achromatic matching with pied wagtail-host eggs than Sylvia-cuckoo eggs. Nest luminosity affected chromatic and achromatic differences between cuckoo and host eggs, although only minimally affected the proportion of cuckoo eggs discriminated by chromatic signals. These results reveal that cuckoo races as assessed by humans do not entirely match with host perception of matching and that achromatic mechanisms could play a main role in the discrimination of cuckoo eggs at low-light levels.

  6. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong.

  7. Viability of bacteria in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Lysak, L. V.; Glukhova, T. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2014-04-01

    The viability of bacteria in oligotrofic bogs and fens was determined by the luminescent microscopy method with the help of a two-component fluorescent dye (L7012 LIVE/DEAD). Living bacterial cells were found in the entire peat profiles. Their portion was maximal (up to 60%) in the upper layers and did not exceed 25% in the lower layers. The portion of dead bacterial cells varied from 3 to 19%, and dormant cells constituted 25 to 95% of the total number of bacterial cells. The numbers of dormant cells increased down the profiles irrespectively of the peat type. The portion of nanoforms did not exceed 5% of the total. The cells of the nanoforms, unlike the bacteria of typical sizes, were characterized by their high viability (93-98%).

  8. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  9. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus newmani (Copepoda: Calanoida) is deleteriously affected by diatom blooms A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Pierson, James J.; Leising, Andrew W.

    2005-11-01

    Copepod secondary production has traditionally been linked to the spring diatom bloom in temperate and high latitudes, but laboratory studies have recently challenged this view and have shown either reduced fecundity or viability of offspring when copepods were fed high concentrations of - mostly unialgal - diatoms. However, field evidence that diatoms affect copepod reproduction is still scarce. We analyzed the reproductive response of a common, small calanoid copepod of the boreal Pacific, Pseudocalanus newmani, to spring diatom blooms in Dabob Bay, a semi-enclosed fjord of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abundance patterns, egg production rates, egg hatching success, and naupliar viability of the egg-carrying copepod were examined between February and early May in the years 2002-2004. The population underwent strong variations in abundance during both years, with high abundance of all stages from February to mid-March, but dramatically decreasing individual numbers later in spring. A recovery to higher numbers occurred in July. While egg production rates were independent of chlorophyll concentrations, the reproductive success of P. newmani was negatively affected by certain phytoplankton bloom conditions. Hatching success and - more markedly - naupliar survival were reduced following peaks of Thalassiosira species that were producing anti-mitotic aldehydes, but were high during periods when phytoplankton blooms were more diverse or dominated by other prey taxa including diatoms. As a consequence, recruitment of the naupliar population was considerably affected by the Thalassiosira blooms. This study shows for the first time that the so-called diatom effect operates in nature when all prerequisites - (1) high concentration of aldehyde producers, (2) few prey alternatives, and (3) feeding of copepods on these algae - are given. However, the effect was transient in Dabob Bay and may be so in other pelagic ecosystems. It remains to discern the potential sources of

  10. Changes in frying fats with batters containing egg.

    PubMed

    Bennion, M; Stirk, K S; Ball, B H

    1976-03-01

    The effect of whole egg and egg yolk phospholipids in a fritter-type batter on changes in color, phosphorus content, percentage of free fatty acids, and NUAF fatty acid esters of a corn oil and a hydrogenated vegetable shortening used for approximately 7 hr. of frying was studied. A highly significant (P less than 0.01) increase in the percentage of free fatty acids, phosphorus content, and darkening of color in the frying fats was associated with the presence of egg or egg yolk phospholipids in the batters. NUAF fatty acid esters in the frying fats were not significantly affected by the batters being fried. These data support the suggestion that diffusion into the frying fat of phospholipids from fried batters containing egg yolk contributes to an increase in free fatty acids and a darkening of color in the frying fat.

  11. Disentangling determinants of egg size in the Geometridae (Lepidoptera) using an advanced phylogenetic comparative method.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert B; Javoiš, J; Pienaar, J; Õunap, E; Tammaru, T

    2012-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic comparative study assessing the evolutionary determinants of egg size in the moth family Geometridae. These moths were found to show a strong negative allometric relationship between egg size and maternal body size. Using recently developed comparative methods based on an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we show that maternal body size explains over half the variation in egg size. However, other determinants are less clear: ecological factors, previously hypothesized to affect egg size, were not found to have a considerable influence in the Geometridae. The limited role of such third factors suggests a direct causal link between egg size and body size rather than an indirect correlation mediated by some ecological factors. Notably, no large geometrid species lay small eggs. This pattern suggests that maternal body size poses a physical constraint on egg size, but within these limits, there appears to be a rather invariable selection for larger eggs.

  12. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected.

  13. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected. PMID:26908895

  14. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid. PMID:23786048

  15. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid.

  16. Comparative toxicity of two Iodophors to rainbow trout eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.

    1974-01-01

    Toxicity of Wescodyne(R) and Betadine(R) to eyed eggs was not adversely affected by water hardness (as calcium and magnesium) or by exposure periods up to 60 min. Both iodophors were much more toxic below pH 6.0 than at pH 8.0. In general Wescodyne was slightly more toxic than Betadine. Significant egg loss occurred if freshly fertilized eggs were water-hardened in either iodophor at 100 ppm of iodine, but egg loss at 25 ppm of iodine or at 100 ppm if the eggs were disinfected 30 min after water hardening was comparable to the control. Also, there was no effect on the egg mortality or fry development following single or multiple exposures after eggs were water hardened. At pH 6.0 and above, Wescodyne and Betadine at 100 ppm iodine in a 15-min dip would be safe to use on rainbow trout eggs at any stage of development after water hardening. Recommendations and precautions for hatchery use are given.

  17. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  18. Concentrations of trace elements in eggs and blood of spectacled and common eiders on Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, J.B.; Franson, J.C.; Flint, P.L.; Peterson, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the relations among nesting success, egg viability, and blood and egg concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se in a threatened population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri) and a sympatric population of common eiders (S. mollissima) on the Yukona??Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA, during 1995 and 1996. During the early breeding season, males and females had mean Se concentrations in their blood of 19.2 I?g/g and 12.8 I?g/g wet weight, respectively. Blood Se concentrations of females were correlated with egg concentrations. During brood rearing, blood Se levels were higher in adult females than in ducklings. Blood concentrations of Pb in spectacled eider females were higher than in common eider females captured at hatching, but blood concentrations of Se were similar. Trace element concentrations were not related to nest success or egg viability. We submit that nest success and egg viability of spectacled eiders are not related to concentrations of the trace elements we measured. Because blood Se concentrations declined rapidly through the breeding season and were not related to nest success or egg viability, we suggest that spectacled eiders are exposed to high concentrations of Se during winter that pose little threat to this population.

  19. The survival of Taenia pisiformis eggs under laboratory conditions and in the field environment.

    PubMed

    Coman, B J

    1975-12-01

    This study reports on the long-term survival of Taenia pisiformis eggs held under controlled laboratory conditions and in the external environment. Egg viability was assessed by feeding the ova to susceptible rabbits. In the laboratory experiment dried eggs were stored under 4 different temperature and relative humidity regimes. At various time intervals eggs were removed from these environments and fed to rabbits which were subsequently killed and the number of viable cysticerci within them counted. The results show that a high temperature (38 degrees C) and to a lesser extent, a low humidity (33%) are quickly lethal to eggs and few survive for more than 7 days. However, at 4 degrees C and a relative humidity of 90%, some eggs were still viable after 300 days. At the lower temperature there was a noticeable interaction between temperature and relative humidity. For the field study a small area of pasture was enclosed by a rabbit-proof fence and hessian screen. The pasture was first shown to be substantially free of extraneous contamination with T. pisiformis ova and was then artificially seeded with a large number of eggs. Fresh groups of susceptible rabbits were grazed on this pasture at intervals thereafter. The results, expressed as the mean number of cysticerci recovered from rabbits, show that eggs remain viable for several months during winter and early spring, but in summer no viable eggs could be demonstrated after a period of 2 weeks.

  20. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  1. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  2. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  3. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  4. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  5. The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Braga Goncalves, Ines; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-08-22

    Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care (nourishment, osmoregulation and oxygenation) to their young in a brood pouch on their bodies. We took advantage of this species' pronounced variation in egg size, correlating positively with female size, and tested the effect of hypoxia (40% dissolved oxygen) versus fully oxygenated (100%) water on embryo size and survival of large versus small eggs after 18 days of paternal brooding. Egg size did not affect embryo survival, regardless of O2 treatment. While hypoxia affected embryo size negatively, both large and small eggs showed similar reductions in growth. Males in hypoxia ventilated more and males with large eggs swam more, but neither treatment affected their position in the water column. Overall, our results call into question the most common explanation for constrained egg size evolution in aquatic environments.

  6. The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments

    PubMed Central

    Braga Goncalves, Ines; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care (nourishment, osmoregulation and oxygenation) to their young in a brood pouch on their bodies. We took advantage of this species' pronounced variation in egg size, correlating positively with female size, and tested the effect of hypoxia (40% dissolved oxygen) versus fully oxygenated (100%) water on embryo size and survival of large versus small eggs after 18 days of paternal brooding. Egg size did not affect embryo survival, regardless of O2 treatment. While hypoxia affected embryo size negatively, both large and small eggs showed similar reductions in growth. Males in hypoxia ventilated more and males with large eggs swam more, but neither treatment affected their position in the water column. Overall, our results call into question the most common explanation for constrained egg size evolution in aquatic environments. PMID:26290070

  7. Relationships among egg size, composition, and energy: a comparative study of geminate sea urchins.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Justin S; Moran, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Egg size is one of the fundamental parameters in the life histories of marine organisms. However, few studies have examined the relationships among egg size, composition, and energetic content in a phylogenetically controlled context. We investigated the associations among egg size, composition, and energy using a comparative system, geminate species formed by the closure of the Central American Seaway. We examined western Atlantic (WA) and eastern Pacific (EP) species in three echinoid genera, Echinometra, Eucidaris, and Diadema. In the genus with the largest difference in egg size between geminates (Echinometra), the eggs of WA species were larger, lipid rich and protein poor compared to the smaller eggs of their EP geminate. In addition, the larger WA eggs had significantly greater total egg energy and summed biochemical constituents yet significantly lower egg energy density (energy-per-unit-volume). However, the genera with smaller (Eucidaris) or no (Diadema) differences in egg size were not significantly different in summed biochemical constituents, total egg energy, or energy density. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life history evolution. We show that even among closely-related taxa, large eggs cannot be assumed to be scaled-up small eggs either in terms of energy or composition. Although our data comes exclusively from echinoid echinoderms, this pattern may be generalizable to other marine invertebrate taxa. Because egg composition and egg size do not necessarily evolve in lockstep, selective factors such as sperm limitation could act on egg volume without necessarily affecting maternal or larval energetics.

  8. Rapid determination of yeast viability

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.S.; Robinson, F.M.; Wang, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A modified simple staining method using Methylene blue to distinguish between live and dead cells has been developed. Methylene blue (0.025%, w/v) in full strength Ringer solution with 1% glucose (w/v) added is used as the standard staining solution. Satisfactory and reproducible results can be obtained through microscopic examination using this staining method. The ratio of viable cells to nonviable cells is constant for at least two days if the proper environmental conditions are provided. This method was used to demonstrate the effects of various factors that influence yeast viability.

  9. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  10. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  11. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  12. Micro-organism and cell viability on antimicrobially modified titanium.

    PubMed

    Omori, S; Shibata, Y; Arimoto, T; Igarashi, T; Baba, K; Miyazaki, T

    2009-10-01

    When titanium is anodized by discharge in NaCl solution, both antimicrobial activity and osteoconductivity are conferred. The viability of adherent micro-organisms and cells on antimicrobial titanium remains uncertain. We hypothesized that a thin peroxidation barrier would efficiently destroy adherent bacteria, whereas adherent osteoblastic cells would be viable, since these cells adhere to the surface indirectly though serum proteins. The efficacy of antimicrobial titanium appears to be based on peroxidation, since peroxidation products were detected in parallel with the destruction of bacterial cell-surface structures. The peroxidation effect of antimicrobial titanium was confined to the surface within narrow limits. The viability of osteoblastic cells on the surface was strongly dependent on the presence of serum protein, whereas that of adherent Streptococcus mutans was not affected by the presence of serum proteins. Therefore, differences in the adherent systems used by bacteria and osteoblastic cells are important determinants of their viability on antimicrobial titanium.

  13. Ovulation Order Mediates a Trade-Off between Pre-Hatching and Post-Hatching Viability in an Altricial Bird

    PubMed Central

    Sockman, Keith W.

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneously dependent siblings often compete for parentally provided resources. This competition may lead to mortality, the probability of which may be a function, in part, of the individual offspring's production order. In birds, serial ovulation followed by hatching asynchrony of simultaneous dependents leads to differences in post-hatching survival that largely depend on ovulation (laying) order. This has led to the widespread assumption that early-laid eggs are of greater value and therefore should possess different maternally manipulated characteristics than later-laid eggs. However, this perspective ignores the potential effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability, an effect which some studies suggest should offset the effect of laying order on post-hatching viability. I examined the relationship between laying order and hatching and fledging probability in wild, free-living Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii). In broods with complete hatching success, first-laid and therefore first-hatched offspring had the highest probability of fledging, and fledging probability declined with increasing laying order. However, first-laid eggs were less likely than later-laid eggs to hatch. This effect of laying order on pre-hatching viability seemed to offset that on post-hatching viability, and, consistently, maternal investment in egg size varied little if at all with respect to laying order. These results suggest that ovulation order mediates a trade-off between pre-hatching and post-hatching viability and should encourage a re-evaluation of the solitary role post-embryonic survival often plays when researchers make assumptions about the value of propagules based on the order in which they are produced. PMID:18335056

  14. Effects of high pressure processing on hatching of eggs of the zoonotic rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Merwad, A M A; Mitchell, S M; Zajac, A M; Flick, G J; Lindsay, D S

    2011-03-10

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment to remove pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms but has had limited study on eukaryotic organisms. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and Ascaris suum eggs. Nothing is known on the efficacy of HPP on tapeworm cysts or eggs. Eggs of important zoonotic tapeworms including Echinococcus and Taenia spp. can potentially contaminate water and food intended for human consumption. The present study examined the efficacy of HPP on the viability of Hymenolepis diminuta eggs. Efficacy of HPP treatment was measured using an egg hatch assay in two experiments. One thousand unhatched H. diminuta eggs in Hanks balanced salt solution were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 100-600megapascals (MPa; 1MPa=10atm=147psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. Positive (no HPP) and negative (No HPP but frozen/thawed) controls were examined in each experiment. None of the HPP untreated and frozen eggs (negative controls) were able to hatch or exclude trypan blue when placed in the hatching solution in experiment 1 or 2. HPP untreated and nonfrozen eggs (positive controls) hatched and excluded trypan blue; 75% were positive in experiment 1 and 80% were positive in experiment 2. No hatched eggs were observed when they were exposed to 300-600MPa for 60s. Treatment at 400MPa and above caused rupturing of the oncosphere. Results from this study indicate that HPP is a possible method to inactivate tapeworm eggs and that the susceptibility of tapeworm eggs to HPP is similar to or greater than that of nematode eggs or tissue larvae.

  15. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    PubMed

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-01

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl. PMID:25751457

  16. [Discordant pattern, visual identification of myocardial viability with PET].

    PubMed

    Alexánderson, E; Ricalde, A; Zerón, J; Talayero, J A; Cruz, P; Adame, G; Mendoza, G; Meave, A

    2006-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) as a non-invasive imaging method for studying cardiac perfusion and metabolism has turned into the gold standard for detecting myocardial viability. The utilization of 18 FDG as a tracer for its identification permits to spot the use of exogenous glucose by the myocardium segments. By studying and comparing viability and perfusion results, for which the latter uses tracers such as 13N-ammonia, three different patterns for myocardial viability evaluation arise:. transmural concordant pattern, non-transmural concordant pattern, and the discordant pattern; the last one exemplifies the hibernating myocardium and proves the presence of myocardial viability. The importance of its detection is fundamental for the study of an ischemic patient, since it permits the establishment of and exact diagnosis, prognosis, and the best treatment option. It also allows foreseeing functional recovery of the affected region as well as the ejection fraction rate after revascularization treatment if this is determined as necessary. All these elements regarding viability are determinant in order to reduce adverse events and help improving patients' prognosis. PMID:17315610

  17. Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

  18. Estimating repeatability of egg size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Rockwell, R.F.; Sedinger, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of repeatability have long been used to assess patterns of variation in egg size within and among females. We compared different analytical approaches for estimating repeatability of egg size of Black Brant. Separate estimates of repeatability for eggs of each clutch size and laying sequence number varied from 0.49 to 0.64. We suggest that using the averaging egg size within clutches results in underestimation of variation within females and thereby overestimates repeatability. We recommend a nested design that partitions egg-size variation within clutches, among clutches within females, and among females. We demonstrate little variation in estimates of repeatability resulting from a nested model controlling for egg laying sequence and a nested model in which we assumed laying sequence was unknown.

  19. Egg phospholipids and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Blesso, Christopher N

    2015-04-01

    Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized.

  20. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and at 2 and 3 days after each post treatment reinfestation flea eggs were collected from the pan under each cat cage. Eggs were counted and viability assessed by evaluating adult flea emergence 28 days after egg collection. Three days after treatment or infestation, each cat was combed to remove and count live fleas. Results Treatment with indoxacarb provided 100% efficacy following infestations on day -2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and efficacy was 99.6% following infestations on days 35 and 42. Egg production from indoxacarb treated cats was reduced by 99.9% within 72 hours of treatment. For subsequent infestations no eggs were produced from treated cats from day 8 through day 30. Egg production was still reduced by ≥95.8% through day 45. Indoxacarb treatment also reduced adult flea emergence from eggs for 5 weeks after treatment. The combination of reduction in egg numbers and egg viability from indoxacarb treated cats reduced predicted flea emergence by 100% from days 2 – 31 and 99.9%, 100%, 96.4% and 99.0% on days 37, 38, 44 and 45, respectively. Conclusions A topical spot-on formulation of indoxacarb provided ≥99.6% efficacy against flea infestations on cats for 6 weeks following a single treatment. Indoxacarb also eliminated or markedly reduced egg production for the entire evaluation period and reduced the viability of the few eggs that were produced from Day 1 through Day 38. Given indoxacarb’s effect on adult fleas, egg production and egg viability; this formulation can

  1. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  2. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  3. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  4. Observations of the “Egg White Injury” in Ants

    PubMed Central

    Poissonnier, Laure-Anne; Simpson, Stephen J.; Dussutour, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein to carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary and social insects. Here we explored how lifespan and behavior in ants was affected by the quality of protein ingested and the presence of associated antinutrients (i.e. compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients). We tested diets prepared with either egg white protein only or a protein mixture. Egg white contains an anti-nutrient called avidin. Avidin binds to the B vitamin biotin, preventing its absorption. First, we demonstrate that an egg-white diet was twice as deleterious as a protein-mixture diet. Second, we show that ingestion of egg-white diet drastically affected social behavior, triggering elevated levels of aggression within the colony. Lastly, we reveal that by adding biotin to the egg white diet we were able to lessen its detrimental effects. This latest result suggests that ants suffered biotin deficiency when fed the egg white diet. In conclusion, anti-nutrients were known to affect health and performance of animals, but this is the first study showing that anti-nutrients also lead to severe changes in behavior. PMID:25392989

  5. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda.

  6. Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5% DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5% or 15% DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results The 15% DFA diet decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, egg production, and plasma uric acid concentrations as compared with the control diet, but increased (P < 0.05) egg albumen weight and height compared with the 7.5% DFA diets. The two levels of DFA produced dose-dependent (P < 0.05) changes in three color measures of egg yolk, without affecting four hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions Feeding laying hens with 7.5% DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15% inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization. PMID:24401600

  7. Temperature sequence of eggs from oviposition through distribution: transportation--part 3.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K E; Patterson, P H; Koelkebeck, K W; Darre, M J; Carey, J B; Ahn, D U; Ernst, R A; Kuney, D R; Jones, D R

    2008-06-01

    The Egg Safety Action Plan released in 1999 raised many questions concerning egg temperature used in the risk assessment model. Therefore, a national study by researchers in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Texas was initiated to determine the internal and external temperature sequence of eggs from oviposition through distribution. Researchers gathered data from commercial egg production, processing, and distribution facilities. The experimental design was a mixed model with random effects for season and a fixed effect for duration of the transport period (long or short haul). It was determined that processors used refrigerated transport trucks (REFER) as short-term storage (STS) in both the winter and summer. Therefore, this summary of data obtained from REFER also examines the impact of their use as STS. Egg temperature data were recorded for specific loads of eggs during transport to point of resale or distribution to retailers. To standardize data comparisons between loads, they were segregated between long and short hauls. The summer egg temperatures were higher in the STS and during delivery. Egg temperature was not significantly reduced during the STS phase. Egg temperature decreases were less (P < 0.0001) during short delivery hauls 0.6 degrees C than during long hauls 7.8 degrees C. There was a significant season x delivery interaction (P < 0.05) for the change in the temperature differences between the egg and ambient temperature indicated as the cooling potential. This indicated that the ambient temperature during long winter deliveries had the potential to increase egg temperature. The REFER used as STS did not appreciably reduce internal egg temperature. These data suggest that the season of year affects the temperature of eggs during transport. Eggs are appreciably cooled on the truck, during the delivery phase, which was contrary to the original supposition that egg temperatures would remain static

  8. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  9. The hypothesis of reproductive compensation and its assumptions about mate preferences and offspring viability

    PubMed Central

    Gowaty, Patricia Adair; Anderson, Wyatt W.; Bluhm, Cynthia K.; Drickamer, Lee C.; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Moore, Allen J.

    2007-01-01

    The Compensation Hypothesis says that parents and prospective parents attempt to make up for lowered offspring viability by increasing reproductive effort to produce healthy, competitive offspring and by increasing investment in less viable, but still-living progeny (parental effects). The hypothesis assumes that offspring viability is lower when individuals are constrained (often through sexual conflict) to breed with individuals they do not prefer. We review results of experimental tests of the offspring-viability assumption in Tanzanian cockroaches, fruit flies, pipefish, wild mallards, and feral house mice. Experimental constraints on mating preferences lowered offspring viability in each of the studies. Females breeding under constraints laid more eggs or gave birth to more young than females breeding without or with fewer constraints on their mating preferences, and males mating under constraints on their mate preferences ejaculated more sperm than males mating without constraints. The number of eggs laid or offspring born was higher when female choosers were experimentally constrained to reproduce with males they did not prefer. Constrained females may increase fecundity to enhance the probability that they produce adult offspring with rarer phenotypes with survival benefits against offspring generation pathogens. Similarly, ejaculation of more sperm when males are paired with females they do not prefer may be a mechanism that provides more variable sperm haplotypes for prospective mothers or that may provide nutritional benefits to mothers and zygotes. PMID:17848509

  10. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05).

  11. Oxygen in egg masses: interactive effects of temperature, age, and egg-mass morphology on oxygen supply to embryos.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

    2007-02-01

    Embryos of many marine invertebrates are encased in gelatinous masses for part or all of development. Because gel and intervening embryos retard oxygen flux, such a life-history mode profoundly affects partial pressures of metabolic gases surrounding embryos. However, little is known about relationships between egg-mass structure and the opportunities and constraints imposed on structure by metabolic gas transport. We examined the effects of four factors (temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size) on the metabolism of egg masses using both natural egg masses of a nudibranch and artificial egg masses made from sand dollar embryos and low-melting point agarose. Both temperature and embryo age strongly affected metabolic rates of nudibranch embryos. For embryos of a given age (stage), rates of oxygen consumption roughly doubled between 12 and 21 degrees C; from early cleavage to the veliger stage, consumption rose two- to fourfold, depending on temperature. Oxygen profiles in egg masses showed that advanced embryonic age, and to a lesser extent high temperature, both led to steeper oxygen gradients into egg masses. Egg masses containing advanced embryos at 21 degrees C had very low central oxygen levels. Small-diameter artificial masses (2 mm diameter) had virtually no internal oxygen gradients regardless of embryo density or temperature, while medium (4 mm) and large diameter (10 mm) artificial masses had oxygen profiles that depended strongly and interactively on embryo density and temperature. Together, our data on natural and artificial egg masses suggest that (i) multiple factors have strong effects on metabolic rate; (ii) rates of oxygen transport are relatively invariant with temperature in simple, artificial systems but may vary more strongly with temperature in natural egg masses; and (iii) the four factors--temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size--interact in important ways bearing on egg mass design. A simple mathematical

  12. Oxygen in egg masses: interactive effects of temperature, age, and egg-mass morphology on oxygen supply to embryos.

    PubMed

    Moran, Amy L; Woods, H Arthur

    2007-02-01

    Embryos of many marine invertebrates are encased in gelatinous masses for part or all of development. Because gel and intervening embryos retard oxygen flux, such a life-history mode profoundly affects partial pressures of metabolic gases surrounding embryos. However, little is known about relationships between egg-mass structure and the opportunities and constraints imposed on structure by metabolic gas transport. We examined the effects of four factors (temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size) on the metabolism of egg masses using both natural egg masses of a nudibranch and artificial egg masses made from sand dollar embryos and low-melting point agarose. Both temperature and embryo age strongly affected metabolic rates of nudibranch embryos. For embryos of a given age (stage), rates of oxygen consumption roughly doubled between 12 and 21 degrees C; from early cleavage to the veliger stage, consumption rose two- to fourfold, depending on temperature. Oxygen profiles in egg masses showed that advanced embryonic age, and to a lesser extent high temperature, both led to steeper oxygen gradients into egg masses. Egg masses containing advanced embryos at 21 degrees C had very low central oxygen levels. Small-diameter artificial masses (2 mm diameter) had virtually no internal oxygen gradients regardless of embryo density or temperature, while medium (4 mm) and large diameter (10 mm) artificial masses had oxygen profiles that depended strongly and interactively on embryo density and temperature. Together, our data on natural and artificial egg masses suggest that (i) multiple factors have strong effects on metabolic rate; (ii) rates of oxygen transport are relatively invariant with temperature in simple, artificial systems but may vary more strongly with temperature in natural egg masses; and (iii) the four factors--temperature, embryo age, embryo density and egg-mass size--interact in important ways bearing on egg mass design. A simple mathematical

  13. Production and deformation of Clonorchis sinensis eggs during in vitro maintenance.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Hafiz; Bae, Young Mee; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2012-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. The present study monitored eggs produced by long-term maintained adult worms of C. sinensis to confirm their egg productivity in vitro. The worms from infected rabbits were incubated in vitro in 1× Locke's solution and broth media (RPMI-1640, DMEM and IMDM). Numbers of expelled eggs were counted sequentially and their morphological changes were monitored by microscopy after 1, 30, 60, and 90 days of cultivation. On the 1-3 days of cultivation, the eggs counted maximum 4,756±202 eggs/worm/day in IMDM medium. The number of eggs gradually decreased less than 1,000 at 7-14 days and below 100 at 21days but continued to pass eggs after 56 days in all media. Length of the eggs were reduced about 1 µm at 30 days, and the length/width ratio was maintained around 1.8 at 30 days but decreased to 1.7 at 60 days and 1.5 at 90 days. Faust-Meleney index (FMI) decreased as the cultivation duration increased and lowest FMI (5662.9±974.7) observed in IMDM media at day 90 (P = 0.001). Microscopic findings of the eggs recognized the miracidium in most of eggs at 60 days but not in those at 90 days. Instead, the eggs contained dark granules or vacuoles in the deformed shell at 90 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed partial loss of wrinkles on the deformed egg surface and prominent abopercular knob. Eggs viability decreased as the cultivation progressed and showed significant positive correlation with FMI and length/width ratio. In conclusion, the cultivated worms pass only the eggs which are preformed in their uterus before cultivation. One gravid C. sinensis contains about 37,000 eggs in its uterus and produces about 4,000 eggs every day. The deformed eggs with FMI less than 7,000 and length/width ratio lower than 1.7 are non-viable. PMID:23285144

  14. Honey bee males and queens use glandular secretions to enhance sperm viability before and after storage.

    PubMed

    den Boer, Susanne P A; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Baer, Boris

    2009-06-01

    Internal fertilization requires live sperm to be transferred from male to female before egg fertilization. Both males and females assist the insemination process by providing sperm with glandular secretions, which have been inferred to contain subsets of proteins that maintain sperm viability. Here we show that in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) secretions of the male accessory glands, the major contributors towards seminal fluid, enhance sperm survival. We further demonstrate that the protein fraction of the male accessory gland secretion is indeed important for achieving the maximal effect on sperm survival. After sperm storage, the queens also provide sperm with secretions from spermathecal glands and we show that these secretions have a comparable positive effect on sperm viability. SDS gels show that the proteomic profiles of accessory gland secretion and spermathecal fluid secretion hardly overlap, which suggests that males and females use different proteins to enhance sperm viability during, respectively, ejaculation and final sperm storage.

  15. Morphological assessment of embryo viability.

    PubMed

    Abeyta, Michael; Behr, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Morphological assessment is discussed in the context of significant literature at all stages of in vitro development, beginning with the oocyte and culminating at the blastocyst stage. Current evidence is used to debate the inclusion of commonly observed morphological features in grading schemes. The biological rationale behind observed phenomena such as multinucleation and fragmentation are also explored. Current limitations as well as technological advancements that increase our ability to assess viability are highlighted. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between developmental timing and assessment schemes. Failure to standardize assessment timing and inclusion criteria is glaring weaknesses of the literature that currently make consensus unattainable. Mounting evidence suggests that the future of static assessment is very likely to be influenced by information gathered from preimplantation genetic screening and other invasive techniques as well as from continuous monitoring tools such as time lapse.

  16. Achieving environmentally relevant organochlorine pesticide concentrations in eggs through maternal exposure in Alligator mississippiensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wiebe, J.J.; Buckland, J.E.; Smith, Joe T.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis eggs from organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminated sites in Florida exhibit high rates of embryonic mortality compared to reference sites (p<0.05). The objective of the present study was to use captive adult alligators to test the hypotheses that maternal exposure to OCPs results in increased OCP concentrations in eggs, and that increased exposure is associated with increased embryonic mortality. A total of 24 adult alligators (8 males and 16 females) were housed in eight pens. Eight females in four pens were dosed with a mixture of p,p'-DDE, toxaphene, dieldrin, and chlordane at a rate of 0.2 ? 0.01 mg/kg/day for 274 ? 8 days. Treated females produced eggs containing higher OCP concentrations (12,814 ? 813 ng/g yolk) than controls (38 ? 4 ng/g yolk). Eggs of treated females exhibited decreased viability (13 ? 22%) as compared to controls (45 ? 20%). Results indicated that 0.6% of administered OCPs were maternally transferred to the eggs of American alligators, and that maternal exposure is associated with decreased egg/embryo viability in this species.

  17. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and suitable substances that aid in protecting or restoring the whipping properties of liquid egg... whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the... perform a useful function as whipping aids or in the pasteurization or other treatment to render...

  19. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and suitable substances that aid in protecting or restoring the whipping properties of liquid egg... whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the... perform a useful function as whipping aids or in the pasteurization or other treatment to render...

  20. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and suitable substances that aid in protecting or restoring the whipping properties of liquid egg... whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of the... perform a useful function as whipping aids or in the pasteurization or other treatment to render...

  1. Avian Egg Odour Encodes Information on Embryo Sex, Fertility and Development

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Ben; Hayes, William; Pike, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Avian chemical communication is a rapidly emerging field, but has been hampered by a critical lack of information on volatile chemicals that communicate ecologically relevant information (semiochemicals). A possible, but as yet unexplored, function of olfaction and chemical communication in birds is in parent-embryo and embryo-embryo communication. Communication between parents and developing embryos may act to mediate parental behaviour, while communication between embryos can control the synchronicity of hatching. Embryonic vocalisations and vibrations have been implicated as a means of communication during the later stages of development but in the early stages, before embryos are capable of independent movement and vocalisation, this is not possible. Here we show that volatiles emitted from developing eggs of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) convey information on egg fertility, along with the sex and developmental status of the embryo. Specifically, egg volatiles changed over the course of incubation, differed between fertile and infertile eggs, and were predictive of embryo sex as early as day 1 of incubation. Egg odours therefore have the potential to facilitate parent-embryo and embryo-embryo interactions by allowing the assessment of key measures of embryonic development long before this is possible through other modalities. It also opens up the intriguing possibility that parents may be able to glean further relevant information from egg volatiles, such as the health, viability and heritage of embryos. By determining information conveyed by egg-derived volatiles, we hope to stimulate further investigation into the ecological role of egg odours. PMID:25629413

  2. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  3. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care.

  4. Parental conflict and blue egg coloration in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Morales, Judith; Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    When both parents provide offspring care, equal sharing of costly parental duties may enhance reproductive success. This is crucial for longlived species, where increased parental effort in current reproduction profoundly affects future reproduction. Indication of reproductive value or willingness to invest in reproduction may promote matching responses by mates, thus reducing the conflict over care. In birds with biparental care, blue-green eggshell color may function as a signal of reproductive value that affects parental effort, as predicted by the signaling hypothesis of blue-green eggshell coloration. However, this hypothesis has not been explored during incubation, when the potential stimulus of egg color is present, and has been little studied in longlived birds. We experimentally studied if egg color affected incubation patterns in the blue-footed booby, a longlived species with biparental care and blue eggs. We exchanged fresh eggs between nests of the same laying date and recorded parental incubation effort on the following 4 days. Although egg color did not affect male effort, original eggshell color was correlated with pair matching in incubation. Exchanged eggshell color did not affect incubation patterns. This suggests that biliverdin-based egg coloration reflects female quality features that are associated with pair incubation effort or that blue-footed boobies mate assortatively high-quality pairs incubating more colorful clutches. An intriguing possibility is that egg coloration facilitates an equal sharing of incubation, the signal being functional only during a short period close to laying. Results also suggest that indication of reproductive value reduces the conflict over care. PMID:20128107

  5. Effect of embryonic development on the chicken egg yolk plasma proteome after 12 days of incubation.

    PubMed

    Réhault-Godbert, Sophie; Mann, Karlheinz; Bourin, Marie; Brionne, Aurélien; Nys, Yves

    2014-03-26

    To better appreciate the dynamics of yolk proteins during embryonic development, we analyzed the protein quantitative changes occurring in the yolk plasma at the day of lay and after 12 days of incubation, by comparing unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs. Of the 127 identified proteins, 69 showed relative abundance differences among conditions. Alpha-fetoprotein and two uncharacterized proteins (F1NHB8 and F1NMM2) were identified for the first time in the egg. After 12 days of incubation, five proteins (vitronectin, α-fetoprotein, similar to thrombin, apolipoprotein B, and apovitellenin-1) showed a major increase in relative abundance, whereas 15 proteins showed a significant decrease in the yolks of fertilized eggs. In unfertilized/table eggs, we observed an accumulation of proteins likely to originate from other egg compartments during incubation. This study provides basic knowledge on the utilization of egg yolk proteins by the embryo and gives some insight into how storage can affect egg quality.

  6. Similar policing rates of eggs laid by virgin and mated honey-bee queens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Martin, Caroline G.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

    2004-12-01

    Worker-policing is a well-documented mechanism that maintains functional worker sterility in queenright honey-bee colonies. Unknown, however, is the source of the egg-marking signal that is thought to be produced by the queen and used by policing workers to discriminate between queen- and worker-laid eggs. Here we investigate whether mating is necessary for the queen to produce the egg-marking signal. We compare the removal rate of eggs laid by virgin queens and compare this rate with that of eggs laid by mated queens. Our results show that mating does not affect the acceptability of eggs, suggesting that physiological changes linked to the act of mating do not play a role in the production of the queen’s egg-marking signal.

  7. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities §...

  8. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in... of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. (a) The shell eggs shall be sorted and... as breaking stock. (b) Shell eggs having strong odors or eggs received in cases having strong...

  9. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    SciTech Connect

    Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W.

    2005-03-28

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity of plant response to herbivore eggs: effects on resistance to caterpillars and plant development.

    PubMed

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2013-03-01

    Herbivory induces direct resistance responses in plants that negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores. Moreover, eggs of herbivorous insects can also activate plant resistance, which in some cases prevents hatching larvae from feeding. Until now, plant-mediated effects of eggs on subsequent herbivory, and the specificity of such responses, have remained poorly understood. We studied the specificity and effects of plant resistance induced by herbivore egg deposition against lepidopteran larvae of species with different dietary breadths, feeding on a wild annual plant, the crucifer Brassica nigra. We examined whether this plant-mediated response affects the growth of caterpillars of a specialist (Pieris brassicae) that feeds on B. nigra leaves and flowers, and a generalist (Mamestra brassicae) that rarely attacks this wild crucifer. We measured growth rates of neonate larvae to the end of their second instar after the larvae had hatched on plants exposed to eggs vs. plants without eggs, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Moreover, we studied the effects of egg deposition by the two herbivore species on plant height and flowering rate before and after larval hatching. Larvae of both herbivore species that developed on plants previously infested with eggs of the specialist butterfly P. brassicae gained less mass compared with larvae that developed on egg-free plants. Plants exposed to butterfly eggs showed accelerated plant growth and flowering compared to egg-free plants. Egg deposition by the generalist moth M. brassicae, in contrast, had no effect on subsequent performance by either herbivore species, or on plant development. Our results demonstrate that B. nigra plants respond differently to eggs of two herbivore species in terms of plant development and induced resistance to caterpillar attack. For this annual crucifer, the retardation of caterpillar growth in response to deposition of eggs by P. brassicae in combination with enhanced growth

  11. Phenotypic plasticity of plant response to herbivore eggs: effects on resistance to caterpillars and plant development.

    PubMed

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2013-03-01

    Herbivory induces direct resistance responses in plants that negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores. Moreover, eggs of herbivorous insects can also activate plant resistance, which in some cases prevents hatching larvae from feeding. Until now, plant-mediated effects of eggs on subsequent herbivory, and the specificity of such responses, have remained poorly understood. We studied the specificity and effects of plant resistance induced by herbivore egg deposition against lepidopteran larvae of species with different dietary breadths, feeding on a wild annual plant, the crucifer Brassica nigra. We examined whether this plant-mediated response affects the growth of caterpillars of a specialist (Pieris brassicae) that feeds on B. nigra leaves and flowers, and a generalist (Mamestra brassicae) that rarely attacks this wild crucifer. We measured growth rates of neonate larvae to the end of their second instar after the larvae had hatched on plants exposed to eggs vs. plants without eggs, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Moreover, we studied the effects of egg deposition by the two herbivore species on plant height and flowering rate before and after larval hatching. Larvae of both herbivore species that developed on plants previously infested with eggs of the specialist butterfly P. brassicae gained less mass compared with larvae that developed on egg-free plants. Plants exposed to butterfly eggs showed accelerated plant growth and flowering compared to egg-free plants. Egg deposition by the generalist moth M. brassicae, in contrast, had no effect on subsequent performance by either herbivore species, or on plant development. Our results demonstrate that B. nigra plants respond differently to eggs of two herbivore species in terms of plant development and induced resistance to caterpillar attack. For this annual crucifer, the retardation of caterpillar growth in response to deposition of eggs by P. brassicae in combination with enhanced growth

  12. Metabolic rate of Arctic charr eggs depends on their parentage.

    PubMed

    Pakkasmaa, Susanna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Piironen, Jorma

    2006-06-01

    The metabolic rate (specific heat output) of individual eyed-stage eggs of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus, 1758) originating from different families was measured with direct microcalorimetry. Metabolic rates varied between 2.3-7.9 microW ind(-1) and 0.06-0.22 microW mg(-1). Absolute heat output was unrelated to egg size, but size-scaled or specific heat output was negatively correlated with egg size, measured as diameter, dry mass or fresh mass. Metabolic rates varied significantly between families, suggesting that genetic and/or maternal effects affect embryonic metabolism in Arctic charr. Heat output increased almost linearly from 3.4 to 16.7 microW ind(-1) (0.09-0.67 microW mg(-1)) during the embryonic development. Although the metabolic rate varied between the families and egg metabolic rate increased during development, there was an unexpected disconnect between metabolic rate and hatching time.

  13. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae (Schizochytrium) Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Upadhaya, S. D.; Kim, I. H.

    2015-01-01

    Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) brown layers (40 wks of age) were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP) on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i) CON (basal diet), ii) 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder), and iii) 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder). From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034); however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05). Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively). Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044). Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05). Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05). These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio. PMID:25656210

  14. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  15. Metabolomic assessment of embryo viability.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Asli; Seli, Emre

    2014-03-01

    Preimplantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the developmental potential of embryos. On this basis, metabolite content of culture media was hypothesized to reflect the implantation potential of individual embryos. This hypothesis was tested in consecutive studies reporting a significant association between culture media metabolites and embryo development or clinical pregnancy. The need for a noninvasive, reliable, and rapid embryo assessment strategy promoted metabolomics studies in vitro fertilization (IVF) in an effort to increase success rates of single embryo transfers. With the advance of analytical techniques and bioinformatics, commercial instruments were developed to predict embryo viability using spectroscopic analysis of surplus culture media. However, despite the initial promising results from proof-of-principal studies, recent randomized controlled trials using commercial instruments failed to show a consistent benefit in improving pregnancy rates when metabolomics is used as an adjunct to morphology. At present, the application of metabolomics technology in clinical IVF laboratory requires the elimination of factors underlying inconsistent findings, when possible, and development of reliable predictive models accounting for all possible sources of bias throughout the embryo selection process. PMID:24515909

  16. Tyzzer's Disease of Rabbits: Isolation and Propagation of Bacillus piliformis (Tyzzer) in Embryonated Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Ganaway, James R.; Allen, Anton M.; Moore, Thomas D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacillus piliformis (Tyzzer) was isolated from the liver of rabbits with Tyzzer's disease and serially passaged in embryonated hens' eggs. Weanling rabbits given the 32nd egg passage developed lesions typical of Tyzzer's disease and died. B. piliformis was reisolated from the liver of these rabbits in embryonated eggs. Outside the host cell, the motile vegetative phase appeared to be unstable, and no means was found to preserve its viability; the results of titrations were believed to be dependent upon the resistant stage or spore. The spore withstood repeated freeze and thaw and was resistant to heat treatment of 56 C for 1 hr but not 80 C for 0.5 hr. None of several antibacterial substances tested in embryonated eggs was completely inhibitory; B. piliformis was resistant to sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol. The taxonomic position of this pleomorphic, gram-negative, sporeforming, pathogenic bacterium which appears to grow only in certain cells of several species remains unresolved. Images PMID:16557992

  17. Variations in egg characteristics of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua inhabiting brackish and freshwater environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirgsden, Roland; Albert, Anu; Rohtla, Mehis; Taal, Imre; Saks, Lauri; Verliin, Aare; Kesler, Martin; Hubel, Kalvi; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2015-09-01

    Egg characteristics of teleost fishes are affected by various abiotic and biotic factors. In order to reproduce successfully, freshwater fishes inhabiting brackish environments must alter their reproductive characteristics, including egg properties, to increased osmotic pressure. Ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua was used as a model species to compare egg characteristics between fish populations inhabiting brackish and freshwater environments. Fish from the brackish environment had larger eggs with higher energy content than the individuals originating from freshwater. In freshwater, eggs from the first batch were larger than from the second. Female size correlated positively with egg size in the brackish water population. In freshwater, this correlation was evident only with eggs from the first batch. Only a weak positive correlation was found between fish condition and egg size in females from the brackish water population. Egg size variation did not differ between sites, nor was it correlated with mean egg size or any other maternal traits within populations. These results indicate significant modifications in reproductive strategies between brackish and freshwater ruffe populations. Additionally, results show that at least in freshwater, the first batch of eggs is of the highest quality and therefore more important for reproduction.

  18. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress.

  19. Egg mass in an asynchronously hatching parrot: does variation offset constraints imposed by laying order?

    PubMed

    Budden, Amber E; Beissinger, Steven R

    2005-06-01

    Life history theory predicts phenotypic trade-offs between the number and quality of offspring produced. Intraspecific variation in egg mass is common in birds and increased egg size can have positive effects on offspring fitness. However, evidence of a trade-off with clutch size is limited. We analyzed variation in mass of 5,743 Green-rumped parrotlet (Forpus passerinus) eggs laid over 15 years to evaluate the potential for facultative adjustment of egg mass and factors governing variation. Heavier eggs had an increased probability of both hatching and fledging but egg mass did not affect postfledging recruitment. Offspring egg mass differed between populations and the potential for seasonal adjustment to egg mass may be related to environmental factors such as seed density. Egg mass was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.42) which accounts for some of the individual variation detected, and these results are likely attributable to strong maternal effects. We found an effect of female age on egg mass, but no effects of previous reproductive experience. Finally, egg mass was strongly governed by position within the laying sequence, independent of clutch size, and such adjustment may facilitate brood reduction under some conditions in this highly asynchronous species.

  20. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  1. Influence of the hydric environment on water exchange and hatchlings of rigid-shelled turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Booth, David T; Yu, Chung Yan

    2009-01-01

    To examine the possible influence of incubation substrate water potential on rigid-shelled chelonian eggs and hatchlings, rigid-shelled eggs from four clutches of Brisbane River turtle (Emydura signata) were incubated buried in vermiculite at water potentials of approximately -100, -350, and -850 kPa, and patterns of egg mass change and hatchling attributes were examined. All eggs hatched successfully, and there was no apparent effect of water potential on incubation period, fresh hatchling mass, hatchling water content, or hatchling size. Clutch of origin also had no apparent effect on these attributes when initial egg mass was used as a covariate. However, clutch of origin affected initial egg mass, and clutch of origin and incubation water potential influenced the amount of water exchanged between the eggs and their environment during incubation and the amount of residual yolk found in hatchlings. Substrate water potential has little effect on hatchling outcomes other than the proportion of yolk converted to hatchling tissue during incubation in the rigid-shelled eggs of E. signata. It would appear that in general, the substrate water potential during incubation affects the quality of chelonian hatchlings by influencing the amount of yolk converted to hatchling tissue during embryonic development and that this influence is stronger in flexible-shelled eggs than in rigid-shelled eggs. PMID:19115963

  2. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.

    1989-07-01

    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  3. Effect of dietary sodium nitrate consumption on egg production, egg quality characteristics and some blood indices in native hens of west azarbaijan province.

    PubMed

    Safary, H; Daneshyar, M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn't affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p<0.05). Furthermore, a treatment effect was observed for yolk colour (p<0.05). Both the egg production and egg mass were increased over time (p<0.05). No significant treatment×time interaction was observed for egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p>0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p<0.05). None of the blood TP and TG or the activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass).

  4. Effect of Dietary Sodium Nitrate Consumption on Egg Production, Egg Quality Characteristics and Some Blood Indices in Native Hens of West Azarbaijan Province

    PubMed Central

    Safary, H.; Daneshyar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of sodium nitrate consumption on egg quality and quantity, and some blood parameters of native breeder hens of West Azerbaijan province. One hundred native hens were used from wk 25 to 32 of age. These birds were divided into two groups. One group was fed the control diet (CD) but the other fed the same diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg sodium nitrate (ND). After 2 wks of adaptation, eggs were collected daily and egg mass and egg production were measured weekly for five weeks. To assess the egg quality parameters, two eggs from each replicate pen were collected for three consecutive days each week. At the end of experimental period (wk 32 of age), blood samples of 5 birds per replicate were collected from the wing vein into anticoagulant tubes. Dietary sodium nitrate didn’t affect the egg production, shell stiffness, shell thickness and Haugh unit (p>0.05) but it decreased the both egg production and egg mass during the last three weeks (wks 30, 31 and 32) (p<0.05). Furthermore, a treatment effect was observed for yolk colour (p<0.05). Both the egg production and egg mass were increased over time (p<0.05). No significant treatment×time interaction was observed for egg weight, egg production and egg mass (p>0.05). No effect of time or treatment×time were observed for shell stiffness (p>0.05). Over time, shell thickness was decreased while Haugh unit increased (p<0.05). None of the blood TP and TG or the activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes were affected by dietary consumption of sodium nitrate at wk 32 of age (p>0.05). Sodium nitrite decreased both the TAC and TC at wk 32 of age (p<0.001). It was concluded that the lower body antioxidant capacity of nitrate fed birds resulted in the lower performance (egg weight, egg production and egg mass). PMID:25049524

  5. [Influence of Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) egg density on the parasitization capacity of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner and Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)].

    PubMed

    Polanczyk, R A; Barbosa, W F; Celestino, F N; Pratissoli, D; Holtz, A M; Milanez, A M; Cocheto, J G; da Silva, A F

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the egg density of Diaphania hyalinata (L.) on several biological parameters of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto & Platner and T. pretiosum Riley were investigated. For that, 24h-old egg masses were isolated in glass tubes (15 replicates; 1 egg mass = 1 replicate), and offered to parasitization by a newly-emerged female of T. pretiosum or T. exiguum 24h at the proportion of one female to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 eggs of D. hyalinata. The following parameters were evaluated: number of parasitized eggs, number of individuals per egg, viability and sex ratio. Trichogramma exiguum parasitized more eggs than T. pretiosum when more than 25 eggs were available per female. The percentage of emergence was satisfactory to T. pretiosum in densities up to 15 eggs/female and up to 20 eggs/female for T. exiguum. The number of individuals per egg was not statistically different in both species except in the density of 25 eggs/female. It can be concluded that T. exiguum performed better than T. pretiosum at larger clutch sizes, as T. exiguum parasitization capacity increased as a result of the size of the host clutch size.

  6. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  7. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  8. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. PMID:26174350

  9. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  10. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  11. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  12. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  13. Rigid shells enhance survival of gekkotan eggs.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    The majority of lizards and snakes produce permeable parchment-shelled eggs that require high moisture conditions for successful embryonic development. One clade of gekkotan lizards is an exception; females produce relatively impermeable rigid-shelled eggs that normally incubate successfully under low moisture conditions. I tested the hypothesis that the rigid-shell increases egg survival during incubation, but only under low moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, I incubated rigid-shelled eggs of Chondrodactylus turneri under low and under high moisture conditions. Eggs were incubated with parchment-shelled eggs of Eublepharis macularius to insure that incubation conditions were suitable for parchment-shelled eggs. Chondrodactylus turneri eggs had very high survival (>90%) when they were incubated under low moisture conditions. In contrast, eggs incubated under high moisture conditions had low survival overall, and lower survival than those of the parchment-shelled eggs of E. macularius. Mortality of C. turneri and E. macularius eggs incubated under high moisture conditions was the result of fungal infection, a common source of egg mortality for squamates under laboratory and field conditions. These observations document high survival of rigid-shelled eggs under low moisture conditions because eggs escape from fungal infection. Highly mineralized rigid shells also make egg survival independent of moisture availability and may also provide protection from small invertebrates in nature. Enhanced egg survival could thus compensate for the low reproductive output of gekkotans that produce rigid-shelled eggs.

  14. Morphological changes of Ascaris spp. eggs during their development outside the host.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ligia M; Allanson, Michael; Kwa, Boo; Azizan, Azliyati; Izurieta, Ricardo

    2012-02-01

    Information on the infective stage of Ascaris lumbricoides and the pathology caused by the parasite is widely available in the literature. However, information about early embryonic development of A. lumbricoides and its life cycle outside the host is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphological changes within the developing embryo during incubation in vitro at 28 C, as well as to explore differences in egg viability during incubation. Ascaris suum eggs (4,000 eggs/ml), used as a model for A. lumbricoides , were placed for incubation in 0.1N H(2)SO(4) at 28 C in the dark for 21 days. Every day, sub-samples of approximately 100 A. suum eggs were taken from the incubation solution for microscopic evaluation. Development, morphological changes, and viability of the first 40 eggs were observed and documented with photos. During this study, 12 stages were identified in the developing embryo by standard microscopy, 2 of which had not been previously reported. By the end of the first wk, most developing embryos observed were in the late-morula stage (72.5%). On day 14 of incubation, 90% had developed to larva-1 stage, and by day 21, 100% had developed to larva-2 stage. No significant differences were found in the viability recorded in a continuum from day 5 to day 21 of incubation (chi-square, P > 0.05). The result of this study complements and expands the stages of development of Ascaris spp. outside the host previously reported in the literature. It also suggests the potential use of early stages of development of the nematode to determine viability and safety of sewage sludge, wastewater, or compost after treatment recommended by USEPA.

  15. Identification and quantification of pathogenic helminth eggs using a digital image system.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Maya, C; Velásquez, G; Torner, F; Arambula, F; Barrios, J A; Velasco, M

    2016-07-01

    A system was developed to identify and quantify up to seven species of helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides -fertile and unfertile eggs-, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis, Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Schistosoma mansoni) in wastewater using different image processing tools and pattern recognition algorithms. The system was developed in three stages. Version one was used to explore the viability of the concept of identifying helminth eggs through an image processing system, while versions 2 and 3 were used to improve its efficiency. The system development was based on the analysis of different properties of helminth eggs in order to discriminate them from other objects in samples processed using the conventional United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) technique to quantify helminth eggs. The system was tested, in its three stages, considering two parameters: specificity (capacity to discriminate between species of helminth eggs and other objects) and sensitivity (capacity to correctly classify and identify the different species of helminth eggs). The final version showed a specificity of 99% while the sensitivity varied between 80 and 90%, depending on the total suspended solids content of the wastewater samples. To achieve such values in samples with total suspended solids (TSS) above 150 mg/L, it is recommended to dilute the concentrated sediment just before taking the images under the microscope. The system allows the helminth eggs most commonly found in wastewater to be reliably and uniformly detected and quantified. In addition, it provides the total number of eggs as well as the individual number by species, and for Ascaris lumbricoides it differentiates whether or not the egg is fertile. The system only requires basically trained technicians to prepare the samples, as for visual identification there is no need for highly trained personnel. The time required to analyze each image is less than a minute. This

  16. Elevated corticosterone during egg production elicits increased maternal investment and promotes nestling growth in a wild songbird

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Bowden, Rachel M.; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids circulating in breeding birds during egg production accumulate within eggs, and may provide a potent form of maternal effect on offspring phenotype. However, whether these steroids affect offspring development remains unclear. Here, we employed a non-invasive technique that experimentally elevated the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs in a wild population of house wrens. Feeding corticosterone-injected mealworms to free-living females prior to and during egg production increased the number of eggs that females produced and increased corticosterone concentrations in egg yolks. This treatment also resulted in an increase in the amount of yolk allocated to eggs. Offspring hatching from these eggs begged for food at a higher rate than control offspring and eventually attained increased prefledging body condition, a trait predictive of their probability of recruitment as breeding adults in the study population. Our results indicate that an increase in maternal glucocorticoids within the physiological range can enhance maternal investment and offspring development. PMID:27189763

  17. Elevated corticosterone during egg production elicits increased maternal investment and promotes nestling growth in a wild songbird.

    PubMed

    Bowers, E Keith; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids circulating in breeding birds during egg production accumulate within eggs, and may provide a potent form of maternal effect on offspring phenotype. However, whether these steroids affect offspring development remains unclear. Here, we employed a non-invasive technique that experimentally elevated the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs in a wild population of house wrens. Feeding corticosterone-injected mealworms to free-living females prior to and during egg production increased the number of eggs that females produced and increased corticosterone concentrations in egg yolks. This treatment also resulted in an increase in the amount of yolk allocated to eggs. Offspring hatching from these eggs begged for food at a higher rate than control offspring and eventually attained increased prefledging body condition, a trait predictive of their probability of recruitment as breeding adults in the study population. Our results indicate that an increase in maternal glucocorticoids within the physiological range can enhance maternal investment and offspring development.

  18. Elevated corticosterone during egg production elicits increased maternal investment and promotes nestling growth in a wild songbird.

    PubMed

    Bowers, E Keith; Bowden, Rachel M; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoids circulating in breeding birds during egg production accumulate within eggs, and may provide a potent form of maternal effect on offspring phenotype. However, whether these steroids affect offspring development remains unclear. Here, we employed a non-invasive technique that experimentally elevated the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs in a wild population of house wrens. Feeding corticosterone-injected mealworms to free-living females prior to and during egg production increased the number of eggs that females produced and increased corticosterone concentrations in egg yolks. This treatment also resulted in an increase in the amount of yolk allocated to eggs. Offspring hatching from these eggs begged for food at a higher rate than control offspring and eventually attained increased prefledging body condition, a trait predictive of their probability of recruitment as breeding adults in the study population. Our results indicate that an increase in maternal glucocorticoids within the physiological range can enhance maternal investment and offspring development. PMID:27189763

  19. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. PMID:26908885

  20. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver.

  1. Disinfection of domestic effluents by gamma radiation: effects on the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gloria S M B; Rodrigues, Ludmila A; de Oliveira, Warllem J; Chernicharo, Carlos A L; Guimarães, Marcos P; Massara, Cristiano L; Grossi, Pablo A

    2011-11-01

    This work investigated the inactivation of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in domestic effluents by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. Domestic wastewater was treated in a compact demo-scale system consisting of a UASB reactor and a trickling filter; treatment was carried out at the Center for Research and Training on Sanitation (CePTS), Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Belo Horizonte-MG, Brazil. One-liter of treated wastewater samples was artificially contaminated with an average of 1000 non-embryonated Ascaris lumbricoides eggs from human feces; samples were then irradiated in a multiple-purpose irradiator at different doses (0.5-5 kGy). Eggs were recovered from the wastewater and the viability of these irradiated eggs was evaluated; the description of the egg developmental phases with each dose of gamma radiation was recorded. Radiation doses of 3.5 kGy effectively disinfected effluents with lower concentrations of A. lumbricoides eggs; higher radiation doses of 5 kGy were necessary to disinfect effluents with higher eggs concentrations.

  2. Effect of fenbendazole and ivermectin on development of strongylate nematode eggs and larvae in calf feces.

    PubMed

    Miller, J E; Morrison, D G

    1992-07-01

    Thirty-nine weaned steer calves (mean weight 284 kg) were maintained under dry-lot conditions and assigned (based on fecal nematode egg count) to one of three treatment groups of 13 animals each as follows: control (no treatment), fenbendazole (5 mg kg-1), and ivermectin (0.2 mg kg-1). Fecal samples were collected 12 h before treatment, at treatment, and 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment for determination of nematode eggs per gram, and (after culture) infective larvae per gram and population distribution. The effect of treatment on egg development was observed in feces collected 12 and 24 h after treatment. There was essentially no difference in efficacy, based on egg counts, of fenbendazole and ivermectin. Egg count was reduced 100% by both anthelmintics at 72 h after treatment. Viability, based on percent of eggs reaching the infective larval stage, of developing stages at 12, 24, and 48 h after fenbendazole treatment was 0.1%, 1.1%, and 0%; after ivermectin treatment the corresponding values were 23.7%, 30.1%, and 28.6%, respectively. Fenbendazole treatment resulted in little or no development of eggs and/or larvae in feces deposited 12 and 24 h after treatment, whereas development proceeded normally (compared with the control group) in ivermectin treated feces. Population distribution of infective larvae was predominantly Haemonchus and Cooperia with some Ostertagia and Oesophagostomum.

  3. Yolk size and ovulation order determine fertility within double-yolked duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Attila; Kent, John P

    2016-03-01

    Herein we examined the effects of yolk size and ovulation order on the fertilisation of yolks within double-yolked (DY) duck eggs. Single-yolked (SY) duck eggs had high fertility (89.98%), whereas in DY duck eggs fertility was low (51.9% yolks). The yolks closer to the airspace (Yolk 1) in DY eggs had higher fertility (68.82% vs 34.98% for Yolk 2; P<0.001). When only one of the two yolks was fertilised, Yolk 1 was fertilised in 99.12% of those eggs. Yolk 1 is presumed to be the first ovulated. The higher fertility of Yolk 1 is consistent with a primacy effect where the first ovulation has a higher probability of achieving fertilisation. Small DY eggs within the normal SY egg weight range (75-104.9g) had significantly lower yolk fertility (47.91%; n=550) compared with large (≥105g) DY eggs (54.56%; n=768; P<0.001). Yolk 1 fertility was lower in small compared with large DY eggs (64.18% vs 72.14%, respectively; P=0.003). Although Yolk 2 fertility was low, it was not affected by egg size. DY eggs with zero fertilised yolks were significantly lighter than DY eggs with one (P=0.007) or two (P<0.001) fertilised yolks (i.e. larger DY eggs were more likely to have fertilised yolks). Larger eggs (≥105g) have larger yolks and the evidence here shows that an optimal yolk size is a significant positive factor in achieving fertilization by dislodging spermatozoa, after ovulation, from their storage sites.

  4. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay; Reddy, Y. G.; Mittal, Rakesh; Agarwal, Vishal; Singh, Chanchal; Singh, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media. Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control); Group II: aloe vera (experimental); Group III: egg white (experimental)]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated. Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0), followed by egg white (100.9±6.3) and milk (101.1±7.3). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk. PMID:26877742

  5. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  6. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  7. Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.

  8. Comprehensive Review of Current Knowledge on Egg Oral Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, M D; Escudero, C; Sánchez-García, S; Rodríguez del Río, P

    2015-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an attractive strategy for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy. Multiple egg OIT studies have been published to date, but many are uncontrolled. Furthermore, interpretation of the results is difficult because of significant heterogeneity in design, aims, and population. Most studies have demonstrated the potential of egg OIT to induce desensitization, albeit to different extents (0%-100% of patients). However, few studies have explored the capacity of OIT to maintain tolerance, that is, enabling the patient to continue consuming egg after suspension of therapy. Nowadays, 28% to 75% of patients maintain tolerance after 1 to 3 months of their elimination diet. Adverse effects are the main drawback of this treatment, which is still not recommended in routine practice. Adverse reactions are not reported homogeneously, with the result that it is difficult to properly assess outcomes. The overall impression is that adverse reactions affect most patients and tend to be frequent, although of mild to moderate severity. Nevertheless, severe events such as anaphylaxis or eosinophilic esophagitis may also occur. Immunological changes resulting from egg OIT, for example, the decrease in the size of the skin prick test wheal and the levels of egg white sIgE and a significant early increase in egg white sIgG4, have been reported. Several areas of egg OIT remain unclear, including patient selection, materials used, dosing schedule, treatment duration, long-term maintained effectiveness, requirements for implementation in clinical practice, influence on quality of life, and cost-effectiveness of treatment. In this review, we provide an in-depth examination of methodological differences between studies in order to understand the diversity in the efficacy and safety results of the procedures used in egg OIT.

  9. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  10. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  11. How do hatcheries influence embryonic development of sea turtle eggs? Experimental analysis and isolation of microorganisms in leatherback turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Patino-Martinez, Juan; Marco, Adolfo; Quiñones, Liliana; Abella, Elena; Abad, Roberto Muriel; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many conservation programs consider translocation of turtle nests to hatcheries as a useful technique. The repeated use of the same incubation substrate over several seasons in these hatcheries could, however, be harmful to embryos if pathogens were able to accumulate or if the physical and chemical characteristics of the incubation environment were altered. However, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the effects of hatchery sand and eggshell decay on the embryonic development of leatherback sea turtle eggs in Colombia. We identified the presence of both fungi and bacteria species on leatherback turtle eggs. Sea turtle eggs exposed to previously used hatchery substrates or to decaying eggshells during the first and middle third of the embryonic development produced hatchlings that were smaller and/or weighed less than control eggs. However, this did not negatively influence hatching success. The final third of embryonic development seems to be less susceptible to infection by microorganisms associated with decaying shells. We discuss the mechanisms that could be affecting sea turtle egg development when in contact with fungi. Further studies should seek to understand the infection process and the stages of development in which the fungi are more virulent to the eggs of this critically endangered species.

  12. How do hatcheries influence embryonic development of sea turtle eggs? Experimental analysis and isolation of microorganisms in leatherback turtle eggs.

    PubMed

    Patino-Martinez, Juan; Marco, Adolfo; Quiñones, Liliana; Abella, Elena; Abad, Roberto Muriel; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Many conservation programs consider translocation of turtle nests to hatcheries as a useful technique. The repeated use of the same incubation substrate over several seasons in these hatcheries could, however, be harmful to embryos if pathogens were able to accumulate or if the physical and chemical characteristics of the incubation environment were altered. However, this hypothesis has yet to be tested. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the effects of hatchery sand and eggshell decay on the embryonic development of leatherback sea turtle eggs in Colombia. We identified the presence of both fungi and bacteria species on leatherback turtle eggs. Sea turtle eggs exposed to previously used hatchery substrates or to decaying eggshells during the first and middle third of the embryonic development produced hatchlings that were smaller and/or weighed less than control eggs. However, this did not negatively influence hatching success. The final third of embryonic development seems to be less susceptible to infection by microorganisms associated with decaying shells. We discuss the mechanisms that could be affecting sea turtle egg development when in contact with fungi. Further studies should seek to understand the infection process and the stages of development in which the fungi are more virulent to the eggs of this critically endangered species. PMID:22021044

  13. Egg-adaptive mutations in H3N2v vaccine virus enhance egg-based production without loss of antigenicity or immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Subrata; Franks, John; Turner, Jasmine C.; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The recently detected zoonotic H3N2 variant influenza A (H3N2v) viruses have caused 343 documented cases of human infection linked to contact with swine. An effective vaccine is needed for these viruses, which may acquire transmissibility among humans. However, viruses isolated from human cases do not replicate well in embryonated chicken eggs, posing an obstacle to egg-based vaccine production. To address this issue, we sought to identify egg-adaptive mutations in surface proteins that increase the yield of candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) in eggs while preserving their immunizing effectiveness. After serial passage of a representative H3N2v isolate (A/Indiana/08/2011), we identified several egg-adaptive combinations of HA mutations and assessed the egg-based replication, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1, PR8)-based 6 + 2 reverse genetics CVVs carrying these mutations. Here we demonstrate that the respective combined HA substitutions G1861V + N2461K, N1651K + G1861V, T1281N + N1651K + R762G, and T1281N + N1651K + I102M, all identified after egg passage, enhanced the replication of the CVVs in eggs without substantially affecting their antigenicity or immunogenicity. The mutations were stable, and the mutant viruses acquired no additional substitutions during six subsequent egg passages. We found two crucial mutations, G186V, which was previously defined, and N246K, which in combination improved virus yield in eggs without significantly impacting antigenicity or immunogenicity. This combination of egg-adaptive mutations appears to most effectively generate high egg-based yields of influenza A/Indiana/08/2011-like CVVs. PMID:25999284

  14. The Impact of Different Housing Systems on Egg Safety and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A move from conventional cages to either an enriched cage or a noncage system may affect the safety and/or quality of the eggs laid by hens raised in this new environment. The safety of the eggs may be altered either microbiologically through contamination of internal contents with Salmonella enteri...

  15. Whooping crane egg management: options and consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Eggs to build captive whooping crane (Grus americana) flocks and most eggs for reintroduction experiments have come from second viable eggs in 2-egg clutches in Canada. Four years ago, egg removal ceased. Based on reproductive rates for years when second eggs were removed and for years when eggs were not removed, we project numbers of young fledging in the wild and in captivity for the 2 most likely egg-management strategies. From existing data sets, we find that reproductive performance was, on average, better during the era of routine removal of the second viable eggs than when no manipulation occurred. Further, the number of young produced in captivity from the removed eggs, on average, resulted in a doubling of the number of young birds (wild and captive) alive each autumn.

  16. Batch spawning facilitates transfer of an essential nutrient from diet to eggs in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Fuiman, Lee A; Faulk, Cynthia K

    2013-10-23

    Fatty acid composition of eggs affects development, growth and ecological performance of fish embryos and larvae, with potential consequences for recruitment success. Essential fatty acids in eggs derive from the maternal diet, and the time between ingestion and deposition in eggs is ecologically important but unknown. We examined the dynamics of diet-egg transfer of arachidonic acid (ARA) in the batch-spawning fish, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), by measuring ARA concentrations in eggs after a single diet shift and during a period of irregular variations in diet. ARA concentrations in eggs changed within 2-16 days of a diet shift. The rate of change was proportional to the magnitude of the shift, with no evidence of equilibration. These results are not consistent with eggs being assembled entirely from accumulated body stores. The immediate source of ARA in eggs appears to be the recent diet. We propose that batch spawning produces rapid diet-egg transfer of ARA because it removes large amounts of fatty acids from the body and prevents equilibration. The immediacy of the diet-egg connection suggests that spawning migration combined with short-interval batch spawning may have evolved to take advantage of nutrients critical for offspring survival that are available at the spawning site. PMID:23985349

  17. Batch spawning facilitates transfer of an essential nutrient from diet to eggs in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Fuiman, Lee A.; Faulk, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of eggs affects development, growth and ecological performance of fish embryos and larvae, with potential consequences for recruitment success. Essential fatty acids in eggs derive from the maternal diet, and the time between ingestion and deposition in eggs is ecologically important but unknown. We examined the dynamics of diet–egg transfer of arachidonic acid (ARA) in the batch-spawning fish, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), by measuring ARA concentrations in eggs after a single diet shift and during a period of irregular variations in diet. ARA concentrations in eggs changed within 2–16 days of a diet shift. The rate of change was proportional to the magnitude of the shift, with no evidence of equilibration. These results are not consistent with eggs being assembled entirely from accumulated body stores. The immediate source of ARA in eggs appears to be the recent diet. We propose that batch spawning produces rapid diet–egg transfer of ARA because it removes large amounts of fatty acids from the body and prevents equilibration. The immediacy of the diet–egg connection suggests that spawning migration combined with short-interval batch spawning may have evolved to take advantage of nutrients critical for offspring survival that are available at the spawning site. PMID:23985349

  18. 76 FR 55642 - Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg Surveillance), Request for Extension and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg... approved information collection in support of the shell egg surveillance portion of the Regulation for the... disposition of dirty and checked shell eggs; to control unwholesome, adulterated, and inedible shell eggs...

  19. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled...

  20. Improving the financial viability of primary care health centers.

    PubMed

    Finkler, S A; Knickman, J R; Hanson, K L

    1994-01-01

    This article presents findings from a national demonstration program to improve the long-term financial viability of small not-for-profit primary care health centers. The program initiatives and their implementation are described in some detail. A standard pre/post study design was used to measure the impact of the initiatives on general outcome measures, financial ratios, and the utilization of management techniques. Overall, demonstration centers showed improvement over the study period. Notable short-term improvements included significant growth in the volume of patient visits and increased profit. Observed changes also revealed an increased use of sophisticated management techniques, expected to positively affect longer-term financial health. The findings suggest that improving the financial viability of health centers need not be expensive.

  1. New technique for fertilizing eggs of burbot, asp and ide under hatchery conditions.

    PubMed

    Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Nowosad, Joanna; Łuczyński, Marek J; Targońska, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    The development of a new protocol for egg fertilization may increase embryo survival and benefit the aquaculture process. In the present study, a new technique of partially adding sperm to activated eggs in the artificial fertilization of burbot (Lota lota), ide (Leuciscus idus) and asp (Aspius aspius) eggs was evaluated. If the same volume of sperm was divided into two or three parts and added to eggs in 30-60s intervals, it significantly improved embryo survival at the eyed-egg-stage of development. In the present study, the periodic addition of spermatozoa to eggs affected fertilization (ide and asp) and embryo survival rates (ide, asp and burbot) and might be successfully applied under hatchery conditions. PMID:27470201

  2. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  3. Effect of hesperidin dietary supplementation on hen performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Goliomytis, M; Orfanou, H; Petrou, E; Charismiadou, M A; Simitzis, P E; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-02-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with hesperidin (one or 3 g/kg of feed) for 31 d on the performance, egg quality and yolk oxidative stability of brown and white laying hens (26-wk old). 2. Supplementation with hesperidin did not affect egg production, egg weight and egg quality traits. 3. No hesperidin effect on yolk and plasma cholesterol was observed. A strain effect was found with lower total and per g yolk cholesterol of brown hens in comparison to the white ones. 4. Oxidative stability of egg yolk, expressed as ng MDA/g yolk, was significantly improved in the hesperidin groups even from the first week of supplementation. At the same time, a significant improvement in the oxidative stability of egg yolk due to the incorporation of hesperidin in hens' diet was observed after 30 and 90 d of storage at 20°C and 4°C, respectively. 5. No hesperidin by strain interaction was detected for any of the traits measured. 6. In conclusion, incorporation of hesperidin to laying hens' feed did not affect productive and egg qualitative traits. On the other hand, dietary hesperidin supplementation significantly improved oxidative stability of both fresh and stored eggs. Antioxidant properties of hesperidin seem to make it a promising natural agent for improving the shelf life of eggs.

  4. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  5. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  6. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen. PMID:16814375

  7. Delayed egg hatching of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) pending water agitation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Shakibi, Sanam; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito eggs laid on water surfaces typically hatch spontaneously soon after the embryos within them become fully formed first-instar larvae. However, we have found that Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in Africa, exhibits delayed hatching until the water surface is agitated, a feature overlooked in most laboratory colonies. Agitation within 24 h postoviposition, before embryonation was complete, failed to stimulate delayed postembryonic hatching of isolated eggs on the following day (day 2), when < 1% had hatched spontaneously. However, 5 min of water agitation of these dormant pharate first-instar larvae on day 2 resulted in an almost immediate hatch of 63.3 versus 0% of nonagitated controls, plus another 3.9 versus 0.3%, respectively, during the following 24 h. With daily agitation, installment hatching occurred mainly during 2-6 d postoviposition. The mean cumulative hatch after 7 d of daily agitation was 83.1 versus 1.1% of nonagitated eggs. Experiments with eggs in groups demonstrated that egg density and activity of already-hatched larvae had no stimulatory effect. Eggs stored 1-4 wk at 25.5 or at 15.5 degrees C, and then agitated daily for 6 d at 25.5 degrees C, showed a gradual decline in viability. Viability was sustained longer at the lower temperature. Implications of agitation-induced egg hatching for rainy-season and dry-season ecology of An. gambiae are discussed. Suspended hatching and cool storage already are proving convenient for efficient mass rearing and accurate modeling of weather-based population dynamics.

  8. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  9. Electro-microinjection of fish eggs with an immobile capillary electrode.

    PubMed

    Shirakashi, Ryo; Yasui, Tatsuo; Memmel, Simon; Sukhorukov, Vladimir L

    2015-11-01

    Microinjection with ultra-fine glass capillaries is widely used to introduce cryoprotective agents and other foreign molecules into animal cells, oocytes, and embryos. The fragility of glass capillaries makes difficult the microinjection of fish eggs and embryos, which are usually protected by a hard outer shell, called the chorion. In this study, we introduce a new electromechanical approach, based on the electropiercing of fish eggs with a stationary needle electrode. The electropiercing setup consists of two asymmetric electrodes, including a μm-scaled nickel needle placed opposite to a mm-scaled planar counter-electrode. A fish egg is immersed in low-conductivity solution and positioned between the electrodes. Upon application of a short electric pulse of sufficient field strength, the chorion is electroporated and the egg is attracted to the needle electrode by positive dielectrophoresis. As a result, the hard chorion and the subjacent yolk membrane are impaled by the sharp electrode tip, thus providing direct access to the egg yolk plasma. Our experiments on early-stage medaka fish embryos showed the applicability of electro-microinjection to fish eggs measuring about 1 mm in diameter. We optimized the electropiercing of medaka eggs with respect to the field strength, pulse duration, and conductivity of bathing medium. We microscopically examined the injection of dye solution into egg yolk and the impact of electropiercing on embryos' viability and development. We also analyzed the mechanisms of electropiercing in comparison with the conventional mechanical microinjection. The new electropiercing method has a high potential for automation, e.g., via integration into microfluidic devices, which would allow a large-scale microinjection of fish eggs for a variety of applications in basic research and aquaculture.

  10. Ten-year viability study on natural populations of Drosophila sibling species from Laguna Verde, Veracruz, México.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, E; Cruces, M P; Salceda, V M; de la Rosa, M E; Levine, L; Castillo, J A

    2004-02-01

    The generation of electricity in nuclear power plants produces an increase in background radiation that could possibly have some impact on the organisms that live in that area. In order to identify and quantify any such possible effect, the natural populations of two sibling species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, that live in the immediate vicinity of the first Mexican Nuclear Power Plant were analyzed for a period of 10 years. Collections of flies were made at two sites, one close to and one farther from the power plant, during the pre and operational stages of the reactor, and their egg-to-adult viability was analyzed. The data obtained indicate that in both sites, the egg-to-adult viability was generally higher in D. melanogaster than in D. simulans. Further, a relationship was found between egg-to-adult viability and the season of the year (warm-wet or cool-dry season). Some differences were found between the two sites. It may be concluded that there is no negative impact on the Drosophila populations studied. PMID:15106671

  11. Offspring viability benefits but no apparent costs of mating with high quality males.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Holley, Rebecca

    2011-06-23

    Traditional models of sexual selection posit that male courtship signals evolve as indicators of underlying male genetic quality. An alternative hypothesis is that sexual conflict over mating generates antagonistic coevolution between male courtship persistence and female resistance. In the scarabaeine dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, females are more likely to mate with males that have high courtship rates. Here, we examine the effects of exposing females to males with either high or low courtship rates on female lifetime productivity and offspring viability. Females exposed to males with high courtship rates mated more often and produced offspring with greater egg-adult viability. Female productivity and lifespan were unaffected by exposure to males with high courtship rates. The data are consistent with models of sexual selection based on indirect genetic benefits, and provide little evidence for sexual conflict in this system.

  12. Responses of Takifugu obscurus fertilized eggs and larvae to increased ammonia exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Jiajia; Xu, Nuo; Li, Jing; Li, Ziheng; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Ammonia is a common toxicant in aquatic systems; this substance has become a critical threat to fish, especially in early life stages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of unionized ammonia (NH3-N: 0, 0.068, 0.138, 0.206, 0.275, 0.343, 0.412, and 0.481 mg L(-1)) on fertilized eggs and larvae of obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus, a fish species with potential economic value. Results showed that hatch time was significantly retarded and hatch rate was significantly decreased as NH3-N concentrations increased; newly hatched larvae exhibited high rate of abnormalities and low viability. The survival rate of larvae also decreased significantly as NH3-N concentrations increased; larvae could tolerate NH3-N to a less extent than embryos. NH3-N also caused a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities but not in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of larvae. Two-way ANOVA indicated that there was a statistically significant interaction between NH3-N concentrations and exposure times on SOD activity but not on Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. Such responses indicated that an increase in ammonia concentration in surface water may negatively affect the early development of T. obscurus and thus likely impair population recruitment and persistence of this fish species.

  13. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  14. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  15. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  16. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  17. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  18. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  19. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  20. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  1. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  2. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  3. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  4. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  5. Cytoplasmic rearrangements associated with amphibian egg symmetrization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic rearrangements which follow fertilization were mentioned in normal and inverted eggs. A set of yolk compartments was resolved by cytological analyses of both normally oriented and inverted eggs. Those compartments were characterized by their yolk platelet compositions and movement during egg inversion. It is found that during egg inversion the yolk compartments shift minor cytoplasmic compartments which line the egg cortex. Those yolk mass shifts occurred only after the inverted egg was activated. The direction of shift of the major yolk components, rather than the sperm entrance site, determines the dorsal/ventral polarity of the inverted egg. Among different spawnings the rate of shift varied. Eggs that displayed the fastest rate of shift exhibited the highest frequency of developmental abnormalities during organogenesis. Interpretation of novel observations on cytoplasmic organization provide criticism of some earlier models. A new density compartment model is presented as a coherent way to view the organization of the egg cytoplasm and the development of bilateral symmetry.

  6. Evaluation of adult quail and egg production following exposure to perchlorate-treated water.

    PubMed

    Gentles, Angella; Surles, James; Smith, Ernest E

    2005-08-01

    Twenty-three adult female northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) quail were exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mM ammonium perchlorate (AP) in drinking water for 30 d. Eggs laid in all treatment groups, including control, were collected, dated, given an identification number, and weighed. On day 30 of exposure, 10 birds were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation. Gross toxicological endpoints and thyroid histology were evaluated in 10 birds. Egg production and accumulation of perchlorate in the eggs (n = 10) and liver (n = 5) were determined. Perchlorate did not affect body or organ weights significantly; however, at 1 mM, AP caused alteration of thyroid gland morphology. Perchlorate did not affect egg production, but significant accumulation was observed in the eggs and livers of exposed birds.

  7. Identification of mitochondrial genome-encoded small RNAs related to egg deterioration caused by post-ovulatory aging in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors have been reported to affect rainbow trout egg quality, among which, postovulatory aging is one of the most significant causes as reared rainbow trout do not usually volitionally oviposit the ovulated eggs. In order to uncover the genetic regulation underling egg deterioration caused by...

  8. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-11-01

    long term experiment lost the outer layer of their coat without affecting the viability since they were still protected by the middle and the inner layer of the coating. This research highlights a new protocol to perform spaceflight experiments inside the ISS with fungal spores in microgravity conditions, under the additional effect of possible cosmic radiation. According to this protocol the results are expressed in terms of viability, microscopic and morphological changes.

  9. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-04-01

    long term experiment lost the outer layer of their coat without affecting the viability since they were still protected by the middle and the inner layer of the coating. This research highlights a new protocol to perform spaceflight experiments inside the ISS with fungal spores in microgravity conditions, under the additional effect of possible cosmic radiation. According to this protocol the results are expressed in terms of viability, microscopic and morphological changes.

  10. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. We summarized the literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  11. Metronidazole Decreases Viability of DLD-1 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Anna; Krętowski, Rafał; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50 μg/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250 μg/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

  12. Fluid dynamics of liquid egg products.

    PubMed

    Kumbár, Vojtěch; Strnková, Jana; Nedomová, Šárka; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    The rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, egg white, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Eggs of three poultry specimens were used: hen (Isa Brown), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), and goose (Anser anser f. domestica). Rheological behavior was pseudoplastic and flow curves fitted by the power law model (Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-De Waele). The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors and velocity profiles during flow of liquid egg products in tube has been shown. PMID:25761859

  13. Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on non-egg-contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Fletcher, D L; Cox, N A

    2004-12-01

    To successfully implement a hazard analysis critical control point plan, prerequisite programs are essential. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important part of such a plan and can reduce contamination levels so that food safety and quality are not adversely affected. Noncontact surfaces in the shell egg processing plants can serve as a reservoir of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of sanitation programs used in a variety of shell egg processing facilities (in-line, off-line, and mixed operations). Fourteen different noncontact surfaces were sampled in nine commercial facilities across the southeastern United States. Non-egg-contact surfaces were defined as those where the shell egg does not come into direct contact with the surface or with the fluid from that surface. Gauze pads soaked in sterile phosphate-buffered saline were used for sampling at the end of a processing day (POST) and again the next morning prior to operations (PRE). Aerobic plate counts (APCs) and numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were determined. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between POST and PRE counts for either population recovered from the 14 sampling sites. Only samples from the floor under the farm belts, nest-run loader, washers, and packer heads were reduced by 1 log CFU/ml of rinsate for APCs or Enterobacteriaceae counts. APCs of more than 10(4) CFU/ml of rinsate were recovered from many samples. Highest APCs were found on the floor under the farm belt and on shelves of the nest-run carts. High APCs were found on the wheel surface for off-line carts and on the loading dock floor. Highest Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in samples from the floor, drain, and nest-run egg cart shelves. A lack of significant difference between POST and PRE counts indicates that current sanitation programs could be improved. These data suggest that traffic patterns for the movement of eggs and materials through the plant should be

  14. Survey of shell egg processing plant sanitation programs: effects on non-egg-contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Fletcher, D L; Cox, N A

    2004-12-01

    To successfully implement a hazard analysis critical control point plan, prerequisite programs are essential. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important part of such a plan and can reduce contamination levels so that food safety and quality are not adversely affected. Noncontact surfaces in the shell egg processing plants can serve as a reservoir of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of sanitation programs used in a variety of shell egg processing facilities (in-line, off-line, and mixed operations). Fourteen different noncontact surfaces were sampled in nine commercial facilities across the southeastern United States. Non-egg-contact surfaces were defined as those where the shell egg does not come into direct contact with the surface or with the fluid from that surface. Gauze pads soaked in sterile phosphate-buffered saline were used for sampling at the end of a processing day (POST) and again the next morning prior to operations (PRE). Aerobic plate counts (APCs) and numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were determined. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between POST and PRE counts for either population recovered from the 14 sampling sites. Only samples from the floor under the farm belts, nest-run loader, washers, and packer heads were reduced by 1 log CFU/ml of rinsate for APCs or Enterobacteriaceae counts. APCs of more than 10(4) CFU/ml of rinsate were recovered from many samples. Highest APCs were found on the floor under the farm belt and on shelves of the nest-run carts. High APCs were found on the wheel surface for off-line carts and on the loading dock floor. Highest Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in samples from the floor, drain, and nest-run egg cart shelves. A lack of significant difference between POST and PRE counts indicates that current sanitation programs could be improved. These data suggest that traffic patterns for the movement of eggs and materials through the plant should be

  15. The influence of clinostat rotation on the fertilized amphibian egg.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tremor, J. W.; Souza, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which unrestrained, fertilized eggs of Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis were rotated in a plane parallel to the normal gravity vector. In R. pipiens rotation at 1/4 rpm for five days at 18 C produced a significantly increased number of commonly occurring abnormalities. Rotation at 1/15, 1/8, 1, 2, 5 and 10 rpm did not significantly affect normal development. X. laevis eggs reacted similarly. R. pipiens eggs were most sensitive to rotation at 1/4 rpm when exposure was initiated before first cleavage. Mixing of intracellular constituents apparently occurred only at 1/4 rpm in R. pipiens (of the clinostat speeds studied), and may have been the cause of the increased abnormality observed at this rate.

  16. Acceptance of brown-shelled eggs in a white-shelled egg market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, N P; Jefferies, L K; Rodriguez, B; Johnston, D E

    2011-05-01

    Brown eggs have gradually entered the traditional white-egg markets as a distinctive mode for packaging specialty eggs. A test was conducted at the Brigham Young University Sensory Laboratory (Provo, UT) to understand how consumers view attributes of the brown egg relative to the white egg. The objectives were to see how the consumer viewed properties of eggs by color and to examine the preference for brown color intensity. The 52 panelists were all women who routinely purchased and consumed eggs. Some women (53.8%) consumed eggs twice weekly, and 40.4% purchased them at least every 2 wk. Purchases included specialty eggs (14.6%) consisting of cage-free (50.0%), organic (28.6%), and n-3 enhanced (21.4%) eggs. The panelists preferred white eggs (90.4%). Though brown-shelled eggs did not exceed white eggs in preference, they were perceived positively (white-shelled %:brown-shelled %) as being more nutritious (65:29), having more flavor (27:14) and n-3 content (62:39), having a farm-flock origin (46:44), and being from organically fed hens (56:31) To test the preference for shade of brown eggs, a set of 6 eggs with varying intensities of brown color was evaluated for accepted appearance using a 9-point hedonic scale. The egg color intensities were measured using a Hunter Colorflex spectrophotometer (Hunter Associates Laboratory, Reston, VA) and the CIE system. The lightness (L*) values ranged from 83.2 for the white egg to 63.6 to 46.5 for the brown eggs. A significant (P < 0.05) preference was found for the 2 lighter shades of brown-shelled eggs (L* 63.6 and 57.5). Using the 9-point scale, panelists then compared brown eggs side by side with white eggs. Again, the 2 most light-tinted brown eggs were found most comparable with the white egg in acceptability and better (P < 0.05) than the darker brown eggs. In conclusion, white eggs were preferred over brown eggs; however, brown eggs gained in acceptance but did not exceed white as likely to be more nutritious or

  17. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves viability of artificial RBCs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Hee; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lim, Key-Hwan; Um, Yun Jung; Cho, Jin Gu; Jo, Young Joon; Park, Sang Gyu

    2016-09-30

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to prevent apoptosis through the Bax pathway and to promote neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem cells, their differentiation. This study was performed to investigate the effect of TUDCA on erythropoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Since erythropoiesis of CD34(+) HSCs is divided into four phases, the total cell number, viable cell number, cell viability, cell morphology, and expressed erythroid markers in each phase were examined. The number of viable control cells and their viability did not differ from those of the TUDCA-treated cells in phase I and II. However, TUDCA increased cell viability compared to the control in phases III and IV. Cell distribution differed that the immature erythroid cell number was higher for the TUDCA-treated cells than for the control cells until phase III, but all developed into RBCs in the last. The final RBC number and viability was significantly higher in TUDCA-treated cells compared to the control cells. Taken together, we suggest that TUDCA addition to cell cultures for artificial RBC production could be used as a new protocol for improving the viability of RBCs. PMID:27596970

  18. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid improves viability of artificial RBCs.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Hee; Yoon, Kang Jun; Lim, Key-Hwan; Um, Yun Jung; Cho, Jin Gu; Jo, Young Joon; Park, Sang Gyu

    2016-09-30

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to prevent apoptosis through the Bax pathway and to promote neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem cells, their differentiation. This study was performed to investigate the effect of TUDCA on erythropoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Since erythropoiesis of CD34(+) HSCs is divided into four phases, the total cell number, viable cell number, cell viability, cell morphology, and expressed erythroid markers in each phase were examined. The number of viable control cells and their viability did not differ from those of the TUDCA-treated cells in phase I and II. However, TUDCA increased cell viability compared to the control in phases III and IV. Cell distribution differed that the immature erythroid cell number was higher for the TUDCA-treated cells than for the control cells until phase III, but all developed into RBCs in the last. The final RBC number and viability was significantly higher in TUDCA-treated cells compared to the control cells. Taken together, we suggest that TUDCA addition to cell cultures for artificial RBC production could be used as a new protocol for improving the viability of RBCs.

  19. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  20. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  1. Fish and Egg Specific Immunoglobin E in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Fereshteh; Jamshidi, Fatemeh; Shoormasti, Raheleh Shokouhi; Pourpak, Zahra; Akbari, Mojtaba; Zandieh, Faiborz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effect of nutrition in the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a topic of great interest. The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunoglobin E (IgE) against egg and fish in MS patients compared to healthy controls. Methods: Between March 2012 and July 2012, 48 MS patients were selected and compared with 48 healthy subjects to assess the frequency of IgE against egg and fish in MS patients compared to healthy control. Fish and Egg specific IgE was determined by Immuno CAP. Sex and the frequency of specific IgE were compared between study groups by Chi-square test. Results: Total of 96 subjects was assessed (22% male and 78% female). The mean age of the study subjects was 30.8 ± 6.6 years. Mean age of case and control groups was 30.7 (±6.9) versus 30.9 ± 6.3, respectively (P = 0.83). There were no detection of egg and fish specific IgE in serum of MS patients and healthy subjects. Conclusions: IgE allergy against fish and egg may be very unlikely to affect MS course. PMID:23776721

  2. Soil contamination by parasite eggs in rural village in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Saori; Paller, Vachel Gay V; Uga, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are important diseases of humans, which affect about one third of the world's population. Examination of soil can be used to estimate the risk of STH infection in humans. We carried out this survey to clarify the current status of soil contamination by parasite eggs and to assess the risk of STH infection. During survey periods, we examined soil, faeces, and the lifestyle of residents. Six genera and eight species of parasite eggs including Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, and Trichuris trichiura were recovered from 85 out of 120 soil samples (71%). Contamination of soil by parasite eggs had spread widely throughout the village, and 50% of eggs recovered had already developed into fertilized eggs. It is remarkable that Ascaris eggs were recovered from inside the houses. Prevalence of STH in school children was 63%. This may indicate that school or preschool children cause soil contamination. Some of the eggs recovered were not only from humans but also from dogs and cats. From the results obtained, the need for health education with regards to zoonoses was revealed because 77% of fertilized Toxocara spp. eggs were detected. We conclude that the risk of STH infection in residents was extremely high, because the soil in this village was highly contaminated by infective parasite eggs. PMID:24189679

  3. Patterns of radiocesium contamination in eggs of free-ranging wood ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Kennamer, R.A.; McCreedy, C.D.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr. )

    1993-01-01

    Studies of biological consequences of nuclear industrial contaminants in the environment increase in importance as the potential for exposure of wildlife populations rises. Thus, we examined levels of radiocesium (cesium-137) contamination in wood duck eggs from a Department of Energy nuclear facility in South Carolina during 1990. Radiocesium levels in individual eggs from 5 locations on the site ranged from below detectable concentrations to a maximum of 2.21 Bq/g wet mass. Eggs from an abandoned reactor cooling reservoir contained the greatest burdens; mean egg concentrations there were more than an order of magnitude higher than those from other locations studied. Eggs from a second radionuclide releases, all contained similar low radiocesium levels that were, on average, below detection limits. Variation in radiocesium concentrations of eggs from the most contaminated cooling reservoir was partitioned into within- and among-clutch variation. Approximately 33% of the variation in radiocesium content occurred among eggs laid by the same female, and may have resulted because females fed in both contaminated and uncontaminated habitats during egg formation. Radiation dose rates to developing wood duck embryos, resulting from internal and external sources examined in this study, were below those expected to affect hatchability or any other aspect of the breeding biology of these birds. Wood ducks and their eggs may be useful as bioindicators of radiocesium uptake, but we caution that local foraging patterns could cause variation in contaminant deposition within clutches. 45 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination.

  5. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  6. Sensitivity of isolated eggs of pond snails: a new method for toxicity assays and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tengteng; Koene, Joris M; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Fu, Rongshu

    2013-05-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in the environment is normally low. We here address whether using the development of isolated pond snail Radix auricularia eggs would provide a more sensitive endpoint and whether the gelatinous matrix of the egg mass surrounding the eggs indeed protects the snail embryos. In the present study, artificial removal of the gelatinous matrix of egg masses greatly increased the sensitivity of developing eggs to a heavy metal (cadmium). The sensitivity of isolated eggs to cadmium was determined using several convenient endpoints, including mortality, hatching rate, and heart rate, with an acute toxicity test and a subchronic test. In the acute toxicity test, a 96-h LC(50) value of 58.26 μg/L cadmium was determined. In the subchronic toxicity test, sublethal effects in terms of a significant reduction in hatching rate could be found in the 25-μg/L treatment, and a significant decrease of heart rate was observed in both treatments (5 and 25 μg/L). The high sensitivity of isolated eggs indicates that such tests can be efficient for toxicity assays and risk assessment, although one needs to keep in mind that the ecologically relevant measure of toxicity will be how eggs are affected when they are still inside the egg mass.

  7. No sex difference in yolk steroid concentrations of avian eggs at laying.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Kevin M; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth; Schwabl, Hubert

    2005-09-22

    Yolk steroids of maternal origin have been proposed to influence genetic sex determination in birds, based on sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of peafowl eggs incubated for 10 days. More recent reports dispute this proposal, as yolk steroids in eggs incubated for 3 days do not show such sex differences. To date, research examining this phenomenon has only analysed incubated eggs, although sex in avian species is determined before incubation begins. This may be a serious methodological flaw because incubation probably affects yolk steroid concentrations. Therefore, we investigated sex differences in yolk steroid concentrations of unincubated avian eggs. We withdrew yolk for steroid analysis from fresh, unincubated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) eggs by biopsy, and then incubated those eggs for 10 days, after which we harvested the embryonic material for genetic sexing and the incubated yolk for further steroid analysis. We found no sex differences in fresh Japanese quail eggs; however, sex differences were apparent in yolk steroids by day 10 of incubation, when female eggs had significantly more oestrogen in relation to androgen than male eggs. Concentrations of all yolk androgens decreased dramatically between laying and day 10 of incubation, whereas oestradiol (E2) concentrations increased marginally. Thus, yolk concentrations of androgens and E2 do not appear critical for avian sex determination. PMID:17148197

  8. Eggs: The role of gravity in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis in the amphibian embryo (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to fertilize frog (Xenopus laevis) eggs under microgravity, to perform histological fixations at two different programmed times, and after return to Earth, to determine whether timing and pattern of egg cleavages and axis formation are normal. Because of the limited viability of the gametes, this experiment will be the very first to be activated in the Biorack. Various aspects of this investigation are discussed.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2011-12-14

    Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs).

  10. Lead in New York City Community Garden Chicken Eggs: Influential Factors and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A.; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48% of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (p<0.005) with lead concentrations in soil. The association between soil and egg lead has been evaluated only once before, by a study of a rural region in Belgium. In our study, the apparent lead soil-to-egg transfer efficiency was considerably lower than that found in Belgium, suggesting that there may be important geographic differences in this transfer. We developed models that suggested that, for sites like ours, lead concentrations in >50% of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (<7–13 μg/kg; 3% above detection limit) at soil lead concentrations >120 mg/kg, and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were <600 mg/kg, and considerably higher concentrations are not uncommon. Efforts to reduce lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers. PMID:24287691

  11. A field guide to amphibian larvae and eggs of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmelee, J.R.; Knutson, M.G.; Lyon, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Apparent worldwide declines in amphibian populations (Pechmann and Wake 1997) have stimulated interest in amphibians as bioindicators of the health of ecosystems. Because we have little information on the population status of many species, there is interest by public and private land management agencies in monitoring amphibian populations. Amphibian egg and larval surveys are established methods of surveying pond-breeding amphibians. Adults may be widely dispersed across the landscape, but eggs and larvae are confined to the breeding site during a specific season of the year. Also, observations of late-stage larvae or metamorphs are evidence of successful reproduction, which is an important indicator of the viability of the population. The goal of this guide is to help students, natural resources personnel, and biologists identify eggs and larval stages of amphibians in the field without the aid of a microscope.

  12. Effect of digestible methionine + cystine concentration on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Golian, A; Zarghi, H

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of sulphur amino acid requirement is a vital key to providing appropriate nutrition in poultry. The estimation of amino acid requirement depends on what production parameter is taken into consideration for optimisation. A complete randomised block design was performed with 5 treatments and 6 replicates of 8 Hy-line layers (W-36) each from 32 to 44 weeks of age. The blocks were made to have a replicate of each treatment. The dietary treatments were consisted of 5 concentrations of digestible sulphur amino acid (DSAA) at 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 6.6 and 7.1 (g/kg). Egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by an increase in DSAA intake. However, feed intake, egg component yield, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg protein and dry matter (DM) were not altered by DSAA intake. A significant increment in plasma high-density lipoprotein was concomitant with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein when DSAA intake was increased. However, triglyceride, cholesterol, uric acid and total protein in plasma were not affected by DSAA intake. The DSAA requirements estimated by the linear broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 678, 673, 641 and 656 mg/bird.d in the whole experimental period, respectively. The DSAA requirement estimated by the quadratic broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 4.71%, 7.87%, 8.73% and 7.62% higher than those estimated by linear broken-line fit model in the whole experimental period, respectively. PMID:27074313

  13. Parents benefit from eating offspring: density-dependent egg survivorship compensates for filial cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Klug, Hope; Lindström, Kai; St Mary, Colette M

    2006-10-01

    Why should animals knowingly consume their own young? It is difficult to imagine many circumstances in which eating one's own young (i.e., filial cannibalism) actually increases an individual's fitness; however, filial cannibalism commonly co-occurs with parental care in fishes. The evolutionary significance of filial cannibalism remains unclear. The most commonly accepted explanation is that filial cannibalism is a mechanism by which caring males gain energy or nutrients that they reinvest into future reproduction, thereby increasing net reproductive success. There is mixed support for this hypothesis and, at best, it can only explain filial cannibalism in some species. A recent alternative hypothesis suggests that filial cannibalism improves the survivorship of remaining eggs by increasing oxygen availability, and thus increases current reproductive success. This theory has received little attention as of yet. We evaluated the hypothesis of oxygen-mediated filial cannibalism in the sand goby by examining the effect of oxygen and egg density on the occurrence of filial cannibalism, evaluating the effects of partial clutch cannibalism on the survivorship of remaining eggs, and comparing potential costs and benefits of filial cannibalism related to the net number of eggs surviving. Indeed, we found that oxygen level and egg density affected the occurrence of cannibalism and that simulated partial clutch cannibalism improved survivorship of the remaining eggs. Additionally, because increased egg survivorship, stemming from partial egg removal, compensated for the cost of cannibalism (i.e., number of eggs removed) at a range of cannibalism levels, filial cannibalism potentially results in no net losses in reproductive success. However, oxygen did not affect egg survivorship. Thus, we suggest a more general hypothesis of filial cannibalism mediated by density-dependent egg survivorship.

  14. Effect of digestible methionine + cystine concentration on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R; Golian, A; Zarghi, H

    2016-06-01

    The estimation of sulphur amino acid requirement is a vital key to providing appropriate nutrition in poultry. The estimation of amino acid requirement depends on what production parameter is taken into consideration for optimisation. A complete randomised block design was performed with 5 treatments and 6 replicates of 8 Hy-line layers (W-36) each from 32 to 44 weeks of age. The blocks were made to have a replicate of each treatment. The dietary treatments were consisted of 5 concentrations of digestible sulphur amino acid (DSAA) at 5.1, 5.6, 6.1, 6.6 and 7.1 (g/kg). Egg production, egg mass, egg weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly affected by an increase in DSAA intake. However, feed intake, egg component yield, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell thickness, egg protein and dry matter (DM) were not altered by DSAA intake. A significant increment in plasma high-density lipoprotein was concomitant with a reduction in low-density lipoprotein when DSAA intake was increased. However, triglyceride, cholesterol, uric acid and total protein in plasma were not affected by DSAA intake. The DSAA requirements estimated by the linear broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 678, 673, 641 and 656 mg/bird.d in the whole experimental period, respectively. The DSAA requirement estimated by the quadratic broken-line model to optimise egg production, egg mass, egg weight and FCR were 4.71%, 7.87%, 8.73% and 7.62% higher than those estimated by linear broken-line fit model in the whole experimental period, respectively.

  15. Eggshell porosity covaries with egg size among female House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) but is unrelated to incubation onset and egg-laying order within clutches

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E.K.; White, A.; Lang, A.; Podgorski, L.; Thompson, C.F.; Sakaluk, S.K.; Jaeckle, W.B.; Harper, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    In birds, the duration of egg incubation (the time from incubation onset to hatching) can affect multiple components of nest success, but what affects incubation duration? Previous studies suggest that incubation duration is affected by both parental behavior and components of the egg, which have yet to be determined. One egg component that may be related to incubation behavior and the time until hatching is eggshell porosity, which affects the exchange of metabolic gasses and water vapor across the shell and, thus, the speed of embryonic development and incubation duration. We tested whether eggshell porosity was associated with the timing of incubation onset by female House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, 1809), and whether porosity varied within clutches in a manner that might be associated with incubation periods and hatching patterns (i.e., synchronous vs. asynchronous hatching). Eggshell porosity was unrelated to the onset of maternal incubation and did not differ between early and later-laid eggs within clutches, but differed significantly among females and covaried with egg size. We conclude that producing all eggshells of similar porosity within clutches, while adjusting incubation onset once most or all eggs are laid, provide facultative maternal control over variation in hatching patterns. PMID:26146408

  16. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  17. Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K

    2014-02-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it.

  18. Poxvirus Viability and Signatures in Historical Relics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L.; Davidson, Whitni B.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Damon, Inger K.

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries after its original occurrence. Experimental data to address the long-term stability and viability of the virus are limited. There are several instances of well-preserved corpses and tissues that have been examined for poxvirus viability and viral DNA. These historical specimens cause concern for potential exposures, and each situation should be approached cautiously and independently with the available information. Nevertheless, these specimens provide information on the history of a major disease and vaccination against it. PMID:24447382

  19. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  20. Put Your Eggs in This Basket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jeane; Leiva, Miriam

    1988-01-01

    Plastic Easter eggs are useful devices for teaching basic mathematics skills, from counting activities to graphing. Eggs are used to reinforce addition, subtraction, and multiplication skills; column addition, estimation, statistics, and other topics are introduced. Sample activities are described. (JL)

  1. Raw eggs-moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  2. Egg Drop: An Invention Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to stimulate elementary and junior high students to become actively engaged in thinking creatively rather than only analytically, convergently, or repetitively. The activity requires students to devise means of dropping an egg from a height without it breaking. (JR)

  3. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  4. Bioaccessibility and digestive stability of carotenoids in cooked eggs studied using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Savard, Patricia; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-25

    Among dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are known to protect against age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Egg yolk is rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, however, the effect of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion on yolk carotenoids is poorly understood. An in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) was used to investigate the digestive stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from boiled, fried, and scrambled eggs. Bioaccessibility but not digestive stability was significantly affected by the method of cooking. The main egg carotenoids, all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin, were stable during the digestion with average recoveries of 90 and 88%, respectively. No trans-cis isomerization of carotenoids was observed during digestion. Both all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin from scrambled eggs showed significantly lower bioaccessibility compared to boiled eggs. The results indicate that the bioaccessibility of egg carotenoids can be affected by different food preparation methods.

  5. [THE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF TOXOCARA CANIS EGGS IN THE NATURAL CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF GORNO-ALTAISK].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Shchuchinova, L D; Dovgalev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The time of development and survival of Toxocara canis eggs in the soil of Gorno-Altaisk was experimen- tally investigated in 2011-2014. In July 2011, T.canis eggs matured at 3-5-cm soil depths from the stage of 1-2 blastomeres to invading larva within 12 days at a daily average temperature of +23°C and at a relative humidity of 82%. At 3-5-cm soil depths, more than 70% of invaded T. canis eggs preserved their viability through- out the experimental period (4 years). The paper gives evidence for the seasonal survival of invaded T. canis eggs in relation of the length of soil stay. PMID:26152039

  6. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  7. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Munk, Peter; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns and egg buoyancy. Egg diameter after activation, using natural seawater adjusted to different salinities, varied among female eels, but no consistent pattern emerged. Activation salinities between 30-40 practical salinity unit (psu) produced higher quality eggs and generally larger egg diameters. Chorion diameters reached maximal values of 1642 ± 8 μm at 35 psu. A positive relationship was found between egg neutral buoyancy and activation salinity. Nine salt types were investigated as activation and incubation media. Five of these types induced a substantial perivitelline space (PVS), leading to large egg sizes, while the remaining four salt types resulted in smaller eggs. All salt types except NaCl treatments led to high fertilization rates and had no effect on fertilization success as well as egg neutral buoyancies at 7 h post-fertilization. The study points to the importance of considering ionic composition of the media when rearing fish eggs and further studies are encouraged.

  8. Comparison of hatching mode in pelagic and demersal eggs of two closely related species in the order pleuronectiformes.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Sano, Kaori; Yoshizaki, Norio; Shimizu, Daisuke; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Noda, Tsutomu; Yasumasu, Shigeki

    2014-11-01

    We compared several characteristics of the pelagic eggs of Verasper variegatus with those of demersal eggs of Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, both in the order Pleuronectiformes (halibuts or flatfishes). V. variegatus eggs had about twice the diameter of P. yokohamae eggs. However, the total egg protein weight of P. yokohamae was similar to that of V. variegatus. The specific gravity of P. yokohamae eggs was calculated to be 7-fold that of V. variegatus. The difference in size is the main feature distinguishing the two types of egg. The thickness of the egg envelope of P. yokohamae- more than twice that of V. variegatus-must affect the manner of hatching. The amount of hatching enzyme synthesized in pre-hatching embryo was estimated to be larger in P. yokohamae than V. variegatus. The distribution of hatching gland cells differed between the species. In V. variegates embryos, these were located on the yolk sac as a narrow ring-shaped belt, resulting in cleavage of the egg envelope into two parts by digesting a limited region of the egg envelope, called "rim-hatching". The hatching gland cells of P. yokohamae embryos were distributed all over the surface of the yolk sac, forming a hole through which the embryo could escape. Thus, the location of the hatching gland cells in pre-hatching embryos varied during the evolution of the Pleuronectiformes, depending on the egg type and manner of hatching.

  9. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  10. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... broken promptly. (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are removed in an acceptable... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... other than removable blood and meat spots in the egg meat. (2) Any egg with a portion of the shell...

  11. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... broken promptly. (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are removed in an acceptable... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... other than removable blood and meat spots in the egg meat. (2) Any egg with a portion of the shell...

  12. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  13. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance.

  14. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  15. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  16. Effect of glyceric acid calcium salt on the viability of ethanol-dosed gastric cells.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    D-Glyceric acid (D-GA) calcium has been reported to accelerate ethanol oxidation in vivo in rats (Eriksson et al., Metabolism, 56, 895-898 (2007)). However, no other reports have shown that D-GA can reduce the harmful effects of ethanol. In this study, the effects of D-, L-, and DL-GA calcium on ethanol-dosed gastric cell viability were investigated using human gastric carcinoma cells (Kato III) and normal rat gastric mucosa cells (RGM1). Addition of 2% and 3 % ethanol to Kato III and RGM1 cells, respectively, decreased their cell viability by approximately 20-50 % after 24 or 72 h of cultivation. In 2 % ethanol-dosed Kato III cells cultivated for 24 h, addition of 0.002-20 µg/mL D- and L-GA calcium did not affect cell viability. Similarly, addition of less than 20 µg/mL DL-GA calcium did not affect cell viability. However, when 20 µg/mL DL-GA calcium was added, cell viability increased by 35.7 % after 72 h of incubation, compared to the viability of control cells without ethanol or GA. Addition of 20 µg/mL DL-GA calcium to 3 % ethanol-dosed RGM1 cells cultivated for 24 or 72 h also increased cell viability up to those observed in control cells. These results suggest that a racemic mixture of GA may have the strongest effect on enhancing the viability of ethanol-exposed cells. PMID:22027025

  17. Influence of electric current on bacterial viability in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, V; Elektorowicz, M; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2011-10-15

    Minimizing the influence of electric current on bacterial viability in the electro-technologies such as electrophoresis and electrocoagulation is crucial in designing and operating the electric hybrid wastewater treatment system. In this study the biomass from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was subjected to constant direct current and the bacterial viability was monitored against electrical intensity, duration as well as the spatial vicinity related to the electrodes. It was found that the bacterial viability was not significantly affected (less than 10% of death percentage) when the applied electric current density (CD) was less than 6.2 A/m2 after 4 h. The percentage of live cell dropped by 15% and 29% at CD of 12.3 A/m2 and 24.7 A/m2, respectively. The pH of electrolytic biomass fluid has shifted to alkaline (from nearly neutral to around pH 10) at CD above 12.3 A/m2, which could have been the contributing factor for the bacterial inactivation. The temperature change in the electrolytic media at all current densities during 4 h of experiment was less than 2 °C, thus temperature effects were negligible. Bacteria experienced different micro-environments in the electrochemical reactor. Bacterial cells on the cathode surface exhibited highest death rate, whereas bacteria outside the space between electrodes were the least affected. It was concluded that in an electro-technology integrated wastewater treatment process, sufficient mixing should be used to avoid localized inactivation of bacterial cells.

  18. Effects of dietary probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, egg traits, egg yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Jankowski, J; Naczmanski, J; Mikulska, M; Demey, V

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) strain MA18/5M on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, and fatty acid composition in laying hens during a 24-wk period. A total of 222 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, 22 wk of age, were divided into 3 treatment groups. Control group (C) hens were fed a basal diet with no probiotic added. In group PA1, the basal diet was supplemented with PA at 100 mg.kg(-1) of feed for the first 12 wk and 50 mg.kg(-1) feed for the next 12 wk, whereas treatment PA2 was supplemented with 100 mg.kg(-1) feed for the whole trial period. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect the BW, feed intake, and egg production of hens. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation increased egg weight (P < 0.05), eggshell thickness, eggshell relative weight, and egg specific gravity, and it improved feed efficiency ratio per kilogram of eggs (P < 0.01). Moreover, PA dietary supplementation resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the number of broken eggs and eggs without the shell, leading to a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the number of downgraded eggs (39% for PA1 and 52% for PA2). After 6 mo of probiotic supplementation, significant differences were also found in the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg yolk. The yolk cholesterol content, regardless of PA dose, decreased by more than 10%. The concentrations of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and linolenic acid, were significantly higher in treatment PA2 (6.5% increase) than in C and PA1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M at 100 mg.kg(-1) has potential commercial applications for improvements in hen performance and eggshell quality during the early laying period. PMID:22991559

  19. Association of Egg Mass and Egg Sex: Gene Expression Analysis from Maternal RNA in the Germinal Disc Region of Layer Hens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Aamir; Schokker, Dirkjan; Groothuis, Ton G G; de Wit, Agnes A C; Smits, Mari A; Woelders, Henri

    2015-06-01

    Female birds have been shown to manipulate offspring sex ratio. However, mechanisms of sex ratio bias are not well understood. Reduced feed availability and change in body condition can affect the mass of eggs in birds that could lead to a skew in sex ratio. We employed feed restriction in laying chickens (Gallus gallus) to induce a decrease in body condition and egg mass using 45 chicken hens in treatment and control groups. Feed restriction led to an overall decline of egg mass. In the second period of treatment (Days 9-18) with more severe feed restriction and a steeper decline of egg mass, the sex ratio per hen (proportion of male eggs) had a significant negative association with mean egg mass per hen. Based on this association, two groups of hens were selected from feed restriction group, that is, hens producing male bias with low egg mass and hens producing female bias with high egg mass with overall sex ratios of 0.71 and 0.44 respectively. Genomewide transcriptome analysis on the germinal disks of F1 preovulatory follicles collected at the time of occurrence of meiosis-I was performed. We did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in these two groups of hens. However, gene set enrichment analysis showed that a number of cellular processes related to cell cycle progression, mitotic/meiotic apparatus, and chromosomal movement were enriched in female-biased hens or high mean egg mass as compared with male-biased hens or low mean egg mass. The differentially expressed gene sets may be involved in meiotic drive regulating sex ratio in the chicken.

  20. The effect of eggshell apex abnormalities on table egg quality during storage in 2 seasons of the year.

    PubMed

    Brandão, M D M; Santos, F F; Machado, L S; Verinaud, M S; Oliveira, J M; Soares, N M; Nascimento, E R; Pereira, V L A

    2014-10-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae infection of hens has been associated with problems of eggshell quality called eggshell apex abnormalities (EAA). Little is known about the quality of EAA eggs from a commercial point of view, especially during their storage. The study aimed to examine the differences between EAA and normal eggs during storage under controlled conditions in 2 seasons, summer and winter, by comparing internal and external quality parameters. In a conventional egg production farm with white laying hens of varying ages in the city of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 232 eggs were used in the summer season and 400 eggs in the winter season. Half of the eggs had EAA, and the other half were considered normal eggs for each season. The eggs were analyzed at 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after being laid and stored from 24.6 to 25.8°C in summer and from 24 to 25°C in winter. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the average egg weight between EAA and normal eggs at any studied time point, but in both seasons, the weight loss in EAA eggs was higher than in normal eggs. The losses in Haugh unit scores from the first to the last measurements were approximately 40% regardless of egg type or season of production. In comparing eggshell thickness, only the apices of the EAA eggs were thinner (P < 0.0001) than normal eggs in the summer, but in the winter, the EAA egg apices (P < 0.0001) and sides (P = 0.03) were both thinner. The presence of EAA did not affect the eggshell weight (P > 0.05) or eggshell percentage (P > 0.05). The eggshell strength of the EAA eggs was lower (P < 0.0001) than normal eggs in both the summer (16.57%) and winter (19.86%). The presence of EAA did not affect the internal quality of the egg, but was related to a greater loss of external quality and weight during storage.

  1. Oxygenation of anoxic sediments triggers hatching of zooplankton eggs.

    PubMed

    Broman, Elias; Brüsin, Martin; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2015-10-22

    Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic-pelagic coupling. Zooplankton lay their eggs in the pelagic zone, and some sink and lie dormant in the sediment, before hatched zooplankton return to the water column. In this study, we investigated how oxygenation of long-term anoxic sediments affects the hatching frequency of dormant zooplankton eggs. Anoxic sediments from the brackish Baltic Sea were sampled and incubated for 26 days with constant aeration whereby, the sediment surface and the overlying water were turned oxic. Newly hatched rotifers and copepod nauplii (juveniles) were observed after 5 and 8 days, respectively. Approximately 1.5 × 10(5) nauplii m(-2) emerged from sediment turned oxic compared with 0.02 × 10(5) m(-2) from controls maintained anoxic. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system. Modelling of the studied anoxic zone suggested that a substantial part of the pelagic copepod population can derive from hatching of dormant eggs. We suggest that this process should be included in future studies to understand population dynamics and carbon flows in marine pelagic systems.

  2. The effects of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylivarium on egg production and body weight of caged White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    DeVaney, J A

    1979-01-01

    Egg production of caged White Leghorn hens with heavy (greater than 1000) populations of the northen fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), was 5 to 15% less than egg production of control hens. Body weight was depressed in hens infested with mites before the hens came into full egg production but not when hens were infested after that time. Feed consumption was not affected by mite populations. PMID:471884

  3. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    Queen health is closely linked to colony performance in honey bees as a single queen is normally responsible for all egg laying and brood production within the colony. In the U. S. in recent years, queens have been failing at a high rate; with 50% or greater of queens replaced in colonies within 6 months when historically a queen might live one to two years. This high rate of queen failure coincides with the high mortality rates of colonies in the US, some years with >50% of colonies dying. In the current study, surveys of sperm viability in US queens were made to determine if sperm viability plays a role in queen or colony failure. Wide variation was observed in sperm viability from four sets of queens removed from colonies that beekeepers rated as in good health (n = 12; average viability = 92%), were replacing as part of normal management (n = 28; 57%), or where rated as failing (n = 18 and 19; 54% and 55%). Two additional paired set of queens showed a statistically significant difference in viability between colonies rated by the beekeeper as failing or in good health from the same apiaries. Queens removed from colonies rated in good health averaged high viability (ca. 85%) while those rated as failing or in poor health had significantly lower viability (ca. 50%). Thus low sperm viability was indicative of, or linked to, colony performance. To explore the source of low sperm viability, six commercial queen breeders were surveyed and wide variation in viability (range 60–90%) was documented between breeders. This variability could originate from the drones the queens mate with or temperature extremes that queens are exposed to during shipment. The role of shipping temperature as a possible explanation for low sperm viability was explored. We documented that during shipment queens are exposed to temperature spikes (<8 and > 40°C) and these spikes can kill 50% or more of the sperm stored in queen spermathecae in live queens. Clearly low sperm viability is

  4. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    Queen health is closely linked to colony performance in honey bees as a single queen is normally responsible for all egg laying and brood production within the colony. In the U. S. in recent years, queens have been failing at a high rate; with 50% or greater of queens replaced in colonies within 6 months when historically a queen might live one to two years. This high rate of queen failure coincides with the high mortality rates of colonies in the US, some years with >50% of colonies dying. In the current study, surveys of sperm viability in US queens were made to determine if sperm viability plays a role in queen or colony failure. Wide variation was observed in sperm viability from four sets of queens removed from colonies that beekeepers rated as in good health (n = 12; average viability = 92%), were replacing as part of normal management (n = 28; 57%), or where rated as failing (n = 18 and 19; 54% and 55%). Two additional paired set of queens showed a statistically significant difference in viability between colonies rated by the beekeeper as failing or in good health from the same apiaries. Queens removed from colonies rated in good health averaged high viability (ca. 85%) while those rated as failing or in poor health had significantly lower viability (ca. 50%). Thus low sperm viability was indicative of, or linked to, colony performance. To explore the source of low sperm viability, six commercial queen breeders were surveyed and wide variation in viability (range 60-90%) was documented between breeders. This variability could originate from the drones the queens mate with or temperature extremes that queens are exposed to during shipment. The role of shipping temperature as a possible explanation for low sperm viability was explored. We documented that during shipment queens are exposed to temperature spikes (<8 and > 40°C) and these spikes can kill 50% or more of the sperm stored in queen spermathecae in live queens. Clearly low sperm viability is linked

  5. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    Queen health is closely linked to colony performance in honey bees as a single queen is normally responsible for all egg laying and brood production within the colony. In the U. S. in recent years, queens have been failing at a high rate; with 50% or greater of queens replaced in colonies within 6 months when historically a queen might live one to two years. This high rate of queen failure coincides with the high mortality rates of colonies in the US, some years with >50% of colonies dying. In the current study, surveys of sperm viability in US queens were made to determine if sperm viability plays a role in queen or colony failure. Wide variation was observed in sperm viability from four sets of queens removed from colonies that beekeepers rated as in good health (n = 12; average viability = 92%), were replacing as part of normal management (n = 28; 57%), or where rated as failing (n = 18 and 19; 54% and 55%). Two additional paired set of queens showed a statistically significant difference in viability between colonies rated by the beekeeper as failing or in good health from the same apiaries. Queens removed from colonies rated in good health averaged high viability (ca. 85%) while those rated as failing or in poor health had significantly lower viability (ca. 50%). Thus low sperm viability was indicative of, or linked to, colony performance. To explore the source of low sperm viability, six commercial queen breeders were surveyed and wide variation in viability (range 60-90%) was documented between breeders. This variability could originate from the drones the queens mate with or temperature extremes that queens are exposed to during shipment. The role of shipping temperature as a possible explanation for low sperm viability was explored. We documented that during shipment queens are exposed to temperature spikes (<8 and > 40°C) and these spikes can kill 50% or more of the sperm stored in queen spermathecae in live queens. Clearly low sperm viability is linked

  6. Viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    It is shown that teleparallel F(T) theories of gravity combined with Loop Quantum Cosmology support a Matter Bounce Scenario which is an alternative to the inflation scenario in the Big Bang paradigm. It is checked that these bouncing models provide theoretical data that fits well with the current observational data, allowing the viability of the Matter Bounce Scenario.

  7. Storage and Viability of Hedychium Pollen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium species generally flower in the summer and fall, but some bloom in winter and spring times. The different flowering times of the species implies that there is a need to find a way for storing and conserving viable pollen. The maintenance of pollen viability depends on several factors, incl...

  8. Observability in strategic models of viability selection.

    PubMed

    Gámez, M; Carreño, R; Kósa, A; Varga, Z

    2003-10-01

    Strategic models of frequency-dependent viability selection, in terms of mathematical systems theory, are considered as a dynamic observation system. Using a general sufficient condition for observability of nonlinear systems with invariant manifold, it is studied whether, observing certain phenotypic characteristics of the population, the development of its genetic state can be recovered, at least near equilibrium.

  9. The Viability of "Roe v. Wade."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belson, Nicole

    1989-01-01

    Examines four issues involved in "Webster v. Reproductive Health Services:" (1) the preamble to the 1986 Missouri statute on abortion, (2) prohibiting public employees from performing abortions, (3) public funds for encouraging abortion, and (4) gestational age and viability provision. Focuses on the effects on the continuing vitality of the…

  10. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    PubMed Central

    Zanatta, G.; Steffens, D.; Braghirolli, D.I.; Fernandes, R.A.; Netto, C.A.; Pranke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage. PMID:22183245

  11. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, G; Steffens, D; Braghirolli, D I; Fernandes, R A; Netto, C A; Pranke, P

    2012-02-01

    Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  12. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed. PMID:24046416

  13. Egg-laying capacity is limited by carotenoid pigment availability in wild gulls Larus fuscus.

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Jonathan D; Houston, David C; Surai, Peter F; Møller, Anders Pape

    2004-01-01

    In birds, experimentally increased egg production can reduce maternal condition, parenting ability and survival, and the quality of the eggs themselves. Such costs probably reflect resource limitation, but the identity of the resource(s) in question remains unclear. Carotenoids are antioxidants and immunomodulants that birds can only obtain in their diet. Trade-offs in the allocation of limiting carotenoids between somatic maintenance and egg production could therefore be an important factor underlying reproductive costs. We show that in wild lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus, dietary carotenoid availability (i) constrained the capacity to re-lay following clutch removal; and (ii) affected the relationship between yolk mass and egg mass. However, whether carotenoids are limiting for egg production directly, by stimulating the synthesis or antioxidant protection of yolk precursors, or indirectly via effects on maternal health, requires further study. PMID:15101425

  14. Native Chondrocyte Viability during Cartilage Lesion Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Kumkum; McRury, Ian D.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Morgan, Roy E.; Augé, Wayne K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early surgical intervention for articular cartilage disease is desirable before full-thickness lesions develop. As early intervention treatments are designed, native chondrocyte viability at the treatment site before intervention becomes an important parameter to consider. The purpose of this study is to evaluate native chondrocyte viability in a series of specimens demonstrating the progression of articular cartilage lesions to determine if the chondrocyte viability profile changes during the evolution of articular cartilage disease to the level of surface fibrillation. Design: Osteochondral specimens demonstrating various degrees of articular cartilage damage were obtained from patients undergoing knee total joint replacement. Three groups were created within a patient harvest based on visual and tactile cues commonly encountered during surgical intervention: group 1, visually and tactilely intact surfaces; group 2, visually intact, tactilely soft surfaces; and group 3, surface fibrillation. Confocal laser microscopy was performed following live/dead cell viability staining. Results: Groups 1 to 3 demonstrated viable chondrocytes in all specimens, even within the fibrillated portions of articular cartilage, with little to no evidence of dead chondrocytes. Chondrocyte viability profile in articular cartilage does not appear to change as disease lesion progresses from normal to surface fibrillation. Conclusions: Fibrillated partial-thickness articular cartilage lesions are a good therapeutic target for early intervention. These lesions retain a high profile of viable chondrocytes and are readily diagnosed by visual and tactile cues during surgery. Early intervention should be based on matrix failure rather than on more aggressive procedures that further corrupt the matrix and contribute to chondrocyte necrosis of contiguous untargeted cartilage. PMID:26069561

  15. Nanoporous membrane-sealed microfluidic devices for improved cell viability.

    PubMed

    Masand, Shirley N; Mignone, Lindsay; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Shreiber, David I

    2011-12-01

    Cell-laden microfluidic devices have broad potential in various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering and drug discovery. However, multiple difficulties encountered while culturing cells within devices affecting cell viability, proliferation, and behavior has complicated their use. While active perfusion systems have been used to overcome the diffusive limitations associated with nutrient delivery into microchannels to support longer culture times, these systems can result in non-uniform oxygen and nutrient delivery and subject cells to shear stresses, which can affect cell behavior. Additionally, histological analysis of cell cultures within devices is generally laborious and yields inconsistent results due to difficulties in delivering labeling agents in microchannels. Herein, we describe a simple, cost-effective approach to preserve cell viability and simplify labeling within microfluidic networks without the need for active perfusion. Instead of bonding a microfluidic network to glass, PDMS, or other solid substrate, the network is bonded to a semi-permeable nanoporous membrane. The membrane-sealed devices allow free exchange of proteins, nutrients, buffers, and labeling reagents between the microfluidic channels and culture media in static culture plates under sterile conditions. The use of the semi-permeable membrane dramatically simplifies microniche cell culturing while avoiding many of the complications which arise from perfusion systems.

  16. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  17. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  18. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  19. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  20. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  1. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  2. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  3. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing liquid egg whites that conform to § 160.140, with such precautions that the finished food is free of viable Salmonella microorganisms. (b) When frozen egg whites are prepared from liquid egg...

  4. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  5. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  6. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  7. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    PubMed

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator. PMID:26340225

  8. Are the Pupae and Eggs of the Lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) Tolerant to Insecticides?

    PubMed

    Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) pupae and eggs to 11 insecticides was evaluated under laboratory conditions, based on lethal and sublethal effects. Eggs at three ages (≤24-h-old, 48- to 72-h-old, and 96- to 120-h-old) and pupae at ≤48-h-old were used. All the insecticides were considered harmless when applied at the pupal stage. Phosmet and pyriproxyfen insecticides were considered harmless to eggs irrespective of the age. Esfenvalerate was harmless to eggs at the ages of ≤24-h-old and 48- to 72-h-old. Imidacloprid SC and azadirachtin were harmless to eggs at ages of 48- to 72-h-old and 96- to 120-h-old, and thiamethoxam was only harmless to eggs at 96- to 120-h-old of age. In contrast, chlorpyrifos and malathion were harmful to eggs at the age of 96- to 120-h-old, and imidacloprid WG was slightly harmful to the three egg ages evaluated. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam were slightly and/or moderately harmful to all egg ages evaluated. Based on the life table parameters, the insecticides thiamethoxam, imidacloprid SC, phosmet, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin did not affect the net rate of reproduction (Ro) of C. cubana. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole decreased the Ro and increased the population doubling time (Td) independently of the egg ages evaluated. Therefore, the insecticides pyriproxyfen and phosmet are compatible with eggs of the predator C. cubana, but other insecticides should be evaluated under field conditions to verify their effects on the predator.

  9. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress. PMID:27316822

  10. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.; Lone, S. A.; Prasad, J. K.; Jan, M. H.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12) from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull) with mass motility (≥3+) and total motility (70% and above) were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01) higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%). PMID:27397983

  11. [Supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of the Pararcyplera microptera meridionalis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) eggs].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Pang, Bao-Ping

    2014-07-01

    Using the thermocouple method, the supercooling point (SCP) and cold hardiness of Pararcyplera microptera meridionalis eggs were measured in the laboratory. The soil water content significantly affected the water content of pre-diapause eggs, but had no significant effect on the SCP, and the water content of pre-diapause eggs rose with the increasing soil water content. There were highly significant differences among the SCPs, water contents or fat contents in the eggs at different developmental stages. With the egg' s development, the water content decreased from 51.5% at oviposition to 46.8% in 120 days after oviposition, the fat content increased from 10.5% (fresh mass)/19.0% (dry mass) to 14.5% (fresh mass)/28.9% (dry mass), and the SCP declined from -23.5 degrees C to -30.0 degrees C. There was a significant correlation between the SCP and the water content or fat content. The SCPs of deep-diapause eggs were lower than those of pre- and early-diapause eggs. The different low temperatures and treatment durations significantly affected the survival rate of diapause eggs. The lethal low temperature (Ltemp50) for 12 h exposure was -27.3 degrees C and the lethal time (Ltime50) at -25 degrees C was 22.73 days. As the mean SCPs of diapause eggs was much similar to their Ltemp50, the SCP could be considered as a good indicator of cold hardiness for P. m. meridionalis eggs and this species is a freeze-intolerant insect.

  12. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  13. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  14. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  15. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  16. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  17. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  18. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  19. Methylmercury content of eggs in yellow perch related to maternal exposure in four Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Wiener, James G.; Frazier, Brdaley E.; Rada, Ronald G.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the influence of maternal mercury and selected lacustrine variables on the mercury content of eggs from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury, methylmercury, and inorganic mercury were determined in eggs and carcasses (less eggs) from three seepage lakes with a pH range of 6.1a??7.0 and a fourth lake in which pH was experimentally increased from 5.5 to 6.8 by addition of alkaline groundwater. The concentration of total mercury in eggs was strongly correlated with that in the maternal carcass. Concentrations and burdens of mercury in eggs and carcasses were inversely correlated with lake water pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon. In eggs containing more than 30 ng/g dry weight (4.5 ng/g wet weight) of total mercury, methylmercury averaged 91% of total mercury and ranged from 85% to 96%. Mean burdens of total mercury in individual eggs varied greatly among lakes (range, 2.3a??63 pg), and the egg mass averaged 1.9% of the whole-body burden. We conclude that exposure of the developing yellow perch embryo to methylmercury is strongly affected by maternal bioaccumulation, which can vary substantially among and within lakes; however, the toxicological significance of the observed exposure of embryos to methylmercury is unclear.

  20. Methylmercury content of eggs in yellow perch related to maternal exposure in four Wisconsin lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Frazier, B.E.; Rada, R.G.; Wiener, J.G.

    1999-04-01

    The authors examined the influence of maternal mercury and selected lacustrine variables on the mercury content of eggs from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury, methylmercury, and inorganic mercury were determined in eggs and carcasses (less eggs) from three seepage lakes with a pH range of 6.1--7.0 and a fourth lake in which pH was experimentally increased from 5.5 to 6.8 by addition of alkaline groundwater. The concentration of total mercury in eggs was strongly correlated with that in the material carcass. Concentrations and burdens of mercury in eggs and carcasses were inversely correlated with lake water pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon. In eggs containing more than 30 ng/g dry weight of total mercury, methylmercury averaged 91% of total mercury and ranged from 85% to 96%. Mean burdens of total mercury in individual eggs varied greatly among lakes and the egg mass averaged 1.9% of the whole-body burden. The authors conclude that exposure of the developing yellow perch embryo to methylmercury is strongly affected by maternal bioaccumulation, which can vary substantially among and within lakes; however, the toxicological significance of the observed exposure of embryos to methylmercury is unclear.