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Sample records for affect employment duration

  1. 20 CFR 702.402 - Employer's duty to furnish; duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's duty to furnish; duration. 702.402 Section 702.402 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN... period as the nature of the injury or the process of recovery may require. ...

  2. 20 CFR 702.402 - Employer's duty to furnish; duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employer's duty to furnish; duration. 702.402 Section 702.402 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... period as the nature of the injury or the process of recovery may require. ...

  3. 20 CFR 702.402 - Employer's duty to furnish; duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employer's duty to furnish; duration. 702.402 Section 702.402 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... period as the nature of the injury or the process of recovery may require. ...

  4. Perception of temporal duration affected by automatic and controlled movements.

    PubMed

    Herai, Tomomitsu; Mogi, Ken

    2014-10-01

    Sensorimotor contingency is one of the main factors to warp time perception. Voluntary actions such as saccades and hand movements affect the subjective perception of temporal duration. Although the perceived timings of action and stimulus are affected by whether an action was automatic or controlled, its effect on the subjective perception of duration has not been studied except in the case of saccade (chronostasis), which has been shown to be unaffected by the context of action initiation. Here we investigate the effect of the context of action initiation on duration estimation in the case of finger movement. The reproduced intervals were shorter when actions were initiated by automatic manner, compared to self-timed or cognitively controlled actions. The results are compatible with an internal clock model employing variable latencies for switch closure after action. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychiatric issues affecting long duration space missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N

    1998-12-01

    As we move into the next Millennium, increasing numbers of people will travel into space. Psychological screening methods will be relaxed on near-Earth missions, such as might occur on a space station or a lunar colony. Crewmembers on interplanetary missions such as a trip to Mars will have to deal with psychiatric problems themselves with no possibility of evacuating an affected individual. For these reasons, it is important for support personnel on Earth and crewmembers in space to be knowledgeable about psychiatric difficulties that might occur and their appropriate treatments. Anecdotal reports from long duration manned space missions and studies from space analog environments on Earth were reviewed for information concerning these issues. Psychiatric problems pertinent to the space environment include adjustment and psychosomatic reactions, asthenia, mood and thought disorders, and post-mission personality changes and family problems. Counter-measures to ameliorate these difficulties involve pre-launch selection and training; monitoring, support, and counseling/psychotherapy during the mission; and post-return debriefings with crew members and their families. Psychoactive medications have been useful during space missions, although unclear pharmacokinetic issues related to microgravity need to be taken into account. Although much is known about psychiatric issues related to long duration manned space travel, more empirical work needs to be done during actual space missions.

  6. The determinants of sick leave durations of Dutch self-employed.

    PubMed

    Spierdijk, Laura; van Lomwel, Gijsbert; Peppelman, Wilko

    2009-12-01

    This paper analyzes sickness absenteeism among self-employed in the Netherlands. Using a unique data set provided by a large Dutch private insurance company, we assess the determinants of sick leave durations. Our study suggests that several risk factors affect the sick leave durations of self-employed in a similar way as they influence the absence spells of employees according to the literature. For example, the recovery rate decreases with age and claimants suffering from psychological diseases have a lower recovery rate relative to claimants with other disorders. Furthermore, the sick leave durations of self-employed last longer when the economy is booming. In contrast to what the literature generally documents for employees, we do not find any evidence for moral hazard effects with respect to the benefit compensation level. Moreover, the absence spells of self-employed last longer in periods of high unemployment, whereas the opposite effect is usually documented for employees. We do not establish any significant gender differences in the sick leave durations of self-employed. Contract-specific factors such as insurance brand and deferment period are typical characteristics of insurance contracts for self-employed and play an important role in explaining their sick leave durations. Finally, the introduction of insurer-based case management significantly increased the recovery rate of self-employed with an ongoing spell up to 1 year. By contrast, case management did not succeed in improving the recovery rate of claimants trapped in long-term sickness absence.

  7. Occupational Diesel Exposure, Duration of Employment, and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Sally; Costello, Sadie; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: If less healthy workers terminate employment earlier, thus accumulating less exposure, yet remain at greater risk of the health outcome, estimated health effects of cumulative exposure will be biased downward. If exposure also affects termination of employment, then the bias cannot be addressed using conventional methods. We examined these conditions as a prelude to a reanalysis of lung cancer mortality in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study. Methods: We applied an accelerated failure time model to assess the effect of exposures to respirable elemental carbon (a surrogate for diesel) on time to termination of employment among nonmetal miners who ever worked underground (n = 8,307). We then applied the parametric g-formula to assess how possible interventions setting respirable elemental carbon exposure limits would have changed lifetime risk of lung cancer, adjusting for time-varying employment status. Results: Median time to termination was 36% shorter (95% confidence interval = 33%, 39%), per interquartile range width increase in respirable elemental carbon exposure. Lung cancer risk decreased with more stringent interventions, with a risk ratio of 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.5, 1.1) comparing a limit of ≤25 µg/m3 respirable elemental carbon to no intervention. The fraction of cases attributable to diesel exposure was 27% in this population. Conclusions: The g-formula controlled for time-varying confounding by employment status, the signature of healthy worker survivor bias, which was also affected by diesel exposure. It also offers an alternative approach to risk assessment for estimating excess cumulative risk, and the impact of interventions based entirely on an observed population. PMID:26426944

  8. Unemployment Duration and Employability in Remote Rural Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Colin; McCracken, Martin; McQuaid, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of 190 unemployed job seekers and interviews with 17 employers in the remote northern Highlands of Scotland found that the employability of many job seekers, particularly the long-term unemployed, was limited by significant gaps in their skills and work experience, their lack of connection to informal social networks used in job seeking,…

  9. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  10. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    PubMed

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled.

  11. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  12. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  13. Does exercise duration affect Fatmax in overweight boys?

    PubMed

    Crisp, Nicole A; Guelfi, Kym J; Licari, Melissa K; Braham, Rebecca; Fournier, Paul A

    2012-07-01

    To compare the assessment of Fat(max) using a single graded exercise test with 3 min stages against 30 min prolonged exercise bouts in overweight boys. Ten overweight boys (8-12 years) attended the laboratory on seven separate occasions. On the first visit, body anthropometrics and peak aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text]O(2peak)) were assessed. Following this, each participant attended the laboratory after an overnight fast for six morning cycling sessions. During the first session, participants completed a continuous, submaximal graded exercise protocol with seven 3 min stages (GRAD) at 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). The final five visits consisted of a 30 min bout of prolonged exercise (PROL) performed in a counterbalanced order at 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). There was no effect of exercise duration on Fat(max) or the absolute rate of fat oxidation during PROL (p > 0.05). At the group level, GRAD and PROL provided similar estimates of Fat(max) (GRAD: 53 ± 10% [Formula: see text]O(2peak); PROL: 53 ± 10% [Formula: see text]O(2peak); p = 0.995); however, individual variation between the two protocols is shown by a systematic bias and residual error of 0 ± 11% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). Fat oxidation rates remained stable across 30 min of steady-state exercise in overweight boys. Furthermore, Fat(max) was similar at 3, 10, 20 and 30 min of exercise, suggesting that for exercise lasting ≤ 30 min, exercise duration does not affect Fat(max). However, Fat(max) determined with GRAD may need to be interpreted with caution at the individual level given the variation in Fat(max) between protocols.

  14. How Do Changes in Speed Affect the Perception of Duration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Six experiments investigated how changes in stimulus speed influence subjective duration. Participants saw rotating or translating shapes in three conditions: constant speed, accelerating motion, and decelerating motion. The distance moved and average speed were the same in all three conditions. In temporal judgment tasks, the constant-speed…

  15. How Do Changes in Speed Affect the Perception of Duration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Six experiments investigated how changes in stimulus speed influence subjective duration. Participants saw rotating or translating shapes in three conditions: constant speed, accelerating motion, and decelerating motion. The distance moved and average speed were the same in all three conditions. In temporal judgment tasks, the constant-speed…

  16. Factors affecting employment outcomes for people with disabilities who received Disability Employment Services in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuh; Wang, Yun-Tung; Lin, Meng-Hsiu

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important rehabilitation goals is to return people with disabilities to paid employment. The purposes of this study were (1) to explore employment status and (2) to identify factors that may affect the employment outcomes of people with disabilities who received Disability Employment Services (DES). A retrospective study was conducted on clients who commenced and closed DES between January 2008 and December 2010 in a metropolitan city in Taiwan, using the files from the National Vocational Rehabilitation Services Documentary System. Sixty-nine percent (1,684 out of 2,452) of the clients in this study were engaged in paid employment after receiving DES. Logistic regression analyses indicated that clients with no psychiatric disability or mild impairment and with useful vocational qualifications, typical work experience, more post-employment services, and less pre-employment services were associated with a higher rate of successful employment outcomes. This study provides empirical evidence of the association between person- and DES-related factors and the employment outcomes of people with disabilities. Future improvements in health, school-to-work transition services, and vocational rehabilitation for people with disabilities should place more emphasis on providing work-based work experience, professional vocational training, access to college/professional education, career exploration, effective supported employment services, and other post-employment services.

  17. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act.

  18. Factors Affecting the Employability of Vocational Bookkeeping Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxner, Lois Ann

    To identify factors which affect the entry-level employability of high school vocational bookkeeping students, the study conducted: (1) a followup of vocational bookkeeping graduates, (2) a business and industry survey, and (3) help-wanted advertisement analysis. Data were collected for each of these areas from the entire population of 107…

  19. Affective, Cognitive and Vocational Skills: The Employers' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kiong-Hock

    1986-01-01

    Compares public and private sector recruitment behavior in Malaysia, focusing on employers' perspectives of higher education's functions. The public sector values academic records, whereas private industry seeks workers with experience and good affective skills. Both sectors want universities to produce graduates with problem-solving abilities.…

  20. Affective, Cognitive and Vocational Skills: The Employers' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kiong-Hock

    1986-01-01

    Compares public and private sector recruitment behavior in Malaysia, focusing on employers' perspectives of higher education's functions. The public sector values academic records, whereas private industry seeks workers with experience and good affective skills. Both sectors want universities to produce graduates with problem-solving abilities.…

  1. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  2. Radiographic abnormalities and duration of employment in Western Australian iron-ore miners.

    PubMed

    Musk, A W; de Klerk, N H; Cookson, W O; Morgan, W K

    1988-04-04

    Plain chest radiographs of 788 Pilbara iron-ore miners from Western Australia have been examined by two independent observers for evidence of pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of any radiographic abnormality (a profusion grade of 0/1 or greater on the International Labour Office [ILO] scale) was 6.7% for Reader 1 and 9.9% for Reader 2. The prevalence of a definite radiographic abnormality (a profusion grade of 1/0 or greater on the ILO scale) was 1.9% for Reader 1 and 2.8% for Reader 2. The prevalence of any abnormality, as identified by either or by both observers, was significantly related to age. The relationship between a radiographic abnormality and the duration of employment was less clear. The results indicate a need for more detailed and comprehensive studies of the effects of iron-ore dust in this industry.

  3. The Bidirectional Effect between Momentary Affective States and Exercise Duration on a Day Level

    PubMed Central

    Schöndube, Anna; Kanning, Martina; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-documented positive effect of exercise on health outcomes, most people do not succeed in exercising regularly. In addition to several other influences, affective states seem to support exercise participation. Associations between exercise and affect have been shown in the laboratory. However, the dynamic relation between affect and exercise in daily life is not yet well-understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the bi-directional effect of momentary affective states on naturally occurring exercise and vice versa in healthy participants in real-life environments by applying an ecological momentary assessment design. We hypothesized that (1) exercise duration is positively associated with affective states on a day level, (2) affective states in the morning predict subsequent exercise duration, and (3) exercise duration predicts affective states in the evening on that respective day. Data from N = 60 students aged between 19 and 32 years were analyzed. Affect and exercise duration were assessed daily over a period of 20 days via an electronic diary. Multilevel analysis revealed that positive affective valence was positively associated with exercise duration (p = 0.003) on a day level. In addition, the more the participants exercised that respective day, the better and more content they felt in the evening (p = 0.009). Energetic arousal in the morning significantly predicted subsequent exercise duration (p = 0.045). The findings indicate that it would be worthwhile to focus more on within-subject analyses when analyzing the dynamic relation between affect and exercise. Furthermore, affective states should be taken into account in creating effective interventions to foster exercise behavior and enhance maintenance. PMID:27708602

  4. Evolution of antibiotic resistance is linked to any genetic mechanism affecting bacterial duration of carriage

    PubMed Central

    Lehtinen, Sonja; Blanquart, François; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Turner, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance. In this work, we propose a mechanism for maintaining coexistence at the resistance locus: linkage to a second locus that is under balancing selection and that modulates the fitness effect of resistance. We show that duration of carriage plays such a role, with long duration of carriage increasing the fitness advantage gained from resistance. We therefore predict that resistance will be more common in strains with a long duration of carriage and that mechanisms maintaining diversity in duration of carriage will also maintain diversity in antibiotic resistance. We test these predictions in S. pneumoniae and find that the duration of carriage of a serotype is indeed positively correlated with the prevalence of resistance in that serotype. These findings suggest heterogeneity in duration of carriage is a partial explanation for the coexistence of sensitive and resistant strains and that factors determining bacterial duration of carriage will also affect the prevalence of resistance. PMID:28096340

  5. Evolution of antibiotic resistance is linked to any genetic mechanism affecting bacterial duration of carriage.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Sonja; Blanquart, François; Croucher, Nicholas J; Turner, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-31

    Understanding how changes in antibiotic consumption affect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is important for public health. In a number of bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, the prevalence of resistance has remained relatively stable despite prolonged selection pressure from antibiotics. The evolutionary processes allowing the robust coexistence of antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains are not fully understood. While allelic diversity can be maintained at a locus by direct balancing selection, there is no evidence for such selection acting in the case of resistance. In this work, we propose a mechanism for maintaining coexistence at the resistance locus: linkage to a second locus that is under balancing selection and that modulates the fitness effect of resistance. We show that duration of carriage plays such a role, with long duration of carriage increasing the fitness advantage gained from resistance. We therefore predict that resistance will be more common in strains with a long duration of carriage and that mechanisms maintaining diversity in duration of carriage will also maintain diversity in antibiotic resistance. We test these predictions in S. pneumoniae and find that the duration of carriage of a serotype is indeed positively correlated with the prevalence of resistance in that serotype. These findings suggest heterogeneity in duration of carriage is a partial explanation for the coexistence of sensitive and resistant strains and that factors determining bacterial duration of carriage will also affect the prevalence of resistance.

  6. Factors That Affect the Rehabilitation Duration in Patients With Congenital Muscular Torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Sung Hoon; Nam, Doo Hyeon; Cheon, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine which factors affect the rehabilitation duration in patients with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and to predict the duration of rehabilitation and prognosis. Methods One hundred and eighteen patients (79 males and 39 females) who were diagnosed with CMT and received physical therapy were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the information in terms of sex, gestational age, birth weight, methods of delivery, fetal presentation, age at diagnosis, the affected sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle site, SCM muscle thickness, ratio of muscle thickness on the affected side to that on the unaffected side (called the 'abnormal/normal [A/N] ratio'), and range of motion for cervical rotation and side bending. Results The SCM muscle thickness and A/N ratio had a positive linear relationship with the rehabilitation duration. Patients who were in the breech position needed longer rehabilitation. The birth weight and age at diagnosis were negatively correlated with the rehabilitation duration. However, the cervical range of motion, mass site, sex, gestational age, and methods of delivery were not correlated with the rehabilitation duration. Conclusion Patients with a thicker SCM, lower birth weight, and history of breech delivery had a longer rehabilitation duration. PMID:25750867

  7. 29 CFR 1952.9 - Variances affecting multi-state employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Variances affecting multi-state employers. 1952.9 Section... and Conditions § 1952.9 Variances affecting multi-state employers. (a) Where a State standard is... standard, or portion thereof, affected by the action in the employment or places of employment covered by...

  8. 29 CFR 1952.9 - Variances affecting multi-state employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Variances affecting multi-state employers. 1952.9 Section... and Conditions § 1952.9 Variances affecting multi-state employers. (a) Where a State standard is... standard, or portion thereof, affected by the action in the employment or places of employment covered by...

  9. 29 CFR 1952.9 - Variances affecting multi-state employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Variances affecting multi-state employers. 1952.9 Section... and Conditions § 1952.9 Variances affecting multi-state employers. (a) Where a State standard is... standard, or portion thereof, affected by the action in the employment or places of employment covered by...

  10. 29 CFR 1952.9 - Variances affecting multi-state employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Variances affecting multi-state employers. 1952.9 Section... and Conditions § 1952.9 Variances affecting multi-state employers. (a) Where a State standard is... standard, or portion thereof, affected by the action in the employment or places of employment covered by...

  11. 29 CFR 1952.9 - Variances affecting multi-state employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Variances affecting multi-state employers. 1952.9 Section... and Conditions § 1952.9 Variances affecting multi-state employers. (a) Where a State standard is... standard, or portion thereof, affected by the action in the employment or places of employment covered by...

  12. Do Changes in the Pace of Events Affect One-Off Judgments of Duration?

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, Hannah M.; Dylman, Alexandra S.; Gheorghiu, Ana I.; Matthews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined whether changes in the pace of external events influence people’s judgments of duration. In Experiments 1a–1c, participants heard pieces of music whose tempo accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 2, participants completed a visuo-motor task in which the rate of stimulus presentation accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 3, participants completed a reading task in which facts appeared on-screen at accelerating, decelerating, or constant rates. In all experiments, the physical duration of the to-be-judged interval was the same across conditions. We found no significant effects of temporal structure on duration judgments in any of the experiments, either when participants knew that a time estimate would be required (prospective judgments) or when they did not (retrospective judgments). These results provide a starting point for the investigation of how temporal structure affects one-off judgments of duration like those typically made in natural settings. PMID:23555804

  13. Do changes in the pace of events affect one-off judgments of duration?

    PubMed

    Darlow, Hannah M; Dylman, Alexandra S; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments examined whether changes in the pace of external events influence people's judgments of duration. In Experiments 1a-1c, participants heard pieces of music whose tempo accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 2, participants completed a visuo-motor task in which the rate of stimulus presentation accelerated, decelerated, or remained constant. In Experiment 3, participants completed a reading task in which facts appeared on-screen at accelerating, decelerating, or constant rates. In all experiments, the physical duration of the to-be-judged interval was the same across conditions. We found no significant effects of temporal structure on duration judgments in any of the experiments, either when participants knew that a time estimate would be required (prospective judgments) or when they did not (retrospective judgments). These results provide a starting point for the investigation of how temporal structure affects one-off judgments of duration like those typically made in natural settings.

  14. Determinants of Sleep Duration among High School Students in Part-Time Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laberge, Luc; Ledoux, Élise; Auclair, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who work while attending school are reported to sleep less than those who do not. This study aimed to identify factors associated with short sleep duration in students who work during the school year. A cross-sectional survey aiming to describe working conditions and occupational safety and health was completed by representative…

  15. Determinants of Sleep Duration among High School Students in Part-Time Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laberge, Luc; Ledoux, Élise; Auclair, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who work while attending school are reported to sleep less than those who do not. This study aimed to identify factors associated with short sleep duration in students who work during the school year. A cross-sectional survey aiming to describe working conditions and occupational safety and health was completed by representative…

  16. Examining the exercise-affect dose-response relationship: does duration influence frontal EEG asymmetry?

    PubMed

    Woo, Minjung; Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu; Petruzzello, Steven J; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2009-05-01

    The "feel better" effect of exercise has been well established, but the specific influence of exercise duration on affect has not been systematically studied from a multi-level measurement approach. Such an approach offers the opportunity to assess psychophysiological responses that relate to psychological state. One relevant response is the change in frontal brain processes indexed by anterior EEG asymmetry, which is related to approach-withdrawal orientation and affective state [Davidson, R.J., 1993. Cerebral asymmetry and emotion: conceptual and methodological conundrums. Cogn. Emot. 7, 138; Davidson, R.J., 1998. Anterior electrophysiological asymmetries, emotion, and depression: Conceptual and methodological conundrums. Psychophysiology 35(5), 607-614.]. To examine the relationship between exercise duration and affective response, as well as the role of frontal brain processes in this relationship, female undergraduate students (N=16, VO(2) max=35.93 ml kg(-1) min(-1), aged 19-23 yrs) were assessed for frontal EEG and self-reported affective responses, as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS), following rest and three different durations of exercise (15, 30 and 45 min) performed at a standardized intensity (i.e., just below the ventilatory threshold (VT)). Psychological vigor and frontal EEG asymmetry following exercise of 30 min were elevated compared to that observed following rest and other exercise durations (i.e., 15, 45 min). The results support a dose-response relationship between exercise duration and affect characterized by an inverted-U. Furthermore, the covariance analysis, conducted to assess the role of cortical activation at the homologous sites in the post-exercise affective response, suggests that the enhanced vigor observed after 30 min of exercise results from the reduction of withdrawal-oriented processes rather than the facilitation of approach-oriented processes.

  17. Factors affecting the duration effect in pitch perception for unresolved complex tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Louise J.; Plack, Christopher J.

    2003-12-01

    Previous research has shown that fundamental frequency (F0) discrimination thresholds for complex tones containing unresolved harmonics decrease as the duration of the tone increases [White and Plack, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2051-2063 (1998)]. In this paper F0 discrimination was measured as a function of duration for complexes with F0s of 62.5, 125, and 250 Hz, bandpass filtered into two spectral regions (2750-3750 and 5500-7500 Hz). The harmonics were summed either in sine phase (SINE) or with alternating sine-cosine phase (ALT), which affects the envelope of the waveform and the pitch of the complex. Tone duration was 20, 40, 80, and 160 ms. The improvement in F0 discrimination with duration increased with decreasing F0. When harmonics where spectrally filtered between 2750 and 3750 Hz, for complexes with an F0 of 62.5 Hz, F0 discrimination thresholds decreased from approximately 30% for a 20-ms tone to approximately 3% for a 160-ms tone. For complexes with an F0 of 250 Hz, thresholds decreased from 3% for a 20-ms tone to 1% for a 160-ms tone: a lower envelope repetition rate led to a larger change in performance with increasing duration. The phase manipulation also affected the size of the duration effect, in that the effect was less for an ALT complex compared to a SINE complex with the same F0, consistent with the change in envelope repetition rate. Overall, the results suggest that for unresolved complex tones it is primarily envelope repetition rate, not spectral region, that determines both the F0 discrimination threshold and the size of the duration effect.

  18. Mixtures of beta distributions in models of the duration of a project affected by risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gładysz, Barbara; Kuchta, Dorota

    2017-07-01

    This article presents a method for timetabling a project affected by risk. The times required to carry out tasks are modelled using mixtures of beta distributions. The parameters of these beta distributions are given by experts: one corresponding to the duration of a task in stable conditions, with no risks materializing, and the other corresponding to the duration of a task in the case when risks do occur. Finally, a case study will be presented and analysed: the project of constructing a shopping mall in Poland.

  19. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend < 0.001). Mothers were less likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months if they returned to work for financial reasons (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93) or used informal day care arrangements rather than care by themselves or their partner (aRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91). Mothers were more likely to breastfeed for at least 4 months if their employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  20. Daily events are important for age differences in mean and duration for negative affect but not positive affect.

    PubMed

    Charles, Susan T; Mogle, Jacqueline; Urban, Emily J; Almeida, David M

    2016-11-01

    Across midlife and into old age, older adults often report lower levels of negative affect and similar if not higher levels of positive affect than relatively younger adults. Researchers have offered a simple explanation for this result: Age is related to reductions in stressors and increases in pleasurable activities that result in higher levels of well-being. The current study examines subjective reports of emotional experience assessed across 8 days in a large sample of adults (N = 2,022) ranging from 35 to 84 years old. By modeling age differences before and after adjusting for daily positive uplifts and negative stressors, this article assesses the extent to which daily events account for age differences in positive and negative affect reports. Consistent with previous research, the authors found that older age is related to lower mean levels and shorter duration of a negative emotional experience in a model only adjusting for gender, education, and ethnicity. After adjusting for daily events, however, the linear age-related effects were no longer significant. For positive affect, adjusting for daily events did not alter age-related patterns of experiencing higher mean levels and longer positive experience duration, suggesting that other factors underlie age-related increases in positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Urban Youth with Disabilities: Factors Affecting Transition Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Ellen S.

    2007-01-01

    Although postsecondary employment outcomes for transition-age youth with disabilities have improved over the past decade, minority youth with disabilities continue to lag behind their peers in achieving a job. This study of predominantly minority youth participating in the Marriott Foundation's Bridges From School to Work Program from 2000 to 2005…

  2. Prolonged duration of breastfeeding does not affect lipid profile in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayosh, Ofri; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Lahat, Sharon; Marom, Ronella; Lubetzky, Ronit

    2015-05-01

    The Hertfordshire study suggested that age of weaning and methods of infant feeding may influence adult serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and mortality from ischemic heart disease in men. Although breastfeeding <1 year appeared to be protective compared with formula, prolonged breastfeeding (>1 year) was associated with increased LDL-C and mortality. This study tested the effect of breastfeeding duration on lipid profile in young adults. Adult volunteers whose mothers could recall the age at which their child was weaned were recruited. We excluded patients with known dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia in a first-degree relative, obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30 kg/m(2)), pregnant or within 3 months of a previous pregnancy, subjects taking medications that may affect lipid profile, or subjects with a chronic medical condition. Nutritional questionnaires and number of weekly hours of exercise were recorded. Lipid profiles were obtained after a night fast. The three groups (no breastfeeding, breastfeeding 0-6 months, or breastfeeding >9 months) did not differ in terms of age, gender, BMI, level of education, amount of exercise, and dietary style. By stepwise background multiple regression analysis taking into account exercise, nutritional habitus, age, BMI, gender, and socioeconomic status, blood lipids were not affected by duration of breastfeeding. Duration of breastfeeding does not affect lipid profiles in young adults. These findings do not support negative messages on the long-term effect of prolonged lactation generated by the Hertfordshire study.

  3. Factors Affecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Niknajad, Akram; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarzadeh, Niloufar; Bashar Hashemi, Fazileh; Dezham Khoy Shahgholi, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization duration to lessen unwanted outcomes of premature birth and to eliminate or relieve the problems. Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, 170 low birth weight premature infants were assessed in a regular daily follow-up in Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Probable factors affecting NICU (neonatal intensive care unit) stay, such as birth age and weight, time of trophic feeding initiation, time of regain birth weight, and duration of parenteral nutrition, were evaluated. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and linier regression model in SPSS14. Statistical significance was considered at 0.05. Results: Mean birth weight and age of infants were 1310.26 ± 804.26 g and 30.51 ± 0.34 weeks, respectively. Duration of NICU stay was 14.51 ± 10.12 days. Intrauterine growth retardation, positive C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood culture during hospitalization stay, bloody or bile stained gastric remnants, days to regain birth weight, and total enteral nutrition intolerance were the most important factors affecting NICU stay among the studied infants. Conclusion: It seems that eliminating risk factors of intrauterine growth retardation during pregnancy, preventing perinatal and nosocomial infections and taking suitable and tolerable feeding strategies will be effective on NICU stay duration in low birth weight premature infants. Therefore, required policies, especially early trophic feeding, are suggested to eliminate the existing difficulties. PMID:25276681

  4. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Sleep duration during weekdays affects hippocampal gray matter volume in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-03-01

    Sleep is essential for living beings, and sleep loss has been shown to affect hippocampal structure and function in rats by inhibiting cell proliferation and neurogenesis in this region of the brain. We aimed to analyze the correlation between sleep duration and the hippocampal volume using brain magnetic resonance images of 290 healthy children aged 5-18 years. We examined the volume of gray matter, white matter, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space in the brain using a fully automated and established neuroimaging technique, voxel-based morphometry, which enabled global analysis of brain structure without bias towards any specific brain region while permitting the identification of potential differences or abnormalities in brain structures. We found that the regional gray matter volume of the bilateral hippocampal body was significantly positively correlated with sleep duration during weekdays after adjusting for age, sex, and intracranial volume. Our results indicated that sleep duration affects the hippocampal regional gray matter volume of healthy children. These findings advance our understanding of the importance of sleep habits in the daily lives of healthy children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro.

    PubMed

    Privé, F; Combes, S; Cauquil, L; Farizon, Y; Enjalbert, F; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2010-02-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150 degrees C for 1, 3, or 6h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 isomer production increased with heating temperature, suggesting an activation of Delta(9)-isomerization, whereas trans-11 isomer production decreased, traducing an inhibition of Delta(12)-isomerization. The amount of peroxides generated during heating was correlated with the proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates so that they might explain, at least in part, the observed effects. The effects of heating temperature and duration on ruminal bacteria community was assessed using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Ruminal bacterial population significantly differed according to heating temperature, but was not affected by heating duration. Heating of fat affected ruminal biohydrogenation, at least in part because of oxidative products generated during heating, by altering enzymatic reactions and bacterial population.

  7. Work duration does not affect cortisol output in experienced firefighters performing live burn drills.

    PubMed

    Rosalky, Deena S; Hostler, David; Webb, Heather E

    2017-01-01

    Work duration may affect firefighters' stress responses. Forty-two firefighters (38 males) performed either 2 (SWD) or 3 (LWD) bouts of simulated fire suppression activity. Salivary cortisol, self-reported fear and anxiety, and perceptual thermal responses were measured. Cortisol was evaluated using area-under-the-curve calculations (Pruessner et al., 2003). Affective responses between the two conditions were compared using T-tests. Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the relationships between affect and change in thermal load perception. Cortisol decreased across the protocol in both groups, and no difference was found in cortisol or affect between the groups. Cortisol decreased (F4,36 = 3.43, p < 0.05) in the SWD group from a mean concentration of 40.93 ± 11.41 nmol/L to 25.07 ± 9.88 nmol/L at the end of the protocol. In the LWD group, the mean cortisol concentration decreased from 42.89 ± 11.83 to 25.07 ± 8.82 at the end of the protocol (F5,50 = 14.77, p < 0.01). Anxiety increased in the LWD (F4,72 = 5.11, p = 0.001) but not the SWD group. Fear increased in the SWD (F3,48 = 14.15, p < 0.001) and LWD group (F4,60 = 4.47, p < 0.01). The present findings suggests a moderate fear load with firefighting, which appears not to be associated with duration of work bout. Examination of more varied work bout lengths may reveal an association between anxiety and work duration. However, the work bout durations investigated in the current study comprise the range of what is practical from an occupational standpoint and the physiological capabilities of the firefighters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Degree, duration, and causes of visual impairment in eyes affected with ocular tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ocular tuberculosis (TB) can affect nearly every ocular tissue, leading to a variety of vision-threatening clinical manifestations. The goal of this study is to estimate the degree, duration, and causes of visual impairment in eyes affected by ocular TB. Results This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed as ocular TB based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We applied the World Health Organization definition of visual impairment (VI) to affected eye(s), instead of better-seeing eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6/18 and ≥6/60 in the affected eye was classified as moderate VI and <6/60 and ≥3/60 as severe VI. Data collected included presenting and final BCVA of affected eyes and the worst BCVA during the study period. Sixty-one eyes of 40 patients were analyzed. Twenty-five patients (52.1%) had bilateral disease. The mean worst BCVA and mean final BCVA (logMAR) were 1.26 ± 0.87 and 0.61 ± 0.85, respectively, and their difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001, Friedman test). The median worst and final BCVA results were 1.30 (range 0.0 to 3.0) and 0.20 (range 0.0 to 3.0), respectively. The mean duration of follow-up was 98.34 ± 81.81 weeks. Moderate and severe VIs were seen in 14 (22.9%) and 12 (19.7%) eyes, respectively, during the course of follow up. Twenty eyes (32.8%) had BCVA of <3/60. Moderate VI or worse was most commonly seen in eyes with multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (n = 6; 100%), retinal vasculitis (n = 25; 80.6%), and panuveitis (n = 12; 80%). The mean duration of visual loss was 25.2 ± 42.37 weeks (median 6.43 weeks, range 0 to 206.42 weeks). Vitreous hemorrhage, complicated cataract, and macular scarring were the common causes of VI. Conclusion Ocular TB can result in prolonged visual impairment, more commonly in patients with posterior uveitis or panuveitis. PMID:24485195

  9. Degree, duration, and causes of visual impairment in eyes affected with ocular tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Soumyava; Monira, Sirajum; Modi, Rohit Ramesh; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Mohan, Neha; Padhi, Tapas Ranjan; Balne, Praveen Kumar; Sharma, Savitri; Panigrahi, Satya Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    Ocular tuberculosis (TB) can affect nearly every ocular tissue, leading to a variety of vision-threatening clinical manifestations. The goal of this study is to estimate the degree, duration, and causes of visual impairment in eyes affected by ocular TB. This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed as ocular TB based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. We applied the World Health Organization definition of visual impairment (VI) to affected eye(s), instead of better-seeing eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6/18 and ≥6/60 in the affected eye was classified as moderate VI and <6/60 and ≥3/60 as severe VI. Data collected included presenting and final BCVA of affected eyes and the worst BCVA during the study period. Sixty-one eyes of 40 patients were analyzed. Twenty-five patients (52.1%) had bilateral disease. The mean worst BCVA and mean final BCVA (logMAR) were 1.26 ± 0.87 and 0.61 ± 0.85, respectively, and their difference was highly significant (p < 0.0001, Friedman test). The median worst and final BCVA results were 1.30 (range 0.0 to 3.0) and 0.20 (range 0.0 to 3.0), respectively. The mean duration of follow-up was 98.34 ± 81.81 weeks. Moderate and severe VIs were seen in 14 (22.9%) and 12 (19.7%) eyes, respectively, during the course of follow up. Twenty eyes (32.8%) had BCVA of <3/60. Moderate VI or worse was most commonly seen in eyes with multifocal serpiginoid choroiditis (n = 6; 100%), retinal vasculitis (n = 25; 80.6%), and panuveitis (n = 12; 80%). The mean duration of visual loss was 25.2 ± 42.37 weeks (median 6.43 weeks, range 0 to 206.42 weeks). Vitreous hemorrhage, complicated cataract, and macular scarring were the common causes of VI. Ocular TB can result in prolonged visual impairment, more commonly in patients with posterior uveitis or panuveitis.

  10. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, Katherine R.; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T.; Newton, Naomi V.; Gray, Nicola S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100–3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  11. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate.

  12. Factors affecting duration of gastrostomy tube retention in survivors following treatment for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Blanchford, H; Hamilton, D; Bowe, I; Welch, S; Kumar, R; Moor, J W; Welch, A R; Paleri, V

    2014-03-01

    Many patients treated for head and neck cancer require nutritional support, which is often delivered using a gastrostomy tube. It is difficult to predict which patients will retain their gastrostomy tube in the long term. This study aimed to identify the factors which affect the duration of gastrostomy tube retention. In this retrospective study, 151 consecutive patients from one centre were audited. All patients had a mucosal tumour of the head and neck, and underwent gastrostomy tube insertion between 2003 and 2007. There were near-complete data sets for 132 patients. The gastrostomy tube was retained in survivors (n = 66) for a mean of 21.3 months and in non-survivors (n = 66) for 11.9 months. Univariate analysis showed that co-morbidity was the only factor which significantly increased duration of gastrostomy tube retention in survivors (p = 0.041). Co-morbidity alone was associated with a significant increase in gastrostomy tube retention. It is suggested that co-morbidity be included as a variable in future relevant research. Co-morbidity should also be considered when counselling patients about their long-term function following cancer treatment. Gastrostomy tube retention is likely to be affected by many factors, with few single variables having importance independently.

  13. Spinal manipulation force and duration affect vertebral movement and neuromuscular responses.

    PubMed

    Colloca, Christopher J; Keller, Tony S; Harrison, Deed E; Moore, Robert J; Gunzburg, Robert; Harrison, Donald D

    2006-03-01

    Previous study in human subjects has documented biomechanical and neurophysiological responses to impulsive spinal manipulative thrusts, but very little is known about the neuromechanical effects of varying thrust force-time profiles. Ten adolescent Merino sheep were anesthetized and posteroanterior mechanical thrusts were applied to the L3 spinous process using a computer-controlled, mechanical testing apparatus. Three variable pulse durations (10, 100, 200 ms, force = 80 N) and three variable force amplitudes (20, 40, 60 N, pulse duration = 100 ms) were examined for their effect on lumbar motion response (L3 displacement, L1, L2 acceleration) and normalized multifidus electromyographic response (L3, L4) using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Increasing L3 posteroanterior force amplitude resulted in a fourfold linear increase in L3 posteroanterior vertebral displacement (p < 0.001) and adjacent segment (L1, L2) posteroanterior acceleration response (p < 0.001). L3 displacement was linearly correlated (p < 0.001) to the acceleration response over the 20-80 N force range (100 ms). At constant force, 10 ms thrusts resulted in nearly fivefold lower L3 displacements and significantly increased segmental (L2) acceleration responses compared to the 100 ms (19%, p = 0.005) and 200 ms (16%, p = 0.023) thrusts. Normalized electromyographic responses increased linearly with increasing force amplitude at higher amplitudes and were appreciably affected by mechanical excitation pulse duration. Changes in the biomechanical and neuromuscular response of the ovine lumbar spine were observed in response to changes in the force-time characteristics of the spinal manipulative thrusts and may be an underlying mechanism in related clinical outcomes.

  14. Heart rate, activity, duration, and affect in added-purpose versus single-purpose jumping activities.

    PubMed

    Bloch, M W; Smith, D A; Nelson, D L

    1989-01-01

    This research replicates and extends an occupational therapy research project reported by Kircher in 1984. Thirty women aged 18 to 31 years jumped with a rope on one day and jumped in place on another day in a counterbalanced design. Each subject stopped jumping when she reached what she perceived as the very hard level on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (Borg, 1970). Differences from Kircher's design included an imposed target zone formula for safe maximum exertion, use of a portable, more easily read heart rate monitor (Exersentry, Model 3), use of the Osgood Semantic Differential to measure affective meanings, and asking the subjects to identify the type of jumping they preferred. Data analysis supported Kircher's finding that at the given rate of perceived exertion, heart rate increase after jumping rope was significantly higher (p = .01) than after jumping without a rope. The difference in duration of jumping approached significance (p = .06), but in the direction opposite to what Kircher found. There were no significant differences in affective meanings or preference. Results are discussed in terms of the need for a growing body of occupational therapy literature in regard to the purposefulness of activities.

  15. The duration of light treatment and therapy outcome in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Knapen, S E; van de Werken, M; Gordijn, M C M; Meesters, Y

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by recurrent episodes of major depression with a seasonal pattern, treated with light therapy (LT). Duration of light therapy differs. This study investigates retrospectively whether a single week of LT is as effective as two weeks, whether males and females respond differently, and whether there is an effect of expectations as assessed before treatment. 83 women, and 25 men received either one-week (n=42) or two weeks (n=66) of LT were included in three studies. Before LT, patients׳ expectations on therapy response were assessed. Depression severity was similar in both groups before treatment (F(1,106)=0.19ns) and decreased significantly during treatment (main effect "time" F(2,105)=176.7, p<0.001). The speed of therapy response differs significantly in treatment duration, in favor of 1 week (F(2,105)=3.2, p=0.046). A significant positive correlation between expectations and therapy response was found in women (ρ=0.243, p=0.027) and not in men (ρ=-0.154,ns). When expectation was added as a covariate in the repeated-measures analysis it shows a positive effect of the level of expectation on the speed of therapy response (F(2,104)=4.1, p=0.018). A limitation is the retrospective design. There is no difference between 1 and 2 weeks of LT in overall therapy outcome, but the speed of therapy response differed between 1 week LT and 2 weeks LT. Together with the significant correlation between expectations and therapy response in women, we hypothesize that expectations play a role in the speed of therapy response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage of parturition and piglet birth intervals in sows with uncomplicated, spontaneous farrowings.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A J; van Rens, B T T M; van der Lende, T; Taverne, M A M

    2005-10-15

    Modern pig farming is still confronted with high perinatal piglet losses which are mainly contributed to factors associated with the progress of piglet expulsion. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify sow- and piglet factors affecting the duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing and piglet birth intervals in spontaneous farrowing sows originating from five different breeds. In total 211 litters were investigated. Breed affected duration of the expulsive stage significantly: the shortest duration was found in Large White x Meishan F2 crossbred litters and the longest duration in Dutch Landrace litters. No effect of parity on the duration of the expulsive stage was found. An increase in littersize (P<0.01), an increase in number of stillborn piglets per litter (P<0.05) and a decrease of gestation length (P<0.05, independently of littersize) all resulted in an increased duration of the expulsive stage of farrowing. A curvilinear relationship between birth interval and rank (relative position in the birth order) of the piglets was found. Besides that, piglet birth intervals increased with an increasing birth weight (P<0.001). Stillborn (P<0.01) and posteriorly presented (P<0.05) piglets were delivered after significantly longer birth intervals than liveborn and anteriorly presented piglets. The results on sow- and piglet factors affecting duration of the expulsive stage and piglet birth intervals obtained in this study contribute to an increased insight into (patho) physiological aspects of perinatal mortality in pigs.

  17. How Mechanical Ventilation Measurement, Cutoff and Duration Affect Rapid Shallow Breathing Index Accuracy: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Elaine Cristina; Lago, Alessandra Fabiane; Silva, Elaine Caetano; de Almeida, Marcelo Barros; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Gastaldi, Ada Clarice

    2017-01-01

    Background Decreased accuracy of the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) can stem from 1) the method used to obtain this index, 2) duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), and 3) the established cutoff point. The objective was to evaluate the values of RSBI determined by three different methods, using distinct MV times and cutoff points. Methods This prospective study included 40 subjects. Before extubation, three different methods were employed to measure RSBI: pressure support ventilator (PSV) (PSV = 5 - 8 cm H2O; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 5 cm H2O) (RSBI_MIN), automatic tube compensation (ATC) (PSV = 0, PEEP = 5 cm H2O, and 100% tube compensation) (RSBI_ATC), and disconnected MV (RSBI_SP). The results were analyzed according to the MV period (less than or over 72 h) and to the outcome of extubation (< 72 h, successful and failed; > 72 h successful and failed). The accuracy of each method was determined at different cutoff points (105, 78, and 50 cycles/min/L). Results The RSBI_MIN, RSBI_ATC, and RSBI_SP values in the group < 72 h were 38 ± 18, 45 ± 26 and 55 ± 22; in the group > 72 h, RSBI_SP value was higher than those of RSBI_ATC and RSBI_MIN (78 ± 29, 51 ± 19 and 39 ± 14) (P < 0.001). For patients with MV > 72 h who failed in removing MV, the RSBI_SP was higher (93 ± 28, 58 ± 18 and 41 ± 10) (P < 0.000), with greater accuracy at cutoff of 78. Conclusion RSBI_SP associated with cutoff point < 78 cycles/min/L seems to be the best strategy to identify failed extubation in subjects with MV for over 72 h. PMID:28270888

  18. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  19. Adjustment Issues Affecting Employment for Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Anastasia Dimun; Lucas, Margaretha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes major issues, including culture shock and loss of status, that affect general adjustment of immigrants and refugees from the former Soviet Union who are resettling in the United States. Issues that affect career and employment adjustment are described and the interrelatedness of general and career issues is explored. (Contains 39…

  20. Juggling work and motherhood: the impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a survival analysis on Growing Up in Scotland data.

    PubMed

    Skafida, Valeria

    2012-02-01

    In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and motherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004-2005 was used. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were specified using one cross-sectional wave of data to predict breastfeeding duration. Mothers working as employees, full-time (Hazard Ratio 1.6) or part-time (HR1.3), had a higher risk of earlier breastfeeding cessation than non-working mothers. However, self-employed mothers did not differ significantly from non-working mothers in their breastfeeding patterns. Mothers who took longer maternity leave breastfed for longer. The relationships between employment, maternity leave and breastfeeding duration were significant when controlling for known predictors of breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with less formal education, single mothers, those of white ethnic background, and first-time mothers were more likely to stop breastfeeding sooner, as has been noted in previous research. Employment and early return to work are both factors associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding. More flexible working conditions and more generous employment leave could help to prolong breastfeeding among working mothers. Current health and employment policy in Scotland and the UK could be better coordinated so that working mothers have the adequate support to meet the conflicting demands of employment and motherhood.

  1. Does cancer in a child affect parents' employment and earnings? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Syse, Astri; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Tretli, Steinar

    2011-06-01

    Cancer in a child may adversely affect parents' work opportunities due to enlarged care burdens and/or altered priorities. Few studies exist, and possible effects on parental employment and earnings were therefore explored. Data on the entire Norwegian population aged 27-65 with children under the age of 20 in 1990-2002 (N=1.2 million) was retrieved from national registries. Employment rates for parents of 3263 children with cancer were compared to those of parents with children without cancer by means of logistic regression models. Log-linear regression models were used to explore childhood cancer's effect on parental earnings for the large majority of parents who remained employed. Cancer in a child was in general not associated with a reduced risk of employment, although some exceptions exist among both mothers and fathers. For employed mothers, CNS cancers, germinal cell cancers, and unspecified leukemia were associated with significant reductions in earnings (10%, 21%, and 60%, respectively). Reductions were particularly pronounced for mothers with a young and alive child, and became more pronounced with time elapsed from diagnosis. Fathers' earnings were not affected significantly. Parents' employment is not adversely affected by a child's cancer in Norway. Earnings are reduced in certain instances, but the overall effects are minor. Generous welfare options and flexible labor markets typical for Nordic welfare states may account for this. In line with traditional caregiving responsibilities, reductions in earnings were most pronounced for mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Profile of the musculoskeletal pain suffered by textile tufting workers handling thread cones according to work, age and employment duration.

    PubMed

    Montreuil, S; Laflamme, L; Tellier, C

    1996-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between some socio-professional characteristics of workers (e.g. age, actual work done, experience in the job, overall time on job market, height) carrying out thread-cone handling tasks and their musculoskeletal pain profiles. Interviews were carried out with foremen and workers, and task analysis was performed. Self-administered questionnaires on work-related pain were filled out by 114 machine operators and creelers in four carpet-manufacturing companies. Statistics on nine individual and 25 pain-symptom characteristics were compiled. For data treatment, two statistical methods complemented one another: the Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC) and the Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC). Four classes of workers showing large differences one to another regarding time of employment on the job market, age, seniority in the company, and job experience were portrayed. No remarkable differences were found between the classes in relation to the proportion of workers showing body pain symptoms; it is greater than 50% in all classes (12 months). Moreover, in all classes, for several workers, the first region of pain (out of three possible) was reported as one persisting over the weekend. The group of workers from 25 to 35 years of age appears to be the one most seriously affected by musculoskeletal pain.

  3. Environmental Enrichment Duration Differentially Affects Behavior and Neuroplasticity in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Leger, Marianne; Paizanis, Eleni; Dzahini, Kwamivi; Quiedeville, Anne; Bouet, Valentine; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Freret, Thomas; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Boulouard, Michel

    2015-11-01

    Environmental enrichment is a powerful way to stimulate brain and behavioral plasticity. However the required exposure duration to reach such changes has not been substantially analyzed. We aimed to assess the time-course of appearance of the beneficial effects of enriched environment. Thus, different behavioral tests and neurobiological parameters (such as neurogenesis, brain monoamines levels, and stress-related hormones) were concomitantly realized after different durations of enriched environment (24 h, 1, 3, or 5 weeks). While short enrichment exposure (24 h) was sufficient to improve object recognition memory performances, a 3-week exposure was required to improve aversive stimulus-based memory performances and to reduce anxiety-like behavior; effects that were not observed with longer duration. The onset of behavioral changes after a 3-week exposure might be supported by higher serotonin levels in the frontal cortex, but seems independent of neurogenesis phenomenon. Additionally, the benefit of 3-week exposure on memory was not observed 3 weeks after cessation of enrichment. Thus, the 3-week exposure appears as an optimal duration in order to induce the most significant behavioral effects and to assess the underlying mechanisms. Altogether, these results suggest that the duration of exposure is a keystone of the beneficial behavioral and neurobiological effects of environmental enrichment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Sleep Duration Affects Risk for Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Khalili, Hamed; Konijeti, Gauree G.; Higuchi, Leslie M.; de Silva, Punyanganie; Fuchs, Charles S.; Richter, James M.; Schernhammer, Eva S; Chan, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Sleep deprivation is associated with production of inflammatory cytokines. Disturbed sleep quality has been associated with increased risk of disease flare in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the association between sleep and risk of incident CD and UC has not been previously examined. Methods We conducted a prospective study of women who were enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I since 1976 and NHS II since 1989 and followed through detailed biennial questionnaires with > 90% follow up. We examined the association of sleep duration reported in 1986 in NHS I and 2001 in NHS II with incident CD and UC, diagnosed through 2010, in NHS I and 2009 in NHS II. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 151,871 women, we confirmed 191 cases of CD (incidence 8/100,000 person-years [p-y]) and 230 cases of UC (incidence 10/100,000 p-y) over 2,292,849 p-y. Compared to women with reported usual sleep durations of 7–8 hrs/day (incidence 8/100,000 p-y), women with reported sleep duration < 6 hrs/day (11/100,000 p-y) or > 9 hrs/day (20/100,000 p-y) had a higher incidence of UC (P<.05).The multivariate HRs for UC were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.10–2.09) for sleep durations < 6 hrs/day and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.44–2.92) for sleep durations > 9 hrs/day, compared to sleep durations of 7–8 hrs/day. In contrast, sleep duration did not modify risk of CD. Duration of rotating night shift work was not associated with CD or UC. Conclusions Based on data from the NHS I and II, less than 6 hrs sleep/day and more than 9 hrs sleep/day are each associated with an increased risk of UC. Further studies are needed to evaluate sleep as a modifiable risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of IBD. PMID:24780288

  5. 20 CFR 220.160 - How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity. 220.160 Section 220.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions §...

  6. 20 CFR 220.160 - How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity. 220.160 Section 220.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions §...

  7. 20 CFR 220.160 - How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity. 220.160 Section 220.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions §...

  8. 20 CFR 220.160 - How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity. 220.160 Section 220.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions §...

  9. 20 CFR 220.160 - How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How work for a railroad employer affects a disability annuity. 220.160 Section 220.160 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Disability Annuity Earnings Restrictions §...

  10. Social Support, Unfulfilled Expectations, and Affective Well-Being on Return to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate how social support from the partner is related to mothers' affective well-being during their return to employment after maternity leave and whether expectations of that support have an additional impact. We differentiated four forms of support and their respective expectation discrepancies:…

  11. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  12. Acute Mountain Sickness, Hypoxia, Hypobaria and Exercise Duration each Affect Heart Rate.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, D M; Strangman, G E; Harris, N S; Muza, S R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we quantified the changes in post-exercise resting heart rate (HRrst) associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS), and compared the effects of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) on HRrst. We also examined the modulating roles of exercise duration and exposure time on HRrst. Each subject participated in 2 of 6 conditions: normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH (4 400 m altitude equivalent) combined with either 10 or 60 min of moderate cycling at the beginning of an 8-h exposure. AMS was associated with a 2 bpm higher HRrst than when not sick, after taking into account the ambient environment, exercise duration, and SpO2. In addition, HRrst was elevated in both NH and HH compared to NN with HRrst being 50% higher in HH than in NH. Participating in long duration exercise led to elevated resting HRs (0.8-1.4 bpm higher) compared with short exercise, while short exercise caused a progressive increase in HRrst over the exposure period in both NH and HH (0.77-1.2 bpm/h of exposure). This data suggests that AMS, NH, HH, exercise duration, time of exposure, and SpO2 have independent effects on HRrst. It further suggests that hypobaria exerts its own effect on HRrst in hypoxia. Thus NH and HH may not be interchangeable environments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. How hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension: using eye fixations to investigate the duration of speech processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-04-24

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Timing and duration of release affect vegetation development in a young ponderosa pine plantation

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    2001-01-01

    The density and development of greenleaf manzanita, other shrubs, and graminoids were evaluated in a young ponderosa pine plantation on a poor site in northern California from 1988 through 1997. Manual grubbing to a 5-foot radius created treatment regimes that lasted for 3 to 6 years and vegetation recovery times of 4 to 10 years. The duration and timing of the...

  15. Timing and Duration of Release Treatments Affect Vegetation Development in a Young California White Fir Plantation

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    2001-01-01

    The density and development of snowbrush, greenleaf manzanita, goldenbush (rabbitbrush), and graminoids were evaluated in a young California white fir plantation in northern California from 1986 through 1995. Manual grubbing and an herbicide created treatment regimes that lasted for 3 to 6 years and vegetation recovery times of 4 to 10 years. The timing and duration of...

  16. Treatment duration and time since disturbance affect vegetation development in a young California red fir plantation

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1997-01-01

    The density and development of greenleaf manzanita, snowbrush, goldenbush (rabbitbrush), and graminoids were evaluated in a young California red fir plantation in northern California from 1986 through 1995. Manual grubbing and herbicides created treatment regimes that lasted for 3 to 6 years and vegetation recovery times of 4 to 10 years. The duration and timing of the...

  17. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  18. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  19. Does vaginal pH affect the efficacy of dinoprostone in cervical ripening/labor duration?

    PubMed

    Basirat, Z; Barat, S H; Ghanbarpour, A; Golsorkhtabar-Amiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandins are effective in the ripening of the cervix and facilitating labor induction. Vaginal pH is probably an important factor in the effectiveness of vaginal prostaglandins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaginal pH on the function of prostaglandin vaginal tablet during labor. This is a double-blinded clinical trial study of 147 pregnant primigravid trated in the Yahyanejad Hospital of Babol (Iran) from January 2006 to December 2007. Initial pH was measured during vaginal examination with nitrazin paper and the Bishop score was determined. All women received vaginal dinoprostone inserted in the posterior fornix of the vagina for cervical ripening and the second dose was administered if the uterine contractions were inadequate. Reassessment of the Bishop score after 12 hours, duration of latent and active phases, and also the duration of the second stage of labor were compared between the two groups with low or high vaginal pH. The incidence of Cesarean section was lower in women with high vaginal pH but was not statistically significant. The Bishop score after 12 hours, latent phase, and second stage durations were not different in the two groups of high or low vaginal pH, but active phase duration in patients with high pH was significantly shorter than those with low pH (p = 0.019). High vaginal pH influences the function of prostaglandin tablet as a reduction in duration of the active phase of labor.

  20. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N

    1998-01-01

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  1. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.

    1998-01-01

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  2. Sleep duration is affected by social relationships among sleeping partners in wild Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Koji; Nishikawa, Mari

    2014-03-01

    Co-sleeping behaviour, such as sharing a sleeping site or bed, should play an important role in determining sleep structure in mammals by mitigating predation pressure and harsh abiotic conditions during sleep. Although environmental factors surrounding sleeping sites have been studied, there is very little information on the effects of the social environment within the site on sleep in animals other than humans. Here, we quantified the duration of nighttime sleep of wild primates during behavioural observations. Wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) form clusters at sleeping sites, where they huddle with group members. Macaques slept for longer when huddled in sleeping clusters with natal members than in those with non-natal members. A high degree of synchronisation of wakefulness in pairs of macaques huddling in non-natal clusters suggested that their sleep was often interrupted by the wakefulness of huddling members at night. Our results suggest that familiarity and closeness to huddling partners influence sleep duration.

  3. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  4. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.

    1998-01-01

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  5. Timing and Duration of Menopausal Hormone Treatment May Affect Cardiovascular Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harman, S. Mitchell; Vittinghoff, Eric; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Frederick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S.; Black, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Largely on the basis of the first publication of findings of net harm with menopausal hormone treatment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials, current Food and Drug Administration recommendations limit menopausal hormone treatment to the “… shortest duration consistent with treatment goals …,” with goals generally taken to mean relief of menopausal symptoms and maximal duration as approximately 5 years. The WHI finding of net harm was due largely to the absence of beneficial effects on coronary heart disease incidence rates. Published analyses of WHI data by age or time since menopause find that excess coronary heart disease risk with menopausal hormone treatment is confined to more remotely menopausal or older women, with younger women showing nonsignificant trends toward benefit (the “timing hypothesis”). Moreover, a recently published reexamination of data from the WHI Estrogen plus Progestin trial suggests that reduced coronary heart disease risk may appear only after 5 to 6 years of treatment. Consistent with this finding, risk ratios for coronary heart disease were calculated as 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 0.86–1.36) in years 1 to 6 and as 0.46 (confidence interval, 0.28–0.78) in years 7 to 8+ in the WHI Estrogen Alone trial. Previous studies also support the beneficial effects of menopausal hormone treatment after prolonged exposure. Thus, current analyses do not support a generalized recommendation for short duration of menopausal hormone treatment. Rather, they suggest that current Food and Drug Administration practice guidelines should be reconsidered to allow individualized care based on risk:benefit considerations. New research is urgently needed evaluating influences of timing, duration, dose, route of administration, and agents on menopausal hormone treatment-related risks and benefits to better understand how to optimize recommendations for individual patients. PMID:21396500

  6. Timing and duration of menopausal hormone treatment may affect cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harman, S Mitchell; Vittinghoff, Eric; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Matthew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Lobo, Rogerio A; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Frederick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Taylor, Hugh S; Black, Dennis M

    2011-03-01

    Largely on the basis of the first publication of findings of net harm with menopausal hormone treatment in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials, current Food and Drug Administration recommendations limit menopausal hormone treatment to the "…shortest duration consistent with treatment goals…," with goals generally taken to mean relief of menopausal symptoms and maximal duration as approximately 5 years. The WHI finding of net harm was due largely to the absence of beneficial effects on coronary heart disease incidence rates. Published analyses of WHI data by age or time since menopause find that excess coronary heart disease risk with menopausal hormone treatment is confined to more remotely menopausal or older women, with younger women showing nonsignificant trends toward benefit (the "timing hypothesis"). Moreover, a recently published reexamination of data from the WHI Estrogen plus Progestin trial suggests that reduced coronary heart disease risk may appear only after 5 to 6 years of treatment. Consistent with this finding, risk ratios for coronary heart disease were calculated as 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.36) in years 1 to 6 and as 0.46 (confidence interval, 0.28-0.78) in years 7 to 8+ in the WHI Estrogen Alone trial. Previous studies also support the beneficial effects of menopausal hormone treatment after prolonged exposure. Thus, current analyses do not support a generalized recommendation for short duration of menopausal hormone treatment. Rather, they suggest that current Food and Drug Administration practice guidelines should be reconsidered to allow individualized care based on risk:benefit considerations. New research is urgently needed evaluating influences of timing, duration, dose, route of administration, and agents on menopausal hormone treatment-related risks and benefits to better understand how to optimize recommendations for individual patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How residency duration affects the outcome of a territorial contest: Complementary game-theoretic models.

    PubMed

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N

    2016-04-07

    While the first individuals to discover and maintain territories are generally respected as owners, under some conditions there may be ambiguity as to who got there first. Here we attempt to understand the evolutionary consequences of this ambiguity by developing a pair of game-theoretic models in which we explicitly consider rival residency-based claims to ownership. Following earlier qualitative explanations for residency effects, we assume that either the value of the territory (Model A) or an interloper׳s self-belief that it is the owner (Model B) increases with duration of residency. Model A clearly demonstrates that if the value of a territory increases to a resident over time, so should its motivation to fight in terms of the effort it invests in fighting. Indeed, only a small increase in territory value with residency duration can be sufficient for longer established residents to win disputes, even without any arbitrary convention or other form of priority effect. Likewise, Model B shows that the observed increase in fighting persistence with residency duration can be readily explained as a consequence of increasing confidence on behalf of the interloper that it is the rightful owner. Collectively, the models help to explain some general findings long observed by empiricists, and shed light on the nature of conflicts that can arise when individuals do not have complete information about rival claims to ownership. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic factors affecting the duration of disability after third molar removal.

    PubMed

    Bienstock, Daniel A; Dodson, Thomas B; Perrott, David H; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

    2011-05-01

    The purposes of this investigation were 1) to estimate the duration of disability after third molar removal and 2) to identify factors associated with prolonged recovery. This was a prospective cohort study composed of subjects enrolled in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Age-Related Third Molar Study. The predictor variables were grouped as follows: demographic, health status, anatomic, pathologic, medications, and complications. The outcome variable was the duration of postoperative disability measured as the number of days the subject reported inability to perform normal daily activities after third molar removal. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used. The level of statistical significance was P < .05. The study sample included 4,004 subjects who had 8,748 third molars removed. The mean duration of postoperative disability was 1.4 ± 1.8 days (range, 0-26; median, 1 day). In the multiple linear regression model, age, female gender, number of third molars removed, mandibular third molar removal, full-bony impaction, sum of antibiotics or pain medications, and complications were associated with prolonged recovery (P < .05). Erupted third molars, periodontal disease or other preoperative pathology, and use of chlorhexidine were associated with earlier return to normal daily activities (P < .05). The study results suggest that third molar removal is associated with a mean delay in returning to normal activities of less than 2 days. Several factors were statistically associated with time to return to normal activities. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. How do host sex and reproductive state affect host preference and feeding duration of ticks?

    PubMed

    Pollock, Nicholas B; Vredevoe, Larisa K; Taylor, Emily N

    2012-08-01

    Parasitism is one of the most notable forms of symbiosis in the biological world, with nearly all organisms hosting parasites. In many vertebrates, males have higher ectoparasite burdens than females, especially when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Furthermore, reproductive females may have higher ectoparasite burdens than non-reproductive females. It is possible that testosterone-stimulated behaviors in males and offspring investment by females incur energetic costs that inhibit immune function. If questing ticks can sense host sex or reproductive condition prior to attachment, they could potentially choose hosts with the poorest immune function, thereby leading to improved feeding success and decreased feeding duration. In this study, we examined the host-parasite relationship between western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) to test the following hypotheses: (1) ticks prefer male lizards to female lizards. (2) Ticks prefer male lizards with higher testosterone. (3) Ticks prefer reproductive female lizards to non-reproductive female lizards. (4) Ticks feed to repletion more rapidly (decreased feeding duration) on reproductive females and males with higher testosterone. In all three experiments, ticks failed to show a preference for one group over another as demonstrated by similar attachment rates between groups. This suggests that observed differences in ectoparasite loads in free-ranging lizards is due to some other factor than host choice. However, tick feeding duration on female lizards was shorter when hosts were reproductive, suggesting that host reproductive condition alters tick feeding, possibly due to a decreased immune response. Interestingly, ticks fed more slowly on male lizards with elevated testosterone, suggesting that testosterone may actually improve immune function against ectoparasites.

  10. Mismatch Negativity Affects Muscle Fatigue during Repeated Contraction Trials of Different Durations

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrov, Aleksander A.; Knyazeva, Veronika M.; Stankevich, Ludmila N.; Dmitrieva, Elena S.; Shestakova, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of involuntary attention switching (related to mismatch negativity generation in the oddball paradigm) on fatigue development during trials of different durations. The experiment consisted of two trials, long (40 min) and short (15 min), and two experimental conditions in each trial: the simple reaction task (deviants-only paradigm) and the stimuli recognition task (oddball paradigm). In each condition, a participant responded to each target acoustic stimulus by squeezing a handgrip dynamometer. We found the significantly lower rates of fatigue development in the short-trial deviants-only paradigm compared to the long trial. The short- and the long-trial oddball paradigms differed significantly from both the short- and the long-trial deviants-only paradigms. The results demonstrated that the fatigue developed differently depending on the expected trial duration. The involuntary activation of attention broke this subconscious regulative mechanism leading to increase of the compression force during the long trial and its decrease during the short. PMID:26869932

  11. Time does not flow without language: spatial distance affects temporal duration regardless of movement or direction.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Connell, Louise; Holler, Judith

    2013-10-01

    Much evidence has suggested that people conceive of time as flowing directionally in transverse space (e.g., from left to right for English speakers). However, this phenomenon has never been tested in a fully nonlinguistic paradigm where neither stimuli nor task use linguistic labels, which raises the possibility that time is directional only when reading/writing direction has been evoked. In the present study, English-speaking participants viewed a video where an actor sang a note while gesturing and reproduced the duration of the sung note by pressing a button. Results showed that the perceived duration of the note was increased by a long-distance gesture, relative to a short-distance gesture. This effect was equally strong for gestures moving from left to right and from right to left and was not dependent on gestures depicting movement through space; a weaker version of the effect emerged with static gestures depicting spatial distance. Since both our gesture stimuli and temporal reproduction task were nonlinguistic, we conclude that the spatial representation of time is nondirectional: Movement contributes, but is not necessary, to the representation of temporal information in a transverse timeline.

  12. Job strain in different types of employment affects the immune response.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Paolo; Forcella, Laura; Reale, Marcella; Vianale, Giovina; Battisti, Uliano; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Cortini, Michela; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Di Donato, Angela; Salerno, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    The immune system, in cooperation with neuroendocrine functions, defends from cancer and infections mainly by the activity of blood natural killer (NK) cells. Blood NK activity may be influenced by the type of employment since work is the central part of life; moreover, job stress is a situation affecting both neuroendocrine and immune systems. This study examines anxiety (by STAI 1 and 2), job strain (by the Karasek's JCQ) and blood NK activity (by an in vitro radio-isotopic method) of 134 male workers. These men, over 38 years old with stable employment, were working in factories, in construction yards, in offices, as hospital attendants or as self-employed craftsmen. Workers in factories and in construction yards, with high job strain, showed lower NK activity, while office employees, with low job demand, and craftsmen with low anxiety and elevated decision latitude, showed higher NK activity; the level of NK activity of the hospital attendants was between the other groups. In conclusion, this study confirms that the type of employment, related to job stress, affects blood NK activity. Moreover, blood NK activity may be used in the bio-monitoring of workers at high risk.

  13. Ocean climate prior to breeding affects the duration of the nestling period in the Atlantic puffin

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Joël M; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2006-01-01

    Time-series covering 23 years for a long-lived seabird, the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica L.) at Røst, northern Norway, was used to explore any indirect effects of climatic variations on chick production. By fitting statistical models on the duration of the nestling period, we found that it may be estimated using the average sea temperature and salinity at 0–20 m depth in March (having a positive and a negative effect, respectively). We propose that when the phytoplankton bloom occurs in early spring, adverse oceanographic conditions, i.e. low temperature and high salinity in March, have a negative effect on puffin reproduction by degradation of the prey availability (mainly Clupea harengus) for chick-feeding adults three months later. PMID:17148306

  14. Vowel duration affects visual word identification: evidence that the mediating phonology is phonetically informed.

    PubMed

    Lukatela, Georgije; Eaton, Thomas; Sabadini, Laura; Turvey, M T

    2004-02-01

    What form is the lexical phonology that gives rise to phonological effects in visual lexical decision? The authors explored the hypothesis that beyond phonological contrasts the physical phonetic details of words are included. Three experiments using lexical decision and 1 using naming compared processing times for printed words (e.g., plead and pleat) that differ, when spoken, in vowel length and overall duration. Latencies were longer for long-vowel words than for short-vowel words in lexical decision but not in naming. Further, lexical decision on long-vowel words benefited more from identity priming than lexical decision on short-vowel words, suggesting that representations of long-vowel words achieve activation thresholds more slowly. The discussion focused on phonetically informed phonologies, particularly gestural phonology and its potential for understanding reading acquisition and performance.

  15. Effect of anticipation during unknown or unexpected exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion, affect, and physiological function.

    PubMed

    Baden, D A; McLean, T L; Tucker, R; Noakes, T D; St Clair Gibson, A

    2005-10-01

    To determine the effect of unknown exercise duration and an unexpected increase in exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and running economy during treadmill running. Sixteen well trained male and female runners completed three bouts of treadmill running at 75% of their peak treadmill running speed. In the first trial, they were told to run for 20 minutes and were stopped at 20 minutes (20 MIN). In another trial, they were told to run for 10 minutes, but at 10 minutes were told to run for a further 10 minutes (10 MIN). In the final trial, they were not told for how long they would be running but were stopped after 20 minutes (unknown, UN). During each of the running bouts, RPE, oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min), heart rate (beats/min), stride frequency (min(-1)), affect scores (arbitrary units), and attentional focus (percentage associative thought scores) were recorded. RPE increased significantly between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN compared with the 20 MIN and UN trials (p<0.05). The affect score decreased significantly between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN compared with the 20 MIN trial (p<0.05). Running economy, as measured by oxygen consumption, was significantly lower in the UN compared with the 20 MIN trial from 10 to 19 minutes (p<0.05). The change in RPE between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN trial suggests that RPE is not purely a measure of physical exertion, as treadmill speed was maintained at a constant pace both before and after the unexpected increase in exercise duration. The associated changes in affect score at similar times in the 10 MIN trial supports the hypothesis that RPE has an affective component.

  16. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  17. Nonambulatory cows: Duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care affect outcome of flotation therapy.

    PubMed

    Stojkov, J; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-03-01

    Cows that are unable or unwilling to stand and remain recumbent for ≥ 12 h are defined as nonambulatory. Care and management of nonambulatory cattle is considered a major animal welfare concern facing the livestock industry, particularly the dairy sector. Flotation therapy has gained interest as a means to promote recovery in nonambulatory cows and is based on the concept that by floating the cow in warm water, secondary pressure damage to muscles and nerves will be reduced. The objective of this study was to assess the physiological responses to stress related to the flotation therapy and to evaluate the effect of recumbency duration and nursing care on the outcome of the flotation therapy. The outcomes of 34 nonambulatory Holstein dairy cows were analyzed after they were subjected to flotation therapy. The duration of recumbency and quality of nursing care provided before initiation of the flotation treatment were assessed based on producer responses to survey questions, and from on-site observations by the researchers. A veterinarian examined all cows before flotation therapy began. The treatment was divided into 5 phases: baseline (before filling), manipulation (placing the cow into the tank), filling (the tank was filled with water), flotation (the cow was confined in the filled tank), and draining (water was removed from the tank). Stress responses to the procedure, excluding the manipulation portion, were assessed using heart rate variability. The high-frequency component (HF normalized units) decreased during the filling and draining phases (2.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.4, respectively) compared with the baseline and floating phase (5.1 ± 0.6 and 4.9 ± 0.3, [corrected] respectively). These results indicate that the stress related to the flotation therapy is greatest during the filling and draining phases of the treatment, when cows likely have to exert increased effort to transition to a standing position. The flotation therapy was less likely to be

  18. Intensity-duration threshold of rainfall-triggered debris flows in the Wenchuan Earthquake affected area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Cui, Peng; Li, Yong; Ma, Li; Ge, Yonggang; Mahoney, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake has greatly altered the rainfall threshold for debris flows in the affected areas. This study explores the local intensity-duration (I-D) relationship based on 252 post-earthquake debris flows. It was found that I = 5.25 D-0.76 accounts for more than 98% of the debris flow occurrences with rainfall duration between 1 and 135 h; therefore the curve defines the threshold for debris flows in the study area. This gives much lower thresholds than those proposed by the previous studies, suggesting that the earthquake has greatly decreased the thresholds in the past years. Moreover, the rainfall thresholds appear to increase annually in the period of 2008-2013, and present a logarithmic increasing tendency, indicating that the thresholds will recover in the future decades.

  19. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, Tday/Tnight) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, Tnight had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means Tn could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  20. A novel anionic conductance affects action potential duration in isolated rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Spencer, C I; Uchida, W; Kozlowski, R Z

    2000-01-01

    Effects of extracellular anions were studied in electrophysiological experiments on freshly isolated rat ventricular myocytes. Under current-clamp, action potential duration (APD) was prolonged by reducing the extracellular Cl(-) concentration and shortened by replacement of extracellular Cl(-) with I(-). Under voltage-clamp, membrane potential steps or ramps evoked an anionic background current (I(AB)) carried by either Cl(-), Br(-), I(-) or NO(3)(-). Activation of I(AB) was Ca(2+)- and cyclic AMP-independent, and was unaffected by cell shrinkage. I(AB) was insensitive to stilbene and fenamate anion transport blockers at concentrations that inhibit Ca(2+)-, cyclic AMP- and swelling-activated Cl(-) currents in ventricular cells of other mammals. These results suggest that I(AB) may be carried by a novel class of Cl(-) channel. Correlation of anion substitution experiments on membrane current and action potentials revealed that I(AB) could play a major role in controlling rat ventricular APD. These findings have important implications for those studying cardiac Cl(-) channels as potential targets for novel antiarrythmic agents.

  1. Contraceptive Use Affects Overall Olfactory Performance: Investigation of Estradiol Dosage and Duration of Intake

    PubMed Central

    Ohrenberger, Iris

    2016-01-01

    The influence of female sex steroids on cognitive performance and sensory perception has been investigated for decades. However, previous research that studied olfaction revealed inconsistent results. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different ethinyl estradiol (EE) concentrations of oral contraceptives and duration of intake on olfactory function. Forty-two healthy women, with regular intake of either high or low EE dosage over at least one year and up to 15 years participated in this study. Results revealed a significant concordance between a priori categorization in the two groups with high and low EE dosage and data-driven hierarchical clustering (p = 0.008). Furthermore, significantly higher olfactory performance was observed in women using low-dose products compared to women using high-dosed products (p = 0.019). These findings indicate different effects of pill use with regard to EE concentration. We therefore strongly recommend the acquisition of information about EE dosage of oral contraceptives to reduce potential confounding factors when investigating sensory systems. PMID:28002464

  2. Duration of simulated microgravity affects the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li; Li, Yaohui; Chen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, independent of soluble factors, influence mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. In the present study, simulated microgravity (SMG) was demonstrated to regulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. This may be a novel strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Rat MSCs were cultured for 72 h or 10 days in either normal gravity or a clinostat to model microgravity, followed with culture in diverse differential media. A short period of stimulation (72 h) promoted MSCs to undergo endothelial, neuronal and adipogenic differentiation. In comparison, extended microgravity (10 days) promoted MSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. A short period of exposure to SMG significantly decreased ras homolog family member A (RhoA) activity. However, RhoA activity significantly increased following prolonged exposure to SMG. When RhoA activity was inhibited, the effects of prolonged exposure to SMG were reversed. These results demonstrated that the duration of SMG regulates the differentiation fate of MSCs via the RhoA-associated pathway. PMID:28339035

  3. Timing and duration of nursing from birth affect neonatal porcine uterine matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1.

    PubMed

    Ho, T Y; Rahman, K M; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2017-04-01

    Nursing for 2 d from birth supports neonatal porcine uterine and cervical development. However, it is not clear how timing or duration of lactocrine signaling from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) affects development of neonatal female reproductive tract tissues. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine effects of age at first nursing and duration of nursing from birth on specific elements of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) system in uterine and cervical tissues at PND 2. When nursing was initiated at 0 h or 30 min of age, targeted proteins, including proMMP9 and MMP9, were detected in uterine and cervical tissues on PND 2, as was uterine TIMP1. However, these proteins were undetectable when nursing was delayed for 12 h and when gilts were fed milk replacer for 48 h from birth. Increasing the duration of nursing from 30 min to 12 h from birth increased uterine (P < 0.05) and cervical (P < 0.001) MMP9 levels to those observed in gilts nursed for 48 h. Similarly, uterine TIMP1 levels increased with duration of nursing. Uterine MMP2 levels were detectable but unaffected by age at first nursing or duration of nursing from birth. Uterine MMP2 and MMP9 activities, monitored by zymography, reflected immunoblotting data. Results provide evidence for the utility of MMP9 and TIMP1 as markers of age- and lactocrine-sensitive porcine female reproductive tract development.

  4. Duration of Exposure to Elevated Temperature Affects Competitive Interactions in Juvenile Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Donald T.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will affect key ecological processes that structure natural communities, but the outcome of interactions between individuals and species will depend on their thermal plasticity. We tested how short- and long-term exposure to projected future temperatures affects intraspecific and interspecific competitive interactions in two species of coral reef damselfishes. In conspecific contests, juvenile Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, exhibited no change in aggressive interactions after 4d exposure to higher temperatures. However, after 90d of exposure, fish showed a nonadaptive reduction in aggression at elevated temperatures. Conversely, 4d exposure to higher temperature increased aggression towards conspecifics in the lemon damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis. 90d exposure began to reduce this pattern, but overall there was little effect of temperature. Aggression in interspecific contests increased with short-term exposure, but was significantly lower after long-term exposure indicative of acclimation. Our results show how the length of exposure to elevated temperature can affect the outcome of competitive interactions. Furthermore, we illustrate that results from intraspecific contests may not accurately predict interspecific interactions, which will challenge our ability to generalise the effects of warming on competitive interactions. PMID:27736924

  5. Duration of fascicle shortening is affected by muscle architecture and sex.

    PubMed

    Simpson, C L; Arefin, S; Smart, R R; Harwood, B; Jakobi, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine muscle fascicle properties of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) during contraction and stretch between males and females. During contraction muscle fascicles shorten and pennation angles increase to generate force. Due to the elastic nature of the attached tendon, the fascicles continue to shorten when maximal force is achieved in order to sustain isometric force and this duration of fascicle shortening (DFS) can be observed with ultrasonography. Linear and curved muscle fascicles both display these kinetics; however, it is currently unknown if static stretch prior to a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) alters the DFS and whether the effect differs between males and females. Subjects performed an isometric MVC of the plantar flexors before and after a 2-min maximal dorsi-flexion stretch. Plantar flexor force was measured and ultrasound videography used to record GM and Achilles tendon architecture. Males were stronger than females (p = 0.004). The DFS was longer for females compared to males (p = 0.001) and the addition of a static stretch increased the DFS for curved (p = 0.002), but not linear, fascicles. Curved fascicles were longer (p = 0.05) with larger pennation angles (p = 0.04) for both males and females when compared to linear fascicles. Tendon excursion was greater (p = 0.05) post-stretch during contraction when compared to pre-stretch. This study provides evidence that regardless of sex, curved muscle fascicles behave differently than linear fascicles and should be considered separately when muscle architecture is examined.

  6. Duration of fasting but not diurnal variation affects the response to glucagon in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Gilor, C; Glock, R; Gilor, S

    2015-10-01

    The role of glucagon disturbances in diabetes is increasingly recognized. Glucagon stimulation tests (GSTs) have been described in cats previously, but information is lacking on the response of cats to glucagon under specific conditions. The aim of this study was to assess a novel protocol for GST using human-recombinant glucagon and the effect of diurnal variation and duration of fasting using this protocol in healthy cats. All intravenous doses resulted in occasional vomiting and nausea, and eventually, a 20-μg/kg intramuscular dose was chosen. Five healthy cats were then used in a repeated-measures study. Cats were free-fed regularly at 7:30 AM and 5:30 PM for 30 min. In each cat, GST was performed at 7 PM after a 25-h fast (PM25), at 9 AM after a 25-h fast (AM25), and at 9 AM after a 15-h fast (AM15). Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at -15, 0, 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min after stimulation. Baseline and peak concentrations were compared using the Friedman test. Baseline glucose and insulin did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Peak glucose concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.0085) at AM15 (mean ± standard deviation = 185.2 ± 43.0 mg/dL) vs AM25 (144.4 ± 10.5 mg/dL) and PM25 (128.0 ± 18.4 mg/dL). Similarly, peak insulin concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.04) at AM15 (1,911 ± 1,153 pg/mL) vs AM25 (739 ± 52 pg/mL) or PM25 (549 ± 366 pg/mL). In conclusion, prolonged fasting significantly blunted the glycemic response to glucagon compared with shorter fasting, but diurnal variation had no significant effect on glucose or insulin responses.

  7. Amount of torque and duration of stretching affects correction of knee contracture in a rat model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Hideki; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Ozawa, Junya; Kito, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Ryo

    2013-11-01

    Joint contractures are a common complication of many neurologic conditions, and stretching often is advocated to prevent and treat these contractures. However, the magnitude and duration of the stretching done in practice usually are guided by subjective clinical impressions. Using an established T8 spinal cord injury rat model of knee contracture, we sought to determine what combination of static or intermittent stretching, varied by magnitude (high or low) and duration (long or short), leads to the best (1) improvement in the limitation in ROM; (2) restoration of the muscular and articular factors leading to contractures; and (3) prevention and treatment of contracture-associated histologic alterations of joint capsule and articular cartilage. Using a rat animal model, the spinal cord was transected completely at the level of T8. The rats were randomly assigned to seven treatment groups (n = 4 per group), which were composed of static or intermittent stretching in combination with different amounts of applied torque magnitude and duration. We assessed the effect of stretching by measuring the ROM and evaluating the histologic alteration of the capsule and cartilage. Contractures improved in all treated groups except for the low-torque and short-duration static stretching conditions. High-torque stretching was effective against shortening of the synovial membrane and adhesions in the posterosuperior regions. Collagen Type II and VEGF in the cartilage were increased by stretching. High-torque and long-duration static stretching led to greater restoration of ROM than the other torque and duration treatment groups. Stretching was more effective in improving articular components of contractures compared with the muscular components. Stretching in this rat model prevented shortening and adhesion of the joint capsule, and affected biochemical composition, but did not change morphologic features of the cartilage. This animal study tends to support the ideas that static

  8. How does risk sharing between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affect mental health care?

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the ways in which allocating the risk for behavioral health care expenses between employers and a managed behavioral health organization affects costs and the use of services. DATA SOURCES: Claims from 87 plans that cover mental health and substance abuse services covering over one million member years in 1996/1997. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-part regression models for health care cost are used. Dependent variables are health care costs decomposed into access to any care, costs per user, any inpatient use, costs per outpatient user, and costs per inpatient user. The study compares full-risk plans, in which the managed care organization provides managed care services and acts as the insurer by assuming the risk for claims costs, with contracts in which the managed care organization only manages care (for a fixed administrative fee) and the employer retains the risk for claims. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-risk plans are not statistically significantly different from non-risk plans in terms of any mental health specialty use or hospitalization rates, but costs per user are significantly lower, in particular for inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Risk contracts do not affect initial access to mental health specialty care or hospitalization rates, but patients in risk contracts have lower costs, either because of lower intensity of care or because they are treated by less expensive providers. PMID:11055447

  9. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production in sheep as affected by cortisol level and duration of stress.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, M G; Albenzio, M; Inghese, C; Santillo, A; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Caroprese, M

    2017-01-01

    A large number of studies recognize glucocorticoids (Gc) as suppressors of inflammation; Gc exert an important role in coordinating the magnitude and duration of host immune responses. In the present in vitro investigation, we tested incremental levels of cortisol to verify the immunosuppressive or immunopermissive role of cortisol in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after acute and chronic stress. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC were cultured for 24h and 96h at 37°C with 5% of CO2 and varying cortisol levels: 10 ng/mL (baseline), 100 ng/mL (physiological poststressor), and 1,000 ng/mL [hyperactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis]. The cell-free supernatants were collected for determination of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 by ELISA, and the bromodeoxyuridine assay was performed on cells. Physiological cortisol concentration negatively affected the levels of IL-6 secreted by PBMC, resulting in increased cell proliferation after acute stress (24h of incubation). However, physiological cortisol concentration exhibited a reduction in cell proliferation induced by increased levels of IL-6 secreted by PBMC during chronic stress (96h of incubation). The cortisol concentration representing a hyperactivated HPA axis led to a reduction in cell proliferation after acute stress, which was probably induced by the elevated IL-10 production. Our results demonstrate that in sheep the effect of Gc on the immune system was related to the magnitude and the duration of stress. In particular, cortisol levels higher than physiological concentrations suppressed cell proliferation soon after acute stress. Instead, the physiological poststressor concentration of cortisol affected the immune responses in a bidirectional manner depending on the duration of the stressor. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the duration of lysis affect the sensitivity of the in vitro alkaline comet assay?

    PubMed

    Enciso, José Manuel; Sánchez, Oscar; López de Cerain, Adela; Azqueta, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline comet assay is now the method of choice for measuring different kinds of DNA damage in cells. Several attempts have been made to identify and evaluate the critical points affecting the comet assay outcome, highlighting the requirement of arriving at a standardised protocol in order to be able to compare the results obtained in different laboratories. However, reports on the effect of modifying the time of lysis are lacking. Here we tested different times of lysis (from no lysis to 1 week) in control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with different concentrations of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or H2O2. We also tested different times of lysis in the comet assay combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in untreated and Ro 19-8022 plus light-treated HeLa cells. The same DNA damage levels were detected in the absence of lysis or after 1h of lysis when the standard comet assay was used to detect the MMS- and H2O2-induced lesions; the response increased when longer lysis was used, up to at least 1 week. When FPG was used, a minimum lysis period of 5 min was necessary to allow the enzyme to reach the DNA; the same DNA damage levels were detected after 5 min or 1h of lysis and the response increased up to 24h. In conclusion, the time of lysis can be varied depending on the sensitivity needed in both versions of the assay, and a constant time of lysis should be used if results from different experiments or laboratories are to be compared.

  11. Hypoxic level and duration differentially affect embryonic organ system development of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Burggren, W W

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxia inhibits avian embryonic development, as well as increases embryonic mortality. However, the key organ systems affected by hypoxia, and their critical windows for development, are poorly understood. Consequently, chicken embryos were continuously exposed to 3 levels of oxygen (21, 15, or 13% O(2)) throughout d 0 to 10, d 11 to 18, or d 0 to 18 of incubation, followed by morphometric and blood physiological measurements. Hypoxia occurring early during incubation (d 0 to 10) had larger effects on embryonic mortality and organ growth than hypoxia occurring at later stages (d 10 to 18). Growth of the heart and chorioallantoic membrane was stimulated by chronic hypoxia, whereas the lung, brain, eye, liver, stomach, beak, and toes showed no disruption. Sustained hypoxia from the beginning of incubation decreased blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell concentration of embryos at d 10, but the values among hypoxic and normoxic groups were not significantly different at d 18. Blood partial pressure of O(2) and partial pressure of CO(2) were dependent upon incubation O(2) level at a given day of development. These results indicated that either modest hypoxia (15% O(2)) throughout development, or hypoxia at any level during the late stages (d 11 to 18), increased the heart and chorioallantoic membrane weight, which partly compensated for the detrimental effects of hypoxia on embryonic development. We conclude that the first half of embryonic development contained the critical windows for the detrimental effects of hypoxia, and the second half contained the critical windows for the compensatory response of hypoxia in key organs.

  12. Asian-White disparities in short sleep duration by industry of employment and occupation in the US: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although short sleep is associated with an increased risk of morbidity as well as mortality and has been shown to vary by industry of employment and occupation, little is known about the relationship between work and sleep among Asian Americans. Methods Using a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 125,610) in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004–2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for self-reported short sleep duration (<7 hours) in Asians compared to Whites by industry of employment and occupation using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Results Asians were more likely to report short sleep duration than Whites (33 vs. 28%, p < 0.001), and the Asian-White disparity was widest in finance/information and healthcare industries. Compared to Whites after adjustments, short sleep was also more prevalent among Asians employed in Public administration (PR = 1.35 [95% CI: 1.17,1.56]), Education (PR = 1.29 [95% CI: 1.08,1.53]), and Professional/Management (PR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.03,1.36]). Short sleep, however, was lower among Asians in Accommodation/Food (PR = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.66, 0.99]) with no difference in Retail. In professional and support-service occupations, short sleep was higher among Asians, but was not different among laborers. Conclusions U.S. Asian-White disparities in short sleep varied by industries, suggesting a need to consider both race and occupational characteristics to identify high-risk individuals. PMID:24894508

  13. Asian-White disparities in short sleep duration by industry of employment and occupation in the US: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Chandra L; Kawachi, Ichiro; Redline, Susan; Juon, Hee-Soon; Hu, Frank B

    2014-06-03

    Although short sleep is associated with an increased risk of morbidity as well as mortality and has been shown to vary by industry of employment and occupation, little is known about the relationship between work and sleep among Asian Americans. Using a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 125,610) in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004-2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for self-reported short sleep duration (<7 hours) in Asians compared to Whites by industry of employment and occupation using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Asians were more likely to report short sleep duration than Whites (33 vs. 28%, p < 0.001), and the Asian-White disparity was widest in finance/information and healthcare industries. Compared to Whites after adjustments, short sleep was also more prevalent among Asians employed in Public administration (PR = 1.35 [95% CI: 1.17,1.56]), Education (PR = 1.29 [95% CI: 1.08,1.53]), and Professional/Management (PR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.03,1.36]). Short sleep, however, was lower among Asians in Accommodation/Food (PR = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.66, 0.99]) with no difference in Retail. In professional and support-service occupations, short sleep was higher among Asians, but was not different among laborers. U.S. Asian-White disparities in short sleep varied by industries, suggesting a need to consider both race and occupational characteristics to identify high-risk individuals.

  14. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  15. Feeling good when sleeping in? Day-to-day associations between sleep duration and affective well-being differ from youth to old age.

    PubMed

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-06-01

    The current study investigated how night-to-night variations in sleep duration relate to affective well-being the next morning as well as how the relationship varies for people of different ages. Using an Experience Sampling approach, 397 participants aged 12 to 88 years reported their sleep duration and their momentary affect on 9 mornings, on average. Associations between sleep duration during the previous night and morning affect differed depending on the participants' age. For adolescents, for example, affective well-being in the morning was worse the shorter participants had slept the previous night. For adults aged over 20 years, however, affective well-being was worse following nights with shorter or longer than average sleep duration. This effect was more pronounced the older the participants were. The findings demonstrate that the importance of sleep duration for daily affective well-being is better understood when considering the age of the sleeper. In adults, but not adolescents, not only sleeping less but also sleeping more than one's average can be associated with lower affective well-being.

  16. How the patient protection and Affordable Care Act will affect employers.

    PubMed

    Longobardo, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an employer's perspective on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Since this act was implemented, it has significantly impacted how employers have been planning for and providing health insurance to their employees.

  17. Effect of exposure to solid wastes in relation to employment duration on some important markers of health and disease in waste management workers of Ogun State in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odewabi, Adesina O; Ogundahunsi, Omobola A; Ekor, Martins

    2013-12-01

    Waste management workers (WMWs) around the world are at risk of work-related health disorders. The influence of employment duration on individuals occupationally exposed to solid waste was investigated in this study. The study comprised (n = 280) 180 WMWs and 100 controls. Employment duration was obtained from questionnaire survey and categorized into three groups: group I (0.5-2 years), group II (>2-4 years) and group III (>4-6 years). Blood sample (10 ml) was collected from the antecubital vein of subjects for analysis. WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) elevated inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp)) relative to control. While Cp increased, ESR and CRP decreased with increasing WMWs' employment duration. Alteration in oxidant/antioxidant markers was characterized by significant (p < 0.001) decrease in ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and catalase activity together with marked (p < 0.01) elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and uric acid (UA). TBARS, UA and FRAP increased while catalase decreased with WMWs' employment duration. In addition, WMWs exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) elevated immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, which also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. The significantly (p < 0.01) decreased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels as well as the significantly (p < 0.001) elevated total leukocytes in WMWs increased with employment duration. Alanine aminotransferase increased and albumin decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in WMWs, and these changes also increased and decreased, respectively, with job duration. Data suggest that levels of alteration of important systemic markers of health/disease are related to WMWs' employment or exposure duration.

  18. Returning to STEM: Gendered Factors Affecting Employability for Mature Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Clem

    2015-01-01

    This paper adds to current discourses around employability by arguing for an explicit recognition of gender, in particular in relation to women's employment in male-dominated sectors such as science, engineering and technology. This is not limited to young first-time graduates but continues and evolves throughout the life course. Mature women…

  19. Returning to STEM: Gendered Factors Affecting Employability for Mature Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Clem

    2015-01-01

    This paper adds to current discourses around employability by arguing for an explicit recognition of gender, in particular in relation to women's employment in male-dominated sectors such as science, engineering and technology. This is not limited to young first-time graduates but continues and evolves throughout the life course. Mature women…

  20. A Systematic Review of Transition Interventions Affecting the Employability of Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavenaugh, Brenda; Giesen, J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study presented here was to identify and synthesize studies of transition interventions to improve the employability and employment outcomes for youths with visual impairments. Methods: An a priori protocol was followed in conducting a systematic review of the literature, including criteria for selecting studies,…

  1. Rainfall intensity-duration threshold and erosion competence of debris flows in four areas affected by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Yujie; Hu, Kaiheng; Du, Cui; Yang, Wentao

    2017-04-01

    Debris flows in the Wenchuan seismic region have caused human casualties and severe damage to local infrastructure. Consequently, the triggering rainfall threshold and erosion capability of post-quake debris flows has become an important research topic worldwide. In this study, we analyze five years of rainstorms and debris flow data from four typical earthquake-hit regions in order to examine the local rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) thresholds and debris supply conditions. It was found that debris flow events in the four seismic areas exhibited different I-D thresholds, related to local mean annual hourly precipitation and debris flow supply conditions. The I-D thresholds, normalized by mean annual maximum hourly rainfall, illustrate that post-quake rainfall thresholds were reduced by at least 30% compared to pre-quake levels. Regression analysis revealed a clear linear relationship between the debris supply condition and the empirical coefficient, α, of the I-D equation. This means that rainfall thresholds of post-quake debris flows in different areas are distinctive and are strongly affected by sediment volume. Different relationships between the entrainment rate and the debris volume per watershed area and its product with the channel gradient illustrate that stream sediments in Yingxiu and Dujiangyan are more eroded, and that local debris flows might persist over a shorter time than in Qingping and Beichuan in the future. Finally, debris flows in the studied area exhibit no tendency of reduction in erosion competence entrainment rate, as found in Taiwan, which might be indicative of a higher entrainment rate persisting for a longer time.

  2. The duration of diabetes affects the response to intensive glucose control in type 2 subjects: the VA Diabetes Trial.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, William C; Abraira, Carlos; Moritz, Thomas E; Davis, Stephen N; Emanuele, Nicholas; Goldman, Steven; Hayward, Rodney; Huang, Grant D; Marks, Jennifer B; Reaven, Peter D; Reda, Domenic J; Warren, Stuart R; Zieve, Franklin J

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the VA Diabetes Trial (VADT) was to determine the effect of intensive glucose control on macrovascular events in subjects with difficult-to-control diabetes. No significant benefit was found. This report examines predictors of the effect of intensive therapy on the primary outcome in this population. This trial included 1791 subjects. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were collected by interview and the VA record. The analyses were done by intention to treat. Univariate analysis at baseline of predictors of a primary cardiovascular (CV) event included a prior CV event, age, insulin use at baseline, and duration of diagnosed diabetes (all P < .0001). Multivariable modeling revealed a U-shaped relationship between duration of diabetes and treatment. Modeled estimates for the hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment show that subjects with a short duration (3 years or less) of diagnosed diabetes have a nonsignificant increase in risk (HR > 1.0) after which the HR is below 1.0. From 7 to 15 years' duration at entry, subjects have HRs favoring intensive treatment. Thereafter the HR approaches 1.0 and over-21-years' duration approaches 2.0. Duration over 21 years resulted in a HR of 1.977 (CI 1.77-3.320, P < .01). Baseline c-peptide levels progressively declined up to 15 years and were stable subsequently. In difficult-to-control older subjects with type 2 DM, duration of diabetes altered the response to intensive glucose control. Intensive therapy may reduce CV events in subjects with a duration of 15 years or less and may increase risks in those with longer duration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Factors affecting employment in the Arabian Gulf region, 1975-1985.

    PubMed

    Looney, R E

    1991-01-01

    "This paper attempts to shed light on factors contributing to the identification of the main employment patterns in the countries of the Arab Gulf region. It also seeks to answer the question of how determinants of employment vary between national and foreign workforces and whether these determinants have changed over time." The countries concerned are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  4. Does Employment-Related Resilience Affect the Relationship between Childhood Adversity, Community Violence, and Depression?

    PubMed

    Welles, Seth L; Patel, Falguni; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Depression is a barrier to employment among low-income caregivers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and exposure to community violence (ECV) are often associated with depression. Using baseline data of 103 TANF caregivers of young children of the Building Wealth and Health Network Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot, this study investigated associations of two forms of employment-related resilience-self-efficacy and employment hope-with exposure to adversity/violence and depression, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) short form. Using contingency table analysis and regression analysis, we identified associations between ACEs and depression [OR = 1.70 (1.25-2.32), p = 0.0008] and having high levels of ECV with a 6.9-fold increased risk for depression when compared with those without ECV [OR = 6.86 (1.43-33.01), p = 0.02]. While self-efficacy and employment hope were significantly associated with depression, neither resilience factor impacted the association of ACE level and depression, whereas self-efficacy and employment hope modestly reduced the associations between ECV and depression, 13 and 16%, respectively. Results suggest that self-efficacy and employment hope may not have an impact on the strong associations between adversity, violence, and depression.

  5. Factors Affecting Reenlistment of Reservists: Spouse and Employer Attitudes and Perceived Unit Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    dummies for federal, state, and county employers, as well as large, medium, and small civilian employers. A variable measuring the frequency of overtime...household were not significant. Urban, surburban, and rural dummies were not significant. Finally the type of reserve job was statistically significant at...S~ - S 1 £9") " o 0stcics sonds or Othtr kicstrvwt j )S -XI S4 99Y, "o QAlniorty. Chkild SoppixtI (r O1hw Rcýqilai Criibir 059 (XX) - $4.9’l9 bions

  6. Balancing Parenthood and Employment: Factors Affecting Company Receptiveness to Family-Related Innovations in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeeley, R. L.; Fogarty, Barbe A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined employer reluctance to consider and/or implement innovations by assessing the relationship between selected demographic features of companies and the receptiveness of these companies to the introduction of innovative changes, as reported by company officials. Found demographic and other features influenced company officials' willingness…

  7. Current Developments in Federal Law Affecting Equal Employment Opportunity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohnmayer, David B.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews issues and administrative regulations pertaining to affirmative action under Executive Orders 11246 and 11375, extension of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to academic and professional employment, and the Higher Education Ammendments of 1972 extending provisions of the Equal Pay Act of 1963. (JT)

  8. Does pain in individuals with multiple sclerosis affect employment? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Auais, Mohammad; Duquette, Pierre; Andersen, Katie; Anderson, Katie; Mayo, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS. To estimate the extent to which individuals with pain differ in employment status compared with those without pain among MS patients. An extensive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration to identify studies focusing on the effect of pain on employment in individuals with MS. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, MD Consult and Elsevier, and Science Direct. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of these studies, five that exhibited clinical, methodological and statistical homogeneity were included in the meta-analysis. The between-groups (pain + versus pain -) pooled random OR of being employed was 0.7 (strong), and was significantly different from unity (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9; P=0.001). The results of the present study indicated that individuals with MS who experience pain were significantly more likely to report a decreased employment rate than individuals with MS who were pain free.

  9. Factors Affecting the Successful Employment of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; Crudden, Adele

    2009-01-01

    The following variables were found to be associated with employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments who are served by vocational rehabilitation agencies: work experience, academic competence, self-determination, use of assistive technology, and locus of control. Self-esteem and involvement with the counselor were not associated…

  10. Education Programs: Major Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education, School-to-Work, and Youth Employment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This document summarizes major postsecondary education issues and school-to-work and youth employment programs for the Education Task Force of the U.S. Senates's Committee on the Budget, and is based on General Accounting Office (GAO) studies completed during 1990-1997. The discussion of postsecondary education issues centers around five themes:…

  11. Motor imagery of locomotion with an additional load: actual load experience does not affect differences between physical and mental durations.

    PubMed

    Munzert, Jörn; Blischke, Klaus; Krüger, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Motor imagery relies strongly on motor representations. Currently, it is widely accepted that both the imagery and execution of actions share the same neural representations (Jeannerod, Neuroimage 14:S103-S109, 2001). Comparing mental with actual movement durations opens a window through which to examine motor representations and how they relate to cognitive motor processes. The present experiment examined mental durations reported by participants standing upright who imagined walking either with or without an additional load while actually carrying or not carrying that same load. Results showed a robust effect of longer durations when imagining the additional load during mental walking, whereas physical walking with an additional load did not extend movement durations accordingly. However, experiencing an actual load during imagery did not influence mental durations substantially. This dissociation of load-related effects can be interpreted as being due to an interaction of motor processes and their cognitive representation along with a reduction in neural activity in vestibular and somatosensory areas during imagery of locomotion. It is argued that this effect might be specific to locomotion and not generalize to a broader range of movements.

  12. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18 mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300 μm). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices.

  13. Employing Textual and Facial Emotion Recognition to Design an Affective Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Wang, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Ching-Ju; Chien, Ming-Kuan

    2012-01-01

    Emotional expression in Artificial Intelligence has gained lots of attention in recent years, people applied its affective computing not only in enhancing and realizing the interaction between computers and human, it also makes computer more humane. In this study, emotional expressions were applied into intelligent tutoring system, where learners'…

  14. Economic Development Assistance for Communities Affected by Employment Changes Due to Military Base Closures (BRAC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-16

    Jennifer D. Williams. Economic Development Assistance for Communities Affected by BRAC Congressional Research Service 14 action on the...L. Sternberg and Thomas D. Rowley , “A comparison of military base closures in metro and non-metro counties,” Government Finance Review, October 1993

  15. Secondary Work Force Movement into Energy Industry Employment in Areas Affected by "Boom Town" Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.

    A labor market study of implications of rapid energy development in the West examined the dimensions of work force movement from secondary occupations to primary energy occupations in areas affected by "boom town" growth. (Secondary occupations were defined as those in all industries not categorized as primary energy industries.) Focus…

  16. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    PubMed

    Klein, E G; Forster, J L; Erickson, D J; Lytle, L A; Schillo, B

    2009-06-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Bar and restaurant employment per capita were used to determine if partial CIA policies produced differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies. Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003-2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with partial CIA policies (p = 0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p = 0.36). There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

  17. Couch potatoes do better: Delayed dispersal and territory size affect the duration of territory occupancy in a monogamous mammal.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2017-06-01

    In territorial, socially monogamous species, the establishment and defense of a territory are an important strategy to maximize individual fitness, but the factors responsible for the duration of territory occupancy are rarely studied, especially in long-lived mammals. A long-term monitoring program in southeast Norway spanning over 18 years allowed us to follow the individual life histories of Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) from adolescence in their natal family group to dispersal and territory establishment until the end of territory occupancy. We investigated whether territory size, resource availability, population density, and dispersal age could explain the duration of territory occupancy, which ranged from 1 to 11 years. The duration of territory occupancy was positively related to dispersal age, suggesting that individuals that delayed dispersal had a competitive advantage due to a larger body mass. This is in support with the maturation hypothesis, which states that an animal should await its physical and behavioral maturation before the acquisition of a territory. Further, we found that individuals that established in medium-sized territories occupied them longer as compared to individuals in small or large territories. This suggests that large territories are more costly to defend due to an increased patrolling effort, and small territories might not have sufficient resources. The lifetime reproductive success ranged from zero to six kits and generally increased with an increasing duration of territory occupancy. Our findings show the importance of holding a territory and demonstrate that dispersal decisions and territory selection have important consequences for the fitness of an individual.

  18. What affects the presence versus absence of schwa and its duration: a corpus analysis of French connected speech.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Audrey; Ernestus, Mirjam; Gendrot, Cédric; Fougeron, Cécile; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2011-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of over 4000 tokens of words produced as variants with and without schwa in a French corpus of radio-broadcasted speech. In order to determine which of the many variables mentioned in the literature influence variant choice, 17 predictors were tested in the same analysis. Only five of these variables appeared to condition variant choice. The question of the processing stage, or locus, of this alternation process is also addressed in a comparison of the variables that predict variant choice with the variables that predict the acoustic duration of schwa in variants with schwa. Only two variables predicting variant choice also predict schwa duration. The limited overlap between the predictors for variant choice and for schwa duration, combined with the nature of these variables, suggest that the variants without schwa do not result from a phonetic process of reduction; that is, they are not the endpoint of gradient schwa shortening. Rather, these variants are generated early in the production process, either during phonological encoding or word-form retrieval. These results, based on naturally produced speech, provide a useful complement to on-line production experiments using artificial speech tasks. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  19. Strategies employed by upper secondary students for overcoming or exploiting conditions affecting accessibility of applications tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, Gloria

    2004-02-01

    A cognitive/metacognitive framework is presented for analysing applications tasks and responses to these. Conditions facilitating or impeding access to such tasks at the upper secondary level were identified using qualitative data analysis techniques within this framework. Strategies employed in exploiting, or overcoming these conditions were identified. A well-developed repertoire of cognitive and metacognitive strategies together with a rich store of mathematical knowledge, real-world knowledge and experiences, and comprehension skills facilitated access. This was enhanced by metacognitive knowledge encouraging student engagement with the task and by students imagining they were in the task situation. Once moderate skill had been achieved in accessing these applications, coordination and integration of multiple representations, further cues, and mathematical processes and procedures became critical.

  20. Company norms affect which traits are preferred in job candidates and may cause employment discrimination.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Fredrik; Backström, Martin; Wolgast, Sima

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a possible mechanism behind employment discrimination. Participants completed a recruitment task where emphasis on cohesion (employees should "fit in") versus fairness (everybody should be treated equally) was manipulated by describing the norms of a fictitious company differently. There was a comparatively stronger preference in the cohesion condition for traits and interview questions related to social competence (e.g., friendliness, gregariousness, empathy). Furthermore, participants in the cohesion condition primarily pictured socially competent employees, whereas those in the fairness condition primarily pictured employees possessing productivity-related characteristics (e.g., education, experience, and talent). The norm effect was moderated by participants' awareness of the applicants' ethnicity. When expecting applicants with foreign backgrounds, participants in the cohesion condition showed increased preference for selection methods related to social competence. Implications for recruitment practices are discussed.

  1. Does the type of CIA policy significantly affect bar and restaurant employment in Minnesota cities?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Schillo, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Clean indoor air (CIA) policies that include free-standing bars and restaurants have been adopted by communities to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, most notably employees working in restaurants and free-standing bars. However, due to the perception of negative economic effects on alcohol-licensed hospitality businesses, partial CIA policies (those that provide an exemption for free-standing bars) have been proposed as a means to reduce the risk of economic effects of comprehensive CIA policies applied to all worksites. Objective To determine if partial CIA produce differential economic effects compared to comprehensive CIA policies using bar and restaurant employment per capita. Design, setting, and subjects Ten cities in the state of Minnesota were studied from 2003 to 2006. Economic data were drawn from monthly employment in bars and restaurants, and a pooled time-series was completed to evaluate three types of local CIA policies: Comprehensive, partial, or none beyond the state law. Results Communities with a comprehensive CIA policy had a decrease of 9 employees per 10,000 residents compared with communities with a partial CIA policies (p=0.10). Communities with any type of CIA policy (partial or comprehensive) had an increase of 3 employees per 10,000 residents compared to communities without any CIA policies (p=0.36). Conclusion There were no significant differential economic effects by CIA policy type in Minnesota cities. These findings support the adoption of comprehensive CIA policies to provide all employees protection from environmental tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:19184432

  2. C'mon get happy: reduced magnitude and duration of response during a positive-affect induction in depression.

    PubMed

    Horner, Michelle S; Siegle, Greg J; Schwartz, Robert M; Price, Rebecca B; Haggerty, Agnes E; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S

    2014-11-01

    Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene in the phenomenon, for example, how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and thirty-four never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for 7 min. Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. These data indicate that depressed and nondepressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals' ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. C’mon Get Happy: Reduced Magnitude and Duration of Response During a Positive Affect Induction in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Michelle S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Schwartz, Robert M.; Price, Rebecca B.; Haggerty, Agnes E.; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene on the phenomenon, e.g., how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and 34 never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for seven minutes. Results Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. Conclusions These data indicate that depressed and non-depressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals’ ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. PMID:24643964

  4. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Bruchmann, Maximilian; Thaler, Kathrin; Vorberg, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I) and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III), and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I) and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II). The results show that (i) irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii) auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii) visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is. PMID:26348616

  5. Retrospective study of factors affecting employability of individuals with cerebral palsy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tobimatsu, Y; Nakamura, R

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of individuals with cerebral palsy that affected their ability to find a job in Japan. A retrospective nonrandomized descriptive study was performed. Subjects were 99 individuals with cerebral palsy who were eligible to have a vocational training at the National Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled after graduation from high school. All of them were able to perform ADL unassistedly. The mean age of the subjects was 19.9 years (range, 18 to 33) and the mean intelligence quotient measured by WAIS-R was 78.5 (range, 46 to 110). Walking ability, being female and experience of learning in a regular middle high school were significant explanatory variables in the multiple regression equation. The ability of individuals with cerebral palsy to get a job in Japan in the 1990's was largely determined by being able to walk and having an education in a regular school.

  6. Poor Employment Conditions Adversely Affect Mental Health Outcomes Among Surgical Trainees.

    PubMed

    Kevric, Jasmina; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Rashid, Prem; Toshniwal, Sumeet

    2017-07-17

    Poor mental health in junior clinicians is prevalent and may lead to poor productivity and significant medical errors. We aimed to provide contemporary data on the mental health of surgical trainees and identify risk factors relating to poorer mental health outcomes. A detailed questionnaire was developed comprising questions based on the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Each of the questionnaires has proven validity and reliability in the clinical context. Ethics approval was obtained from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The questionnaire was aimed at surgical registrars. We used Physical Activity Questionnaire, SF-36 scores and linear regression to evaluate the effect of putative predictors on mental health. A total of 83 responses were collected during the study period, of which 49 (59%) were from men and 34 (41%) were from women. The mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) score for both sexes was significantly lower than the population mean at ages 25-34 (p < 0.001). Poor satisfaction with one's work culture and a feeling of a lack of support at work were extremely strong predictors of a lower MCS score (p < 0.001). Hours of overtime worked, particularly unpaid overtime, were also strong predictors of a poorer score. Australian surgical trainees reported lower MCS scores from the SF-36 questionnaire compared to the general population. Increasing working hours, unpaid overtime, poor job security, and job satisfaction were associated with poorer scores among trainees. Interventions providing improved working conditions need to be considered by professional training bodies and employers. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors affecting the duration of native and second-language sentences produced in unspeeded and speeded conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flege, James E.; Mackay, Ian R. A.

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into why non-natives generally produce longer second-language (L2) sentences than native speakers do. Four groups of 16 Italian-English bilinguals were recruited in Ottawa based on orthogonal differences in age of arrival (AOA) to Canada from Italy (early versus late) and self-reported percentage Italian use (low-L1 use versus high-L1 use). The bilinguals repeated duration-matched English and Italian sentences presented via a loudspeaker in an ``unspeeded'' condition, then as rapidly as possible (the ``speeded'' condition). The same effect of AOA was obtained in both conditions despite a 20% reduction in sentence duration in the speeded condition. That is, the early bilinguals produced significantly shorter English than Italian sentences, whereas the late bilinguals produced significantly longer English than Italian sentences. Different L1 use effects were obtained in the two conditions, however. In the unspeeded condition, the low-L1-use bilinguals produced shorter English than Italian sentences, with a nonsignificant effect of language for high-L1-use bilinguals. In the speeded condition, high-L1-use bilinguals produced shorter Italian than English sentences, with no language effect for the low-L1-use bilinguals. The underlying bases of AOA and L1 use effects on L2 sentence production will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH.

  8. Levobupivacaine for Spinal Anesthesia in Children: Cerebrospinal Fluid Aspiration Before the Injection Does not Affect the Spread or Duration of the Sensory Block

    PubMed Central

    Kokki, Merja; Heikkinen, Marja; Kumpulainen, Elina; Vähäoja, Aura; Kokki, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Background Several factors are thought to affect the spread and duration of spinal anesthesia (SA) in adults. These include the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the lumbar spinal canal, which has a negative correlation with both the spread and duration of the sensory block. Objectives We evaluated whether CSF aspiration before an injection of levobupivacaine affected the spread or duration of SA in children. Patients and Methods SA was induced by levobupivacaine (5 mg/mL, 0.25 - 0.5 mg/kg) in 186 children aged 10 months to 18 years (mean of 7.5 years). Two groups were analyzed prospectively: 93 children from which 1 - 3 mL of CSF (CSF-aspiration group) was aspirated before the injection of levobupivacaine to induce SA and 93 children from which no CSF was aspirated (no-CSF-aspiration group) prior to the injection of levobupivacaine. The main outcome measure was regression of the sensory block below T10, cephalic spread of the block, and postpuncture complications after SA. Results There were no between-group differences in the time to regression of the block below T10 or in the cephalic spread of the sensory block: 94 (27) minutes and T4.4 (SD 2.2) in the CSF-aspiration group, respectively, vs. 97 (29) minutes and T4.3 (1.8), respectively, in the no-CSF-aspiration group. Position-dependent headaches developed in 4 of 91 children in the CSF-aspiration group and 5 of 86 children in the no-CSF-aspiration group, but no epidural blood patches were required. Conclusions The aspiration of 1 - 3 mL of CSF before an injection of levobupivacaine did not seem to affect the spread and duration of the sensory block or postpuncture complications in children following SA. PMID:27642576

  9. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  10. Storage temperature and duration affect Steinernema scarabaei dispersal and attraction, virulence, and infectivity to a white grub host.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M; Ebssa, Lemma; Fuzy, Eugene M

    2013-02-01

    The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scarabaei has exceptional potential for the control of many white grub species. Initial studies suggested this species to have a widely ranging foraging strategy based on its attraction to hosts in soil columns, however, with a generally low but very variable dispersal rate even in the presence of hosts. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the dispersal behavior of S. scarabaei IJs and the influence of storage conditions on its dispersal and infectivity. We found that storage temperature and duration had a strong effect on S. scarabaei IJ dispersal, virulence, and infectivity. But even under conditions conducive to movement only a small proportion of IJs moved towards a host. IJ dispersal declined with storage time by a factor of around 100 between 1 week and 12 weeks of storage whether the IJs were stored at room temperature or 8°C; however, the decline was more than twice as fast after storage at 8°C. Host attraction also diminished with storage duration. IJ virulence and infectivity declined with storage time for IJs stored at room temperature. In contrast, for IJs stored at 8°C virulence remained high and infectivity increased over time. The decrease in dispersal and infectivity when stored at room temperature may reflect an adaptation to conserve energy in the absence of hosts since S. scarabaei IJs have to persist through extended periods in summer during which infections are unlikely to occur. The even faster decrease in dispersal rate when stored at 8°C may suggest a cold-induced dormancy that may serve as an overwintering strategy. The parallel increase in infectivity, however, seems to contradict such a strategy. Future studies should examine whether and how S. scarabaei IJs 'inactivated' by the absence of hosts can be 'reactivated' and whether this behavior could be used to improve the efficacy of nematode applications against insect pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Resistance exercise order does not affect the magnitude and duration of post-exercise blood pressure in older women.

    PubMed

    Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Nunes, João Pedro; Souza, Mariana F; Gerage, Aline; Marcori, Alexandre; Iarosz, Kessi Cassiane; Cardoso-Júnior, Crivaldo Gomes; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two resistance exercise order on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in trained, non-hypertensive older women. Sixteen women (68.3 ± 3.3 years, 63.5 ± 11.6 kg, 157.5 ± 5.1 cm) performed two sessions witheight exercises (3 sets of 8-12 repetitions) in distinct orders (from multi- to single-joint exercises [MS] or from single- to multi-joint exercises [SM]) and a control session, without exercise. Blood pressure and heart rate were obtained pre and post-sessions (60 min). Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic and mean BP in both the MS session (systolic BP: -6.9 mmHg, mean BP: -3.3 mmHg, P< 0.05) and SM session (systolic BP: -4.6 mmHg; mean BP: -1.1 mmHg). Post-exercise heart rate was higher than pre-session values until 30 min of recovery in both training sessions. Furthermore, systolic and mean blood pressure, and heart rate were lower than the values obtained in the control session (30 to 60 min and 0 min, respectively; P<0.05). There were no differences between the SM and MS sessions in any variable or at any moment. In conclusion, resistance exercise order does not interfere in the magnitude and duration of post-exercise hypotension in trained, non-hypertensive older women.

  12. Duration to Admission and Hospital Transfers Affect Facility Rankings from the Postacute 30-Day Rehospitalization Quality Measure.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Prvu Bettger, Janet; Fisher, Steve R; Karmarkar, Amol M; Kumar, Amit; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2017-06-01

    To examine changes in facility-level risk-standardized rehospitalization rankings for postacute inpatient rehabilitation facilities after modifying two model parameters. We used national Medicare enrollment, claims, and assessment data to study 522,260 patients discharged from inpatient rehabilitation in fiscal years 2010-2011. We calculated risk-standardized 30-day unplanned rehospitalization rates for 1,135 inpatient rehabilitation facilities using four approaches. The first model replicated the current postacute risk-standardization methodology and included patients discharged from acute hospitals up to 30 days prior to postacute admission and excluded patients transferred directly back to acute hospitals following rehabilitation. Our alternative models excluded patients with delayed admissions (>1 day between acute discharge and postacute admission) and counted direct transfers back to acute as rehospitalizations. Excluding patients with delayed admissions and counting direct transfers back to acute care as rehospitalizations substantially impacted rankings of more than half the postacute providers: 29 percent had better and 27 percent had worse quintile rankings. Changing the timeframes for duration to admission and rehospitalization will have profound effects on postacute provider quality performance ratings. Reporting rehospitalization rates is an important issue with the explicit goal of improving the quality of postacute care. Research is needed to understand and minimize potential unintended consequences of this quality metric. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Treatment duration and time since disturbance affect vegetation development in a young California red fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, P.M.; Fiddler, G.O.

    1997-06-01

    The density and development of greenleaf manzanita, snowbrush, goldenbush (rabbitbrush), and graminoids were evaluated in a young California red fir plantation in northern California from 1986 through 1995. Manual grubbing and herbicides created treatments regimes that lasted for 3 to 6 years and vegetation recovery times of 4 to 10 years. The duration and timing of the grubbing and spraying operations constituted the treatments. Species response was mixed: greenleaf manzanita had higher average values of density, foliar cover, and height when time since disturbance was longest, snowbrush density was lowest but cover and height were highest, and values for goldenbrush and graminoids in general showed no trend. In the control at the end of the study, graminoids numbered 82,350 per acre, greenleaf manzanita 10,850, goldenbrush 10,800, and snowbrush 1,850 plants per acre. Foliar cover of manzanita at 7,300 square feet per acre was more than that of all other naturally estblished species combined. Survival of red fir over all teatments after one growing season was 98 percent and after 10 seasons was 89 percent. Average height of red fir seedlings ranged from 3.2 feet with intensive release to 1.7 feet with no release. No release allowed greenleaf manzanita plants to be slightly taller than red fir seedlings and to place the seedlings in danger of being overtopped.

  14. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Photoperiod affects amplitude but not duration of in vitro melatonin production in the ruin lizard (Podarcis sicula).

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, C; Wagner, G; Foà, A; Gwinner, E; Brandstätter, R

    2003-02-01

    The pineal gland and its major output signal melatonin have been demonstrated to play a central role in the seasonal organization of the ruin lizard Podarcis sicula. Seasonal variations in the amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin signal, with high values in spring as compared to low values in summer and autumn, have been found in vivo. The authors examined whether the pineal gland of the ruin lizard contains autonomous circadian oscillators controlling melatonin synthesis and whether previously described seasonal variations of in vivo melatonin production can also be found in isolated cultured pineal glands obtained from ruin lizards in summer and winter. In vitro melatonin release from isolated pineal glands of the ruin lizard persisted for 4 days in constant conditions. Cultured explanted pineal glands obtained from animals in winter and summer showed similar circadian rhythms of melatonin release, characterized by damping of the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm. Although different photoperiodic conditions were imposed on ruin lizards before explantation of pineal glands, the authors did not find any indication for corresponding differences in the duration of elevated melatonin in vitro. Differences were found in the amplitude of in vitro melatonin production in light/dark conditions and, to a lesser degree, in constant conditions. The presence of a circadian melatonin rhythm in vitro in winter, although such a rhythm is absent in vivo in winter, suggests that pineal melatonin production is influenced by an extrapineal oscillator in the intact animal that may either positively or negatively modulate melatonin production in summer and winter, respectively.

  16. She Left, He Left: How Employment and Satisfaction Affect Men’s and Women’s Decisions to Leave Marriages

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Liana C.; England, Paula; Allison, Paul; Kangas, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Most past studies examining determinants of divorce have ignored differences between the factors that elevate wives’ and husbands’ initiation of divorce. We use three waves of the National Survey of Families and Households and a latent class model embedded in a competing-risks event history model to assess distinct predictors of wives and husbands leaving marriages. We assess who left using each ex-spouse’s answer to a question that asked who had wanted the breakup more. We find that when men are not employed, either husbands or wives are more likely to leave. When wives report better than average marital satisfaction, their employment affects neither their nor their husbands’ exits. However, when wives report below average marital satisfaction, their employment makes it more likely that they will leave. We compare findings to predictions from two theories: an institutional perspective that sees divorce to result from a violation of gender-specific norms, and exchange/bargaining theory, which posits that resources allow a spouse to leave if exchange and bargaining fail to provide a satisfactory marriage. To amend the theories to better fit the data, we foreground the asymmetric nature of gender change in recent decades, with women changing more than men. PMID:21932472

  17. Maternal perception of fetal movements in late pregnancy is affected by type and duration of fetal movement.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca; Higgins, Lucy E; Johnstone, Edward D; Wijekoon, Jayawan H; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in fetal movements has been proposed to identify pregnancies at risk of stillbirth. The utility of this approach is limited by variability in maternal perception of fetal movements. We aimed to determine the proportion of fetal movements observed by ultrasound that were maternally perceived and identify factors that affected maternal perception. During 30-min recordings, women (n = 21) depressed a trigger upon perception of a fetal movement, while an ultrasound operator recorded observed movements according to the fetal parts involved. Women perceived between 2.4% and 81.0% (median 44.8%) of movements observed on scan. Synchronous movement of the fetal trunk and limbs was more likely to be recognized than either part in isolation (60.5% versus 37.5% and 30%, respectively). The ultrasound operator judged the fetus to be moving for a significantly greater proportion of the time than mothers (median 1.5% of total recording time versus 0.7%). There was no significant relationship between the ability to perceive fetal activity and placental site, parity, amniotic fluid index or maternal body mass index. Variations in maternal perception of fetal movements may affect detection of a clinically significant reduction in fetal movements for some women.

  18. Barriers to employability among substance dependent and nonsubstance-affected women on federal welfare: implications for program design.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Jon; McCrady, Barbara S; Blanchard, Kimberly A; McVeigh, Katharine H; Riordan, Annette; Irwin, Thomas W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined barriers to employability among women meeting criteria for a substance dependence disorder who were identified by routine screening conducted in welfare offices. The characteristics of these women were compared to other women on welfare who did not have a substance use disorder. A sample of 214 substance dependent women on federal welfare were recruited to participate in a substance use disorders welfare demonstration project. An additional 69 nonsubstance-affected women on welfare served as a comparison sample. All participants were assessed in welfare settings through a standardized battery of measures. Substance dependent women reported moderate to severe substance use problems. They also reported significantly higher rates than the women with no substance use disorder of other barriers such as domestic violence, mental health problems, legal problems, child welfare investigations and fewer job skills. Findings raise questions about the likely effectiveness of existing welfare reform services in addressing the needs of substance dependent women.

  19. Factors Affecting Cerebral Oxygenation in Hemodialysis Patients: Cerebral Oxygenation Associates with pH, Hemodialysis Duration, Serum Albumin Concentration, and Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kiyonori; Ookawara, Susumu; Ueda, Yuichiro; Goto, Sawako; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Yamada, Hodaka; Kitano, Taisuke; Shindo, Mitsunobu; Kaku, Yoshio; Hirai, Keiji; Yoshida, Masashi; Hoshino, Taro; Nabata, Aoi; Mori, Honami; Yoshida, Izumi; Kakei, Masafumi; Tabei, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) often develop cerebral disease complications. Furthermore, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) was previously reported to be significantly lower in HD patients than in healthy subjects. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the cerebral rSO2 in HD patients. Methods Fifty-four HD patients (38 men and 16 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 1.2 years, HD duration, 6.5 ± 1.9 years) were recruited. Cerebral rSO2 was monitored at the forehead before HD using an INVOS 5100C (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan). Results The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls (49.5 ± 1.7% vs. 68.9 ± 1.6%, p <0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 independently associated with pH (standardized coefficient: -0.35), HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.33), and serum albumin concentration (standardized coefficient: 0.28). Furthermore, the rSO2 was significantly lower in HD patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), compared with patients without DM (46.8 ± 1.7% vs. 52.1 ± 1.8%, p <0.05). Conclusions In HD patients, cerebral rSO2 was affected by multiple factors, including pH, HD duration, and serum albumin concentration. Furthermore, this is the first report describing significantly lower levels of rSO2 in HD patients with DM than in those without DM. PMID:25706868

  20. Duration of plant damage by host larvae affects attraction of two parasitoid species (Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris) to cotton: implications for interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Morawo, Tolulope; Fadamiro, Henry

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by herbivore-damaged plants can guide parasitoids to their hosts. The quantity and quality of VOC blends emitted by plants may be affected by the duration of plant damage by herbivores, which could have potential ramifications on the recruitment of competing parasitoids. We used two parasitoid species, Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to address the question of whether duration of plant damage affects parasitoid use of plant VOCs for host location. Both wasp species are larval endoparasitoids of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of cotton. Attraction of the two parasitoid species to odors emitted by undamaged (UD), fresh (6 h infestation) damage (FD), and old (24 h infestation) damage (OD) cotton plants infested by H. virescens larvae was investigated using a headspace volatile collection system coupled with four-choice olfactometer bioassay. Both sexes of M. croceipes showed a preference for FD- and OD-plant odors over UD-plants. On the other hand, more C. marginiventris females were attracted to UD- and FD-plants than to OD-plants. GC/MS analyses showed qualitative and quantitative differences in the VOC profiles of UD, FD, and OD-plants, which may explain the observed preferences of the parasitoids. These results suggest a temporal partitioning in the recruitment of M. croceipes and C. marginiventris to H. virescens-damaged cotton, and may have potential implications for interspecific competition between the two parasitoid species.

  1. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise H; Strøm, Marin; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Videbech, Poul; Melbye, Mads

    2017-09-01

    Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD), which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD), duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other affective episodes in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior psychiatric history. Linking information from several Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort of 457,317 primiparous mothers with first birth (and subsequent births) from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2013 (a total of 789,068 births) and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome measures were risk of postpartum AD, duration of treatment, and recurrence risk. We observed 4,550 (0.6%) postpartum episodes of AD. The analyses of treatment duration showed that 1 year after the initiation of treatment for their first episode, 27.9% of women were still in treatment; after 4 years, 5.4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum AD was 1.2 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for year of birth and mother's age, women with PPD hospital contact after first birth had a 46.4 times higher rate (95% CI 31.5-68.4) and women with postpartum antidepressant medication after their first birth had a 26.9 times higher rate (95% CI 21.9-33.2) of a recurrent postpartum episode after their second birth compared to women with no postpartum AD history. Limitations include the use of registry data to identify cases and limited confounder control

  2. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Marin; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background Some 5%–15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD), which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD), duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other affective episodes in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior psychiatric history. Methods and findings Linking information from several Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort of 457,317 primiparous mothers with first birth (and subsequent births) from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2013 (a total of 789,068 births) and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome measures were risk of postpartum AD, duration of treatment, and recurrence risk. We observed 4,550 (0.6%) postpartum episodes of AD. The analyses of treatment duration showed that 1 year after the initiation of treatment for their first episode, 27.9% of women were still in treatment; after 4 years, 5.4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum AD was 1.2 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for year of birth and mother’s age, women with PPD hospital contact after first birth had a 46.4 times higher rate (95% CI 31.5–68.4) and women with postpartum antidepressant medication after their first birth had a 26.9 times higher rate (95% CI 21.9–33.2) of a recurrent postpartum episode after their second birth compared to women with no postpartum AD history. Limitations include the use of registry data to

  3. Employment and income among first-time cases diagnosed with non-affective psychosis in Stockholm, Sweden: a follow-up study 2004/2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Falk, Johanna; Burström, Bo; Dalman, Christina; Jörgensen, Lena; Bruce, Daniel; Nylén, Lotta

    2016-02-01

    Non-affective psychoses (F20-F29) are serious conditions causing a high degree of disability. Loss of income and increasing costs for personal care and treatment are severe consequences following the disorders, but less is known about employment and income in different social strata. The aim was to study these conditions among persons with non-affective psychosis compared to the general population, and possible social differentials. A population-based follow-up study with 530,350 persons (aged 18-44), including 756 first-time cases diagnosed with non-affective psychosis registered in in- or outpatient psychiatric care in 2005 or 2006. Age-standardised rates of non-employment, disability pension, social assistance and poverty were calculated at baseline and at follow-up in 2010. Odds ratios of poverty were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for employment status, age, education and country of birth. Before diagnosis, rates of non-employment, disability pension and social assistance were higher among persons with non-affective psychosis compared to the general population. At the follow-up, rates of disability pension had doubled, most pronounced among women with only compulsory education. Rates of social assistance were twice as high for foreign-born women. Among persons with non-affective psychosis, non-employment, lower education (among men) and being foreign born (among women) were associated with an increased risk of poverty at follow-up. Poor employment and income conditions were found among persons with non-affective psychosis, but the social insurance system seemed to alleviate the poor income conditions. Early and preventative support to encourage employment and income security is needed, which could support recovery.

  4. Duration of treatment and activation of α1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Jovana; Timić, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V; Batinić, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Milić, Marija; Joksimović, Srđan; Cook, James M; Savić, Miroslav M

    2014-05-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at α1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator βCCt (5mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of βCCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at α1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Egg storage duration and hatch window affect gene expression of nutrient transporters and intestine morphological parameters of early hatched broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, S; Gursel, I; Bilgen, G; Izzetoglu, G T; Horuluoglu, B H; Gucluer, G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, researchers have given emphasis on the differences in physiological parameters between early and late hatched chicks within a hatch window. Considering the importance of intestine development in newly hatched chicks, however, changes in gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of early hatched chicks within a hatch window have not been studied yet. This study was conducted to determine the effects of egg storage duration before incubation and hatch window on intestinal development and expression of PepT1 (H+-dependent peptide transporter) and SGLT1 (sodium-glucose co-transporter) genes in the jejunum of early hatched broiler chicks within a 30 h of hatch window. A total of 1218 eggs obtained from 38-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flocks were stored for 3 (ES3) or 14 days (ES14) and incubated at the same conditions. Eggs were checked between 475 and 480 h of incubation and 40 chicks from each egg storage duration were weighed; chick length and rectal temperature were measured. The chicks were sampled to evaluate morphological parameters and PepT1 and SGLT1 expression. The remaining chicks that hatched between 475 and 480 h were placed back in the incubator and the same measurements were conducted with those chicks at the end of hatch window at 510 h of incubation. Chick length, chick dry matter content, rectal temperature and weight of small intestine segments increased, whereas chick weight decreased during the hatch window. The increase in the jejunum length and villus width and area during the hatch window were higher for ES3 than ES14 chicks. PepT1 expression was higher for ES3 chicks compared with ES14. There was a 10.2 and 17.6-fold increase in PepT1 and SGLT1 expression of ES3 chicks at the end of hatch window, whereas it was only 2.3 and 3.3-fold, respectively, for ES14 chicks. These results suggested that egg storage duration affected development of early hatched chicks during 30 h of hatch window. It can be concluded that

  6. Relationship of Work-Family Conflict to Substance Use among Employed Mothers: The Role of Negative Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frone, Michael R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Tested model relating work-family conflict to heavy alcohol use and cigarette use among employed mothers via domain-specific (job- and family-related) and general negative effect. Data from 366 employed mothers of adolescents revealed that work-family conflict was indirectly related to both heavy alcohol use and cigarette use via negative effect.…

  7. Did reform of the non-group health insurance market affect the decision to be self-employed? Evidence from state reforms in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Heim, Bradley T; Lurie, Ithai Z

    2014-07-01

    This paper estimates whether state-level implementation of community rating and guaranteed issue regulations in the non-group health insurance market during the 1990s affected the decision of taxpayers to be self-employed. Using a panel of tax returns that span 1987-2000, we find no statistically significant effect of the reforms on the propensity to be self-employed overall, although we find evidence of an increase in self-employment among older taxpayers and weaker evidence of decreases among younger cohorts.

  8. Duration of ATP reduction affects extent of CA1 cell death in rat models of fluid percussion injury combined with secondary ischemia.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Naoki; Lee, Stefan M; Moro, Nobuhiro; Hovda, David A; Sutton, Richard L

    2008-09-16

    Secondary ischemia (SI) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases damage to the brain in both animals and humans. The current study determined if SI after TBI alters the extent or duration of reduced energy production within the first 24 h post-injury and hippocampal cell loss at one week post-injury. Adult male rats were subjected to sham injury, lateral (LFPI) or central fluid percussion injury (CFPI) only, or to combined LFPI or CFPI with SI. The SI was 8 min of bilateral forebrain ischemia combined with hemorrhagic hypotension, applied at 1 h following FPI. After LFPI alone adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels within the ipsilateral CA1 were reduced at 2 h (p < 0.05) and subsequently recovered. After LFPI+SI the ATP reductions in CA1 ipsilateral to FPI persisted for 24 h (p < 0.01). ATP levels in the contralateral CA1 were not affected by LFPI alone or LFPI+SI. After CFPI alone CA1 ATP levels were depressed bilaterally only at 2 h (p < 0.05). Similar to the LFPI paradigm, CFPI+SI reduced ATP levels for 24 h (p < 0.01), with bilateral ATP reductions seen after CFPI+SI. Cell counts in the CA1 region at 7 days post-injury revealed no significant neuronal cell loss after LFPI or CFPI alone. Significant neuronal cell loss was present only within the ipsilateral (p < 0.001) CA1 after LFPI+SI, but cell loss was bilateral (p < 0.001) after CFPI+SI. Thus, SI prolongs ATP reductions induced by LFPI and CFPI within the CA1 region and this SI-induced energy reduction appears to adversely affect regional neuronal viability.

  9. Financial and organizational factors affecting the employment of nurse practitioners and physician assistants in medical group practices.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer; Kralewski, John; Dowd, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the financial and organizational factors that are associated with the employment of nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) in medical group practices. The source of the data is a survey of 128 medical group practices in Minnesota. The findings suggest that the employment of NPs and PAs and their ratios to primary care physicians (PCPs) in practices that employ them are influenced by the organizational characteristics of the group practice but not by the degree of financial risk sharing for patient care. Although neither the number of years of experience in financial risk sharing nor more revenue from capitation payment contracts were related to employment of these midlevel practitioners (MLPs), large practices, those located in rural locations, not-for-profit practices, and those that scored low on cohesive cultural traits were more likely to employ MLPs. The data provide insights into the market for MLPs and the potential for these clinicians in the future health care system. As medical group practices become larger and have more organizational capacity, they can likely be expected to increase the employment of MLPs and integrate them into their organizations.

  10. Rate of utilization of a given fraction of W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) does not affect fatigue during severe-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Kristopher Mendes; Dekerle, Jeanne; Salvador, Paulo Cesar do Nascimento; de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2016-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does the rate of utilization of W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) affect fatigue during severe-intensity exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? The magnitude of fatigue after two severe-intensity exercises designed to deplete the same fraction of W' (70%) at two different rates of utilization (fast versus slow) was similar after both exercises. Moreover, the magnitude of fatigue was related to critical power (CP), supporting the contention that CP is a key determinant in fatigue development during high-intensity exercise. Thus, the CP model is a suitable approach to investigate fatigue mechanisms during high-intensity exercise. The depletion of W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) seems to contribute to fatigue during severe-intensity exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a fast versus a slow rate of utilization of W' on the occurrence of fatigue within the severe-intensity domain. Fifteen healthy male subjects performed tests to determine the critical power, W' and peak torque in the control condition (TCON ) and immediately after two fatiguing work rates (THREE and TEN) set to deplete 70% W' in either 3 (TTHREE ) or 10 min (TTEN ). The TTHREE and TTEN were significantly reduced (F = 19.68, P = 0.01) in comparison to TCON . However, the magnitude of reduction in peak torque (TTHREE  = -19.8 ± 10.1% versus TTEN  = -16.8 ± 13.3%) was the same in the two fatiguing exercises (t = -0.76, P = 0.46). There was a significant inverse relationship between the critical power and the reduction in peak torque during both THREE (r = -0.49, P = 0.03) and TEN (r = -0.62, P = 0.02). In contrast, the W' was not significantly correlated with the reduction in peak torque during both THREE (r = -0.14, P = 0.33) and TEN (r = -0.30, P = 0.10). Thus, fatigue following severe-intensity exercises performed

  11. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  12. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although

  13. Do increased premium subsidies affect how much health insurance is purchased? Evidence from the self-employed.

    PubMed

    Heim, Bradley T; Lurie, Ithai Z

    2009-12-01

    This paper estimates the effect of recent federal and state level increases in the deductibility of health insurance premiums for self-employed individuals, which reduced the after-tax price of health insurance, on both the take-up of coverage and the amount of insurance purchased. Using a panel of tax returns filed by self-employed taxpayers from 1999 to 2004, we estimate a take-up elasticity of -0.316 overall, with significantly higher elasticities for single taxpayers. On the intensive margin, we find an elasticity of -0.733 overall.

  14. Factors Affecting Employment of Graduates of the University of Virginia School of Nursing from 1978-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chioni, Rose Marie; And Others

    An employment profile of recent graduates of the University of Virginia School of Nursing was undertaken, with attention directed to factors they considered important for selecting their jobs, leaving their jobs, and selecting future jobs in nursing. A questionnaire used in a 1981 study was modified for the investigation, and the Work Environment…

  15. Natural and Diverted Low-Flow Duration Discharges for Streams Affected by the Waiahole Ditch System, Windward O`ahu, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu W.; Fontaine, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    For nearly a century, the Waiahole Ditch System has diverted an average of approximately 27 million gallons per day of water from the wet, northeastern part of windward O`ahu, Hawai`i, to the dry, central part of the island to meet irrigation needs. The system intercepts large amounts of dike-impounded ground water at high altitudes (above approximately 700 to 800 ft) that previously discharged to Waiahole (and its tributaries Waianu and Uwao), Waikane, and Kahana Streams through seeps and springs. Diversion of this ground water has significantly diminished low flows in these streams. Estimates of natural and diverted flows are needed by water managers for (1) setting permanent instream flow standards to protect, enhance, and reestablish beneficial instream uses of water in the diverted streams and (2) allocating the diverted water for instream and offstream uses. Data collected before construction of the Waiahole Ditch System reflect natural (undiverted) flow conditions. Natural low-flow duration discharges for percentiles ranging from 50 to 99 percent were estimated for four sites at altitudes of 75 to 320 feet in Waiahole Stream (and its tributaries Waianu and Uwao Streams), for six sites at altitudes of 10 to 220 feet in Waikane Stream, and for three sites at altitudes of 30 to 80 feet in Kahana Stream. Among the available low-flow estimates along each affected stream, the highest natural Q50 (median) flows on Waiahole (altitude 250 ft), Waianu (altitude 75 ft), Waikane (altitude 75 ft), and Kahana Streams (altitude 30 ft) are 13, 7.0, 5.5, and 22 million gallons per day, respectively. Q50 (median) is just one of five duration percentiles presented in this report to quantify low-flow discharges. All flow-duration estimates were adjusted to a common period of 1960-2004 (called the base period). Natural flow-duration estimates compared favorably with limited pre-ditch streamflow data available for Waiahole and Kahana Streams. Data collected since construction of

  16. Job insecurity and employability in fixed-term contractors, agency workers, and permanent workers: associations with job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Nele; Notelaers, Guy; De Witte, Hans

    2009-04-01

    This study investigates how job insecurity and employability relate to job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment in permanent workers, fixed-term contract workers, and temporary agency workers. The authors hypothesized that (a) job insecurity relates negatively to job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment, and this relationship is strongest in permanent workers and weakest in temporary agency workers; and that (b) employability relates positively to job satisfaction and negatively to affective organizational commitment, and this relationship is strongest in temporary agency workers and weakest in permanent workers. Hypotheses were tested in workers (permanent: n = 329; fixed term; n = 160; temporary agency: n = 89) from 23 Belgian organizations. The results show that job insecurity related negatively to the outcomes for permanent workers and temporary agency workers. This relationship was not significant for fixed-term contract workers. Employability related negatively to the outcomes for fixed-term contract workers and temporary agency workers, and this relationship was not significant for permanent workers. The 3 groups had different interpretations of what constitutes a stressor and about what signals a good employment relationship.

  17. How unemployment and precarious employment affect the health of young people: A scoping study on social determinants.

    PubMed

    Vancea, Mihaela; Utzet, Mireia

    2017-02-01

    The impact of unemployment and precarious employment on the health of young people is not well understood. However, according to social causation, higher socio-economic positions and thus better working conditions are beneficial to health in general. We tried to synthesize the results of studies that test this hypothesis in the case of young people. We conducted a scoping study mapping all the academic articles published in the period 2006-2016 in Europe. The literature was searched in PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus. We identified 1770 studies, of which only 46 met the inclusion criteria. There are more studies that focus on the relationship between unemployment and health than between precarious employment and health (28 and 16, respectively). The vast majority of the studies (44) found support for the social causation hypothesis, the most common health outcomes being mental health disorders, health risk behaviour, poor quality of life and occupational injuries. The causal mechanisms behind this association relied mainly on the life-course perspective, the breadwinner model, and the lack of social and economic benefits provided by standard employment. There is evidence that young people are especially vulnerable to health problems when unemployed or working in precarious conditions. Active labour market and training programmes, inclusive social security measures, improved working conditions and targeted health programmes are important for addressing this vulnerability. Further research should strive to enhance the causal model by including a gender perspective, longitudinal data, more indicators on precariousness and third factor explanations.

  18. The duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects feed sorting behavior both before and after acute ruminal acidosis1,2.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; Schwaiger, T; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how duration of time that cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects feed sorting, both before and after an episode of acute ruminal acidosis. Sixteen Angus heifers (261 ± 6.1 kg; BW ± SEM) were assigned to 1 of 4 blocks and fed a backgrounding (BG) diet (60% forage, DM basis). Within block, heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments differing in days fed a high-grain (HG; 9% forage, DM basis, fed ad libitum) diet before a ruminal acidosis challenge: 34 d for long adapted (LA) and 8 d for short adapted (SA). Ruminal acidosis was induced by restricting feed to 50% of DMI as a proportion of BW (determined individually for each heifer) for 24 h followed by an intraruminal infusion of ground barley at 10% of DMI as a proportion of BW measured before feed restriction. Feed and orts were sampled during the BG period, the first 26 d on the HG diet (only for LA cattle), the 8-d baseline (BASE) period, on the day of the ruminal acidosis challenge (CH), and during 2 consecutive 8-d recovery periods (REC1 and REC2) for each heifer and subjected to particle size analysis: 19-mm (long), 8-mm (medium), and 1.18-mm (short) screens and a pan (fine). On the BG diet, sorting for medium particles tended to be greater (104.2 vs. 102.1%; P = 0.07) for LA heifers than SA heifers, while sorting against short particles was greater (98.2 vs. 100.0%; P = 0.05) for LA heifers. During the first 26 d on the HG diet, LA cattle sorted for (P < 0.001) long (118.8%), medium (117.8%), and short (104.1%) particles and sorted against (P < 0.001) fine particles (45.3%). This sorting pattern was consistent for LA heifers during BASE period, CH day, and recovery periods, across which SA heifers exhibited less sorting (P ≤ 0.1). Greater duration of pH < 5.5 during the BASE period was associated with greater sorting for long particles (R(2) = 0.75, P = 0.01) in LA heifers and for long (R(2) = 0.49, P = 0.05) and medium (R(2) = 0.88, P < 0

  19. Systematic review of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus shedding: duration is affected by severity, but not age.

    PubMed

    Fielding, James E; Kelly, Heath A; Mercer, Geoffry N; Glass, Kathryn

    2014-03-01

    Duration of viral shedding following infection is an important determinant of disease transmission, informing both control policies and disease modelling. We undertook a systematic literature review of the duration of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus shedding to examine the effects of age, severity of illness and receipt of antiviral treatment. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database using the keywords 'H1N1', 'pandemic', 'pandemics', 'shed' and 'shedding'. Any study of humans with an outcome measure of viral shedding was eligible for inclusion in the review. Comparisons by age, degree of severity and antiviral treatment were made with forest plots. The search returned 214 articles of which 22 were eligible for the review. Significant statistical heterogeneity between studies precluded meta-analysis. The mean duration of viral shedding generally increased with severity of clinical presentation, but we found no evidence of longer shedding duration of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 among children compared with adults. Shorter viral shedding duration was observed when oseltamivir treatment was administered within 48 hours of illness onset. Considerable differences in the design and analysis of viral shedding studies limit their comparison and highlight the need for a standardised approach. These insights have implications not only for pandemic planning, but also for informing responses and study of seasonal influenza now that the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has become established as the seasonal H1N1 influenza virus.

  20. Factors affecting the duration of nestling period and fledging order in Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus): effect of wing length and hatching sequence.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Korpimäki, Erkki; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus) at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days). The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period) are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.

  1. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant ABA analogs on in vitro ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expr...

  2. Red Cell Storage Duration Does Not Affect Outcome after Massive Blood Transfusion in Trauma and Nontrauma Patients: A Retrospective Analysis of 305 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Alexander; Wright, Theodore B.; Meany, Janice; Kandadai, Sunitha K.; Brown, Benjamin; Khalafalla, Kareim; Hashem, Saeed; Smith, Jason W.; Ayyoubi, Tayyeb M.; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Wadhwa, Anupama

    2017-01-01

    Background Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) may increase morbidity and mortality, and patients having massive transfusion might be especially susceptible. We therefore tested the hypothesis that prolonged storage increases mortality in patients receiving massive transfusion after trauma or nontrauma surgery. Secondarily, we considered the extent to which storage effects differ for trauma and nontrauma surgery. Methods We considered surgical patients given more than 10 units of PRBC within 24 hours and evaluated the relationship between mean PRBC storage duration and in-hospital mortality using multivariable logistic regression. Potential nonlinearities in the relationship were assessed via restricted cubic splines. The secondary hypothesis was evaluated by considering whether there was an interaction between the type of surgery (trauma versus nontrauma) and the effect of storage duration on outcomes. Results 305 patients were given a total of 8,046 units of PRBCs, with duration ranging from 8 to 36 days (mean ± SD: 22 ± 6 days). The odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] for in-hospital mortality corresponding to a one-day in mean PRBC storage duration was 0.99 (0.95, 1.03, P = 0.77). The relationship did not differ for trauma and nontrauma patients (P = 0.75). Results were similar after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. Conclusions Mortality after massive blood transfusion was no worse in patients transfused with PRBC stored for long periods. Trauma and nontrauma patients did not differ in their susceptibility to prolonged PRBC storage. PMID:28589139

  3. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Aman Y; Benkovics, Anna H; Nogueira, Fabio T S; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C P

    2015-12-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  4. The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES Complex Employs Multiple Modes of Regulation to Affect Adaxial-Abaxial Patterning and Leaf Complexity[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Husbands, Aman Y.; Benkovics, Anna H.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.; Lodha, Mukesh; Timmermans, Marja C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Flattened leaf architecture is not a default state but depends on positional information to precisely coordinate patterns of cell division in the growing primordium. This information is provided, in part, by the boundary between the adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) domains of the leaf, which are specified via an intricate gene regulatory network whose precise circuitry remains poorly defined. Here, we examined the contribution of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS) pathway to adaxial-abaxial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana and demonstrate that AS1-AS2 affects this process via multiple, distinct regulatory mechanisms. AS1-AS2 uses Polycomb-dependent and -independent mechanisms to directly repress the abaxial determinants MIR166A, YABBY5, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3), as well as a nonrepressive mechanism in the regulation of the adaxial determinant TAS3A. These regulatory interactions, together with data from prior studies, lead to a model in which the sequential polarization of determinants, including AS1-AS2, explains the establishment and maintenance of adaxial-abaxial leaf polarity. Moreover, our analyses show that the shared repression of ARF3 by the AS and trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) pathways intersects with additional AS1-AS2 targets to affect multiple nodes in leaf development, impacting polarity as well as leaf complexity. These data illustrate the surprisingly multifaceted contribution of AS1-AS2 to leaf development showing that, in conjunction with the ta-siRNA pathway, AS1-AS2 keeps the Arabidopsis leaf both flat and simple. PMID:26589551

  5. Factors Affecting the Duration of Nestling Period and Fledging Order in Tengmalm’s Owl (Aegolius funereus): Effect of Wing Length and Hatching Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kouba, Marek; Bartoš, Luděk; Korpimäki, Erkki; Zárybnická, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm’s owl chicks (Aegolius funereus) at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 – 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days). The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm’s owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period) are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines. PMID:25793880

  6. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: Factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG-ACRIN's Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

    PubMed

    Tevaarwerk, Amye J; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary E; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles S; Fisch, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. A better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step toward the development of tools for assisting survivors in this important realm. The ECOG-ACRIN Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study was analyzed to investigate what factors were associated with the employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working with patients no longer working. There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in the analysis: 236 (35%) worked full- or part-time, whereas 302 (45%) had stopped working because of illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. A better performance status and non-Hispanic white ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis in the multivariate analysis. The disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. A significant percentage of the metastatic patients remained employed; increased symptom burden was associated with a change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working if this is desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address workplace difficulties have promise for improving this aspect of survivorship. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  7. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG’s Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP) study

    PubMed Central

    Tevaarwerk, Amye; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles; Fisch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. Better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step towards the development of tools to assist survivors in this important realm. Methods We analyzed the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group’s “Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP)” study to investigate what factors were associated with employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working (Group A) to patients no longer working (Group B). Results There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in our analysis; 236 (35%) worked full or part-time while 302 (45%) stopped working due to illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. Better performance status and non-Hispanic White ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis on multivariable analysis. Disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. Conclusions A significant percentage of metastatic patients remain employed; symptom burden was associated with change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working, if desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address work place difficulties have promise to improve this aspect of survivorship. PMID:26687819

  8. Does increased duration of consultant presence affect length of hospital stay for unplanned admissions in acute paediatrics?: an observational before-and-after analysis using administrative healthcare data.

    PubMed

    Cromb, Daniel; Carter, Chris; Lemer, Claire; Cheung, C Ronny

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to review whether implementation of increased duration of consultant presence is associated with reduction in length of hospital stay (LoS) in children with an unplanned admission to hospital. METHOD DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS/OUTCOME MEASURES: An observational before-and-after study of all unplanned general paediatric admissions to a UK hospital between 1 September 2012 and 31 August 2015, comparing LoS and readmission rates before and after implementation of a policy mandating consultant review within 12 hours of unplanned hospital admission. 5367 inpatient admissions were analysed: 3386 prior to implementation of the policy and 1981 afterwards. There was no significant difference in median LoS between the two groups or in readmission rates at 24 hours, 48 hours or 7 days. However, among children who stayed in hospital for under 24 hours, and those who were discharged with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis, consultant review within 12 hours of admission was associated with a shorter LoS-respectively, 16 hours 23 min versus 15 hours 45 min (p=0.01) and 28 hours 46 min versus 19 hours 41 m (p<0.01). Increased duration of consultant presence was not associated with significant impact on LoS, other than in admissions of brief duration and in gastroenteritis, where diagnosis is based on clinical judgement in the absence of objective diagnostic thresholds. Future studies should focus on whether these results are generalisable across other settings, and other measures of cost-effectiveness of early consultant review, given the major implications on resource and workforce planning of such policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Perceptions of employment relations and permanence in the organization: mediating effects of affective commitment in relations of psychological contract and intention to quit.

    PubMed

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José

    2012-06-01

    Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations.

  10. Preservation media, durations and cell concentrations of short-term storage affect key features of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengli; Ren, Huaijuan; Shao, Xiaohu; Zhuang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Background Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have shown great potential in the treatment of various diseases. However, the optimum short-term storage condition of ADSCs in 2∼8 °C is rarely reported. This study aimed at optimizing a short-term storage condition to ensure the viability and function of ADSCs before transplantation. Methods Preservation media and durations of storage were evaluated by cell viability, apoptosis, adhesion ability and colony-forming unit (CFU) capacity of ADSCs. The abilities of cell proliferation and differentiation were used to optimize cell concentrations. Optimized preservation condition was evaluated by cell surface markers, cell cycle and immunosuppressive capacity. Results A total of 5% human serum albumin in multiple electrolytes (ME + HSA) was the optimized medium with high cell viability, low cluster rate, good adhesion ability and high CFU capacity of ADSCs. Duration of storage should be limited to 24 h to ensure the quality of ADSCs before transplantation. A concentration of 5 × 106 cells/ml was the most suitable cell concentration with low late stage apoptosis, rapid proliferation and good osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation ability. This selected condition did not change surface markers, cell cycle, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) gene expression and kynurenine (Kyn) concentration significantly. Discussion In this study, ME + HSA was found to be the best medium, most likely due to the supplement of HSA which could protect cells, the physiological pH (7.4) of ME and sodium gluconate ingredient in ME which could provide energy for cells. Duration should be limited to 24 h because of reduced nutrient supply and increased waste and lactic acid accumulation during prolonged storage. To keep cell proliferation and limit lactic acid accumulation, the proper cell concentration is 5× 106 cells/ml. Surface markers, cell cycle and immunosuppressive capacity did not change significantly after storage

  11. Stigma Sensitivity and the Duration of Temporary Closure Are Affected by Pollinator Identity in Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae), a Species with Bilobed Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-Fang; Ye, Zhong-Ming; Amboka, Grace M.; Wang, Qing-Feng; Yang, Chun-Feng

    2017-01-01

    A sensitive bilobed stigma is thought to assure reproduction, avoid selfing and promote outcrossing. In addition, it may also play a role in pollinator selection since only pollinators with the appropriate body size can trigger this mechanism. However, no experimental study has investigated how the sensitive stigma responds to different pollinators and its potential effects on pollination. Mazus miquelii (Phrymaceae), a plant with a bilobed stigma was studied to investigate the relationship between stigma behaviors and its multiple insect pollinators. The reaction time of stigma closure after touched, duration of temporary closure, and factors determining permanent closure of the stigma were studied when flowers were exposed to different visitors and conducted with hand pollination. Manual stimulation was also used to detect the potential differences in stigmas when touched with different degrees of external forces. Results indicated that, compared to pollinators with a small body size, larger pollinators transferred more pollen grains to the stigma, causing a rapid stigma response and resulting in a higher percentage of permanent closures. Duration of temporary closure was negatively correlated with the speed of stigma closure; a stigma that closed more rapidly reopened more slowly. Manual stimulation showed that reaction time of stigma closure was likely a response to external mechanical forces. Hand pollination treatments revealed that the permanent closure of a stigma was determined by the size of stigmatic pollen load. For large pollinators, the speedy reaction of the stigma might help to reduce pollen loss, enhance pollen germination and avoid obstructing pollen export. Stigmas showed low sensitivity when touched by inferior pollinators, which may have increased the possibility of pollen deposition by subsequent visits. Therefore, the stigma behavior in M. miquelii is likely a mechanism of pollinator selection to maximize pollination success. PMID:28539934

  12. The association between manual mode defibrillation, pre-shock pause duration and appropriate shock delivery when employed by basic life support paramedics during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Cheskes, Sheldon; Hillier, Morgan; Byers, Adam; Verbeek, P Richard; Drennan, Ian R; Zhan, Cathy; Morrison, Laurie J

    2015-05-01

    Pre-shock pause duration of <20s is associated with improved survival after cardiac arrest. Manual mode defibrillation has been associated with the shortest duration of pre-shock pause but is largely practiced by advanced life support paramedics (ALS) whereas defibrillator only paramedics (basic life support or BLS) routinely use the defibrillator in automatic mode. We sought to explore the relationship between manual mode defibrillation, pre-shock pause duration and rate of inappropriate shocks when defibrillation is provided by ALS vs. BLS trained in manual mode defibrillation. We performed a retrospective review of all treated non-traumatic adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) presenting in a shockable rhythm over a one year period beginning January 1, 2012. Our primary outcome measure was the proportion of manual mode shocks delivered by BLS with pre-shock pause duration of <20s when compared to ALS. Our secondary outcome measures were the duration of pre-, post- and peri-shock pause and the proportion of appropriate shocks (defined as correct identification and shock delivery to patients in a shockable rhythm) delivered by either level of paramedic. This study had a power of 90% to detect an absolute difference of 15% between paramedic levels in proportion of shocks delivered with pre-shock pause duration <20s. Among 2019 treated OHCA, 335 (20%) presented in a shockable rhythm. Manual defibrillation was performed in 155 (46%) of these cases (196 shocks by ALS, 143 shocks by BLS). There were no differences in the proportion of shocks delivered with pre-shock pause duration <20s (ALS 82.8% vs. BLS 84.8%, p=.65) nor pre-shock pause duration (s) (median, Q1, Q3); ALS: 12.0 (7.0,17.0) vs. BLS: 11.0 (5.0,17.0), p=.13 while BLS had a significantly shorter peri-shock pause duration (s) (median, Q1, Q3); ALS: 17.0 (12.0, 23.0) vs. BLS: 15.0 (9.0, 22.0), p=.05. There were no differences in the rate of inappropriate shocks (ALS 1.0% vs. BLS 0.7%), p=1.0 between

  13. Anthocyanin absorption, metabolism, and distribution from a wild blueberry-enriched diet (Vaccinium angustifolium) is affected by diet duration in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Del Bò, Cristian; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Martini, Daniela; Gardana, Claudio; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa

    2010-02-24

    The effect of wild blueberry consumption on anthocyanin (ACNs) distribution and metabolism in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. Thirty-two rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks with a control (C) or a wild blueberry-enriched diet (8%) (WB). Anthocyanin profile in plasma, urine, feces, brain, and liver was evaluated by LC-MS/MS, and significantly increased in urine and not in feces after 8 weeks on the WB diet compared to that in 4 weeks, but no anthocyanins were detected in plasma, liver, and brain samples either in the C or WB groups. Metabolites of ACNs were detected in the plasma, urine, feces, and tissues of both the C and WB groups, but the urinary excretion of hippuric acid increased significantly after 4 and 8 weeks of WB consumption. Thus, it seems that ACNs are metabolized by the intestinal microflora to respective phenyl-alkyl acids, which can be further metabolized to benzoic acid. In conclusion, ACNs are bioavailable in rats, and the extent of their metabolism and excretion is based on diet duration. Additionally, urinary hippuric acid content could represent a potential biomarker of ACNs absorption and metabolism in the SD rat under the present experimental conditions.

  14. Sorghum seed maturity affects the weight and feeding duration of immature corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Soper, Alysha M; Whitworth, R Jeff; McCornack, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed.

  15. Sorghum Seed Maturity Affects the Weight and Feeding Duration of Immature Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Alysha M.; Whitworth, R. Jeff; McCornack, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed. PMID:24219328

  16. Flow-duration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James Kincheon

    1959-01-01

    The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

  17. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias.

    PubMed

    Goss, E P; Paul, C; Wilhite, A

    1994-01-01

    Modeling the factors affecting the duration of unemployment was found to be influenced by the inclusion of migration factors. Traditional models which did not control for migration factors were found to underestimate movers' probability of finding an acceptable job. The empirical test of the theory, based on the analysis of data on US household heads unemployed in 1982 and employed in 1982 and 1983, found that the cumulative probability of reemployment in the traditional model was .422 and in the migration selectivity model was .624 after 30 weeks of searching. In addition, controlling for selectivity eliminated the significance of the relationship between race and job search duration in the model. The relationship between search duration and the county unemployment rate in 1982 became statistically significant, and the relationship between search duration and 1980 population per square mile in the 1982 county of residence became statistically insignificant. The finding that non-Whites have a longer duration of unemployment can better be understood as non-Whites' lower geographic mobility and lack of greater job contacts. The statistical significance of a high unemployment rate in the home labor market reducing the probability of finding employment was more in keeping with expectations. The findings assumed that the duration of employment accurately reflected the length of job search. The sample was redrawn to exclude discouraged workers and the analysis was repeated. The findings were similar to the full sample, with the coefficient for migration variable being negative and statistically significant and the coefficient for alpha remaining positive and statistically significant. Race in the selectivity model remained statistically insignificant. The findings supported the Schwartz model hypothesizing that the expansion of the radius of the search would reduce the duration of unemployment. The exclusion of the migration factor misspecified the equation for

  18. Chemical inhibition of potato ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity alters in vitro and in vivo ABA metabolism and endogenous ABA levels but does not affect potato microtuber dormancy duration.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Abrams, Suzanne R; De Stefano-Beltrán, Luis; Huckle, Linda L

    2012-09-01

    The effects of azole-type P450 inhibitors and two metabolism-resistant abscisic acid (ABA) analogues on in vitro ABA-8'-hydroxylase activity, in planta ABA metabolism, endogenous ABA content, and tuber meristem dormancy duration were examined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank). When functionally expressed in yeast, three potato CYP707A genes were demonstrated to encode enzymatically active ABA-8'-hydroxylases with micromolar affinities for (+)-ABA. The in vitro activity of the three enzymes was inhibited by the P450 azole-type inhibitors ancymidol, paclobutrazol, diniconazole, and tetcyclasis, and by the 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA analogues, with diniconazole and tetcyclasis being the most potent inhibitors. The in planta metabolism of [(3)H](±)-ABA to phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid in tuber meristems was inhibited by diniconazole, tetcyclasis, and to a lesser extent by 8'-acetylene- and 8'-methylene-ABA. Continuous exposure of in vitro generated microtubers to diniconazole resulted in a 2-fold increase in endogenous ABA content and a decline in dihydrophaseic acid content after 9 weeks of development. Similar treatment with 8'-acetylene-ABA had no effects on the endogenous contents of ABA or phaseic acid but reduced the content of dihydrophaseic acid. Tuber meristem dormancy progression was determined ex vitro in control, diniconazole-, and 8'-acetylene-ABA-treated microtubers following harvest. Continuous exposure to diniconazole during microtuber development had no effects on subsequent sprouting at any time point. Continuous exposure to 8'-acetylene-ABA significantly increased the rate of microtuber sprouting. The results indicate that, although a decrease in ABA content is a hallmark of tuber dormancy progression, the decline in ABA levels is not a prerequisite for dormancy exit and the onset of tuber sprouting.

  19. Employment Testing and Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, David E.

    1975-01-01

    The article deals with personnel problems associated with the status of employment testing practices as affected by equal employment opportunity legislation. A coordinated effort by business, government, and education is needed to provide clear step-by-step guidelines. (EA)

  20. Separate serotonin and dopamine receptors modulate the duration of post-tetanic potentiation at an Aplysia synapse without affecting other aspects of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Newlin, S A; Schlapfer, W T; Barondes, S H

    1980-01-06

    We have studied the effect of the biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine, on post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) at an identified synapse in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. We found that: (1) 10(-7) M perfused serotonin doubles the rate constant of decay of PTP. The effect is specific in that neither the size of the non-potentiated (isolated) EPSP nor the amplitude of PTP is affected. As reported previously, higher doses of serotonin will also increase the amplitude of PTP and decrease the size of the isolated EPSP; (2) 5 X 10(-7) M dopamine in the perfusate increases the rate constant of decay of PTP by about 50%. The effect is also specific in that neither PTP amplitude nor the size of the isolated EPSP is affected; (3) SQ10,631, a serotonin antagonist, blocks the effect of perfused serotonin on PTP decay rate. It does not antagonize the dopamine effect. SQ10,631 also slows the endogenous decay of PTP in some preparations which exhibit an unusually fast PTP decay rate, suggesting a naturally occurring source of serotonin within the ganglion capable of affecting the rate constant of PTP decay; (4) (+)-butaclamol, a dopamine antagonist, blocks the effect of dopamine on the rate constant of PTP decay, whereas (-)-butaclamol has little effect. Butaclamol does not block the effect of serotonin on the rate constant of PTP decay; (5) phosphodiesterase inhibitors potentiate the effect of serotonin on the rate constant of PTP decay, and cyclic AMP analogues mimic the effect of the biogenic amines, suggesting that the aminergic modulation of the rate of decay of PTP is coupled with activation of adenylate cyclase and accumulation of cyclic AMP; and (6) the evidence presented is consistent with the hypothesis that serotonin and dopamine are capable of specifically modifying the rate of change in the efficacy of transmitter release which underlies PTP. It also suggests that the two biogenic amines operate separately and in parallel via presynaptic receptor

  1. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25–75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (<5) at all sites through August 2010; in 2011, a 100-year Mississippi River flood event resulted in low salinity in late spring. Extended low salinity (<5) during hot summer months (>25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (<5) for a shorter period that did not extend into July (<25 °C) in 2011 had minimal impacts on oyster growth and mortality. In 2011, recruitment was limited, which may be due to a combination of low spring time salinities, high 2010 oyster mortality, minimal 2010 recruitment, cumulative effects from 10 years of declining oyster stock in the area, and poor cultch quality. In both 2010 and 2011, Perkinsus marinusinfection prevalence remained low throughout the year at all sites and almost all infection intensities were light. Oyster plasma osmolality failed to match surrounding low salinity waters in 2010, while oysters appeared to osmoconform throughout 2011 indicating that the high mortality in 2010 may be due to extended valve closing and resulting starvation or asphyxiation in response to the combination of low salinity during high temperatures (>25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  2. Differences in extreme low salinity timing and duration differentially affect eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) size class growth and mortality in Breton Sound, LA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Peyre, Megan K.; Eberline, Benjamin S.; Soniat, Thomas M.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how different life history stages are impacted by extreme or stochastic environmental variation is critical for predicting and modeling organism population dynamics. This project examined recruitment, growth, and mortality of seed (25-75 mm) and market (>75 mm) sized oysters along a salinity gradient over two years in Breton Sound, LA. In April 2010, management responses to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in extreme low salinity (<5) at all sites through August 2010; in 2011, a 100-year Mississippi River flood event resulted in low salinity in late spring. Extended low salinity (<5) during hot summer months (>25 °C) significantly and negatively impacted oyster recruitment, survival and growth in 2010, while low salinity (<5) for a shorter period that did not extend into July (<25 °C) in 2011 had minimal impacts on oyster growth and mortality. In 2011, recruitment was limited, which may be due to a combination of low spring time salinities, high 2010 oyster mortality, minimal 2010 recruitment, cumulative effects from 10 years of declining oyster stock in the area, and poor cultch quality. In both 2010 and 2011, Perkinsus marinus infection prevalence remained low throughout the year at all sites and almost all infection intensities were light. Oyster plasma osmolality failed to match surrounding low salinity waters in 2010, while oysters appeared to osmoconform throughout 2011 indicating that the high mortality in 2010 may be due to extended valve closing and resulting starvation or asphyxiation in response to the combination of low salinity during high temperatures (>25 °C). With increasing management of our freshwater inputs to estuaries combined with predicted climate changes, how extreme events affect different life history stages is key to understanding variation in population demographics of commercially important species and predicting future populations.

  3. How are the employed and unemployed affected by the economic crisis in Spain? Educational inequalities, life conditions and mental health in a context of high unemployment.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; San Sebastián, Miguel; Gustafsson, Per E

    2016-03-15

    Despite an increasing number of studies on the factors mediating the impact of the economic recession on mental health, research beyond the individual employment status is scarce. Our objectives were to investigate in which ways the mental health of employed and unemployed populations is differently affected by the current economic recession along the educational scale and to examine whether financial strain and social support explain these effects of the crisis. A repeated cross-sectional study, using two waves of the Andalusian Health Survey in 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011-2012 (crisis). A population aged between 19 and 64 years was selected. The dependent variable was the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 questionnaire. We performed Poisson regression models stratified by working status, with period, educational level, financial strain and social support as independent variables. We examined interactions between period and educational level. Age, sex, main earner, cohabitation and partner's working status were considered as covariates. The study included 3210 individuals (1185 women) in 2007 and 3633 individuals (1486 women) in 2011-2012. In working individuals the prevalence of poor mental health increased for secondary and complete primary studies groups during crisis compared to the pre-crisis period, while it decreased significantly in the university study group (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99). However, in unemployed individuals prevalence ratios for poor mental health increased significantly only in the secondary studies group (PR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.06-2.83). Financial strain and social support yielded consistent associations with mental health in all subgroups. Only financial strain could partly explain the crisis effect on mental health among the unemployed. Our study supports the finding that current economic recession is associated with poorer mental health differentially according to labour market status and educational level. Those with secondary

  4. The Impacts of Postdoctoral Training on Scientists' Academic Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xuhong

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of postdoctoral training affecting scientists' academic employment, focusing on timing and prestige dimensions. Postdoc training proves beneficial to academic employment--more so in less prestigious departments than in top ones. Postdoc duration is subject to diminishing returns. The benefits of training…

  5. The Impacts of Postdoctoral Training on Scientists' Academic Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xuhong

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics of postdoctoral training affecting scientists' academic employment, focusing on timing and prestige dimensions. Postdoc training proves beneficial to academic employment--more so in less prestigious departments than in top ones. Postdoc duration is subject to diminishing returns. The benefits of training…

  6. Some effects of duration on vowel recognition.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, J M; Clark, M J; Houde, R A

    2000-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the role of duration in vowel perception by testing listeners on the identification of CVC syllables generated at different durations. Test signals consisted of synthesized versions of 300 utterances selected from a large, multitalker database of /hVd/ syllables [Hillenbrand et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 3099-3111 (1995)]. Four versions of each utterance were synthesized: (1) an original duration set (vowel duration matched to the original utterance), (2) a neutral duration set (duration fixed at 272 ms, the grand mean across all vowels), (3) a short duration set (duration fixed at 144 ms, two standard deviations below the mean), and (4) a long duration set (duration fixed at 400 ms, two standard deviations above the mean). Experiment 1 used a formant synthesizer, while a second experiment was an exact replication using a sinusoidal synthesis method that represented the original vowel spectrum more precisely than the formant synthesizer. Findings included (1) duration had a small overall effect on vowel identity since the great majority of signals were identified correctly at their original durations and at all three altered durations; (2) despite the relatively small average effect of duration, some vowels, especially [see text] and [see text], were significantly affected by duration; (3) some vowel contrasts that differ systematically in duration, such as [see text], and [see text], were minimally affected by duration; (4) a simple pattern recognition model appears to be capable of accounting for several features of the listening test results, especially the greater influence of duration on some vowels than others; and (5) because a formant synthesizer does an imperfect job of representing the fine details of the original vowel spectrum, results using the formant-synthesized signals led to a slight overestimate of the role of duration in vowel recognition, especially for the shortened vowels.

  7. Evaluating Factors that Affect Construction Project Duration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Robinson Report on Artificial Intelligence, Vol 5, No. 3 (March 1989). Arditi , David, "Diffusion of Network Planning in Construction," Journal of the...Construction Division, Vol 109, No. CO1 (American Society of Civil Engineers [ASCE], March 1983). Arditi , David, et al., "Line of Balance Scheduling in

  8. How does outcome-based funding affect service delivery? An analysis of consequences within employment services for people living with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Cott, Cheryl; Rush, Brian; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of outcome-based funding on service delivery within employment services for people with serious mental illness. It draws on a case study of a policy change in the provincial disability support program in Ontario, Canada where funding for employment programs and services was changed from a fee-for-service to an outcome-based model. The findings highlight that the financial imperative for programs to meet employment targets in order to secure their funding has shifted the focus away from the provision of pre-employment supports to job development and job placements. However, there remains little attention to job matching and career development, and there is concern about access to services among those with complex barriers to employment. There is a need to reconcile tensions between the goals of outcome-based funding and on-the-ground service delivery to promote ongoing innovation in employment services for people with serious mental illness.

  9. The duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects the recovery from a bout of ruminal acidosis: dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, T; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine if the duration of time cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects their susceptibility to and recovery from ruminal acidosis. Sixteen Angus heifers (BW ± SEM, 261 ± 6.1 kg) were assigned to 1 of 4 blocks and fed a backgrounding diet consisting of 60% barley silage, 30% barley grain, and 10% supplement (DM basis). Within block, cattle were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments differing in the number of days they were fed the high-grain diet before an acidosis challenge: 34 d for long adapted (LA) and 8 d for short adapted (SA). All heifers were exposed to the same 20 d dietary transition to a high-grain diet containing 9% barley silage, 81% barley grain, and 10% supplement (DM basis). Ruminal acidosis was induced by restricting feed to 50% of DMI:BW for 24 h followed by an intraruminal infusion of ground barley at 10% DMI:BW. Heifers were then given their regular diet allocation 1 h after the intraruminal infusion. Data were collected during an 8-d baseline period (BASE), on the day of the acidosis challenge (CHAL), and during 2 consecutive 8-d recovery periods (REC1 and REC2). Acidosis induction increased daily duration (531 to 1,020 min/d; P < 0.001) and area (176 to 595 (min × pH)/d; P < 0.001) that ruminal pH was <5.5 relative to BASE. Relative to BASE, inducing acidosis also increased the daily mean (0.3 to 11.4 mM; P = 0.013) and maximum (1.3 to 29.3 mM; P = 0.008) ruminal fluid lactate concentrations. There was no effect of dietary treatment on ruminal pH, lactate, or short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations (P > 0.050). However, during BASE and CHAL, SA heifers experienced greater linear (P = 0.031), quadratic (P = 0.016), and cubic (P = 0.008) coefficients for the duration of time that pH was <5.5. In addition, a treatment × day interaction for the duration that pH was <5.5 during REC1 suggested that LA cattle tended to recover from the challenge more rapidly than SA cattle (P = 0.085). Regression analysis

  10. On the potential for RF heating in MRI to affect metabolic rates and (18) FDG signal in PET/MR: simulations of long-duration, maximum normal mode heating.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Giuseppe; Ding, Yu-Shin; Logan, Jean; Collins, Christopher M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the possibility that MR-induced RF power deposition (SAR) and the resulting effects on temperature-dependent metabolic rates or perfusion rates might affect observed 18FDG signal in PET/MR. Using numerical simulations of the SAR, consequent temperature increase, effect on rates of metabolism or perfusion, and [18FDG] throughout the body, we simulated the potential effect of maximum-allowable whole-body SAR for the entire duration of an hour-long PET/MR scan on observed PET signal for two different 18FDG injection times: one hour before onset of imaging and concurrent with the beginning of imaging. This was all repeated three times with the head, the heart, and the abdomen (kidneys) at the center of the RF coil. Qualitatively, little effect of MR-induced heating is observed on simulated PET images. Maximum relative increases in PET signal (26% and 31% increase, respectively, for the uptake models based on metabolism and the perfusion) occur in regions of low baseline metabolic rate (also associated with low perfusion and, thus, greater potential temperature increase due to high local SAR), such that PET signal in these areas remains comparatively low. Maximum relative increases in regions of high metabolic rate (and also high perfusion: heart, thyroid, brain, etc.) are affected mostly by the relatively small increase in core body temperature and thus are not affected greatly (10% maximum increase). Even for worst-case heating, little effect of MR-induced heating is expected on 18FDG PET images during PET/MR for many clinically relevant applications. For quantitative, dynamic MR/PET studies requiring high SAR for extended periods, it is hoped that methods like those introduced here can help account for such potential effects in design of a given study, including selection of reference locations that should not experience notable increase in temperature. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults: results from the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. In the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. Accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. In order to understand the regulation of dormancy and flowering in kiwifruit, nine kiwifruit SOC1-like genes were identified and characterized. All genes affected flowering time of A. thaliana Col-0 and were able to rescue the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed. A differential capacity for homodimerization was observed, but all proteins were capable of strong interactions with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) MADS-domain proteins. Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members. Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling. These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials. PMID:25979999

  13. Functional and expression analyses of kiwifruit SOC1-like genes suggest that they may not have a role in the transition to flowering but may affect the duration of dormancy.

    PubMed

    Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2015-08-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) is one of the key integrators of endogenous and environmental signals that promote flowering in the annual species Arabidopsis thaliana. In the deciduous woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), environmental signals are integrated to regulate annual cycles of growth and dormancy. Accumulation of chilling during winter is required for dormancy break and flowering in spring. In order to understand the regulation of dormancy and flowering in kiwifruit, nine kiwifruit SOC1-like genes were identified and characterized. All genes affected flowering time of A. thaliana Col-0 and were able to rescue the late flowering phenotype of the soc1-2 mutant when ectopically expressed. A differential capacity for homodimerization was observed, but all proteins were capable of strong interactions with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) MADS-domain proteins. Largely overlapping spatial domains but distinct expression profiles in buds were identified between the SOC1-like gene family members. Ectopic expression of AcSOC1e, AcSOC1i, and AcSOC1f in Actinidia chinensis had no impact on establishment of winter dormancy and failed to induce precocious flowering, but AcSOC1i reduced the duration of dormancy in the absence of winter chilling. These findings add to our understanding of the SOC1-like gene family and the potential diversification of SOC1 function in woody perennials.

  14. Employment equality.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Two new sets of employment regulations that came into force at the end of last year are now available on the internet, writes Steven Black. The Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations 2003 are available at www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2003/20031660.htm and The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 are at www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2003/20031661.htm.

  15. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    PubMed

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 20 CFR 655.737 - What are “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrants, and how does their employment affect the additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... additional obligations do not apply to an LCA filed by such an employer if the LCA is used only for the...) may designate on the LCA that the LCA will be used only to support H-1B petition(s) and/or request(s... “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrant(s) on the LCA, then the DHS—as part of the adjudication of the H-1B petition...

  17. 20 CFR 655.737 - What are “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrants, and how does their employment affect the additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additional obligations do not apply to an LCA filed by such an employer if the LCA is used only for the...) may designate on the LCA that the LCA will be used only to support H-1B petition(s) and/or request(s... “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrant(s) on the LCA, then the DHS—as part of the adjudication of the H-1B petition...

  18. 20 CFR 655.737 - What are “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrants, and how does their employment affect the additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additional obligations do not apply to an LCA filed by such an employer if the LCA is used only for the...) may designate on the LCA that the LCA will be used only to support H-1B petition(s) and/or request(s... “exempt” H-1B nonimmigrant(s) on the LCA, then the DHS—as part of the adjudication of the H-1B petition...

  19. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  20. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  1. Flow Duration at Selected Stream-Sites in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, F.; Kiesler, J.; Macy, J.

    1980-01-01

    Flow duration characteristics were determined for 195 streamflow stations in Kentucky. The data includes flow duration tables for the period of record of the stations based on mean daily discharges. Seasonal flow durations are also presented from monthly analysis of the data. At sites affected by regulation, tables are published showing both the before and after regulation flow duration data. (USGS)

  2. Icon Duration and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerman, Kent; And Others

    In this study, developmental changes in duration of the icon (visual sensory store) were investigated with three converging tachistoscopic tasks. (1) Stimulus interuption detection (SID), a variation of the two-flash threshold method, was performed by 29 first- and 32 fifth-graders, and 32 undergraduates. Icon duration was estimated by stimulus…

  3. Simultaneous effects on vowel duration in American English: a covariance structure modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Erickson, M L

    2000-12-01

    The powerful techniques of covariance structure modeling (CSM) long have been used to study complex behavioral phenomenon in the social and behavioral sciences. This study employed these same techniques to examine simultaneous effects on vowel duration in American English. Additionally, this study investigated whether a single population model of vowel duration fits observed data better than a dual population model where separate parameters are generated for syllables that carry large information loads and for syllables that specify linguistic relationships. For the single population model, intrinsic duration, phrase final position, lexical stress, post-vocalic consonant voicing, and position in word all were significant predictors of vowel duration. However, the dual population model, in which separate model parameters were generated for (1) monosyllabic content words and lexically stressed syllables and (2) monosyllabic function words and lexically unstressed syllables, fit the data better than the single population model. Intrinsic duration and phrase final position affected duration similarly for both the populations. On the other hand, the effects of post-vocalic consonant voicing and position in word, while significant predictors of vowel duration in content words and stressed syllables, were not significant predictors of vowel duration in function words or unstressed syllables. These results are not unexpected, based on previous research, and suggest that covariance structure analysis can be used as a complementary technique in linguistic and phonetic research.

  4. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study.

  5. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  6. Employment among Spinal Cord Injured Patients Living in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Bardak, Ayse Nur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of employment and to establish the factors affecting vocational status in spinal cord injured patients living in Turkey. One hundred and fifty-two traumatic spinal cord injured patients older than 18 years with injury duration of at least 1 year and living in the community were included in the study;…

  7. [Effect of using an instrument for continuous evaluation of nursing quality in terms of employment satisfaction and of their affective implications].

    PubMed

    Maes, Blandine; Fontanaud, Nelly; Pronost, Anne-Marie

    2010-09-01

    Medical staff are directly concerned by improving the quality of care. The goal of this study is to assess qualitatively the effects of the application of a Global Assessment Instrument for the Quality of Care on thirty nurses divided in two groups: an experimental group--who participated in the IGE-QSI--and another "witness" group--who participated in another project. The theory developed with the research involves the affective implication and satisfaction at work. Affective implication is the emotional attachment of the employee vis-a-vis the hospital. Satisfaction at work is a positive answer of the worker to their professional environment. The results of the research show that satisfaction in the workplace could be the result of professional experience and maturity. Hence, there could be a link between personal values and attitude that could encourage the implication of the staff in management. Responsibilities, recognition and the feeling of belonging to a group are part of the positive incentives and help develop management objectives.

  8. 45 CFR 400.81 - Criteria for appropriate employability services and employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Requirements for Employability Services and Employment Criteria for... duration (including any time enrolled in such program in the United States prior to the...

  9. Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Ron, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" reports on major shifts in attitudes, practices, and policies that have led to the growth of supported employment programs for people with disabilities, with special focus on the situation in Minnesota. It contains the following articles: "To the Year 2000 and Beyond: Jobs Won't Be the Problem" (David R.…

  10. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  11. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration. 330.1102 Section 330.1102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of...

  12. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 330.1102 Section 330.1102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of...

  13. Optimized adaptation algorithm for HEVC/H.265 dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP using variable segment duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive video streaming using HTTP has become popular in recent years for commercial video delivery. The recent MPEG-DASH standard allows interoperability and adaptability between servers and clients from different vendors. The delivery of the MPD (Media Presentation Description) files in DASH and the DASH client behaviours are beyond the scope of the DASH standard. However, the different adaptation algorithms employed by the clients do affect the overall performance of the system and users' QoE (Quality of Experience), hence the need for research in this field. Moreover, standard DASH delivery is based on fixed segments of the video. However, there is no standard segment duration for DASH where various fixed segment durations have been employed by different commercial solutions and researchers with their own individual merits. Most recently, the use of variable segment duration in DASH has emerged but only a few preliminary studies without practical implementation exist. In addition, such a technique requires a DASH client to be aware of segment duration variations, and this requirement and the corresponding implications on the DASH system design have not been investigated. This paper proposes a segment-duration-aware bandwidth estimation and next-segment selection adaptation strategy for DASH. Firstly, an MPD file extension scheme to support variable segment duration is proposed and implemented in a realistic hardware testbed. The scheme is tested on a DASH client, and the tests and analysis have led to an insight on the time to download next segment and the buffer behaviour when fetching and switching between segments of different playback durations. Issues like sustained buffering when switching between segments of different durations and slow response to changing network conditions are highlighted and investigated. An enhanced adaptation algorithm is then proposed to accurately estimate the bandwidth and precisely determine the time to download the next

  14. The sequence of administration of 1.5% mepivacaine and 0.5% bupivacaine does not affect latency of block onset or duration of analgesia in ultrasound-guided interscalene block.

    PubMed

    Gadsden, Jeff; Shariat, Ali; Hadzic, Admir; Xu, Daquan; Patel, Vijay; Maliakal, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    During peripheral nerve blockade, different local anesthetics may be sequentially administered. Typically, a short- or intermediate-acting local anesthetic is administered before a long-acting local anesthetic to achieve a block with rapid onset and long duration. However, there is a paucity of data on advantages of such sequencing. We hypothesized that when using a sequential mixture of mepivacaine and bupivacaine for ultrasound-guided interscalene block, the order of injection of the drugs does not influence the clinical characteristics of the block achieved. Sixty-four patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery (aged 18-65 years; ASA physical status I-II) with a single-injection ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block as sole anesthetic were studied. The subjects were randomized to receive 1 of 2 local anesthetic sequences: 15 mL of mepivacaine 1.5% followed by 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.5% (group A), or the same local anesthetics in the reverse order (group B). The durations of sensory and motor block were the primary outcomes. Block onset was also assessed. Duration of motor block was similar between group A and group B (10.1 ± 4.7 hours vs 10.3 ± 5.1 hours, mean difference 0.2 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.3 to 2.9, P = 0.9). Duration of analgesia was also similar between group A and group B (9.5 ± 5.6 hours vs 10.2 ± 4.5 hours, mean difference 0.7 hours, 95% CI -3.2 to 1.9, P = 0.42). Onset of sensory block was similar between the 2 groups (15.9 ± 7.1 minutes for group A, 13.9 ± 7.0 minutes for group B, mean difference 1.9 minutes, 95% CI -1.4 to 5.2, P = 0.25). The sequence in which 15 mL mepivacaine 1.5% and 15 mL bupivacaine 0.5% are administered does not seem to have a clinically meaningful effect on duration or onset of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block.

  15. When Jobs Move, Do Black and Latino Men Lose? The Effect of Growth in Job Decentralisation on Young Men's Jobless Incidence and Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the U.S. Census of Industries (1982) to examine the growth in metropolitan job decentralization on the incidence and duration of joblessness among young males. Overall, growth in job decentralization negatively affects the employment patterns of young minority men. (SLD)

  16. Sleep Duration and Biomarkers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Zhu, Xiaobei; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Mehra, Reena; Jenny, Nancy S.; Tracy, Russell; Redline, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Extremes of sleep duration have been associated with adverse health outcomes. The mechanism is unclear but may be related to increased inflammation. We sought to assess the association between sleep duration and inflammatory biomarkers. Methods: A total of 614 individuals from the Cleveland Family Study completed questionnaires about sleep habits and underwent polysomnography. A morning fasting blood sample was assayed for 5 inflammatory cytokines. Results: In this cohort, mean (SD) habitual sleep duration based on self-report was 7.6 (1.6) h and mean sleep duration by polysomnography (PSG) on the night prior to blood sampling was 6.2 (1.3) h. After adjusting for obesity and apnea severity, each additional hour of habitual sleep duration was associated with an 8% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.004) and 7% increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (P = 0.0003). These associations were independent of self-reported sleepiness. In contrast, PSG sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels. For each hour reduction in sleep, TNFα levels increased by 8% on average (P = 0.02). Sleep duration was not associated with IL-1 or IL-10. Conclusions: Increases in habitual sleep durations are associated with elevations in CRP and IL-6 while reduced PSG sleep duration is associated with elevated TNFα levels. Activation of pro-inflammatory pathways may represent a mechanism by which extreme sleep habits affect health. Citation: Patel SR; Zhu X; Storfer-Isser A; Mehra R; Jenny NS; Tracy R; Redline S. Sleep duration and biomarkers of inflammation. SLEEP 2009;32(2):200–204. PMID:19238807

  17. Employment in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Lea; Vollmer, Tim; Hadjimichael, Olympia; Mohr, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with significant economic burden and high rates of unemployment. This investigation evaluated patient and disease characteristics associated with work loss and work initiation using the NARCOMS patient registry. Patient and disease characteristics associated with transitions to unemployment or employment were evaluated cross-sectionally and prospectively over the course of two assessment periods (mean interval of 1.56 ± 0.93 years). Eligible participants included 8,867 patients for the cross-sectional component, and 8,122 for longitudinal analyses. At Time 1 and Time 2 56–58 % of MS patients were not employed. At Time 1, unemployed participants more likely to have a progressive disease course, had a longer symptom duration, greater levels of disability as measured by the PDDS, and greater functional limitations across all domains of the performance scales (p < 0.0001 for all). At Time 2, increasing MS symptoms in the past 6 months increased the odds of becoming unemployed. In addition, specific problems in mobility, hand function, fatigue, and cognitive performance domains were associated with increased odds of becoming unemployed. Less severe problems in similar areas, including mobility, hand function, and cognitive functioning were also predictive of work initiation among patients not employed. MS is associated with high rates of unemployment. Specific physical and mental health limitations confer risk of employment cessation over time, as well as the likelihood of employment initiation. This study has implications for rehabilitation interventions to target specific MS related limitations that place patients at greatest risk for work status changes. PMID:18677639

  18. Correlates of competitive versus noncompetitive employment among adults with psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, Geoffrey; Saha, Sukankta; McGrath, John J

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the demographic and clinical correlates of employment activity have proven useful for identifying employment assistance needs among people with severe and persistent mental illness. However, the results of prior studies remain unclear, and most reviews of prior studies have not differentiated competitive from noncompetitive employment. This study attempted to clarify the relative strength and consistency of correlates of competitive versus noncompetitive employment. Data were drawn from a population-based survey of Australian adults with psychotic disorders between March and December 2010. Demographic, clinical, and employment assistance correlates of competitive and noncompetitive employment were compared. The sample comprised 1,825 participants who agreed to face-to-face interviews. A total of 408 (22.3%) participants were employed in the previous four weeks, 330 (18.1%) in competitive employment and 78 (4.3%) in noncompetitive employment. Those in competitive employment were more likely to be female and aged 18-34, to have a partner, to have received formal vocational training or education after high school, and to have no literacy difficulties. Better global functioning, shorter illness duration, less severe course of illness, and affective versus nonaffective psychosis were associated with a greater likelihood of competitive employment. Those using Australian government employment services were less likely to be in competitive employment, suggesting a service provider preference for noncompetitive employment. Four times as many employees were in competitive employment than in noncompetitive employment. The negative relationship between employment assistance and competitive employment highlights the urgent need to improve the effectiveness of Australian employment services for people with severe mental illnesses.

  19. Brain MRI lesions and atrophy are associated with employment status in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tauhid, Shahamat; Chu, Renxin; Sasane, Rahul; Glanz, Bonnie I; Neema, Mohit; Miller, Jennifer R; Kim, Gloria; Signorovitch, James E; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja; Weiner, Howard L; Bakshi, Rohit

    2015-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly affects occupational function. We investigated the link between brain MRI and employment status. Patients with MS (n = 100) completed a Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) (general health version) survey measuring employment status, absenteeism, presenteeism, and overall work and daily activity impairment. Patients "working for pay" were considered employed; "temporarily not working but looking for work," "not working or looking for work due to age," and "not working or looking for work due to disability" were considered not employed. Brain MRI T1 hypointense (T1LV) and T2 hyperintense (T2LV) lesion volumes were quantified. To assess lesional destructive capability, we calculated each subject's ratio of T1LV to T2LV (T1/T2). Normalized brain parenchymal volume (BPV) assessed brain atrophy. The mean (SD) age was 45.5 (9.7) years; disease duration was 12.1 (8.1) years; 75 % were women, 76 % were relapsing-remitting, and 76 % were employed. T1LV, T1/T2, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and activity impairment were lower and BPV was higher in the employed vs. not employed group (Wilcoxon tests, p < 0.05). Age, disease duration, MS clinical subtype, and T2LV did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression modeling, adjusting for age, sex, and disease duration, higher T1LV predicted a lower chance of employment (p < 0.05). Pearson correlations showed that EDSS was associated with activity impairment (p < 0.05). Disease duration, age, and MRI measures were not correlated with activity impairment or other WPAI outcomes (p > 0.05). We report a link between brain atrophy and lesions, particularly lesions with destructive potential, to MS employment status.

  20. Ergonomics of bridge employment.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mokdad

    2012-01-01

    In many countries of the world, retirement is mandatory at the age at which persons who hold certain jobs or offices are required by employment law to leave their employment, or retire (60 to 65 years). Typically, this is justified by the argument that certain occupations are either too dangerous or require high levels of physical skills and mental work. Every worker has to leave the workforce at that age. However, starting from the last two decades of the last century, it is observed that retirees live more years in retirement than ever before. This relatively long retirement as well as retirees' body fitness made many of them engage in new jobs which are either similar to their career jobs, or completely different from them. In this new type of employment which is called "bridge employment', the retired worker may spend more than ten years. But, to what extent these new jobs are fitted to the aged worker? Considering that experiencing any type of event increases the risk of worse health outcomes over time, bridge employment should be ergonomically designed if it is to fit the aged worker characteristics (physical, mental and affective).

  1. Long duration flights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  2. Long Duration Sorbent Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Knox, James C.; Long, David A.; Miller, Lee; Cmaric, Gregory; Thomas, John

    2016-01-01

    The Long Duration Sorbent Testbed (LDST) is a flight experiment demonstration designed to expose current and future candidate carbon dioxide removal system sorbents to an actual crewed space cabin environment to assess and compare sorption working capacity degradation resulting from long term operation. An analysis of sorbent materials returned to Earth after approximately one year of operation in the International Space Station's (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) indicated as much as a 70% loss of working capacity of the silica gel desiccant material at the extreme system inlet location, with a gradient of capacity loss down the bed. The primary science objective is to assess the degradation of potential sorbents for exploration class missions and ISS upgrades when operated in a true crewed space cabin environment. A secondary objective is to compare degradation of flight test to a ground test unit with contaminant dosing to determine applicability of ground testing.

  3. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  4. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness < B > = - 0.2 and memory < M > = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  5. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  6. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  7. Married Women in Part-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James E.; Jones, Ethel B.

    1981-01-01

    Deals with three aspects of the part-time employment pattern of working wives: (1) the wives' characteristics, (2) the level and structure of their earnings in part-time jobs, and (3) the duration of their employment when part-time jobs are available to them. (Author/CT)

  8. Duration of breast-feeding in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Giashuddin, M S; Kabir, M

    2004-06-01

    The duration of exclusive breast-feeding in Bangladesh is low. Though several studies have been carried out on breast-feeding in Bangladesh, the factors influencing the duration of breast-feeding are not studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of breast-feeding among children in Bangladesh and to study socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the duration. The study included 5068 mother-child pairs, selected on the basis of Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) of 1999-2000. The risk of giving supplementary food at different ages was estimated by life table survival method. Independent effects of total duration of breast-feeding of each of the study variables were estimated by using Cox's regression model. The median duration of full breast-feeding was 3.67 months whereas mean and median durations of total breast-feeding was 31.3 and 30 months respectively. Life table analysis showed that 69.9 per cent women gave supplementary food to their babies before reaching six months of age. Cox's regression analysis revealed that women who had lived in rural areas were less likely to terminate breast-feeding than those living in urban areas. Women who had completed at least secondary education were more likely to stop breast-feeding than less or uneducated mothers. Children born in high economic status families had higher risk of stopping breast-feeding compared to those in low economic status families. Further, the deliveries assisted by the relatives had lower risk of terminating breastfeeding than by the health professionals. According to the study results, women with higher education, high economic level, lower birth interval and delivery assisted by health personnel had lower duration of breastfeeding. Future breast-feeding programme in Bangladesh should give special attention to these women since they breast-feed relatively shorter periods of time.

  9. 5 CFR 316.301 - Purpose and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY AND TERM EMPLOYMENT Term Employment § 316.301 Purpose and duration. (a) An agency may make a term... employee's services is not permanent. Reasons for making a term appointment include, but are not limited...

  10. 5 CFR 316.401 - Purpose and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY AND TERM EMPLOYMENT Temporary Limited Employment § 316.401 Purpose and duration. (a) Appropriate use. An agency may make a temporary limited appointment— (1) To fill a short-term position (i.e., one that is...

  11. The effect of work status on initiation and duration of breast-feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Fein, S B; Roe, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, longitudinal data are used to examine the effect of work status on breast-feeding initiation and duration. METHODS: Mothers from a mail panel completed questionnaires during late pregnancy and 10 times in the infant's first year. Mother's work status was categorized for initiation by hours she expected, before delivery, to work and for duration by hours she worked at month 3. Covariates were demographics; parity; medical, delivery, and hospital experiences; social support; embarrassment; and health promotion. RESULTS: Expecting to work part-time neither decreased nor increased the probability of breast-feeding relative to expecting not to work (odds ratios [ORs] = .83 and .89, P > .50), but expecting to work full-time decreased the probability of breast-feeding (OR = .47, P < .01). Working full-time at 3 months postpartum decreased breast-feeding duration by an average of 8.6 weeks (P < .001) relative to not working, but part-time work of 4 or fewer hours per day did not affect duration, and part-time work of more than 4 hours per day decreased duration less than full-time work. CONCLUSION: Part-time work is an effective strategy to help mothers combine breast-feeding and employment. PMID:9663151

  12. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  13. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  14. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  15. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  16. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  17. Reduced Duration of Ice Cover in Swedish Lakes and Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Hallerback, S. A. M.; Stensen, K.; David, G.; Persson, M.

    2016-12-01

    The worlds freshwater systems are one of the most altered ecosystems on earth. Climate change introduces additional stresses on such systems, and this study presents an example of such change in an investigation of ice cover duration in Swedish lakes and rivers. In situ observations from over 750 lakes and rivers in Sweden were analyzed, with some records dating back to the beginning of the 18th century. Results show that ice duration significantly decreased over the last century. Change in ice duration is affected by later freeze as well as (more dominantly) earlier breakup dates. Additionally, since the late 1980's there has been an increase of extreme events, meaning years with extremely short duration of ice cover. The affect of temperature on the system was also examined. Using 113 years of temperature data, we empirically show how temperature changes affect the ice duration in lakes at different latitudes as well as dependent on lake area, volume and depth.

  18. Predictors of Acquisition of Competitive Employment for People Enrolled in Supported Employment Programs.

    PubMed

    Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Reinharz, Daniel; Kirsh, Bonnie; Goering, Paula; Menear, Matthew; Berbiche, Djamal; Genest, Karine; Goldner, Elliot M

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the relative contribution of employment specialist competencies working in supported employment (SE) programs and client variables in determining the likelihood of obtaining competitive employment. A total of 489 persons with a severe mental illness and 97 employment specialists working in 24 SE programs across three Canadian provinces were included in the study. Overall, 43% of the sample obtained competitive work. Both client variables and employment specialist competencies, while controlling for the quality of SE programs implementation, predicted job acquisition. Multilevel analyses further indicated that younger client age, shorter duration of unemployment, and client use of job search strategies, as well as the working alliance perceived by the employment specialist, were the strongest predictors of competitive employment for people with severe mental illness, with 51% of variance explained. For people with severe mental illness seeking employment, active job search behaviors, relational abilities, and employment specialist competencies are central contributors to acquisition of competitive employment.

  19. An evaluation of the effects of access duration on preference assessment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brooke A; Dozier, Claudia L; Neidert, Pamela L

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which access duration during stimulus preference assessments affects preschool-age children's preferences for leisure items. Results demonstrated that rankings for highly preferred items remained similar across both short- and long-access durations; however, overall preference hierarchies remained more similar across administrations of long-access-duration assessments than short-access-duration assessments.

  20. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment program--self-employment. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-01-20

    This document amends the vocational rehabilitation and employment regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) concerning self-employment for individuals with qualifying disabilities. We are making changes to conform VA's regulations for self-employment programs for veterans, and for servicemembers awaiting discharge, to statutory provisions, including provisions limiting eligibility for certain supplies, equipment, stock, and license fees to individuals with the most severe service-connected disabilities. We are also making related changes in VA's regulations affecting eligibility for such assistance for certain veterans' children with birth defects in self-employment programs. In addition, we are amending our regulations regarding the approval authority for self-employment plans to make certain requirements less restrictive and less burdensome, to remove a vague and overly broad requirement, to make changes to reflect longstanding VA policy, and to make nonsubstantive clarifying changes.

  1. Phonological Encoding and Phonetic Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Melinda Denise

    2013-01-01

    Studies of connected speech have repeatedly shown that the contextual predictability of a word is related to its phonetic duration; more predictable words tend to be produced with shorter duration, when other factors are controlled for (Aylett & Turk, 2004, 2006; Bell et al., 2003; Bell, Brenier, Gregory, Girand, & Jurafsky, 2009; Gahl,…

  2. Phonological Encoding and Phonetic Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Melinda Denise

    2013-01-01

    Studies of connected speech have repeatedly shown that the contextual predictability of a word is related to its phonetic duration; more predictable words tend to be produced with shorter duration, when other factors are controlled for (Aylett & Turk, 2004, 2006; Bell et al., 2003; Bell, Brenier, Gregory, Girand, & Jurafsky, 2009; Gahl,…

  3. Men and women with psychosis and the impact of illness-duration on sex-differences: The second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Campbell, Linda E; Single, Natalie; Coleman, Clare; Morgan, Vera A; Cotton, Susan M; Stain, Helen J; Castle, David J

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine and compare sex-differences in people receiving treatment for psychotic illnesses in community settings, based on long or short duration of illness; expecting association between longer illness-duration and worse outcomes in women and men. Clinical, demographic and service-use data from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis were analysed by sex and duration of illness (≤5 years; ≥6 years), using independent t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA, and Cramer's V. Of the 1825 participants, 47% had schizophrenia, 17.5% bipolar and 16.1% schizo-affective disorders. More women than men had undertaken post-school education, maintained relationships, and been living in their own homes. Women with a shorter-illness-duration showed social functioning equivalent to non-ill women in the general population. Men tended to have an early illness onset, show premorbid dysfunction, be single, show severe disability, and to use illicit substances. Men with a longer-illness-duration were very socially disadvantaged and isolated, often experiencing homelessness and substance use. Men with a short-illness-duration were most likely to be in paid employment, but two-thirds earned less than $AUD500 per fortnight. Men with longer-illness-duration showed most disability, socially and globally. Interventions should be guided by diagnosis, but also by a person's sex and duration of illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies.

    PubMed

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment.

  5. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Employment. arcfacts Employment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkobien, Richard

    1991-01-01

    This fact sheet offers, in a question-and-answer format, information on employment and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). It addresses the following topics: what Title I of the ADA says about employment, what employment discrimination means, which employers are affected, hiring quotas, determination of an individual's job…

  6. Work schedule, sleep duration, insomnia, and risk of fatal prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Carter, Brian D; Teras, Lauren R; Jacobs, Eric J

    2014-03-01

    Studies of breast cancer in women and laboratory studies provide evidence that shift work involving circadian rhythm disruption is a probable human carcinogen. However, evidence linking shift work and other circadian disruption factors to prostate cancer risk is limited. To examine associations of work schedule (i.e., rotating shift work, fixed night and fixed afternoon/evening shift work); sleep duration; and insomnia frequency with prostate cancer mortality. The Cancer Prevention Study-II is a large prospective cohort study of U.S. adults. Work schedule, sleep duration, insomnia frequency, and other information was self-reported in 1982. Among 305,057 employed men, aged ≥29 years who were cancer free at baseline, there were 4974 prostate cancer deaths during follow-up through 2010. In 2013, multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Work schedule and insomnia frequency were not associated with risk of fatal prostate cancer. Short sleep duration was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer during the first 8 years of follow-up, compared to 7 hours/night, the RRs (95% CIs) for 3-5 and 6 hours/night were 1.64 (1.06, 2.54), and 1.28 (0.98, 1.67), respectively. There was no association between sleep duration and fatal prostate cancer during later follow-up. These results do not support associations of work schedule or insomnia frequency with prostate cancer mortality. The association between short sleep duration and higher risk of fatal prostate cancer only during the first 8 years of follow-up suggests that short sleep duration could affect later stages of prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ISS Update: How Long-Duration Spaceflight Affects Health

    NASA Image and Video Library

    ISS Update commentator Kelly Humphries interviews Dr. Scott Smith, Principal Investigator for the Pro_K and Nutrition experiments. During the interview, Smith talks about the Pro_K experiment, Nutr...

  8. How Does Target Duration Affect Object Substitution Masking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Carter, Wakefield; Guest, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is typically studied using a brief search display. The target item may be indicated by a cue/mask surrounding but not overlapping it. Report of the target is reduced when mask offset trails target offset rather than being simultaneous with it. We report 5 experiments investigating whether OSM can be obtained if…

  9. [Breast-feeding: can health staff positively affect its duration?].

    PubMed

    García Casanova, M C; García Casanova, S; Pi Juan, M; Ruiz Mariscal, E; Parellada Esquius, N

    2005-04-15

    Mother's milk is the ideal meal for the baby during the first six months of life. A good health education (before and after birth) helps to prolong breastfeeding (BF). To know the prevalence of BF among a group of women and to study the relationship with health education. Observational and analytic study. Dr. Pujol i Capsada Primary Health Center (El Prat de Llobregat); Casagemes CAD's afterbirth group in Badalona, and Alba Lactancia Women's group. SUBJECTS OF THE STUDY: 135 women with babies born between the 1st of March 2002 and the 28th of February 2003. Mother's motivation for breast-feeding and the type of information she has got were evaluated. Breast-feeding period was measured from the second month of baby's life by means of a survey passed by nursing staff. The average BF period was of 160 days, 22% breastfed their babies for less than a week, and 14% between a week and a month. The main variables in relation with the increase of BF are: to want to breast-feed (P=.05); mother sleeping with the baby (P=.03); to receive assistance from nursing staff while in hospital (P=.01); not to receive additional meals in hospital (P=.02); no problems during the first month of life (P<.0001); to receive information from health center (P=.009). If the first contact mother-baby (bringing the baby close to the breast) lasts more than 30 minutes 51% give up BF before the first month; but if the first contact is before of 30 minutes only give up 20.8% (P=.002). The prevalence of BF increases among the women that got health education and support from the health professionals.

  10. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting... workweeks in the current or preceding calendar year. Employers covered by FMLA also include any person...)), as set forth in the definitions at § 825.800 of this part. For purposes of the FMLA, employers who...

  11. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting... workweeks in the current or preceding calendar year. Employers covered by FMLA also include any person... (3)), as set forth in the definitions at § 825.800 of this part. For purposes of the FMLA, employers...

  12. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting... workweeks in the current or preceding calendar year. Employers covered by FMLA also include any person... (3)), as set forth in the definitions at § 825.800 of this part. For purposes of the FMLA, employers...

  13. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting... workweeks in the current or preceding calendar year. Employers covered by FMLA also include any person... (3)), as set forth in the definitions at § 825.800 of this part. For purposes of the FMLA, employers...

  14. 29 CFR 825.104 - Covered employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employer covered by FMLA is any person engaged in commerce or in any industry or activity affecting... workweeks in the current or preceding calendar year. Employers covered by FMLA also include any person...)), as set forth in the definitions at § 825.800 of this part. For purposes of the FMLA, employers who...

  15. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Steffie; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in different rotation angles. Response accuracy and response duration were registered. Response durations of the trials with a correct judgment were fitted to a-priori defined predictive sinusoid models, representing different strategies to successfully perform the hand laterality judgment task. The first model predicted systematic changes in response duration as a function of rotation angle of the displayed hand. The second model predicted that response durations are affected by biomechanical constraints of hand rotation. If observed data could be best described by the first model, this would argue for a mental imagery strategy that does not involve motor processes to solve the task. The second model reflects a motor imagery strategy to solve the task. In line with previous research, we showed an age-related increase in response accuracy and decrease in response duration in children. Observed data for both back and palm view showed that motor imagery strategies were used to perform hand laterality judgments, but that not all the children use these strategies (appropriately) at all times. A direct comparison of response duration patterns across age sheds new light on age-related differences in the strategies employed to solve the task. Importantly, the employment of the motor imagery strategy for successful task performance did not change with age.

  16. Understanding Drivers of Employment Changes in a Multiple Sclerosis Population

    PubMed Central

    Boscoe, Audra N.; Currie, Brooke M.; Landrian, Amanda S.; Wandstrat, Todd L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Qualitative data are lacking on decision making and factors surrounding changes in employment for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to increase our understanding of the key symptoms and factors leading patients with MS to leave work or reduce employment. Methods: Adults with MS who reported leaving the workforce, reducing work hours, or changing jobs due to MS in the past 6 months were recruited from four US clinical sites. Patients participated in semistructured interviews to discuss MS symptoms and reasons for changing employment status. All interviews were transcribed and coded for descriptive analyses. Results: Twenty-seven adults (mean age = 46.3 years, mean duration of MS diagnosis = 10.9 years) with a range of occupations participated; most were white (81.5%) and female (70.4%). Physical symptoms (eg, fatigue, visual deficits) (77.8%) were the most common reasons for employment change; 40.7% of patients reported at least one cognitive symptom (eg, memory loss). Fatigue emerged as the most pervasive symptom and affected physical and mental aspects of patients' jobs. Most patients (85.2%) reported at least two symptoms as drivers for change. Some patients reported a significant negative impact of loss of employment on their mental status, family life, and financial stability. Conclusions: Fatigue was the most common symptom associated with the decision to leave work or reduce employment and can lead to a worsening of other MS symptoms. Comprehensive symptom management, especially fatigue management, may help patients preserve their employment status. PMID:26472946

  17. Efficiency, effectiveness, and duration of stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shah, S; Vanclay, F; Cooper, B

    1990-02-01

    This prospective multicenter study identifies the variables significant in the prediction of rehabilitation efficiency, achievement of rehabilitation potential and duration of rehabilitation stay in 258 persons with a first stroke admitted to comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation in Brisbane, Australia, during 1984. All three dependent variables were poorly predicted, with only 17% of the variance in rehabilitation efficiency, only 30% of the variance in achievement of rehabilitation potential, and only 22% of the variance in duration of rehabilitation stay explained. Unlike other reports, we considered most of the major medical (side of paralysis, stroke etiology, site of the lesion, arterial distribution affected, etc.), rehabilitative (initial Barthel Index score, interval from stroke onset to acute-care hospital admission, interval from hospital admission to rehabilitation commencement, neurologic measures, etc.), and demographic (age, years of education, occupation, ethnicity, etc.) variables. The high proportion of unexplained variance is likely to be due to nonmedical factors influencing the selection of patients for rehabilitation.

  18. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  19. Working Parents, Employers, and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Renato

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Working Parents Project, a study of both single-parent families and dual-career families. This study explored working parents' perceptions of how personnel policies and practices affected family life. Topics covered include (1) short-term leave policies, (2) day care, and (3) how schools, community agencies, and employers can help…

  20. Age Discrimination in Campus Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    This analysis of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) traces the issues that have emerged in litigation and summarizes the developing law, showing the implications in the university context and suggesting rules of thumb for accommodating the Act with the valid educational demands of the affected institutions. (JT)

  1. Ideal engine durations for gamma-ray-burst-jet launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidani, Hamid; Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Okita, Shinpei

    2017-08-01

    Aiming to study gamma-ray-burst (GRB) engine duration, we present numerical simulations to investigate collapsar jets. We consider typical explosion energy (1052 erg) but different engine durations, in the widest domain to date from 0.1 to 100 s. We employ an adaptive mesh refinement 2D hydrodynamical code. Our results show that engine duration strongly influences jet nature. We show that the efficiency of launching and collimating relativistic outflow increases with engine duration, until the intermediate engine range where it is the highest, past this point to long engine range, the trend is slightly reversed; we call this point where acceleration and collimation are the highest 'sweet spot' (∼10-30 s). Moreover, jet energy flux shows that variability is also high in this duration domain. We argue that not all engine durations can produce the collimated, relativistic and variable long GRB jets. Considering a typical progenitor and engine energy, we conclude that the ideal engine duration to reproduce a long GRB is ∼10-30 s, where the launch of relativistic, collimated and variable jets is favoured. We note that this duration domain makes a good link with a previous study suggesting that the bulk of Burst and Transient Source Experiment's long GRBs is powered by ∼10-20 s collapsar engines.

  2. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  3. Employers' Views on Youth Literacy and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macey, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This report looks at whether employers think schools are equipping young people with the literacy skills required for the workplace. It is primarily based on secondary literature sources and introductory conversations with a small sample of key employers and agencies. A complementary report presents evidence on young people's views on literacy and…

  4. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  5. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses.

  6. CETA: Assessment of Public Service Employment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirengoff, William; And Others

    This study analyzes the extent to which targeting objectives of the Emergency Jobs Programs Extension Act (EJPEA) of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs have been achieved by federal and local officials and the effectiveness of limited-duration projects in providing useful public services. The study deals with the…

  7. Sociological Research on Employment Patterns of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marconi, Katherine

    Sociological research on the employment patterns of youth after entry into the labor force is reviewed for possible Naval manpower policy. Current trends regarding job duration and the occupational aspirations of youth may have possible implications for Naval enlistment policies. (NTIS)

  8. Sociological Research on Employment Patterns of Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marconi, Katherine

    Sociological research on the employment patterns of youth after entry into the labor force is reviewed for possible Naval manpower policy. Current trends regarding job duration and the occupational aspirations of youth may have possible implications for Naval enlistment policies. (NTIS)

  9. Learning, Labour and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2009-01-01

    Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that…

  10. Becoming Self-Employed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Grant; Cochran, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Explored how persons become self-employed. In critical incident interviews with five self-employed persons the critical events that assisted or hindered progress toward self-employment were listed in chronological order. In general, becoming self-employed involved establishing conditions of action that enhanced a sense of agency, thus enabling…

  11. Duration of general practitioner contracts.

    PubMed

    Abelsen, Birgit; Gaski, Margrete; Brandstorp, Helen

    2015-12-01

    The regular GP scheme is intended to promote continuity in the relationship between doctor and patient. The duration of GP contracts is therefore a key factor in the success of the scheme. This study examines how long the GP contracts last and whether their duration varies according to doctors' gender and age, municipality size and list size. The study encompasses 7,359 GP contracts throughout Norway, entered into between municipalities and doctors in the period 1 May 2001 - 1 May 2014. Duration is measured as the time from which the contract was signed until its expiry or the end of the study period. The material was analysed with measures of central tendencies and dispersion, Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. Median duration of a GP contract at the time of the study was 5.91 years. It varied between 2.75 years in the smallest municipalities and 8.37 years in the largest ones. The duration of a GP contract increased significantly if the doctor was a woman, or with the doctor's age at the start of the contract, increased municipality size and increased list size. If it is assumed that continuity in the doctor-patient relationship provides a qualitatively better GP service, the results indicate that patients in small municipalities are generally offered a lower-quality service than patients in large municipalities.

  12. Perceived Duration Increases with Contrast, but Only a Little.

    PubMed

    Benton, Christopher P; Redfern, Annabelle S

    2016-01-01

    Recent adaptation studies provide evidence for early visual areas playing a role in duration perception. One explanation for the pronounced duration compression commonly found with adaptation is that it reflects adaptation-driven stimulus-specific reduction in neural activity in early visual areas. If this level of stimulus-associated neural activity does drive duration, then we would expect a strong effect of contrast on perceived duration as electrophysiological studies shows neural activity in early visual areas to be strongly related to contrast. We employed a spatially isotropic noise stimulus where the luminance of each noise element was independently sinusoidally modulated at 4 Hz. Participants matched the perceived duration of a high (0.9) or low (0.1) contrast stimulus to a previously presented standard stimulus (600 ms, contrast = 0.3). To achieve perceptually equivalent durations, the low contrast stimulus had to be presented for longer than the high contrast stimulus. This occurred when we controlled for stimulus size and when we adjusted for individual differences in perceived temporal frequency. Further, we show that the effect cannot be explained by shifts in perceived onset and offset and is not explained by a simple contrast-driven response bias. The direction of our results is clearly consistent with the idea that level of neural activity drives duration. However, the magnitude of the effect (~10% duration difference over a 0.9-0.1 contrast reduction) is in marked contrast to the larger duration distortions that can be found with repetition suppression and the oddball effect; particularly when these may be associated with smaller differences in neural activity than that expected from our contrast difference. Taken together, these results indicate that level of stimulus-related neural activity in early visual areas is unlikely to provide a general mechanism for explaining differences in perceived duration.

  13. Perceived Duration Increases with Contrast, but Only a Little

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Christopher P.; Redfern, Annabelle S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent adaptation studies provide evidence for early visual areas playing a role in duration perception. One explanation for the pronounced duration compression commonly found with adaptation is that it reflects adaptation-driven stimulus-specific reduction in neural activity in early visual areas. If this level of stimulus-associated neural activity does drive duration, then we would expect a strong effect of contrast on perceived duration as electrophysiological studies shows neural activity in early visual areas to be strongly related to contrast. We employed a spatially isotropic noise stimulus where the luminance of each noise element was independently sinusoidally modulated at 4 Hz. Participants matched the perceived duration of a high (0.9) or low (0.1) contrast stimulus to a previously presented standard stimulus (600 ms, contrast = 0.3). To achieve perceptually equivalent durations, the low contrast stimulus had to be presented for longer than the high contrast stimulus. This occurred when we controlled for stimulus size and when we adjusted for individual differences in perceived temporal frequency. Further, we show that the effect cannot be explained by shifts in perceived onset and offset and is not explained by a simple contrast-driven response bias. The direction of our results is clearly consistent with the idea that level of neural activity drives duration. However, the magnitude of the effect (~10% duration difference over a 0.9–0.1 contrast reduction) is in marked contrast to the larger duration distortions that can be found with repetition suppression and the oddball effect; particularly when these may be associated with smaller differences in neural activity than that expected from our contrast difference. Taken together, these results indicate that level of stimulus-related neural activity in early visual areas is unlikely to provide a general mechanism for explaining differences in perceived duration. PMID:28018282

  14. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  15. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  16. Passage of time judgments in everyday life are not related to duration judgments except for long durations of several minutes.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Trahanias, Panos; Maniadakis, Michail

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated relations between judgments of passage of time and judgments of long durations in everyday life with an experience sampling method. Several times per day, the participants received an alert via mobile phone. On each alert, at the same time as reporting their experience of the passage of time, the participants also estimated durations, between 3 and 33s in Experiment 1, and between 2 and 8min in Experiment 2. The participants' affective states and the difficulty and attentional demands of their current activity were also assessed. The results replicated others showing that affective states and the focus of attention on current activity are significant predictors of individual differences in passage-of-time judgments. In addition, the passage-of-time judgments were significantly related to the duration judgments but only for long durations of several minutes.

  17. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  18. Employment Outlook '73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Describes career opportunities for chemists considering employment areas of opportunity, salaries, college chemistry enrollments, research and development budgets, long term forecasts of supply and demand for chemists. Includes career planning aids, and an employers directory of chemical professions. (DF)

  19. Youth Employment. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on youth employment from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). An introduction briefly explains the role of the NCY with regard to youth employment and describes the types of programs and services supported by NCY. A section on background provides statistics on teenagers and employment from the Bureau…

  20. Graduate Identity and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  1. 1982 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents highlights of Chemical and Engineering News survey of the employment picture for chemical professionals. Focuses on the question of needing a Ph.D.; employment opportunities; salaries; and career planning, including the names and addresses of many employers of chemists and chemical engineers. (SK)

  2. 1987 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Traces the decline in employment opportunities for chemists and chemical engineers. Discusses the employment outlook for 1987. Includes information on continuing education opportunities for chemical professionals already employed, the drop in demand for chemistry professionals, the decline in salaries of bachelor's degree chemists, and several…

  3. 1976 Employment Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents an extended annual review of employment for chemists and chemical engineers. Includes 1975 employment statistics, a discussion of what employers are seeking, salaries of professional chemists, the status of U.S. spending in research and development, and a variety of aids available to both new and experienced chemical professionals in…

  4. The New Employment Contract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.

    2002-01-01

    In the classic employment contract, especially at large companies, wages were not strongly responsive to the labor market. Instead, individual companies had distinctive company wage levels and patterns. An exhaustive study of employers and employees in the United States and Japan examined whether the "old employment contract" has been…

  5. Recognition for Employed Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents arguments for monetary rewards and other forms of recognition by employers for inventions of employed inventors, particularly as the concept applies to stimulating innovativeness in America. Discusses the controversy of federally mandated compensation for employed inventors. The efforts of the American Chemical Society along these lines…

  6. Employment in Agribusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenberg, Gene; Huston, Jane

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist persons teaching a course in employment in agribusiness. Addressed in the individual units of instruction are the following topics: employment information (training plans/agreements and wages, taxes, and fringe benefits); human relations (employer/employee/customer relations and communication skills);…

  7. The New Employment Contract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.

    2002-01-01

    In the classic employment contract, especially at large companies, wages were not strongly responsive to the labor market. Instead, individual companies had distinctive company wage levels and patterns. An exhaustive study of employers and employees in the United States and Japan examined whether the "old employment contract" has been…

  8. Predictors of employment after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahota, Amandeep; Zaghla, Hassan; Adkins, Rodney; Ramji, Alnoor; Lewis, Susan; Moser, Jennifer; Sher, Linda S; Fong, Tse-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Employment after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) indicates recipients' physical/psychosocial adjustment. Our aim was to determine clinical, socioeconomic and health-related quality of life parameters influencing employment after OLT. Questionnaire on demographics, medical conditions, alcohol and drug use before/after OLT, and a validated 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) were mailed to 126 adult OLT patients. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to identify best predictors of post-OLT employment. Among non-retirees, 49% were employed after OLT. The predictors of employment were: employment status, income, disability status before OLT and Model of End Stage Liver Disease score. These variables had prediction rate of 82%. Individuals working during the five yr prior to OLT were likely to return to work (p<0.0001), particularly those who held a job for >6 months prior to OLT (p<0.0001), income>$80 000 before OLT compared with <$30 000 (p=0.036). Patients receiving Social Security Insurance (SSI) payment for >or=6 months prior to OLT, were less likely to work (p=0.0005). Severity/duration of liver dysfunction prior to OLT did not correlate with employment. Sense of physical health was poorer in those employed after OLT than in unemployed (p=0.0003). Socioeconomic factors were the most important predictors of post-OLT employment.

  9. Employers Roundtable: Employer Supported Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.

    This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…

  10. Employment and Crime: An Issue of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Samuel L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between employment and crime indicate that the stigma of a criminal record and the lack of preprison employment experience affect Black and White ex-offenders differently. Findings suggest racial discrimination and institutional racism are intervening factors in the failure of crime prevention strategies, particularly…

  11. Benefits & Incentives for Students Entering Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes available benefits and work incentives affecting supported employment placement for students with severe disabilities, including payment for necessary supports (state programs and the Department of Labor), protection of benefits (Social Security programs), and incentives to employers (the Targeted Job Tax Credits program and…

  12. Incomes of Home Economists Employed Full Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Carolyn J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents data from the 1979 American Home Economics Association survey on 11,229 home economists employed full time (68 percent of all respondents). Illustrates how education, sex, minority status, academic major, and type of employer affect home economists' incomes. (SK)

  13. Procedures used for assessment of stuttering frequency and stuttering duration.

    PubMed

    Jani, Leanne; Huckvale, Mark; Howell, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Frequency of stuttered syllables and their durations were assessed using different procedures. The experiment examined overall syllable counts, counts of stuttered syllables and measures of stutter durations when they were made simultaneously or successively. Samples of speech with associated syllable, stuttered syllable and duration measurements of stuttering events were employed in reference transcriptions. Samples contained a minimum of 200 syllables. Ten participants assessed these samples for syllables, stuttered syllables and duration in an experiment. The responses of these participants were stored in alignment with the speech recordings for analysis. Performance was significantly more accurate (relative to transcriptions) for measures other than duration when the successive procedure was used as opposed to the simultaneous procedure. Although the successive method was more accurate, accuracy of stutter event identification was low for most participants. The procedure that allowed listeners to replay a speech sample and count the syllables, stuttered syllables and durations in three passes yielded more accurate syllable and stuttered syllable counts than procedures that required these judgments to be made in one pass.

  14. Employment specialist competencies as predictors of employment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda C; Bond, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Employment specialist competencies were examined as predictors of employment outcomes for consumers with serious mental illness participating in supported employment. Self-report and supervisor-rated performance measures from 57 employment specialists were correlated with three consumer employment outcomes (i.e., competitive employment rate, 90-day employment rate, and dropout rate). Employment specialists varied from 0 to 80 % in the competitive employment rates for their caseloads. Supervisor ratings of job performance and employment specialist efficacy, percentage of time in the community, and frequency of contacts with consumers were associated with employment outcomes. Employment specialist self-report measures were unrelated to employment outcomes. Surprisingly, employment specialists with larger caseload sizes had higher employment rates. Employment specialists vary widely in their effectiveness. Behavioral measures and supervisory ratings of employment specialists were most predictive of employment outcomes. Direct observation of employment specialist job performance appears to be the most promising method for identifying competencies predictive of employment outcome.

  15. 45 CFR 400.81 - Criteria for appropriate employability services and employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employment. 400.81 Section 400.81 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE... duration (including any time enrolled in such program in the United States prior to the...

  16. Partnership duration, concurrency, and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Sawers, Larry; Isaac, Alan

    2017-07-01

    A widely accepted explanation for the exceptionally high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is the practice of long-term overlapping heterosexual partnering. This article shows that long-duration concurrent partnering can be protective against HIV transmission rather than promoting it. Monogamous partnering prevents sexual transmission to anyone outside the partnership and, in an initially concordant-seronegative partnership, prevents sexual acquisition of HIV by either partner. Those protections against transmission and acquisition last as long as the partnership persists without new outside partnerships. Correspondingly, these two protective effects characterise polygynous partnerships, whether or not the polygyny is formal or informal, until a partner initiates a new partnership. Stable and exclusive unions of any size protect against HIV transmission, and more durable unions provide a longer protective effect. Survey research provides little information on partnership duration in sub-Saharan Africa and sheds no light on the interaction of duration, concurrency, and HIV. This article shows how assumptions about partnership duration in individual-based sexual-network models affect the contours of simulated HIV epidemics. Longer mean partnership duration slows the pace at which simulated epidemics grow. With plausible assumptions about partnership duration and at levels of concurrency found in the region, simulated HIV epidemics grow slowly or not at all. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that long-duration partnering is protective against HIV and inconsistent with the hypothesis that long-term concurrency drives the HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhuanghua; Jia, Lina; Müller, Hermann J.

    2012-01-01

    Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures—a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial—on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus. We found an overestimation of tactile duration following exposure to pictures of threat, but not pictures of disgust (even though these scored equally high on arousal), in a short-range temporal bisection task (range 300/900 ms). Follow-up experiments revealed that this duration lengthening effect was abolished when the range to be bisected was increased (1000/1900 ms). However, duration overestimation was maintained in the short-range bisection task regardless of whether the interval between the visual and tactile events was short or long. This pattern is inconsistent with a general arousal interpretation of duration distortion and suggests that crossmodal linkages in the processing of emotions and emotional regulation are two main factors underlying the manifestation of crossmodal duration modulation. PMID:22654742

  18. Employment effects of active labor market programs for sick-listed workers.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anders; Høgelund, Jan; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Kristin Storck; Houlberg, Helle Sofie Bøje

    2017-01-30

    We use register data of 88,948 sick-listed workers in Denmark over the period 2008-2011 to investigate the effect of active labor market programs on the duration until returning to non-subsidized employment and the duration of this employment. To identify causal treatment effects, we exploit over-time variation in the use of active labor market programs in 98 job centers and time-to- event. We find that ordinary education and subsidized job training have significant positive employment effects. Subsidized job training has a large, positive effect on the transition into employment but no effect on the subsequent employment duration. In contrast, ordinary education has a positive effect on employment duration but no effect on the transition into employment. The latter effect is the result of two opposing effects, a large positive effect of having completed education and a large negative lock-in effect, with low re-employment chances during program participation.

  19. Maximum Phoneme Duration of /s/ and /z/ by Children with Vocal Nodules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastatter, Michael P.; Hyman, Melvin

    1982-01-01

    The maximum phoneme duration (MPD) of /s/ and /z/ task was measured for eight male and eight female children with diagnosed vocal nodules. Found that vocal nodules do not affect MPD s/z ratio, whereas the durations of /s/ and /z/ and the variance observed across multiple productions of /z/ are affected and should be considered as diagnostically…

  20. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  1. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  2. Does Supported Employment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  3. Supported Employment in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  4. Employment and Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    This report examines the effectiveness of employment and training programs in Minnesota and discusses the impact of the 1985 Jobs Bill state legislation. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to Minnesota's programs and to studies of employment and training programs conducted nationwide. Chapter 2 studies the use of Job Training Partnership Act funds…

  5. An Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Aliza; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A Chicago vocational English language training program (VELT) conducted a needs assessment survey of employers of limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers in assembly, packing, shipping, janitorial and housekeeping, machine operation, and food preparation jobs. The purposes of the survey were to determine: (1) the employers' methods of obtaining…

  6. Addressing Employer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 21 articles focusing on the many services that state Employment Security (ES) agencies are providing to improve outreach to employers who pay for the programs through the dedicated revenues of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act and state benefit taxes and to improve their own staff ability to deliver…

  7. Youth-Education-Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Willard; And Others

    The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young…

  8. Listening to Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalski, Jan; Riley, Alison; Aubrey, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Various government initiatives have highlighted the importance of employer engagement in schools, further education and higher education. However, speaking as a team of lecturers in HE the authors have found that there is a tension between the perceptions of government and those of employers. Clearly, it would be a good thing if, particularly in…

  9. Addressing Employer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 21 articles focusing on the many services that state Employment Security (ES) agencies are providing to improve outreach to employers who pay for the programs through the dedicated revenues of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act and state benefit taxes and to improve their own staff ability to deliver…

  10. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  11. Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simler, N. J.

    Three sections of information are presented in this report on employment and unemployment. Section 1 discusses how the concepts of employment, unemployment, and the labor force are defined and measured. Included in the discussion is an explanation of the current population survey. Section 2 examines the principal trends and cyclical movements of…

  12. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  13. 32 CFR 552.93 - Permit deadline and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Permit deadline and duration. 552.93 Section 552.93 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552...

  14. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization.

  15. Research on population and employment under the world employment program.

    PubMed

    1974-01-01

    , particularly those affecting fertility, migration behavior, and the employment structure.

  16. Energy and employment

    SciTech Connect

    Nordlund, W.J.; Robson, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of energy and employment is an essential ingredient of the current energy-policy debate. Energy, in its various forms, is an almost universal input to the production and consumption of goods and services in modern society, yet little attention is paid to its employment impacts. Far too little attention is being paid to the impact that changes in the sources, uses, and prices of energy will have on the level, location, and structure of employment in the U.S. economy. Unless their consequences are foreseen, energy solutions may have profound and sometimes devastating effects upon regions, industries, and jobs. This study addresses eight areas of this relationship: labor supply and demand in the energy sector; socio-economic impacts of energy development; coal, electricity, and employment; energy as a factor in the production/consumption process; alternative technologies and employment; developing an energy/employment modeling capability; research priorities; and policy recommendations related to energy/employment relationships. 40 references, 7 figures, 22 tables.

  17. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; REID, MEGAN; STRICKLER, JENNIFER; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm. PMID:24273358

  18. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  19. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    PubMed

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  20. A Randomized Trial of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J.; Needham, Mick; Diemer, Karly N.; Knealing, Todd; Crone-Todd, Darlene; Fingerhood, Michael; Nuzzo, Paul; Kolodner, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    High-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement can promote drug abstinence but can be difficult to finance. Employment may be a vehicle for arranging high-magnitude and long-duration abstinence reinforcement. This study determined if employment-based abstinence reinforcement could increase cocaine abstinence in adults who inject drugs…

  1. Placement: The Employer's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teff, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    A bank vice president reviews three barriers to the employment of handicapped persons: misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the handicapped, the traditional lag between recognition of a problem and its solution, and apathy and disinterest. (CL)

  2. Placement: The Employer's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teff, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    A bank vice president reviews three barriers to the employment of handicapped persons: misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the handicapped, the traditional lag between recognition of a problem and its solution, and apathy and disinterest. (CL)

  3. Farm Employment Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Manpower Developments, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The heavy spring rains of 1973 led to delays and reduced acreage in planting, resulting in a sharp decline in vegetable and cotton employment. Seasonal farmworker job levels are reported by state and activity. (MS)

  4. 20 CFR 663.420 - Can the duration and amount of ITA's be limited?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... limited? 663.420 Section 663.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Training Accounts § 663.420 Can the duration and amount of ITA's be limited? (a) Yes, the State or Local... that is based on the needs identified in the individual employment plan; or (2) There may be a...

  5. Estimating potential diapause duration in Calanus finmarchicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumweber, Whitley J.; Durbin, Edward G.

    2006-11-01

    Deep basins in the Gulf of Maine act as refuge for a large population of diapausing Calanus finmarchicus during the summer and fall. This population acts as the primary seed population for Georges Bank in the spring and is thought to be composed primarily of individuals that developed during the previous spring bloom. The factors affecting growth and mortality in the summer-fall population are not well understood, however, and loss terms from advection and starvation may be large. To assess the potential energetic limitation and loss of C. finmarchicus from the Gulf of Maine basins, a new nitrogen-specific respiration model has been developed for the resting stage of the species. Stage C5 C. finmarchicus were collected during July, September, and December 2003 from Wilkinson and Georges Basins. Animals were collected using both MOCNESS tows and zooplankton samplers on the Johnson Sea Link II submersible. Metabolic rates were measured using a Micro-Oxymax gas analyzer and Winkler incubation techniques both at sea and on animals kept in culture on shore. Respiration rates measured in the field were not significantly different from those measured on shore, with a mean of 130 μmol O 2 gN -1 h -1 (14.4 μmol O 2 gC -1 h -1) at 0 °C and a Q10 of 2.77 (2.58 for carbon-specific respiration). Using the nitrogen-specific rates in conjunction with visual estimates of nitrogen weight and lipid stores, we derived a discrete function for predicting potential diapause duration based on an animal's length, oil sac volume, and the in situ temperature. The maximum potential diapause duration for a C5 C. finmarchicus is predicted to range from 280 days at 0 °C to approximately 90 days at 11 °C. The maximum potential diapause duration in the Gulf of Maine is predicted to be between 3.5 and 5.5 months. These results suggest that energetic limitation may play a role in controlling the population dynamics of diapausing C. finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine. A reassessment of the

  6. Duration of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms Over the Menopause Transition

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Nancy E.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Greendale, Gail; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Gold, Ellen B.; Hess, Rachel; Joffe, Hadine; Kravitz, Howard M.; Tepper, Ping G.; Thurston, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The expected duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) is important to women making decisions about possible treatments. OBJECTIVES To determine total duration of frequent VMS (≥6 days in the previous 2 weeks) (hereafter total VMS duration) during the menopausal transition, to quantify how long frequent VMS persist after the final menstrual period (FMP) (hereafter post-FMP persistence), and to identify risk factors for longer total VMS duration and longer post-FMP persistence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiracial/multiethnic observational study of the menopausal transition among 3302 women enrolled at 7 US sites. From February 1996 through April 2013, women completed a median of 13 visits. Analyses included 1449 women with frequent VMS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total VMS duration (in years) (hot flashes or night sweats) and post-FMP persistence (in years) into postmenopause. RESULTS The median total VMS duration was 7.4 years. Among 881 women who experienced an observable FMP, the median post-FMP persistence was 4.5 years. Women who were premenopausal or early perimenopausal when they first reported frequent VMS had the longest total VMS duration (median, >11.8 years) and post-FMP persistence (median, 9.4 years). Women who were postmenopausal at the onset of VMS had the shortest total VMS duration (median, 3.4 years). Compared with women of other racial/ethnic groups, African American women reported the longest total VMS duration (median, 10.1 years). Additional factors related to longer duration of VMS (total VMS duration or post-FMP persistence) were younger age, lower educational level, greater perceived stress and symptom sensitivity, and higher depressive symptoms and anxiety at first report of VMS. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Frequent VMS lasted more than 7 years during the menopausal transition for more than half of the women and persisted for 4.5 years after the FMP

  7. Duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms over the menopause transition.

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Crawford, Sybil L; Greendale, Gail; Bromberger, Joyce T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Gold, Ellen B; Hess, Rachel; Joffe, Hadine; Kravitz, Howard M; Tepper, Ping G; Thurston, Rebecca C

    2015-04-01

    The expected duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) is important to women making decisions about possible treatments. To determine total duration of frequent VMS (≥ 6 days in the previous 2 weeks) (hereafter total VMS duration) during the menopausal transition, to quantify how long frequent VMS persist after the final menstrual period (FMP) (hereafter post-FMP persistence), and to identify risk factors for longer total VMS duration and longer post-FMP persistence. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiracial/multiethnic observational study of the menopausal transition among 3302 women enrolled at 7 US sites. From February 1996 through April 2013, women completed a median of 13 visits. Analyses included 1449 women with frequent VMS. Total VMS duration (in years) (hot flashes or night sweats) and post-FMP persistence (in years) into postmenopause. The median total VMS duration was 7.4 years. Among 881 women who experienced an observable FMP, the median post-FMP persistence was 4.5 years. Women who were premenopausal or early perimenopausal when they first reported frequent VMS had the longest total VMS duration (median, >11.8 years) and post-FMP persistence (median, 9.4 years). Women who were postmenopausal at the onset of VMS had the shortest total VMS duration (median, 3.4 years). Compared with women of other racial/ethnic groups, African American women reported the longest total VMS duration (median, 10.1 years). Additional factors related to longer duration of VMS (total VMS duration or post-FMP persistence) were younger age, lower educational level, greater perceived stress and symptom sensitivity, and higher depressive symptoms and anxiety at first report of VMS. Frequent VMS lasted more than 7 years during the menopausal transition for more than half of the women and persisted for 4.5 years after the FMP. Individual characteristics (eg, being premenopausal and having greater negative affective factors when first experiencing

  8. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  9. Sentence durations and accentedness judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace

    2003-04-01

    Talkers in a second language can frequently be identified as speaking with a foreign accent. It is not clear to what degree a foreign accent represents specific deviations from a target language versus more general characteristics. We examined the identifications of native and non-native talkers by listeners with various amount of knowledge of the target language. Native and non-native speakers of Latvian provided materials. All the non-native talkers spoke Russian as their first language and were long-term residents of Latvia. A listening test, containing sentences excerpted from a short recorded passage, was presented to three groups of listeners: native speakers of Latvian, Russians for whom Latvian was a second language, and Americans with no knowledge of either of the two languages. The listeners were asked to judge whether each utterance was produced by a native or non-native talker. The Latvians identified the non-native talkers very accurately, 88%. The Russians were somewhat less accurate, 83%. The American listeners were least accurate, but still identified the non-native talkers at above chance levels, 62%. Sentence durations correlated with the judgments provided by the American listeners but not with the judgments provided by native or L2 listeners.

  10. Tilt changes of short duration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, Stuart

    1976-01-01

    Section I of this report contains a classification scheme for short period tilt data. For convenience, all fluctuations in the local tilt field of less than 24 hours duration will be designated SP (i.e., short period) tilt events. Three basic categories of waveshape appearance are defined, and the rules for naming the waveforms are outlined. Examples from tilt observations at four central California sites are provided. Section II contains some coseismic tilt data. Fourteen earthquakes in central California, ranging in magnitude from 2.9 to 5.2, were chosen for study on four tiltmeters within 10 source dimensions of the epicenters. The raw records from each of the four tiltmeters at the times of the earthquakes were photographed and are presented in this section. Section III contains documentation of computer programs used in the analysis of the short period tilt data. Program VECTOR computes the difference vector of a tilt event and displays the sequence of events as a head-to-tail vector plot. Program ONSTSP 1) requires two component digitized tilt data as input, 2) scales and plots the data, and 3) computes and displays the amplitude, azimuth, and normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude. Program SHARPS computes the onset sharpness, (i.e., the normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude at the onset of the tilt event) as a function of source-station distance from a model of creep-related tilt changes. Program DSPLAY plots the digitized data.

  11. Icing Encounter Duration Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate how aerodynamic performance degradation progresses with time throughout an exposure to icing conditions. It is one of the first documented studies of the effects of ice contamination on aerodynamic performance at various points in time throughout an icing encounter. Both a 1.5 and 6 ft chord, two-dimensional, NACA-23012 airfoils were subjected to icing conditions in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for varying lengths of time. At the end of each run, lift, drag, and pitching moment measurements were made. Measurements with the 1.5 ft chord model showed that maximum lift and pitching moment degraded more rapidly early in the exposure and degraded more slowly as time progressed. Drag for the 1.5 ft chord model degraded more linearly with time, although drag for very short exposure durations was slightly higher than expected. Only drag measurements were made with the 6 ft chord airfoil. Here, drag for the long exposures was higher than expected. Novel comparison of drag measurements versus an icing scaling parameter, accumulation parameter times collection efficiency was used to compare the data from the two different size model. The comparisons provided a means of assessing the level of fidelity needed for accurate icing simulation.

  12. Employment among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis-A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Bøe Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Grytten, Nina; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. Methods The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment. Results After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing –remitting MS (RRMS) had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS). Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed. Conclusions Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual ’s needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients. PMID:25054972

  13. Equal Employment Opportunity. 1968 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Industry, Labor and Human Relations, Madison.

    The Equal Employment Opportunity survey reported employment levels and information in the state of Wisconsin for 1968. A sample of 2,132 business firms employing 532,231 persons took part in the survey. Information categories were: (1) minority group employment, (2) major industry group firms, (3) women in employment, (4) employment by job…

  14. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.

  15. Breast-feeding in South Korea: factors influencing its initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woojin; Kim, Hanjoong; Nam, Chung-Mo

    2008-03-01

    To investigate factors influencing the practices of partial breast-feeding (PBF) and exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). A national, cross-sectional survey was conducted among married women aged 15-49 years from May to August 2003. South Korea. A total of 865 mothers answered questions regarding the feeding practices of their youngest baby, born between January 2001 and May 2003. The initiation rates of PBF and EBF were 81% and 63%, respectively. However, the median durations of PBF and EBF were very short: 12 and 8 weeks, respectively. According to stepwise logistic and Cox regression analyses, the more prenatal care women received, the more likely they were to initiate PBF and EBF but the less likely to continue EBF. Delivery by Caesarean section decreased the initiation of PBF and EBF. The mother's education level and employment status before marriage, the amount of prenatal care, delivery method and baby's status at birth affected breast-feeding initiation, whereas the amount of prenatal care influenced breast-feeding duration. To promote breast-feeding, education and campaigning on the importance of continued breast-feeding should be provided to the general public, particularly to health workers in maternity units.

  16. Correlates of Long Sleep Duration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Malhotra, Atul; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; White, David P.; Hu, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality. Whether this association is causal and what pathways explain this association are unknown. We sought to identify factors that could potentially explain the association between long sleep and mortality. Design Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. Participants Middle-aged women (n = 60,028) participating in the Nurses Health Study II who reported a habitual sleep duration of 7 hours or more. Results Multiple sclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% confidence interval [3.0–4.5]), antidepressant use (OR = 3.1, [2.9–3.3]), benzodiazepine use (OR = 3.0 [2.6–3.3]), and systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 2.9, [2.3–3.6]) were the factors most strongly associated with prolonged sleep. Combining these data with prevalence information and a range of plausible associations with mortality, the confounding rate ratio was estimated. This parameter is the ratio of the unadjusted long sleep–mortality rate ratio to the rate ratio adjusted for the factor and measures the extent that the factor can alter the long sleep—mortality association, either through confounding or as a causal intermediate. Based on this parameter, psychiatric and socioeconomic factors have the greatest potential to influence the long sleep–mortality relationship. Assuming each factor doubles mortality risk, the confounding rate ratios for depression, antidepressant use, and unemployment were 1.10, 1.18, and 1.12. Lesser influential factors were benzodiazepine use, poverty, low societal status, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. Conclusion Depression and low socioeconomic status are strong candidates for producing the statistical association between long sleep and mortality, either as confounders or as causal intermediates. Future causal research on the effects of long sleep should include a detailed assessment of psychiatric disease and socioeconomic status. PMID:16895254

  17. Sleep Duration and Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Short sleep has been associated with adolescent obesity. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and modeled BMI categories. We sought to determine if sleep duration was associated with BMI distribution changes from age 14 to 18. METHODS: Adolescents were recruited from suburban high schools in Philadelphia when entering ninth grade (n = 1390) and were followed-up every 6 months through 12th grade. Height and weight were self-reported, and BMIs were calculated (kg/m2). Hours of sleep were self-reported. Quantile regression was used to model the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th BMI percentiles as dependent variables; study wave and sleep were the main predictors. RESULTS: BMI increased from age 14 to 18, with the largest increase observed at the 90th BMI percentile. Each additional hour of sleep was associated with decreases in BMI at the 10th (–0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.11, 0.03), 25th (–0.12; 95% CI: –0.20, –0.04), 50th (–0.15; 95% CI: –0.24, –0.06), 75th (–0.25; 95% CI: –0.38, –0.12), and 90th (–0.27; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.09) BMI percentiles. The strength of the association was stronger at the upper tail of the BMI distribution. Increasing sleep from 7.5 to 10.0 hours per day at age 18 predicted a reduction in the proportion of adolescents >25 kg/m2 by 4%. CONCLUSIONS: More sleep was associated with nonuniform changes in BMI distribution from age 14 to 18. Increasing sleep among adolescents, especially those in the upper half of the BMI distribution, may help prevent overweight and obesity. PMID:23569090

  18. Sleep duration and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2013-05-01

    Short sleep has been associated with adolescent obesity. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and modeled BMI categories. We sought to determine if sleep duration was associated with BMI distribution changes from age 14 to 18. Adolescents were recruited from suburban high schools in Philadelphia when entering ninth grade (n = 1390) and were followed-up every 6 months through 12th grade. Height and weight were self-reported, and BMIs were calculated (kg/m(2)). Hours of sleep were self-reported. Quantile regression was used to model the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th BMI percentiles as dependent variables; study wave and sleep were the main predictors. BMI increased from age 14 to 18, with the largest increase observed at the 90th BMI percentile. Each additional hour of sleep was associated with decreases in BMI at the 10th (-0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.11, 0.03), 25th (-0.12; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04), 50th (-0.15; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.06), 75th (-0.25; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.12), and 90th (-0.27; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.09) BMI percentiles. The strength of the association was stronger at the upper tail of the BMI distribution. Increasing sleep from 7.5 to 10.0 hours per day at age 18 predicted a reduction in the proportion of adolescents >25 kg/m(2) by 4%. More sleep was associated with nonuniform changes in BMI distribution from age 14 to 18. Increasing sleep among adolescents, especially those in the upper half of the BMI distribution, may help prevent overweight and obesity.

  19. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  20. An Electroencephalographic Investigation of the Filled-Duration Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Mitsudo, Takako; Gagnon, Caroline; Takeichi, Hiroshige; Grondin, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated how the brain activity changed when participants were engaged in a temporal production task known as the “filled-duration illusion.” Twelve right-handed participants were asked to memorize and reproduce the duration of time intervals (600 or 800 ms) bounded by two flashes. Random trials contained auditory stimuli in the form of three 20 ms sounds between the flashes. In one session, the participants were asked to ignore the presence of the sounds, and in the other, they were instructed to pay attention to sounds. The behavioral results showed that duration reproduction was clearly affected by the presence of the sounds and the duration of time intervals. The filled-duration illusion occurred when there were sounds; the participants overestimated the interval in the 600-ms interval condition with sounds. On the other hand, the participants underestimated the 800-ms interval condition without sounds. During the presentation of the interval to be encoded, the contingent negative variation (CNV) appeared around the prefrontal scalp site, and P300 appeared around the parieto-central scalp site. The CNV grew larger when the intervals contained the sounds, whereas the P300 grew larger when the intervals were 800 ms and did not contain the sounds. During the reproduction of the interval to be presented, the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) appeared over the fronto-central scalp site from 1000 ms before the participants’ response. The BP could refer to the decision making process associated with the duration reproduction. The occurrence of three event-related potentials (ERPs), the P300, CNV, and BP, suggests that the fronto-parietal area, together with supplementary motor area (SMA), is associated with timing and time perception, and magnitude of these potentials is modulted by the “filled-duration illusion”. PMID:22232577

  1. Disability Employment 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  2. Employability Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    The Employability Skills Center (ESC) of the Division of Adult and Continuing Education (DACE) of the Sweetwater Union High School District (California) was created out of a need to help adult students develop the basic skills that are required for success in their chosen vocational programs but not taught in regular adult basic education classes.…

  3. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  4. Westchester County Employers Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    The Westchester County Employers Survey was done in May 2003 in order learn more about employee training needs, how they accomplished these needs, and how it would be possible for the Westchester Community College to fulfill these needs. Out of the 639 surveys sent, 145 were returned in a satisfactory format, which produces a 22.6% return rate.…

  5. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  6. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  7. The Employability Skills Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmer, Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    During 1990-91, Michigan schools piloted an innovative portfolio approach enabling students to discover, document, and develop employability skills in academics, personal management, and teamwork. Not an improved sorting system, the project encourages students to recognize successes, seek opportunities to improve skills, and gain confidence in…

  8. Employment. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue addresses current trends and new developments in ensuring that individuals with disabilities have meaningful employment opportunities, especially in the context of recent federal legislation. Stressed throughout is the importance of collaboration among professionals, individuals with disabilities, and family members in achieving…

  9. Summer Employment for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeppson, David L.; Hammer, Fran

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Summer Work Experience Program developed by 3 agencies in Dallas, Texas, for students (ages 14-18) with visual impairments. The article describes student training; expectations for employees; attitudes of students, parents, and employers; and problems encountered. (JDD)

  10. The Employment Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  11. Engaging Employers in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary; DesRosier, Theron; Peterson, Nils; Chida, Meriem; Lagier, Randy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a pilot project in which formative feedback from industry professionals creates a genuine learning experience for students. Industry is giving feedback to higher education that many graduates are not employable or that they need substantial postcollegiate on-the-job training. Higher education is struggling to…

  12. 1985 Employment Outlook: Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Findings from an American Chemical Society survey show that the pessimism that characterized the job market in 1983 has given way to a much brighter outlook as employers hire more chemists and chemical engineers. Data from the survey on the supply and demand of chemical professionals are provided and discussed. (JN)

  13. 1983 Employment Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Presents findings on employment situations for chemists and chemical engineers, focusing on: (1) comparison of chemists and chemical engineers; (2) salaries; (3) career planning; and (4) demand, indicated to be decidedly less than in previous years as a result of the deep business recession. (JN)

  14. Engaging Employers in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary; DesRosier, Theron; Peterson, Nils; Chida, Meriem; Lagier, Randy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a pilot project in which formative feedback from industry professionals creates a genuine learning experience for students. Industry is giving feedback to higher education that many graduates are not employable or that they need substantial postcollegiate on-the-job training. Higher education is struggling to…

  15. Employability of Research Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Robert G.

    With new developments taking place in planning strategies for change in schools, new schemes and tactics are needed. Minneapolis Public Schools have developed the kind of organizational plan needed to find entry points into schools, systems for data gathering, and employment roles for research specialists. The Model for Local School Evaluation,…

  16. Declining Black Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard; Gallaway, Lowell

    1993-01-01

    Explores income inequality during declining African-American employment, examines current welfare systems, and suggests ways to improve the economic disadvantages of minority groups. Letting markets work can improve the economic status of African Americans. The present dual African-American economy, a market economy and an entitlement economy, is…

  17. Survey of Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Social Fund, Dublin (Ireland).

    A study examined attitudes of Irish employers toward vocational training (VT) activities, state agencies responsible for administering VT, and the skills that employees would need in the future. Of a sample of 500 firms that were selected as being representative from the standpoints of size, sector, location, and form of ownership, 219 were…

  18. Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Richard A.

    In 1990, Cuesta College (CC) conducted a needs assessment of local employers to determine the type of work done by their employees, number of employees, hiring plans, the current level of employee training, and training needs. The mailed survey had 266 usable responses for a 40.9% return rate. Study findings included the following: (1) 31% of the…

  19. Age Discrimination in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Law Review, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Economic, psychological, and social effects of age discrimination in employment are examined. This note analyzes constitutional challenges to hiring-age ceiling and mandatory retirement policies, as well as the constitutional criteria against which those ceilings and policies should be measured. Federal statutory prohibitions and their judicial…

  20. Discrimination in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abzug, Bella

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, expressly focuses on discrimination in employment, asserting that this has had the most direct effect on minorities and women in the country; while legal protections have grown stronger, they have not been used effectively. (Author/JM)

  1. The Employment Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  2. Employment Prospects for Biologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korschgen, Ann J.; Davis, Jerry D.

    1983-01-01

    Assesses the results of a survey of organizations which hire individuals with a biological background, focusing on future hiring plans, level of education, employment selection factors, typical positions, and where jobs are listed. Recommends developing communication skills, maintaining high grades, and relevant work experience as keys to…

  3. Technology and employment

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-07-22

    The influence of technology on today's high unemployment picture is discussed. Employment in the high-technology sector is seen by some to be a panacea for workers who have lost their jobs due to irreversible structural causes. Some federal, regional, state, and local efforts being made to ease structural adjustment are included. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Employers, Families and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    Family involvement in education is good for business, critical to children's school achievement, and important in creating strong and vibrant communities. This report discusses the role of businesses and employers in helping partners and family members be more involved in children's learning. Throughout the report, programs at specific companies…

  5. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  6. Employer Satisfaction Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    A three-part, state-wide survey was conducted in Spring 1979, to determine employer satisfaction with the vocational programs offered at Hawaii's high schools and community colleges. Three populations were involved in the survey: (1) the personnel directors of 29 firms representing approximately 25% of the businesses in Hawaii with 250 or more…

  7. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  8. Toward Equality Through Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekachman, Robert

    1974-01-01

    An indication of the rearrangements of power, privilege, income and wealth distribution that are necessary for the establishment of full employment with price stability; involving policies of guaranteed public service jobs, income maintenance, prices and wages controls, a redistributive taxation system, and the eventual "socialization of…

  9. Employer Engagement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  10. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  11. Learning Disabilities and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Paul J., Ed.; Brown, Dale S., Ed.

    This book provides information on preparing individuals with learning disabilities for the challenges of employment and outlines the rights of those with learning disabilities in the workplace. Introductory chapters in Part 1 include: "Life after School: Challenges in the Workplace" (Paul J. Gerber); "The New Economy in the 21st…

  12. Urbanization effect on trends in sunshine duration in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yawen; Wild, Martin; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Manara, Veronica

    2017-07-01

    There is an ongoing debate on whether the observed decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as dimming and brightening periods, are a large-scale or solely local phenomenon. We investigated this issue using long-term sunshine duration records from China, which experienced a rapid increase in urbanization during the past decades. Over the period 1960-2013, 172 pairs of urban and nearby rural stations were analyzed. Urban and rural sunshine duration trends show similar spatial patterns during a dimming phase (1960-1989) and a subsequent period during which trends were leveling off (1990-2013). This indicates that rather than local effects, the trends in sunshine duration are on more of a national or regional scale in China. Nevertheless, in the dimming phase, the declining rate of sunshine duration in rural areas is around two-thirds of that in urban areas. The ratio of rural to urban dimming generally increases from a minimum of 0.39 to a maximum of 0.87 with increasing indices of urbanization calculated based on the year 2013. It reaches a maximum when the urbanization level exceeds 50 %, the urban population exceeds 20 million, or the population density becomes higher than 250 person km-2. After the transition into the leveling-off period, sunshine duration trends are no longer significantly affected by urbanization. Meanwhile, the number of laws and regulations related to air pollution and investment in pollution treatment have been increasing in China.

  13. Duration estimates and users' preferences in human-computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J; Shinar, D; Bitan, Y; Leiser, D

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the effect of various static and dynamic computer 'wait' message displays on (1) subjective estimates of the duration of intervals during which a subject had to wait for the computer's response, and (2) subjective preferences among the different displays. All the static displays led to identical duration estimates. For dynamic displays a direct relation between the rate of changes and the estimate was found. Faster rates led in most cases to increased estimates of duration, and slow-changing graphic displays appeared to have the shortest duration. Subjects preferred epigrams to all other displays, and cumulative graphic displays to a blinking or static WAIT. The rate of change did not affect preference ratings for the graphic displays, whereas slower blink rates were preferred for the WAIT. The results demonstrate that the findings and models from earlier basic research on time estimation are relevant for predicting the subjective assessment of wait-periods. However, users' satisfaction with the displays depends not only on the apparent duration of the wait period, but also on other variables. These should be considered when choosing the display that is shown while users wait for the system to complete a task.

  14. The interaction between duration, velocity and repetitive auditory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dillon, Joe; Perrin, Aimee; Mullet, Thomas; Jones, Luke A

    2012-03-01

    Repetitive auditory stimulation (with click trains) and visual velocity signals both have intriguing effects on the subjective passage of time. Previous studies have established that prior presentation of auditory clicks increases the subjective duration of subsequent sensory input, and that faster moving stimuli are also judged to have been presented for longer (the time dilation effect). However, the effect of clicks on velocity estimation is unknown, and the nature of the time dilation effect remains ambiguous. Here were present a series of five experiments to explore these phenomena in more detail. Participants viewed a rightward moving grating which traveled at velocities ranging from 5 to 15°/s and which lasted for durations of 500 to 1500 ms. Gratings were preceded by clicks, silence or white noise. It was found that both clicks and higher velocities increased subjective duration. It was also found that the time dilation effect was a constant proportion of stimulus duration. This implies that faster velocity increases the rate of the pacemaker component of the internal clock. Conversely, clicks increased subjective velocity, but the magnitude of this effect was not proportional to actual velocity. Through considerations of these results, we conclude that clicks independently affect velocity and duration representations.

  15. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time. PMID:25530753

  16. Employment spectrum of IDDM.

    PubMed

    Songer, T J; LaPorte, R E; Dorman, J S; Orchard, T J; Becker, D J; Drash, A L

    1989-10-01

    Occupational issues in 158 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) individuals and 158 matched nondiabetic siblings were examined in a case-control design to evaluate the role of diabetes in the employability of people with IDDM. Overall, the IDDM cases were more likely to report refusal for a job at some point in their lives (56 vs. 42%, P = .02) than were the nondiabetic control siblings. Surprisingly, individuals who told job interviewers about their diabetes were more likely to report job refusal than their siblings (64 vs. 42%, P = .005), whereas individuals who did not mention their diabetes reported rates of refusal similar to their siblings (44 vs. 41%). IDDM cases were also less likely to be employed full time compared with siblings (55 vs. 73%, P = .001). Reduced employment in IDDM respondents was related to work disability. Reported work disability was more than seven times greater in the IDDM than the sibling group. The presence of diabetic complications was the primary factor related to work disability. Although 13% of IDDM respondents were unable to work because of disability, absenteeism among IDDM cases currently working did not differ from that of the nondiabetic siblings. Diabetes was not significantly associated with career levels or household income levels reported by the IDDM group. Disability, however, had a strong detrimental influence on these variables. The results suggest that hiring practices by employers may still be discriminatory toward individuals with IDDM. Once hired, the employment experiences of the IDDM population appear to be similar to the experiences of the nondiabetic population, provided the development of disabling diabetic complications has not taken place.

  17. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence

    2016-04-15

    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards.

  18. IDF relationships for short duration rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesarchio, Valeria; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio; Spina, S.

    2013-10-01

    The intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships bound rainfall intensity to duration and return period. These relationships are commonly used as an input in design of many hydraulic structures and drainage systems. Empirical IDF are estimated on the basis of recorded maximum annual precipitation of given durations, often ranging from 1 h to 24 h. For shorter durations, extrapolations are applied. In this paper, maximum annual precipitation for durations shorter than 1 h (namely, 30 min and 10 min) are evaluated using a rainfall disaggregation model and then used for the evaluation of the IDF relationship. A comparison of values obtained with the extrapolated values is then performed, and the results are discussed. Keywords: intensity-duration-frequency curves, rainfall disaggregation, entropy.

  19. A combined M5P tree and hazard-based duration model for predicting urban freeway traffic accident durations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lei; Wang, Qian; Sadek, Adel W

    2016-06-01

    The duration of freeway traffic accidents duration is an important factor, which affects traffic congestion, environmental pollution, and secondary accidents. Among previous studies, the M5P algorithm has been shown to be an effective tool for predicting incident duration. M5P builds a tree-based model, like the traditional classification and regression tree (CART) method, but with multiple linear regression models as its leaves. The problem with M5P for accident duration prediction, however, is that whereas linear regression assumes that the conditional distribution of accident durations is normally distributed, the distribution for a "time-to-an-event" is almost certainly nonsymmetrical. A hazard-based duration model (HBDM) is a better choice for this kind of a "time-to-event" modeling scenario, and given this, HBDMs have been previously applied to analyze and predict traffic accidents duration. Previous research, however, has not yet applied HBDMs for accident duration prediction, in association with clustering or classification of the dataset to minimize data heterogeneity. The current paper proposes a novel approach for accident duration prediction, which improves on the original M5P tree algorithm through the construction of a M5P-HBDM model, in which the leaves of the M5P tree model are HBDMs instead of linear regression models. Such a model offers the advantage of minimizing data heterogeneity through dataset classification, and avoids the need for the incorrect assumption of normality for traffic accident durations. The proposed model was then tested on two freeway accident datasets. For each dataset, the first 500 records were used to train the following three models: (1) an M5P tree; (2) a HBDM; and (3) the proposed M5P-HBDM, and the remainder of data were used for testing. The results show that the proposed M5P-HBDM managed to identify more significant and meaningful variables than either M5P or HBDMs. Moreover, the M5P-HBDM had the lowest overall mean

  20. Effects of Vowel Duration and Vowel Quality on Vowel-to-Vowel Coarticulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates how vowel duration and vowel quality affect degrees of vowel-to-vowel coarticulation. The effects of these two factors on vowel-to-vowel coarticulation have previously received little study. Phonological durational differences due to vowel length distinction were examined in Thai. It was hypothesized that shorter vowel…

  1. Individual Skills Based Volunteerism and Life Satisfaction among Healthcare Volunteers in Malaysia: Role of Employer Encouragement, Self-Esteem and Job Performance, A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism. PMID:24194894

  2. Individual skills based volunteerism and life satisfaction among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia: role of employer encouragement, self-esteem and job performance, a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Veerasamy, Chanthiran; Sambasivan, Murali; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze two important outcomes of individual skills-based volunteerism (ISB-V) among healthcare volunteers in Malaysia. The outcomes are: job performance and life satisfaction. This study has empirically tested the impact of individual dimensions of ISB-V along with their inter-relationships in explaining the life satisfaction and job performance. Besides, the effects of employer encouragement to the volunteers, demographic characteristics of volunteers, and self-esteem of volunteers on job performance and life satisfaction have been studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 1000 volunteers of St. John Ambulance in Malaysia. Three hundred and sixty six volunteers responded by giving their feedback. The model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The main results of this study are: (1) Volunteer duration and nature of contact affects life satisfaction, (2) volunteer frequency has impact on volunteer duration, (3) self-esteem of volunteers has significant relationships with volunteer frequency, job performance and life satisfaction, (4) job performance of volunteers affect their life satisfaction and (5) current employment level has significant relationships with duration of volunteering, self esteem, employer encouragement and job performance of volunteers. The model in this study has been able to explain 39% of the variance in life satisfaction and 45% of the variance in job performance. The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on healthcare volunteerism.

  3. Earth orientation determinations by short duration VLBI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Zhihan, Qian; Nicolson, George D.; Tomasi, Paolo

    1994-03-01

    In May 1989 and April 1990 the radio telescopes of the Wettzell Geodetic Fundamental Station in Germany and of the Shanghai Observatory near Seshan in China observed two series of daily VLBI experiments of short duration for precise determination of UT1. In 1990 a few experiments were complemented by the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory in South Africa and the Medicina telescope of the Bologna Istituto di Radioastronomia in Italy. Employing the South African station together with the east-west baseline formed by the observatories of Seshan and Medicina permitted simultaneous determinations of UT1 and polar motion. Here we report on the results of these observations. Comparing the UT1 results with those of the IRIS Intensive series gives a clear indication of the absolute accuracy of such short duration VLBI measurements which is estimated to be of the order of ±60 µs.

  4. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  5. The Role of Federal Tax Policy in Employment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Harold A.

    Federal tax policy could affect employment policy through the following four provisions: the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC), employment incentives in enterprise zone legislation, individual training accounts (ITAs), and employer reimbursement of employee educational expenses. The TJTC and enterprise zone proposals are both attempts to cause…

  6. Urban Development and Employment: The Prospects for Calcutta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Harold

    The study, one of the World Employment Program projects, discusses the general state of the economy as it has affected employment in West Bengal and Calcutta. It also examines the body of existing information on migration, employment, and unemployment in Calcutta. A consideration of the economic effect of development of Calcutta's infrastructure…

  7. Employment after liver transplantation: a review.

    PubMed

    Huda, A; Newcomer, R; Harrington, C; Keeffe, E B; Esquivel, C O

    2015-03-01

    Return to productive employment is often an important milestone in the recovery and rehabilitation process after liver transplantation (OLT). This literature review identifies factors associated with employment in patients who underwent OLT. We searched PubMed for articles that addressed the various factors affecting employment after OLT. The studies demonstrated improvement in the quality of life and examined factors that predicted whether patients would return to work after OLT. Demographic variable associated with posttransplant employment included young age, male sex, college degree, Caucasian race, and pretransplant employment. Patients with alcohol-related liver disease had a significantly lower rate of employment than did those with other etiologies of liver disease. Recipients who were employed after transplantation had a significantly better posttransplant functional status than did those who were not employed. Economic pressures are increasing the expectation that patients who undergo successful OLT will return to work. Thus, transplant teams need to have a better understanding of posttransplant work outcomes for this vulnerable population, and greater attention must be paid to the full social rehabilitation of transplant recipients. Specific interventions for OLT recipients should be designed to evaluate and change their health perceptions and encourage their return to work. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Consistency Between Maternal Employment Attitudes and Employment Status

    PubMed Central

    Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of mothers’ attitudes toward employment, employment status, and consistency between employment attitudes and behavior over a 15-month period was examined. Factors such as family finances, availability of child care, and child’s health status that could influence either employment attitudes or employment behavior were explored. Mothers of preterm infants (N = 98) and mothers of full-term, healthy infants (N = 101) completed questionnaires regarding home/employment orientation, choice and satisfaction with the employment decision, and employment behavior as part of a battery of instruments administered when their infants were 3,9, and 18 months old. Analyses indicated considerable stability in attitudes, behaviors, and consistency over a 15-month period for mothers of both full-term and preterm infants. Consistency groups were created based on employment status (employed versus not employed) and consistency status (consistent versus inconsistent) at each time point. Consistency groups differed on ratings of financial need and availability of child care. PMID:7480851

  9. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  10. Employer-Sponsored Child Care: A Movement or a Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Valora; Oyemade, Ura Jean

    1984-01-01

    Reviews trends in family life-styles that affect the workplace. Identifies employer trends affecting employee expectations. Examines the prevalence, success, and limitations of employer-sponsored child care and government-sponsored initiatives. Finally, discusses the permanence of the trend. (SK)

  11. Employer-Sponsored Child Care: A Movement or a Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Valora; Oyemade, Ura Jean

    1984-01-01

    Reviews trends in family life-styles that affect the workplace. Identifies employer trends affecting employee expectations. Examines the prevalence, success, and limitations of employer-sponsored child care and government-sponsored initiatives. Finally, discusses the permanence of the trend. (SK)

  12. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  13. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a) This part has not been...

  14. Duration Sensitivity Depends on Stimulus Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Kassam, Karim S.; Hsee, Christopher K.; Caruso, Eugene M.

    2009-01-01

    When people are asked to assess or compare the value of experienced or hypothetical events, one of the most intriguing observations is their apparent insensitivity to event duration. The authors propose that duration insensitivity occurs when stimuli are evaluated in isolation because they typically lack comparison information. People should be…

  15. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  16. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration. 430.33 Section 430.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of...

  17. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration. 430.33 Section 430.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the...

  18. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration. 430.33 Section 430.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of...

  19. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  20. Employment security and health

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, P; Vahtera, J; Kivimaki, M; Pentti, J; Ferrie, J

    2002-01-01

    Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Municipal sector employees in eight Finnish towns. Participants: 5981 employees with a permanent contract and 2786 employees with a non-permanent contract (2194 fixed term contract, 682 government subsidised contract). Outcome measures: Poor self rated health, chronic disease, and psychological distress. Results: Compared with permanent employees, fixed term men and women had better self rated health (men odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence intervals 0.50 to 0.98, women 0.70 (0.60 to 0.82) and less chronic disease (men 0.69; 0.52 to 0.91; women 0.89; 0.79 to 1.02), but women had more psychological distress (1.26; 1.09 to 1.45). The only difference between subsidised employees and permanent employees was the high level of psychological distress in women (1.35; 1.09 to 1.68). Low perceived employment security was associated with poor health across all three indicators. The association of low perceived security with psychological distress was significantly stronger in permanent employees than among fixed term and subsidised employees, indicating that perceived security is more important for mental health among employees with a permanent contract. Conclusions: Contractual security and perceived security of employment are differently associated with health. It is therefore important to distinguish between these aspects of employment security in studies of labour market status and health. Such studies will also need to control for health selection, which is unlikely to operate in the same way among permanent and non-permanent employees. PMID:12118045

  1. Termination of employment.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, P J; Birt, K M

    1995-01-01

    The following questions and recommendations, taken from Jeffrey Hirsch & William Farrell's Labor and Employment in Rhode Island, provide a synopsis of the basic issues which employers should consider before making a decision to fire an employee: 1. Review all documentation and other company records considered when making the decision. Make sure all stated policies were followed by management. 2. Interview all managers who provided input on the decisions. 3. Be satisfied that the decision was made for the correct reason. 4. Was the employee aware that termination was likely? Can you document that awareness? 5. Was the individual given an opportunity to improve his or her performance? 6. Has the company discharged others for similar reasons in the past? 7. Has the company acted promptly and avoided relying on "stale" offense? 8. Is the employee protected by anti-discrimination statutes? (i.e. race, age, sex, national origin, handicapped or religion)? 9. Meet with the employee personally; do not discharge by phone or letter unless absolutely necessary. 10. Have a "passive" management witness at the meeting. 11. Conduct the meeting in a private area where other employees will not be able to see or hear the discussion. 12. Both the executive and management witness should prepare file memoranda concerning what is said at the discharge meeting. 13. Always tell the employee the reason for her or his discharge. 14. Discuss health insurance continuation (COBRA). 15. Discuss life and disability insurance, and pension/profit sharing status. 16. Discuss other issues, such as references and out placement policies. By taking the time to follow these suggestions and answer these questions, an employer can feel more secure that the termination has been conducted properly, and minimize the chances of becoming implicated in legal action related to the termination.

  2. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  3. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  4. Employers toe the line.

    PubMed

    2006-10-11

    It is no wonder that staff unions are unhappy about NHS Employers' evidence to the nurses' pay review body this year. There are many reasons why a rise of 2 per cent from next April would be inadequate. For a start, 2 per cent is still only a government inflation target; the latest Consumer Price Index of annual inflation rose to 2.5 per cent in August, up from 2.4 per cent in July, so ministers cannot even claim that prices are moving in the right direction.

  5. Autonomic Recovery after Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couckuyt, Kurt; Verheyden, Bart; Liu, Jiexin; Aubert, Andre E.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the recovery of cardiovascular autonomic modulation after long-duration spaceflight (6 months) is evaluated over a period of 30 days. Results from long-duration spaceflight were compared with the results obtained in astronauts who spent about 10 days in space. It is expected that cardiovascular recovery after spaceflight takes longer when the time spent in weightlessness is extended. Six male astronauts who spent 6 months in space in the ISS participated in the study. It was found that after long duration spaceflight, there is a sympathetic autonomic dominance resulting in post-flight orthostatic tachycardia. Surprisingly, no differences were found in autonomic changes and post-flight recovery after long-duration spaceflight compared to post-flight autonomic control after short-duration spaceflight.

  6. Effect of Accent and Dialect on Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Holly K.; McHenry, Monica A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine how ethnicity, the amount of perceived accent or dialect, and comprehensibility affect a speaker's employability. Sixty human resource specialists judged 3 female potential applicants. The applicants represented speakers of Spanish-influenced English, Asian-influenced English, and African American Vernacular…

  7. Effect of Accent and Dialect on Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Holly K.; McHenry, Monica A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine how ethnicity, the amount of perceived accent or dialect, and comprehensibility affect a speaker's employability. Sixty human resource specialists judged 3 female potential applicants. The applicants represented speakers of Spanish-influenced English, Asian-influenced English, and African American Vernacular…

  8. Employment Counseling and Organizational Ethical Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Employment counseling is commonly used in companies to assist employees with various personal and professional challenges that are confronted in the workplace. Such guidance could affect the degree to which employees believe a company proactively supports an ethical orientation; the purpose of this study was to explore this issue. A self-report…

  9. Employment Counseling and Organizational Ethical Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Employment counseling is commonly used in companies to assist employees with various personal and professional challenges that are confronted in the workplace. Such guidance could affect the degree to which employees believe a company proactively supports an ethical orientation; the purpose of this study was to explore this issue. A self-report…

  10. Employee demand for health insurance and employer health plan choices.

    PubMed

    Bundorf, M Kate

    2002-01-01

    Although most private health insurance in US is employment-based, little is known about how employers choose health plans for their employees. In this paper, I examine the relationship between employee preferences for health insurance and the health plans offered by employers. I find evidence that employee characteristics affect the generosity of the health plans offered by employers and the likelihood that employers offer a choice of plans. Although the results suggest that employers do respond to employee preferences in choosing health benefits, the effects of worker characteristics on plan offerings are quantitatively small.

  11. Domestic violence and employment: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Logan, T K

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to gather detailed information about how domestic violence affects women's employment, specifically to identify the types of job interference tactics used by abusers and their consequences on women's job performance; identify and understand the context associated with disclosure about victimization to employers and coworkers; and identify the supports offered to employees after disclosure. Qualitative analyses, guided by grounded theory, revealed that perpetrators exhibited job interference behaviors before, during, and after work. Abuser tactics reduced women's job performance as measured by absenteeism, tardiness, job leavings, and terminations. Among women who disclosed victimization to employers, informal and formal job supports were offered. Workplace supports led to short-term job retention, but fear and safety issues mitigated employers' attempts to retain workers. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Parental employment, family routines and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Patricia M

    2012-12-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) data from kindergarten through eighth grade, this paper investigate the relationships among maternal employment, family routines and obesity. More hours worked by the mother tend to be negatively related to positive routines like eating meals as a family or at regular times, or having family rules about hours of television watched. Many of these same routines are significantly related to the probability of being obese, implying that family routines may be a mechanism by which maternal employment intensity affects children's obesity. However, inclusion of family routines in the obesity regression does not appreciably change the estimated effect of maternal employment hours. Thus, the commonly estimated deleterious effect of maternal employment on children's obesity cannot be explained by family routines, leaving the exact mechanisms an open question for further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mental Health and Employment: The SAD Story

    PubMed Central

    Tefft, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures and employment status in light of a constructed index related to Seasonal Affective Disorder that depends only on latitude and day of year. In models including demographic covariates and indicators for state, year, and quarter, more hours of darkness is associated with poorer HRQOL, which in turn is associated with a lower likelihood of employment. The relationships between the darkness index and HRQOL measures are stronger overall for women than for men. Inclusion of both the darkness index and the HRQOL measures in models of employment status determinants provides some evidence that the former operates through the latter in predicting a lower likelihood of employment. When specifying the darkness index as an instrument for HRQOL, each additional day of poor mental health per month leads to a 0.76 percentage point increase in the probability of unemployment among women. PMID:21907647

  14. Employment Maintenance and Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Lee, Rebecca C; Martsolf, Donna S; Maler, Jeff

    2016-05-18

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. Negative outcomes of IPV affect women's attainment and maintenance of employment. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework that described and explained the process by which women who have experienced IPV attain and maintain employment. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze interviews of 34 women who had experienced IPV. Analysis suggested that women who had experienced IPV could attain employment; however, they had difficulty maintaining employment. Entanglement of work and IPV was experienced by all 34 participants because of the perpetrator controlling their appearance, sabotaging their work, interfering with their work, or controlling their finances. Some women described ways in which they disentangled work from IPV through a dynamic unraveling process, with periods of re-entanglement, resulting in job security and satisfaction.

  15. Electropermeabilization of mammalian cells to macromolecules: control by pulse duration.

    PubMed Central

    Rols, M P; Teissié, J

    1998-01-01

    Membrane electropermeabilization to small molecules depends on several physical parameters (pulse intensity, number, and duration). In agreement with a previous study quantifying this phenomenon in terms of flow (Rols and Teissié, Biophys. J. 58:1089-1098, 1990), we report here that electric field intensity is the deciding parameter inducing membrane permeabilization and controls the extent of the cell surface where the transfer can take place. An increase in the number of pulses enhances the rate of permeabilization. The pulse duration parameter is shown to be crucial for the penetration of macromolecules into Chinese hamster ovary cells under conditions where cell viability is preserved. Cumulative effects are observed when repeated pulses are applied. At a constant number of pulses/pulse duration product, transfer of molecules is strongly affected by the time between pulses. The resealing process appears to be first-order with a decay time linearly related to the pulse duration. Transfer of macromolecules to the cytoplasm can take place only if they are present during the pulse. No direct transfer is observed with a postpulse addition. The mechanism of transfer of macromolecules into cells by electric field treatment is much more complex than the simple diffusion of small molecules through the electropermeabilized plasma membrane. PMID:9726943

  16. Research on determinants of breastfeeding duration: suggestions for biocultural studies.

    PubMed

    Allen, L H; Pelto, G H

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to suggest directions for future intra-cultural research on the factors that affect breastfeeding duration, especially policy-oriented research. A 2nd purpose is to call for a reexamination of the theoretical construct, biocultural determinants, with respect to infant feeding. The study compares determinants in 4 multivariate studies. One was carried out in Connecticut, 1 in a working class community in Scotland, another in England and the 4th in Sweden. Almost no biological factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding duration in any of the population studied. Of the external factors, those relating to social support and advice were the most consistent predictors. Socioeconomic status, income, and work outside the home were not good predictors. Maternal attitudes and experience are of great importance in predicting feeding duration. The general picture that emerged from all the studies is that if a mother wants to breastfeed, she can. Mothers breastfeed longer if they desire to breastfeed; they intend to do it for a longer period of time; they feel comfortable feeding in public; they are informed about breastfeeding; and they are not anxious about the process. There is also fairly strong evidence linking a number of biocultural factors to feeding duration. Whether the linkage is biological or behavioral has significant policy implications: if it is biological, successful intervention would require a change in hospital practices to earlier 1st feeding; if the linkage is behavioral, the problem might be resolved through improved maternal education.

  17. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Eliane; Hoeksma, Marco R; Smeets, Monique A M; Semin, Gün R

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental task was performed while participants were exposed to an odor and either sitting upright (arousing condition) or lying down in a relaxing chair (relaxing condition). They were allocated to one of three experimental odor conditions: rosemary (arousing condition), peppermint (relaxing condition), and no odor (control condition). The predicted effects of the odors were not borne out by the results. Self-reported arousal (SRA) and pleasure (PL) states were measured before, during (after each body posture condition) and postexperimentally. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance were measured before and during the experiment. As expected, odor had an effect on perceived duration. When participants were exposed to rosemary odor, they produced significantly shorter time intervals than in the no odor condition. This effect, however, could not be explained by increased arousal. There was no effect of body posture on perceived duration, even though body posture did induce arousal. The results do not support the proposed arousal mechanism of the internal clock model.

  18. The effect of job loss and unemployment duration on suicide risk in the United States: a new look using mass-layoffs and unemployment duration*

    PubMed Central

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the link between employment status and suicide risk using a panel of US states from 1996 to 2005 with monthly data on suicides, the duration of unemployment spells and the number of job losses associated with mass layoff events. The use of aggregate data at the monthly level along with the distribution of unemployment duration allows us to separate the effect of job loss from the effect of unemployment duration, an important distinction for policy purposes, especially for the timing of potential interventions. Our results are consistent with unemployment duration being the dominant force in the relationship between job loss and suicide. Nevertheless, mass layoffs may be powerful localized events where suicide risk increases shortly afterward. Implications for the design of unemployment insurance are discussed. PMID:21322087

  19. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  20. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  1. Clerical Employment and Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, H. Allan; Hunt, Timothy

    The potential employment impact of office automation is the topic of the study described in this book. The study reviews trends in clerical employment over the last 30 years in a search for evidence of the impact of changes in process technology on clerical employment levels. Specifically, it examines clerical employment trends from 1950 to 1980…

  2. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  3. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  4. Attentional entrainment and perceived event duration

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, J. Devin; Fromboluti, Elisa Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the contribution of dynamic attending theory (DAT) and attentional entrainment to systematic distortions in perceived event duration. Three experiments were conducted using an auditory oddball paradigm, in which listeners judged the duration of a deviant (oddball) stimulus embedded within a series of identical (standard) stimuli. To test for a role of attentional entrainment in perceived oddball duration, oddballs were presented at either temporally expected (on time) or unexpectedly early or late time points relative to extrapolation of the context rhythm. Consistent with involvement of attentional entrainment in perceived duration, duration judgements about the oddball were least distorted when the oddball occurred on time with respect to the entrained rhythm, whereas durations of early and late oddballs were perceived to be shorter and longer, respectively. This pattern of results was independent of the absolute time interval preceding the oddball. Moreover, as expected, an irregularly timed sequence context weakened observed differences between oddballs with on-time and late onsets. Combined with other recent work on the role of temporal preparation in duration distortions, the present findings allot at least a portion of the oddball effect to increased attention to events that are more expected, rather than on their unexpected nature per se. PMID:25385779

  5. Segmental duration in Parkinsonian French speech.

    PubMed

    Duez, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The present study had 2 main objectives: (1) examine the effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on vowel and consonant duration in French read speech and (2) investigate whether the durational contrasts of consonants and vowels are maintained or compromised. The data indicated that the consonant durations were shortened in Parkinsonian speech (PS), compared to control speech (CS). However, this shortening was consonant dependent: unvoiced occlusives and fricatives were significantly shortened compared to other consonant categories. All vowels were slightly longer in PS than in CS, however, the observed differences were below the level of significance. Despite significant shortening of some consonant categories, the general pattern of intrinsic duration was maintained in PS. There was slightly less agreement for vowels with the normal contrast of intrinsic durations, possibly because vowel durational contrasts are more sensitive to PD disorders. Most PD patients tended to maintain the intrinsic duration contrasts of both vowels and consonants, suggesting that low-level articulatory constraints operate in a similar way and with the same weight in PS and CS. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Factors influencing the duration of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) prophylaxis against experimental challenge with metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Peregrine, A S; Ogunyemi, O; Whitelaw, D D; Holmes, P H; Moloo, S K; Hirumi, H; Urquhart, G M; Murray, M

    1988-04-01

    The duration of a single isometamidium chloride (Samorin) prophylactic treatment against Trypanosoma congolense ILNat. 3.1 and T. congolense IL 285 was examined in 24 Boran steers with regard to (1) the dose of drug, (2) the level of metacyclic challenge and (3) the influence of infection with an unrelated serodeme at the time of treatment. The cattle were repeatedly challenged at monthly intervals between 2 and 7 months following treatment, either by five infected Glossina morsitans centralis or by intradermal inoculation of 5 X 10(3) or 5 X 10(5) in vitro-derived metacyclic trypanosomes. A dose of 1 mg kg-1 afforded complete protection for 4 months and 0.5 mg kg-1 for 3 months against the two T. congolense serodemes examined, irrespective of the method or weight of challenge. In another group of cattle, which had an established infection at the time of treatment, the duration of chemoprophylaxis against an unrelated serodeme was the same as the other groups which had no previous experience of trypanosome infection. Antibodies to metacyclics did not appear in any of the cattle as long as the chemoprophylaxis was effective. An exception to this was the group challenged with 5 X 10(5) in vitro-derived metacyclic parasites, in which low antibody titres were detected. In all cases these proved to be non-protective. It was concluded that, under the experimental conditions employed, (1) there was a direct relationship between drug dosage and the duration of chemoprophylaxis, (2) the weight of metacyclic challenge did not affect the duration of chemoprophylaxis and (3) when used to treat an existing infection, isometamidium chloride exerted the same degree of chemoprophylactic activity.

  7. Competitive Employment Outcomes Among Veterans in VHA Therapeutic and Supported Employment Services Programs.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Kristen M; Yosef, Matheos; Resnick, Sandra G; Zivin, Kara

    2017-09-01

    The study assessed whether receiving specific types of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Therapeutic and Supported Employment Services (TSES) between fiscal years (FYs) 2006 and 2010 (a time frame that encompasses the Great Recession) was associated with obtaining competitive employment among veterans with mental illnesses. The sample included 38,199 veterans discharged from the VHA's TSES program in FY 2006 through FY 2010. On the basis of program monitoring forms completed by TSES clinicians and workload data, veterans were classified as having received one main type of employment service: supported employment (SE), transitional work in the community (TW-community), transitional work in a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center (TW-VA), incentive therapy or sheltered workshop (IT/SW), and no main type of employment service. Compared with veterans who received TW-VA, those who received SE (odds ratio [OR]=1.25) or TW-community (OR=1.24) were more likely to be competitively employed (p<.001), and veterans who received IT/SW were less likely (OR=.85) (p<.001). The predicted probabilities for obtaining competitive employment ranged from 27.2% (IT/SW) to 34.9% (SE). Odds of achieving competitive employment (ORs=.60-.97) were significantly lower during the years of the Great Recession (2007-2009) and in the subsequent year (2010), compared with the year prior (p<.001 to <.05). Although rates of competitive employment were modest across all types of services, community-based employment services were associated with higher odds of achieving competitive employment, compared with services based in a medical center. The Great Recession negatively affected the likelihood of achieving competitive employment, regardless of the employment service received.

  8. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Elizabeth; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Jason, Leonard A.; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55) and illness duration (more or less than 10 years). The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients. PMID:27110826

  9. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts.

  10. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Employment Trajectories Beyond Retirement.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Carola; Hochfellner, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Within the political and academic debate on working longer, post-retirement employment is discussed as an alternative to maintain older workers in the labor market. Our article enhances this discussion by studying determinants of transitions into post-retirement jobs within differing work environments of birth cohorts 1940-1942. We estimate proportional subhazard models accounting for competing risks using unique German social security data linked to pension accounts. Our findings suggest that individuals' preferences to take up post-retirement jobs are not mutually exclusive. Our study provides evidence that taking up post-retirement jobs is related to seeking financial security, continuity, and work ability, suggesting that public policy has to develop target-oriented support through a public policy mix of different measures aligned to the different peer groups in the labor market.

  12. HIV and employment.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, C

    2012-06-01

    According to 2009 statistics, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected an estimated 86,500 individuals within the UK, although around one-quarter were unaware of their infection. In the majority of cases, it is now considered a long-term controllable but incurable infection. Indeed, most HIV-positive individuals are able to work. Employment is across most, if not all, workforce sectors and protection against workplace discrimination is provided by the Equality Act 2010. Issues including confidentiality, workplace adjustments, vaccinations and travel restrictions may be relevant to the occupational health of HIV-positive workers. There are special considerations concerning HIV-infected health care workers, including avoidance of performing exposure-prone procedures. Prevention of HIV acquisition in the workplace is relevant to a diverse range of occupational environments, and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered after potential HIV exposure incidents. If a worker contracts HIV by occupational means, financial help may be available.

  13. The remembering of auditory event durations.

    PubMed

    Boltz, M G

    1992-09-01

    Three experiments examined the incidental remembering of event durations. In each study, Ss engaged in an initial learning phase in which they performed a set of perceptual ratings on events for a varying number of trials. These events consisted of tonal sequences or ecological sounds that varied in their internal structure and ending. Ss were then given a surprise memory task in which they were asked to recognize the duration of each event (Experiments 1 and 3) or extrapolate its completion (Experiment 2). Results showed that in contrast to irregularly timed events, those filled with regularly timed or continuous pitch information yielded high levels of accuracy that increased with greater learning experience. In addition, durations marked by a nonarbitrary ending were more accurately remembered than those marked by an arbitrary ending which, in fact, were misremembered as shorter than their actual duration. These findings are discussed in terms of an approach that emphasizes the role of event structure on perceiving and remembering activities.

  14. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  15. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  16. A progressive-duration schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Kara B; Byrne, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We describe a schedule of reinforcement involving systematic, within-session increases in response-duration requirements. Rats received access to appetitive reinforcers for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery. Sessions ended when reinforcement criteria were unmet for a period of ten minutes. Breaking points, defined as the terminal duration requirement in effect prior to the end of the session, stabilized when environmental conditions were held constant. Breaking points were sensitive to manipulations of both food deprivation and reinforcer quality. Analogous to progressive-ratio schedules, progressive-duration schedules may provide an assay for measuring the amount of behavior an organism will emit for a given reinforcer under current motivational conditions.

  17. Detrended fluctuation analysis of intertrade durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2009-02-01

    The intraday pattern, long memory, and multifractal nature of the intertrade durations, which are defined as the waiting times between two consecutive transactions, are investigated based upon the limit order book data and order flows of 23 liquid Chinese stocks listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003. An inverse U-shaped intraday pattern in the intertrade durations with an abrupt drop in the first minute of the afternoon trading is observed. Based on a detrended fluctuation analysis, we find a crossover of power-law scaling behaviors for small box sizes (trade numbers in boxes) and large box sizes and strong evidence in favor of long memory in both regimes. In addition, the multifractal nature of intertrade durations in both regimes is confirmed by a multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis for individual stocks with a few exceptions in the small-duration regime. The intraday pattern has little influence on the long memory and multifractality.

  18. 14 CFR 420.43 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE License Terms and Conditions § 420.43 Duration. A license to operate a launch site remains in effect for five years from the date of issuance...

  19. [Duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Pereira, P Ricardo; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis is a controversial issue. Antibiotic regimens have changed over time along with the criteria used to determine the ideal antibiotic therapy duration. The authors aim to make an historical overview on this matter and simultaneously add the evidence of recent studies, pointing out some issues in results interpretation, namely, their design and the associated demographic and epidemiological questions. Clinical assays on this subject, with statistically significant results, are quite recent. Most of the scientific knowledge has been acquired empirically through the times. The actual investigation paradigm, in what concerns to antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis, lays on the dichotomy: "short versus long duration regimens". Nevertheless, so far, the existing studies have not completely cleared this doubt. Thus, despite some evidence suggests that short duration antibiotic regimens are effective for some patients, in patients with severe disease presentations or with other morbidities its use may be questioned.

  20. Levels of attention and task difficulty in the modulation of interval duration mismatch negativity

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alana M.; Davalos, Deana B.

    2015-01-01

    Time perception has been described as a fundamental skill needed to engage in a number of higher level cognitive processes essential to successfully navigate everyday life (e.g., planning, sequencing, etc.) Temporal processing is often thought of as a basic neural process that impacts a variety of other cognitive processes. Others, however, have argued that timing in the brain can be affected by a number of variables such as attention and motivation. In an effort to better understand timing in the brain at a basic level with minimal attentional demands, researchers have often employed use of the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN, specifically duration MMN (dMMN) and interval MMN (iMMN) have been popular methods for studying temporal processing in populations for which attention or motivation may be an issue (e.g., clinical populations, early developmental studies). There are, however, select studies which suggest that attention may in fact modify both temporal processing in general and the MMN event-related potential. It is unclear the degree to which attention affects MMN or whether the effects differ depending on the complexity or difficulty of the MMN paradigm. The iMMN indexes temporal processing and is elicited by introducing a deviant interval duration amid a series of standards. A greater degree of difference in the deviant from the standard elicits a heightened iMMN. Unlike past studies, in which attention was intentionally directed toward a closed-captioned move, the current study had participants partake in tasks involving varying degrees of attention (passive, low, and high) with varying degrees of deviants (small, medium, and large) to better understand the role of attention on the iMMN and to assess whether level of attention paired with changes in task difficulty differentially influence the iMMN electrophysiological responses. Data from 19 subjects were recorded in an iMMN paradigm. The amplitude of the iMMN waveform showed an increase with attention

  1. Levels of attention and task difficulty in the modulation of interval duration mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alana M; Davalos, Deana B

    2015-01-01

    Time perception has been described as a fundamental skill needed to engage in a number of higher level cognitive processes essential to successfully navigate everyday life (e.g., planning, sequencing, etc.) Temporal processing is often thought of as a basic neural process that impacts a variety of other cognitive processes. Others, however, have argued that timing in the brain can be affected by a number of variables such as attention and motivation. In an effort to better understand timing in the brain at a basic level with minimal attentional demands, researchers have often employed use of the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN, specifically duration MMN (dMMN) and interval MMN (iMMN) have been popular methods for studying temporal processing in populations for which attention or motivation may be an issue (e.g., clinical populations, early developmental studies). There are, however, select studies which suggest that attention may in fact modify both temporal processing in general and the MMN event-related potential. It is unclear the degree to which attention affects MMN or whether the effects differ depending on the complexity or difficulty of the MMN paradigm. The iMMN indexes temporal processing and is elicited by introducing a deviant interval duration amid a series of standards. A greater degree of difference in the deviant from the standard elicits a heightened iMMN. Unlike past studies, in which attention was intentionally directed toward a closed-captioned move, the current study had participants partake in tasks involving varying degrees of attention (passive, low, and high) with varying degrees of deviants (small, medium, and large) to better understand the role of attention on the iMMN and to assess whether level of attention paired with changes in task difficulty differentially influence the iMMN electrophysiological responses. Data from 19 subjects were recorded in an iMMN paradigm. The amplitude of the iMMN waveform showed an increase with attention

  2. Shorter duration of breastfeeding at elevated exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Weihe, Pál; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Nielsen, Flemming; Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to persistent perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) affect the capability to breastfeed. In two Faroese birth cohorts (N=1130), concentrations of five PFASs were measured in maternal serum during pregnancy or two weeks after term. Duration of breastfeeding was assessed by questionnaire and clinical interview. In adjusted linear regression models, a doubling of maternal serum PFASs was associated with a reduction in duration of both total and exclusive breastfeeding, most pronounced for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) where a doubling was associated with a reduction in total breastfeeding of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.6; 2.1) months and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) where a doubling was associated with a reduction in exclusive breastfeeding of 0.5 (0.3; 0.7) months. The associations were evident among both primiparous and multiparous women, and thus cannot be explained by confounding from previous breastfeeding.

  3. Electronic Repair Concepts for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Struk, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Constraints on the mass and volume that can be allocated for electronics spares and repair equipment on long-duration space missions mean that NASA must look at repair strategies beyond the traditional approach, which has been to replace faulty subsystems in a modular form, termed Orbital Replacement Units or Line Replacement Units. Other possible strategies include component and board-level replacement, modular designs that allow reprogramming of less-critical systems to take the place of more critical failed systems, and a blended approach which uses elements of each of these approaches, along with a limited number of Line Replacement Units. This paper presents some of the constraints and considerations that affect the decision on how to approach electronics repair for long duration space missions, and discusses the benefits and limitations of each of the previously mentioned strategies.

  4. Sex and race differences in QRS duration.

    PubMed

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Smetana, Peter; Toman, Ondrej; Schmidt, Georg; Malik, Marek

    2016-12-01

    The study investigated healthy subjects to study sex and race differences in QRS durations and the dependency of QRS durations on heart rates and other physiologic correlates. QRS duration and its heart rate dependency were evaluated in 420 615 electrocardiograms obtained in 523 healthy subjects including 111 females of African origin, 130 Caucasian females, 125 males of African origin, and 129 Caucasian males. The distributions of QRS/RR slopes and QRS durations at RR intervals of 1 and 0.5 s were compared between sex- and race-defined subgroups. At high heart rates, QRS duration was increased in ∼35% of all subjects, while in the others, QRS was shortened (no differences between the subgroups). At RR interval of 1 s, the QRS duration was 97.4 ± 4.6, 99.8 ± 6.0, 101.6 ± 5.3, and 104.8 ± 6.3 ms in African females, Caucasian females, African males, and Caucasian males, respectively (all differences P < 0.001). Similar statistical differences were found at an RR of 0.5 s. When accounting for the differences in lean body mass, the difference between African and Caucasian subjects was as large as the difference between females and males. Within each subgroup, the normal QRS durations differed by 15-20 and 18-25 ms at RR intervals of 1 and 0.5 s, respectively. The QRS widths are heart rate dependent and different not only between women and men but also between African and Caucasian individuals. Difference in cardiac resynchronization therapy efficacy might be expected between patients of African and Caucasian origin stratified by QRS duration. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams

    1999-01-01

    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social self-confidence than did mothers providing breast milk exclusively. PMID:22945984

  6. Perceived duration of chromatic and achromatic light.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Haruyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-15

    Luminance and color information are considered to be processed in parallel systems. The integration of information from these two separate systems is crucial for the visual system to produce a coherent percept. To investigate how luminance and color lights are perceived in time, we measured the perceived duration of light stimuli with and without colors in a paradigm involving simultaneous perception with presentation of two successive stimulus frames. Luminance contrast and color contrast of the stimuli were set with a chromatic substitution technique. In Experiment 1, the perceived duration of both chromatic stimuli and achromatic stimuli increased as the luminance contrast decreased. Experiment 2 tested if the duration of the percept was influenced by color contrast which was defined by colorimetric purity of the stimuli, when luminance contrast was set as low as practically possible. The result showed that the duration of the percept decreased with increasing color contrast of the stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 3 demonstrated that the trend of perceived duration was consistent with the four primary colors, provided that the effective color contrast of stimulus was corrected based on the contrast sensitivity to the color. These experiments indicate that, with a high luminance contrast level, perceived duration of a stimulus is predominantly defined by luminance contrast, whereas in low luminance contrast conditions, the duration depends on the color contrast. The perceived duration of color stimuli showed an "inverse color contrast effect", similar to the well-known "inverse intensity effect" for luminance stimuli. The similarities and the differences between the two systems, as well as their priorities in processing temporal information of visual stimuli are further discussed.

  7. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  8. Insurance coverage for employment-related claims

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuermann, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    This article analyzes the principal coverage issues arising under CGL policies for employment-related claims. Section I discusses the bases of the duty to defend and the duty to idemnify in the key CGL policy provisions at issue, including the bodily injury and personal injury coverages. Section II examines the three provisions in CGL policies typically raised as defenses to coverage for employment-related claims and two public policy considerations that may affect claims for coverage. The duty to defend is given closer crutiny in section III. Finally, in section IV the effects of settlement on coverage are discussed. 106 refs.

  9. Maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Romano, Megan E; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Webster, Glenys M; Eliot, Melissa N; Howard, Cynthia R; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect breast development and decrease duration of breastfeeding, thus interfering with the health benefits of breastfeeding. We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and breastfeeding duration. We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal serum collected during pregnancy in 2003-2006. After delivery, women (n=336) completed standardized breastfeeding surveys every 3 months until ending breastfeeding or 36 months postpartum. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for ending any breastfeeding within 3-6 months postpartum by Poisson regression, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum concentration had 1.77 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 3 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 2.54; p-trend=0.003) and 1.41 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 6 months (95%CI: 1.06, 1.87; p-trend=0.038), compared with women in the first quartile. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid serum concentration had a marginally increased risk of discontinuing any breastfeeding by 3 months (RR=1.32; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.79; p-trend=0.065). Maternal serum PFOA concentrations were inversely related to duration of any breastfeeding in this cohort, even after controlling for prior breastfeeding. These findings suggest that PFOA exposure may adversely affect breastfeeding duration and highlight the need to consider the potential adverse effects of maternal environmental chemical exposure on breastfeeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Megan E.; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Webster, Glenys M.; Eliot, Melissa N.; Howard, Cynthia R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect breast development and decrease duration of breastfeeding, thus interfering with the health benefits of breastfeeding. We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and breastfeeding duration. Methods We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal serum collected during pregnancy in 2003–2006. After delivery, women (n=336) completed standardized breastfeeding surveys every 3 months until ending breastfeeding or 36 months postpartum. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for ending any breastfeeding within 3 or 6 months postpartum by Poisson regression, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Results Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum concentration had 1.77 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 3 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 2.54; p-trend=0.003) and 1.41 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 6 months (95%CI: 1.06, 1.87; p-trend=0.038), compared with women in the first quartile. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid serum concentration had a marginally increased risk of discontinuing any breastfeeding by 3 months (RR=1.32; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.79; p-trend=0.065). Conclusions Maternal serum PFOA concentrations were inversely related to duration of any breastfeeding in this cohort, even after controlling for prior breastfeeding. These findings suggest that PFOA exposure may adversely affect breastfeeding duration and highlight the need to consider the potential adverse effects of maternal environmental chemical exposure on breastfeeding. PMID:27179585

  11. 28 CFR 79.53 - Proof of employment as a miller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... its successor-in-interest; (3) Records of the Social Security Administration reflecting the identity... benefits (which will be accepted only to prove the fact of and duration of employment in a uranium mill...

  12. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  13. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  14. School Transition to Employment Partnership (STEP): Employability Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wika, Jim; Rudrud, Eric H.

    The School Transition to Employment Partnership (STEP) Employability Curriculum is a competency-based evaluation and training program for special needs students, designed to ensure successful transition from school to employment. The STEP curriculum was developed through a partnership of state and local education agencies, representatives of state…

  15. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  16. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  17. Competitive Employment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Employer Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Wanietta C.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive employment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is important because this group is described as the most employable, yet least employed. Historically, females have been more likely to hire/work with individuals with disabilities than males but the gap between the sexes has been closing. A survey focusing on work…

  18. Barriers to Employment: Personality and Cognitive Predictors of Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTurk, Carolyn; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Barriers to employment are linked to individual factors such as thinking styles and personality traits. Personality and cognitive differences between employed (n = 55) and unemployed (n = 57) cohorts were analysed to quantify the association between these variables and employment status. Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the…

  19. Consumer and Employer Strategies for Overcoming Employment Barriers. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crudden, Adele; Williams, Wendy; McBroom, Lynn W.; Moore, J. Elton

    This report on strategies for overcoming employment barriers for persons with visual impairments summarizes comments and suggestions of 7 focus groups comprised of either consumers (n=49) or employers (n=19). The report first reviews the literature concerning employment barriers and how consumers in previous studies suggested these barriers be…

  20. Competitive Employment and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Employer Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Wanietta C.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive employment for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is important because this group is described as the most employable, yet least employed. Historically, females have been more likely to hire/work with individuals with disabilities than males but the gap between the sexes has been closing. A survey focusing on work…

  1. Barriers to Employment: Personality and Cognitive Predictors of Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTurk, Carolyn; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Barriers to employment are linked to individual factors such as thinking styles and personality traits. Personality and cognitive differences between employed (n = 55) and unemployed (n = 57) cohorts were analysed to quantify the association between these variables and employment status. Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the…

  2. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  3. 77 FR 20038 - Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... will be deemed to be engaged in a ``full course of study'' for the duration of their employment... means of this notice will be deemed to be engaged in a ``full course of study'' for the duration of... continue their studies in the United States and meet basic living expenses. According to DHS records,...

  4. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP About ODEP ... Youth in Transition Publications for Order and Download Disability Statistics September 2017 Disability Employment Statistics Ages 16 ...

  5. The Liberal Arts Employment Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillstrom, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five identifiable causes for the employment difficulties of liberal arts graduates. Suggests that evidence of a focused commitment and training in preparation for a professsional career are keys to success in the employment search. (JAC)

  6. The influence of fundamental frequency on perceived duration in spectrally comparable sounds.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Simko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti

    2017-01-01

    The perceived duration of a sound is affected by its fundamental frequency and intensity: higher sounds are judged to be longer, as are sounds with greater intensity. Since increasing intensity lengthens the perceived duration of the auditory object, and increasing the fundamental frequency increases the sound's perceived loudness (up to ca. 3 kHz), frequency modulation of duration could be potentially explained by a confounding effect where the primary cause of the modulation would be variations in intensity. Here, a series of experiments are described that were designed to disentangle the contributions of fundamental frequency, intensity, and duration to perceived loudness and duration. In two forced-choice tasks, participants judged duration and intensity differences between two sounds varying simultaneously in intensity, fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency gliding range, and duration. The results suggest that fundamental frequency and intensity each have an impact on duration judgments, while frequency gliding range did not influence the present results. We also demonstrate that the modulation of perceived duration by sound fundamental frequency cannot be fully explained by the confounding relationship between frequency and intensity.

  7. Influence of rhythmic grouping on duration perception: a novel auditory illusion.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Eveline; Gabrieli, John D E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated a potential auditory illusion in duration perception induced by rhythmic temporal contexts. Listeners with or without musical training performed a duration discrimination task for a silent period in a rhythmic auditory sequence. The critical temporal interval was presented either within a perceptual group or between two perceptual groups. We report the just-noticeable difference (difference limen, DL) for temporal intervals and the point of subjective equality (PSE) derived from individual psychometric functions based on performance of a two-alternative forced choice task. In musically untrained individuals, equal temporal intervals were perceived as significantly longer when presented between perceptual groups than within a perceptual group (109.25% versus 102.5% of the standard duration). Only the perceived duration of the between-group interval was significantly longer than its objective duration. Musically trained individuals did not show this effect. However, in both musically trained and untrained individuals, the relative difference limens for discriminating the comparison interval from the standard interval were larger in the between-groups condition than in the within-group condition (7.3% vs. 5.6% of the standard duration). Thus, rhythmic grouping affected sensitivity to duration changes in all listeners, with duration differences being harder to detect at boundaries of rhythm groups than within rhythm groups. Our results show for the first time that temporal Gestalt induces auditory duration illusions in typical listeners, but that musical experts are not susceptible to this effect of rhythmic grouping.

  8. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  9. Learning from Sweden's Employment Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Lloyd

    1978-01-01

    Describes the labor market and employment policies in Sweden, which have been studied by the United States Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration in planning its employment programs to increase the involvment of business and labor, provide countercyclical program capacity, and expand the role of occupational training. (MF)

  10. Third Annual Employer Satisfaction Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    A study was conducted in 1980 to ascertain employer attitudes toward and satisfaction with the performance of graduates of vocational education programs in Hawaii. Interviews with 41 employers, who employed an average of 132 workers, sought general perceptions of the knowledge, quality of work, written and oral skills, dependability, adaptability,…

  11. Youth Employment in American Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.; Nixon, Regina

    The persistent high level of unemployment among young people has become an issue of national concern. This study examines nationwide attitudes, practices, and policies of private employers toward hiring youth. A survey was conducted in 1981-82 among a random cross-sample of 535 private employers taken from the Equal Employment Opportunity…

  12. Research on Youth Employment and Employability Development. Youth Perspectives--The Lives Behind the Statistics. Youth Knowledge Development Report 2.10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snedeker, Bonnie

    This description and analysis of the lives of 32 young Comprehensive Employment and Training Act participants presents youth perspectives on the nature of the employment situation and the interacting factors which affect youth's employment chances, on the individual developmental process, on reasons for coming to and expectations of employment and…

  13. Employment benefits of urban synfuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wernette, D.; McCarthy, K.; Nagle, J.; South, D.

    1982-06-01

    The construction and operation of a synthetic fuel plant could significantly reduce local unemployment. Two synfuel technologies and two urban areas are studied in this report. HYGAS coal gasification and SRC-II coal liquefaction were used since they are near commercial development and have detailed work force estimates. Buffalo, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio, were chosen for their similar economic structures and their proximity to coal supplies. The employment benefits of a synfuel facility in an urban area are influenced by several assumptions. The level of occupational mobility between specific jobs affects the proportion of local to in-migrant workers. Also, estimates of total employment depend on the multiplier chosen to estimate secondary employment. In general, however, a gasification plant reduces unemployment more than a liquefaction plant, and either type of plant brings about a greater drop in the local unemployment rate in Buffalo than in Cleveland. As unemployment drops, public expenditures and unemployment compensation are proportionately reduced.

  14. Impact of response duration on multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Dipanwita; Barnett, Zachary P; Wallace, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    Multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) have been shown to have large receptive fields that are heterogeneous in nature. These neurons have the capacity to integrate their different sensory inputs, a process that has been shown to depend on the physical characteristics of the stimuli that are combined (i.e., spatial and temporal relationship and relative effectiveness). Recent work has highlighted the interdependence of these factors in driving multisensory integration, adding a layer of complexity to our understanding of multisensory processes. In the present study our goal was to add to this understanding by characterizing how stimulus location impacts the temporal dynamics of multisensory responses in cat SC neurons. The results illustrate that locations within the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) of these neurons can be divided into those showing short-duration responses and long-duration response profiles. Most importantly, discharge duration appears to be a good determinant of multisensory integration, such that short-duration responses are typically associated with a high magnitude of multisensory integration (i.e., superadditive responses) while long-duration responses are typically associated with low integrative capacity. These results further reinforce the complexity of the integrative features of SC neurons and show that the large SRFs of these neurons are characterized by vastly differing temporal dynamics, dynamics that strongly shape the integrative capacity of these neurons.

  15. Power supplies for long duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichfield, Ernest W.

    Long duration balloon flights require more electrical power than can be carried in primary batteries. This paper provides design information for selecting rechargeable batteries and charging systems. Solar panels for recharging batteries are discussed, with particular emphasis on cells mounting suitable for balloon flights and panel orientation for maximum power collection. Since efficient utilization of power is so important, modern DC to DC power conversion techniques are presented. On short flights of 1 day or less, system designers have not been greatly concerned with battery weight. But, with the advent of long duration balloon flights using superpressure balloons, anchor balloon systems, and RACOON balloon techniques, power supplies and their weight become of prime importance. The criteria for evaluating power systems for long duration balloon flights is performance per unit weight. Instrumented balloon systems have flown 44 days. For these very long duration flights, batteries recharged from solar cells are the only solution. For intermediate flight duration, say less than 10 days, the system designer should seriously consider using primary cells. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  16. Duration of immunity to norovirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kirsten; Gambhir, Manoj; Leon, Juan; Lopman, Ben

    2013-08-01

    The duration of immunity to norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis has been believed to be from 6 months to 2 years. However, several observations are inconsistent with this short period. To gain better estimates of the duration of immunity to NoV, we developed a mathematical model of community NoV transmission. The model was parameterized from the literature and also fit to age-specific incidence data from England and Wales by using maximum likelihood. We developed several scenarios to determine the effect of unknowns regarding transmission and immunity on estimates of the duration of immunity. In the various models, duration of immunity to NoV gastroenteritis was estimated at 4.1 (95% CI 3.2-5.1) to 8.7 (95% CI 6.8-11.3) years. Moreover, we calculated that children (<5 years) are much more infectious than older children and adults. If a vaccine can achieve protection for duration of natural immunity indicated by our results, its potential health and economic benefits could be substantial.

  17. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

    2013-01-01

    Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins-1, -6, and -17, C-reactive protein, coagulation molecules, cellular adhesion molecules, and visfatin. Finally, a discussion of the limitations of current studies and future directions is provided. PMID:23901303

  18. Employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia

    2016-03-15

    Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The Interplay of Employment Uncertainty and Education in explaining Second Births in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Adsera, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes how labor market instability since the late 1980s in Europe mediated decisions to second births. In particular, it examines which are the dimensions of economic uncertainty that affect women with different educational backgrounds. First, employing time varying measures of aggregate market conditions for women in twelve European countries as well as micro-measures of each woman’s labor market history, it shows that delays in second births are significant in countries with high unemployment, among women who are unemployed, particularly the least educated, and who have temporary jobs. Holding a very short contract is more critical than unemployment for college graduates. Second, using the 2006 Spanish Fertility Survey, it presents remarkably similar findings for Spain, the country with the most dramatic changes in both fertility and unemployment in the last decades: a high jobless rate and the widespread use of limited-duration contracts were correlated with a substantial postponement of second births. PMID:23990756

  20. The Interplay of Employment Uncertainty and Education in explaining Second Births in Europe.

    PubMed

    Adsera, Alicia

    2011-08-23

    This paper analyzes how labor market instability since the late 1980s in Europe mediated decisions to second births. In particular, it examines which are the dimensions of economic uncertainty that affect women with different educational backgrounds. First, employing time varying measures of aggregate market conditions for women in twelve European countries as well as micro-measures of each woman's labor market history, it shows that delays in second births are significant in countries with high unemployment, among women who are unemployed, particularly the least educated, and who have temporary jobs. Holding a very short contract is more critical than unemployment for college graduates. Second, using the 2006 Spanish Fertility Survey, it presents remarkably similar findings for Spain, the country with the most dramatic changes in both fertility and unemployment in the last decades: a high jobless rate and the widespread use of limited-duration contracts were correlated with a substantial postponement of second births.