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Sample records for affect endocrine function

  1. Marital Conflict and Endocrine Function: Are Men Really More Physiologically Affected than Women?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed marital conflict and endocrine function in 90 newlywed couples. Blood samples were examined to provide composite and daytime values for three stress hormones and three related hormones. Data provided a window on endocrine function in couples for whom the day included conflicts. Discusses findings in the context of gender models of marital…

  2. Marital Conflict and Endocrine Function: Are Men Really More Physiologically Affected than Women?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed marital conflict and endocrine function in 90 newlywed couples. Blood samples were examined to provide composite and daytime values for three stress hormones and three related hormones. Data provided a window on endocrine function in couples for whom the day included conflicts. Discusses findings in the context of gender models of marital…

  3. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.

  5. Feeding rates affect growth, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream (average initial weight 23.74 ± 0.09 g) based on the results on growth performance, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions. A total of 840 fish were randomly distributed into 24 cages and fed a commercial feed at six feeding rates ranging from 2.0 to 7.0% body weight (BW)/day. The results indicated that weight gain rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0% BW/day, but decreased with the further increasing feeding rates (P > 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy retention all showed a similar trend. However, feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing feeding rates. Feeding rates have little effects (P > 0.05) on whole-body moisture, ash and protein contents, but significantly (P < 0.05) affect both lipid and energy contents with the highest values both observed in fish fed 4.0% BW/day. In addition, moderate ration sizes (2.0-4.0% BW/day) resulted in the enhanced activities of intestinal enzymes, including lipase, protease, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, growth hormone receptor and neuropeptide all increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0% and 6.0% BW/day, but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the further increase in feeding rates, whereas both leptin and cholecystokinin expressions showed an opposite trend. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of SGR against feeding rates, the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream was estimated to be 4.57% BW/day.

  6. [Affective disorders: endocrine and metabolic comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Links between affective and endocrine-metabolic disorders are numerous and complex. In this review, we explore most frequent endocrine-metabolic comorbidities. On the one hand, these comorbidities imply numerous iatrogenic effects from antipsychotics (metabolic side-effects) or from lithium (endocrine side-effects). On the other hand, these comorbidities are also associated with affective disorders independently from medication. We will successively examine metabolic syndrome, glycemic disturbances, obesity and thyroid disorders among patients with affective disorders. Endocrinemetabolic comorbidities can be individually encountered, but can also be associated. Therefore, they substantially impact morbidity and mortality by increasing cardiovascular risk factors. Two distinct approaches give an account of processes involved in these comorbidities: common environmental factors (iatrogenic effects, lifestyle), and/or shared physiological vulnerabilities. In conclusion, we provide a synthesis of important results and recommendations related to endocrine-metabolic comorbidities in affective disorders : heavy influence on morbidity and mortality, undertreatment of somatic diseases, importance of endocrine and metabolic side effects from main mood stabilizers, impact from sex and age on the prevalence of comorbidities, influence from previous depressive episodes in bipolar disorders, and relevance of systematic screening for subclinical (biological) disturbances.

  7. Anatomical and functional imaging in endocrine hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-01-01

    In endocrine hypertension, hormonal excess results in clinically significant hypertension. The functional imaging (such as radionuclide imaging) complements anatomy-based imaging (such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) to facilitate diagnostic localization of a lesion causing endocrine hypertension. The aim of this review article is to familiarize general radiologists, endocrinologists, and clinicians with various anatomical and functional imaging techniques used in patients with endocrine hypertension. PMID:23087854

  8. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Environmental exposures that affect the endocrine system: public health implications.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, C; Richter, P; Pohl, H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been focused on the potential for a wide range of xenobiotic chemicals to interact with and disrupt the endocrine systems of animal and human populations. An overview of the chemicals that have been implicated as endocrine disruptors is presented. The ubiquity in the environment and associated body burdens of these chemicals in human populations are described. Potential mechanisms of action are reviewed, including the role of specific intracellular receptors and their interactions with endogenous and exogenous materials. The subsequent upregulation or downregulation of physiological processes at critical stages of development is discussed. The potential for joint toxic action and interaction of chemical mixtures is also discussed. The acknowledged role of wildlife populations as sentinels of potential human health effects is reviewed, and the weight of evidence for the role and impact of endocrine disruptors is presented. The implications of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals for human health are reviewed, with special emphasis on the potential for transgenerational effects in at-risk populations. Recommendations for future research include the development of (1) structural activity and in vivo and in vitro functional toxicology methods to screen chemicals for their endocrine-disrupting ability, (2) biomarkers of exposure and effect, and (3) in situ sentinel systems.

  10. Endocrine disrupters: the new players able to affect the epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Casati, Lavinia; Sendra, Ramon; Sibilia, Valeria; Celotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include “both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable.” These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs). These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ), and methoxychlor (MXC) promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor. PMID:26151052

  11. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gómez, Gema

    2012-12-01

    Excess of adipose tissue is accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other complications. Nevertheless, total or partial absence of fat or its accumulation in other tissues (lipotoxicity) is also associated to these complications. White adipose tissue (WAT) was traditionally considered a metabolically active storage tissue for lipids while brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered as a thermogenic adipose tissue with higher oxidative capacity. Nowadays, WAT is also considered an endocrine organ that contributes to energy homeostasis. Experimental evidence tends to link the malfunction of adipose mitochondria with the development of obesity and T2D. This review discusses the importance of mitochondrial function in adipocyte biology and the increased evidences of mitochondria dysfunction in these epidemics. New strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria from WAT and BAT are also discussed as therapies against obesity and its complications in the near future.

  12. Autonomic and endocrine control of cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Richard; Gwathmey, Judith K; Xie, Lai-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. To achieve this goal, a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one’s entire life. Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) node within the heart itself. In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences, the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute. Heart rate and cardiac output, however, must vary in response to the needs of the body’s cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions. In order to respond rapidly to the changing requirements of the body’s tissues, the heart rate and contractility are regulated by the nervous system, hormones, and other factors. Here we review how the cardiovascular system is controlled and influenced by not only a unique intrinsic system, but is also heavily influenced by the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system. PMID:25914789

  13. The effect of opioid therapy on endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Opioids are an established option in the analgesic armamentarium for managing moderate-to-severe chronic pain. Long-term opioid use, however, is associated with several potential adverse effects and toxicities, such as peripheral edema, immune suppression, hyperalgesia, sleep apnea, and changes in endocrine function, many of which are not fully appreciated. Opioid endocrinopathy can greatly affect patients, causing reduced sexual function, decreased libido, infertility, mood disorders, osteoporosis, and osteopenia. Furthermore, although opioid endocrinopathy appears to be common, many patients do not report their symptoms, thus causing this adverse effect to go unnoticed and without clinical monitoring, particularly in patients chronically taking the equivalent of ≥ 100 mg of morphine daily. Indeed, diagnosing hypogonadism as opioid-related can be challenged by other influences on endocrine function, such as pain pathophysiology, comorbidities, other drug therapies, and patient age. Management options for opioid endocrinopathy include discontinuing opioid therapy, reducing the opioid dose, switching to a different opioid, and hormone supplementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the gonadotropin releasing hormone neuronal network.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Johanna K; Heger, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been shown to alter the pubertal process. The controlling levels of the Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) network involve GnRH itself, KiSS1, and the transcriptional regulators enhanced at puberty 1 (EAP1), Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 (TTF1), and Yin Yang 1 (YY1). While Genistein and Bisphenol A (BPA) have been shown to advance the advent of puberty, exposure to Dioxin delayed pubertal onset. Utilizing in vitro approaches, we observed that Genistein and BPA suppress inhibitory and activate stimulatory components of the GnRH network, while Dioxin exhibit an inhibitory effect at all regulatory hierarchical levels of the GnRH network. It repressed KiSS1, Gnrh, Ttf1 and Yy1 transcription via the xenobiotic response element (XRE), while EAP1 was not affected. Therefore, EDCs alter the neuroendocrine GnRH regulatory network at all hierarchical levels.

  15. Effects of endocrine disruptors on developmental and reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Brevini, Tiziana A L; Zanetto, Simona Bertola; Cillo, Fabiana

    2005-03-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous environmental molecules that may affect the synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding, action, and catabolism of natural hormones in the body. EDs may thus interact with the endocrine system of animals and humans and can exert this effect even when present in minute amounts. EDs have adverse impacts on a number of developmental functions in wildlife and humans. Critical periods of urogenital tract and nervous system development in-utero and during early post-natal life are especially sensitive to hormonal disruption. Furthermore a wide range of hormone-dependent organs (pituitary gland, hypothalamus, reproductive tract) are targets of EDs disrupting effects in adult subjects, possibly resulting in cell transformation and cancer. At present about 60 chemicals have been identified and characterized as EDs and belong to three main groups: (a) synthetic compounds utilized in industry, agriculture and consumer products; (b) synthetic molecules used as pharmaceutical drugs and (c) natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens). In the present review we will give special attention to the family of Polychlorinated biphenyls (also indicated as PCBs) because of their persistence in the environment, ability to concentrate up the food chain, continued detection in environmental matrices, and ability to be stored in the adipose tissue of animals as well as humans. The detrimental effects of these compounds, and of EDs more in general, on health and reproduction will be discussed, presenting experimental data aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in their action.

  16. Ferrocene Functionalized Endocrine Modulators as Anticancer Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillard, Elizabeth A.; Vessières, Anne; Jaouen, Gerard

    We present here some of our studies on the synthesis and behaviour of ferrocenyl selective endocrine receptor modulators against cancer cells, particularly breast and prostate cancers. The proliferative/anti-proliferative effects of compounds based on steroidal and non-steroidal endocrine modulators have been extensively explored in vitro. Structure-activity relationship studies of such molecules, particularly the hydroxyferrocifens and ferrocene phenols, have shown the effect of (1) the presence and the length of the N,N-dimethylamino side chain, (2) the presence and position of the phenol group, (3) the role of the ferrocenyl moiety, (4) that of conjugation, (5) phenyl functionalisation and (6) the placement of the phenyl group. Compounds possessing a ferrocene moiety linked to a p-phenol by a conjugated π-system are among the most potent of the series, with IC50 values ranging from 0.090 to 0.6µM on hormone independent breast cancer cells. Based on the SAR data and electrochemical studies, we have proposed an original mechanism to explain the unusual behaviour of these bioorganometallic species and coin the term "kronatropic" to qualify this effect, involving ROS production and bio-oxidation. In addition, the importance of formulation is underlined. We also discuss the behaviour of ferrocenyl androgens and anti-androgens for possible use against prostate cancers. In sum, ferrocene has proven to be a fascinating substituent due to its vast potential for oncology.

  17. Endocrine Disruptors and Leydig Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Svechnikov, K.; Izzo, G.; Landreh, L.; Weisser, J.; Söder, O.

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed. PMID:20862379

  18. Growth and endocrine function after renal transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, L; Greene, S A; Adlard, P; Jones, J; Haycock, G B; Rigden, S P; Preece, M; Chantler, C

    1988-01-01

    Longitudinal height data and physical development were assessed in 45 boys and 34 girls after renal transplantation. All children received alternate day steroids and either azathioprine or cyclosporin A for immunosuppression. There was a significant increase in growth velocity after transplantation in prepubertal children. Growth velocity declined at the expected age of the normal pubertal growth spurt, however, with delay in the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Overnight hormone profiles in 17 adolescent subjects with short stature or maturational delay, or both, showed blunting of growth hormone and gonadotrophin pulsatility. It is likely that long term steroid treatment after renal transplantation induces the clinical and endocrine picture of delayed puberty. Failure of growth to accelerate at this time is a cause of short stature, which may have an effect on adult height. PMID:3060022

  19. Endocrine disruptors and Leydig cell function.

    PubMed

    Svechnikov, K; Izzo, G; Landreh, L; Weisser, J; Söder, O

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  20. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS AS A THREAT TO NEUROLOGICAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is a concept and principle whose origins can be traced to the beginnings of the environmental movement in the 1960s. It began with puzzlement about and the flaring of research on the decline of wildlife, particularly avian species. The proposed causes accented pesticides, especially persistent organochlorines such as DDT. Its scope gradually widened beyond pesticides, and, as endocrine disruption offered an explanation for the wildlife phenomena, it seemed to explain, as well, changes in fertility and disorders of male reproduction such as testicular cancer. Once disturbed gonadal hormone function became the most likely explanation, it provoked other questions. The most challenging arose because of how critical gonadal hormones are to brain function, especially as determinants of brain sexual differentiation. Pursuit of such connections has generated a robust literature embracing a broad swath of chemical classes. How endocrine disrupting chemicals influence the adult and aging brain is a question, so far mostly ignored because of the emphasis on early development, that warrants vigorous investigation. Gonadal hormones are crucial to optimal brain function during maturity and even senescence. They are pivotal to the processes of neurogenesis. They exert protective actions against neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and support smoothly functioning cognitive activities. The limited research conducted so far on endocrine disruptors, aging, and neurogenesis argues that they should be overlooked no longer. PMID:21474148

  1. Endocrine disruptors as a threat to neurological function.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bernard

    2011-06-15

    Endocrine disruption is a concept and principle whose origins can be traced to the beginnings of the environmental movement in the 1960s. It began with puzzlement about and the flaring of research on the decline of wildlife, particularly avian species. The proposed causes accented pesticides, especially persistent organochlorines such as DDT. Its scope gradually widened beyond pesticides, and, as endocrine disruption offered an explanation for the wildlife phenomena, it seemed to explain, as well, changes in fertility and disorders of male reproduction such as testicular cancer. Once disturbed gonadal hormone function became the most likely explanation, it provoked other questions. The most challenging arose because of how critical gonadal hormones are to brain function, especially as determinants of brain sexual differentiation. Pursuit of such connections has generated a robust literature embracing a broad swath of chemical classes. How endocrine disrupting chemicals influence the adult and aging brain is a question, so far mostly ignored because of the emphasis on early development, that warrants vigorous investigation. Gonadal hormones are crucial to optimal brain function during maturity and even senescence. They are pivotal to the processes of neurogenesis. They exert protective actions against neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and support smoothly functioning cognitive activities. The limited research conducted so far on endocrine disruptors, aging, and neurogenesis argues that they should be overlooked no longer.

  2. Endocrine and exocrine function of the bovine testis. Chapter 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter is devoted to the endocrine and exocrine function of the normal bovine male testes. The discussion begins with a historical review of the literature dating back to Aristotle’s (300 BC) initial description of the anatomy of the mammalian testes. The first microscopic examination of the t...

  3. Maturation Rate, Endocrine Functioning and Female Career Typicalness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sue W.; McCullers, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Compared maturation rate and endocrine functioning according to career typicalness in 28 employed women. Results provided only limited evidence that women in nontraditional careers matured later than women in traditional careers. Found subjects in traditional categories married and had children at earlier age than did subjects in nontraditional…

  4. Circadian rhythms and endocrine functions in adult insects.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Hazan, Esther; Rafaeli, Ada

    2013-01-01

    Many behavioral and physiological processes in adult insects are influenced by both the endocrine and circadian systems, suggesting that these two key physiological systems interact. We reviewed the literature and found that experiments explicitly testing these interactions in adult insects have only been conducted for a few species. There is a shortage of measurements of hormone titers throughout the day under constant conditions even for the juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids, the best studied insect hormones. Nevertheless, the available measurements of hormone titers coupled with indirect evidence for circadian modulation of hormone biosynthesis rate, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis, binding or degradation are consistent with the hypothesis that the circulating levels of many insect hormones are influenced by the circadian system. Whole genome microarray studies suggest that the modulation of farnesol oxidase levels is important for the circadian regulation of JH biosynthesis in honey bees, mosquitoes, and fruit flies. Several studies have begun to address the functional significance of circadian oscillations in endocrine signaling. The best understood system is the circadian regulation of Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) titers which is important for the temporal organization of sexual behavior in female moths. The evidence that the circadian and endocrine systems interact has important implications for studies of insect physiology and behavior. Additional studies on diverse species and physiological processes are needed for identifying basic principles underlying the interactions between the circadian and endocrine systems in insects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and endocrine function after treatment for medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Brown, I H; Lee, T J; Eden, O B; Bullimore, J A; Savage, D C

    1983-09-01

    Children with medulloblastoma in Bristol are treated surgically and with craniospinal irradiation, and in some cases chemotherapy. Thirteen medium or long term survivors were investigated to determine their growth and endocrine function. Their rate of growth was considerably reduced through the first year of their illness and after spinal irradiation spinal growth was poor. Nine children developed growth hormone deficiency. They were clinically euthyroid but 7 had raised basal thyroid stimulating hormone values. Gonadal function was abnormal in all but the youngest child. The rate of survival is increasing in children with medulloblastoma but this is associated with appreciable endocrine abnormalities. Some of these problems are present shortly after treatment ends but others may develop later and long term surveillance is therefore essential.

  6. Non-functioning Well Differentiated Endocrine Carcinoma of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The author reports a typical but rare case of non-functioning well differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain. No hormone-related symptoms were recognized. He has no familiar history of pancreatic neoplasms. Various imaging modalities including US, CT and MRI revealed a tumor of the pancreatic body. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. A solid well demarcated tumor was present in the pancreatic body. Peripancreatic lymph nodes showed marked swelling suggestive of metastases. Immunohistyochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD56; they were negative for chromogranin, gastrin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. The pathological diagnosis was non-functioning well differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. PMID:27990210

  7. Metabolic syndrome - dysregulation of adipose tissue endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Horská, Kateřina; Kučerová, Jana; Suchý, Pavel; Kotolová, Hana

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome, acondition increasing cardiovascular morbidity, mortality and risk for diabetes mellitus type 2, is currently worldwide reaching epidemic proportions. This complex disorder represents an urgent challenge for new pharmacotherapeutic strategies formulation. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying metabolic syndrome are not completely understood, nevertheless growing evidence is supporting the hypothesis that multiple metabolic dysregulations do contribute to its development. Apotential target for pharmacological intervention is considered to be dysregulation of adipose tissue endocrine/paracrine function. Specific adipokines, proteins secreted by the adipose tissue, with some pleiotropic effects, have been identified with strong association to regulation of energy metabolism, appetite, insulin signaling, tissue insulin sensitivity and the proinflammatory state related to metabolic syndrome. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of endocrine/paracrine functions of the adipose tissue with regard to metabolic syndrome development and pathophysiology and particular adipokines as potential targets for innovative pharmacotherapeutic approaches.

  8. ENDOCRINE FUNCTION OF THE SURGICALLY REDUCED PANCREAS

    PubMed Central

    Houssay, B. A.; Foglia, V. G.; Smyth, F. S.

    1941-01-01

    The pancreas reduced to 4 or 10 gm. weeks or months previously by partial resection, is able to maintain a normal glycemic level in dogs of about 10 kilos in good condition. When the pancreas is reduced to 4 gm. the capacity for secreting insulin under certain conditions of strain is diminished whereas a pancreas reduced to 10 gm. may have a normal or decreased capacity. This decreased functional capacity is shown: (1) by a longer hyperglycemic curve after the intravenous injection of 1 gm. of glucose per kilo; (2) by the requirement of smaller doses of extract of anterior hypophysis to produce diabetes; and (3) by the longer time required to correct the diabetic hyperglycemia if reduced pancreas is grafted in the neck of pancreatectomized animals. The time to recover is in inverse ratio to the weight of the transplanted pancreatic tissue. PMID:19871135

  9. GGCX and VKORC1 inhibit osteocalcin endocrine functions

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Julie; Germain, Amélie; Oury, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OCN) is an osteoblast-derived hormone favoring glucose homeostasis, energy expenditure, male fertility, brain development, and cognition. Before being secreted by osteoblasts in the bone extracellular matrix, OCN is γ-carboxylated by the γ-carboxylase (GGCX) on three glutamic acid residues, a cellular process requiring reduction of vitamin K (VK) by a second enzyme, a reductase called VKORC1. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that γ-carboxylation may inhibit OCN endocrine functions, genetic evidence that it is the case is still lacking. Here we show using cell-specific gene inactivation models that γ-carboxylation of OCN by GGCX inhibits its endocrine function. We further show that VKORC1 is required for OCN γ-carboxylation in osteoblasts, whereas its paralogue, VKORC1L1, is dispensable for this function and cannot compensate for the absence of VKORC1 in osteoblasts. This study genetically and biochemically delineates the functions of the enzymes required for OCN modification and demonstrates that it is the uncarboxylated form of OCN that acts as a hormone. PMID:25753038

  10. Immune and endocrine function in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koike, Kazuyoshi; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hara, Kazuhiko; Noma, Noboru; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Asano, Masatake; Shinoda, Masamichi; Eliav, Eli; Gracely, Richard H; Iwata, Koichi; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Research suggests that varied etiologic factors are responsible for burning mouth syndrome (BMS). We examined the role of immune and endocrine function in the pathology of BMS. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate immune (lymphocyte subpopulations) and endocrine (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenomedullary system) function in 47 female BMS patients and 47 age-matched female controls presenting at an university clinic. Psychological state was assessed with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. BMS patients were significantly more anxious than controls (P=0.011). Plasma adrenaline level was significantly lower (P=0.020) in BMS patients than in controls, and linear regression analysis of all patients combined revealed that depression level was significantly positively associated with plasma noradrenaline and cortisol levels (P=0.002 and 0.001, respectively). However, as compared with controls, BMS patients had a significantly lower CD8(+) cell count (P<0.001) and a significantly higher CD4/CD8 ratio (P=0.002). Discriminant analysis revealed that CD8(+) cell count and CD4/CD8 ratio were independent variables that distinguished BMS patients from controls. The immunoendocrine system is substantially involved, and may have a key role, in the mechanism of chronic pain in BMS patients. Immune function was significantly and specifically suppressed in BMS, although the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system were predominantly activated by psychological stress that was not specific to BMS.

  11. [Effects of Momordica saponins on endocrine function in senile mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Yuan; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhi-Qin

    2002-08-01

    To study the regulation effects of Momordica saponins on endocrine function in senile mice. 15-month Kunming mice (female), were divided into senile control group (SC), experimental group 1 and 2 (E1 and E2). 10 4-month mice were as young control group (YC). All mice were fed with general foodstuff, SC and YC drank tap water, while two experimental groups drank tap water supplied to 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L Momordica saponins respectively. Serum was assayed after 5 weeks. At the same time, levels of estrogen receptor and its mRNA were assayed in cultured thymocyte from 12-month rat. Serum ACTH and estradiol levels declined markedly in senile mice compared with young mice. ACTH levels increased in some extent in two experimental groups, while there had significant difference only in E2. Serum estradiol increased obviously, but there was no significant distinct between E1 and E2. The most important was that ER levels increased obviously, and there was no any change of ER mRNA levels in rat thymocyte cultured in medium contained different content of Momordica saponins. Momordica saponins could improve endocrine function in senile mice by increasing ACTH level and expression of ER.

  12. The development and endocrine functions of adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Sylvia P; Hausman, Dorothy B; Hausman, Gary J

    2010-07-08

    White adipose tissue is a mesenchymal tissue that begins developing in the fetus. Classically known for storing the body's fuel reserves, adipose tissue is now recognized as an endocrine organ. As such, the secretions from adipose tissue are known to affect several systems such as the vascular and immune systems and play major roles in metabolism. Numerous studies have shown nutrient or hormonal manipulations can greatly influence adipose tissue development. In addition, the associations between various disease states, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, and disregulation of adipose tissue seen in epidemiological and intervention studies are great. Evaluation of known adipokines suggests these factors secreted from adipose tissue play roles in several pathologies. As the identification of more adipokines and determination of their role in biological systems, and the interactions between adipocytes and other cells types continues, there is little doubt that we will gain a greater appreciation for a tissue once thought to simply store excess energy.

  13. Endocrine disruptors and human corpus luteum: in vitro effects of phenols on luteal cells function.

    PubMed

    Romani, Federica; Tropea, Anna; Scarinci, Elisa; Dello Russo, Cinzia; Lisi, Lucia; Catino, Stefania; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are well known to impair fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (p-NP) on human luteal function in vitro. In particular, in luteal cells isolated from 21 human corpora lutea progesterone, prostaglandin (PG) F2α, PGE2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, as well as VEGF expression were evaluated. BPA and p-NP negatively affected both luteal steroidogenesis and luteotrophic/ luteolytic factors balance, without influencing VEGF mRNA expression. Actually, BPA and p-NP impaired human luteal cells function in vitro, underlining the already suggested correlation between phenols and reproductive failure.

  14. Evaluating the effects of endocrine disruptors on endocrine function during development.

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, R; Chapin, R E; Daston, G P; Davis, B J; Gorski, J; Gray, L E; Howdeshell, K L; Zoeller, R T; vom Saal, F S

    1999-01-01

    The major concerns with endocrine disruptors in the environment are based mostly on effects that have been observed on the developing embryo and fetus. The focus of the present manuscript is on disruption of three hormonal systems: estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones. These three hormonal systems have been well characterized with regard to their roles in normal development, and their actions during development are known to be perturbed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. During development, organs are especially sensitive to low concentrations of the sex steroids and thyroid hormones. Changes induced by exposure to these hormones during development are often irreversible, in contrast with the reversible changes induced by transient hormone exposure in the adult. Although it is known that there are differences in embryonic/fetal/neonatal versus adult endocrine responses, minimal experimental information is available to aid in characterizing the risk of endocrine disruptors with regard to a number of issues. Issues discussed here include the hypothesis of greater sensitivity of embryos/fetuses to endocrine disruptors, irreversible consequences of exposure before maturation of homeostatic systems and during periods of genetic imprinting, and quantitative information related to the shape of the dose-response curve for specific developmental phenomena. PMID:10421771

  15. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Parents > Endocrine System A A A ... to help the body function properly. About the Endocrine System The foundations of the endocrine system are the ...

  16. Endocrine function as a target of perinatal drug effects: methodologic issues.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, C; Ignar, D; Windh, R

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to indicate potential endocrine targets of perinatal drug exposure, to describe the methodologic issues involved in detecting changes in hormone secretion, and to provide examples of several endocrine systems in which exposure to drugs during development significantly impaired normal endocrine development. Finally, we attempted to show that endocrine function is both a target and useful marker for detecting effects of drug of abuse on development that provides the advantages of accurate quantitation and relative response stability across ontogeny.

  17. Integrated Neural and Endocrine Control of Gastrointestinal Function.

    PubMed

    Furness, John B

    The activity of the digestive system is dynamically regulated by external factors, including body nutritional and activity states, emotions and the contents of the digestive tube. The gut must adjust its activity to assimilate a hugely variable mixture that is ingested, particularly in an omnivore such as human for which a wide range of food choices exist. It must also guard against toxins and pathogens. These nutritive and non-nutritive components of the gut contents interact with the largest and most vulnerable surface in the body, the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. This requires a gut sensory system that can detect many classes of nutrients, non-nutrient components of food, physicochemical conditions, toxins, pathogens and symbionts (Furness et al., Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 10:729-740, 2013). The gut sensors are in turn coupled to effector systems that can respond to the sensory information. The responses are exerted through enteroendocrine cells (EEC), the enteric nervous system (ENS), the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut immune and tissue defence systems. It is apparent that the control of the digestive organs is an integrated function of these effectors. The peripheral components of the EEC, ENS and CNS triumvirate are extensive. EEC cells have traditionally been classified into about 12 types (disputed in this review), releasing about 20 hormones, together making the gut endocrine system the largest endocrine organ in the body. Likewise, in human the ENS contains about 500 million neurons, far more than the number of neurons in the remainder of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Together gut hormones, the ENS and the CNS control or influence functions including satiety, mixing and propulsive activity, release of digestive enzymes, induction of nutrient transporters, fluid transport, local blood flow, gastric acid secretion, evacuation and immune responses. Gut content receptors, including taste, free fatty acid, peptide and

  18. Endocrine and paracrine controls of canine follicular development and function.

    PubMed

    Songsasen, N; Nagashima, J; Thongkittidilok, C

    2017-04-01

    Canid reproduction is unique among other mammals in that females experience long and variable periods of ovarian inactivity. While the domestic dog exhibits a non-seasonal, largely sporadic monoestrus occurring once or twice a year, most wild canids, such as the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and red wolf (Canis rufus), are seasonal breeders with onset apparently dependent on species, latitudinal location and/or variety of environment factors. Neuroendocrine controls of ovarian functions have been mostly studied in the dog, but less so in their wild counterparts, due to difficulties in regular blood sampling. Yet, development of non-invasive hormone monitoring has advanced the understanding of reproductive cycle in wild canids. Recent advances in in vitro follicle culture technology also have begun to provide insights into paracrine controls of canid ovarian folliculogenesis. This review highlights current knowledge on canid reproduction with emphasis on endocrine and paracrine controls of follicular development. We also discuss future research priorities, including advancing the understanding of anoestrous termination and role of paracrine factors in canine folliculogenesis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Neurological Complications of Endocrine Disease.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Karen S; Grunwald, Tal; De Luca, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The endocrine system is a complex group of organs and glands that relates to multiple other organs and systems in the body with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. This complex network functions through hormones excreted by several glands and released in the blood, targeting different body tissues and modulating their function. Any primary disorders affecting the endocrine glands and altering the amount of hormones synthesized and released will lead to disruption in the functions of multiple organs. The central nervous system of a developing child is particularly sensitive to endocrine disorders. A variety of neurological manifestations have been described as features of several endocrine diseases in childhood. Their knowledge may contribute to an early diagnosis of a particular endocrine condition, especially when more typical features are not present yet. In this article, we discuss specific neurological manifestations found in various endocrine disorders in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine system: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blueher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  2. [Gonadal endocrine function in female silver foxes selected for domesticated behavior].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Trut, L N

    1989-01-01

    Selection for domesticated behavior in female silver fox is accompanied by a number of changes in endocrine function of ovaries. Significant changes in peripheral blood estradiol and progesterone levels and their production by gonads during anestrous may be an endocrine basis for out-of-season activation of reproductive system and earlier beginning of seasonal reproduction in domesticated females. The increase in the hormone level during preimplantation period of pregnancy and before parturition in tame foxes may influence their productivity.

  3. Sildenafil affects olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Gudziol, V; Mück-Weymann, M; Seizinger, O; Rauh, R; Siffert, W; Hummel, T

    2007-01-01

    Sildenafil is the first member of a new class of oral drugs effective for erectile dysfunction. However, approximately 20% of patients complain about nasal congestion after sildenafil administration. Because nasal airflow and olfaction are closely linked, the sense of smell was evaluated in 20 young, healthy volunteers after the administration of 50 and 100 mg sildenafil, and placebo in a double-blinded, crossover study. Olfactory function was evaluated using a standardized and validated test (Sniffin' Sticks). To investigate a possible impact of G-protein beta3 subunit C825T polymorphism on the effect of sildenafil on olfaction the genotype of all subjects was determined. The effect of sildenafil on olfaction was only present at a dose of 100 mg but not at a dose of 50 mg sildenafil. The genotypes TT, CC and TC of the G-protein beta3 C825T polymorphism had no impact on the change in olfactory function. Higher sildenafil doses may produce decreased olfactory sensitivity.

  4. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling.

  5. Does folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention affect endocrine parameters and sperm characteristics in men?

    PubMed

    Ebisch, I M W; Pierik, F H; DE Jong, F H; Thomas, C M G; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated pre- and post-intervention endocrine and semen parameters in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the underlying mechanism of increased sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention. A total of 47 fertile and 40 subfertile males participated in a 26-week intervention study consisting of a daily treatment with folic acid (5 mg/day) and zinc sulphate (66 mg/day), or placebo. Pre- and post-intervention semen parameters, serum folate, zinc, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and inhibin B concentrations were measured. The results indicated that intervention treatment significantly increased sperm concentration in subfertile males. Other semen and endocrine parameters were not affected by intervention treatment. At baseline, positive correlations were found between serum zinc and sperm concentration, motility and inhibin B. Serum zinc and FSH were inversely correlated. As (already) well known from previous research, inhibin B positively correlated with sperm concentration, motility and morphology, and was inversely correlated with FSH. The latter was positively correlated with testosterone. In addition, testosterone and inhibin B were inversely correlated. After intervention, the correlations with zinc disappeared. We conclude that the increase in sperm concentration after folic acid and zinc sulphate intervention is not the result of alterations in FSH, testosterone or inhibin B concentrations. Although zinc and folate have several effects on spermatogenesis, the underlying mechanisms involved are not clear.

  6. Toxicological assessment of drugs that affect the endocrine system in puberty-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.

  7. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  8. Exposure to the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol alters structure and function of thyroid gland in rats.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yue; Li, Dehua; San, Wei

    2013-08-10

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic-like compound which can induce vitellogenin synthesis in males and immature teleostean species. Known as an endocrine disruptor, it has been reported to affect endocrine glands; however, little is known about its effects on thyroid function. The present study aimed to evaluate whether exposure to NP alters the structure and function of the thyroid gland of rats and/or the underlying mechanisms. Rats were gavaged with NP (40, 80 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 15 days. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Ultramicroscopic structure of follicular cells was examined by a transmission electron microscope. Histopathology was conducted with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. We found that NP exposure induced a decrease in serum levels of free tetraiodothyronine (FT) 3 and FT4 while it induced an increase in serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in a dose-dependent manner. There was a negative correlation between different doses of NP with serum levels of FT3 and FT4 (FT4 r=-0.932; FT3 r=-0.926) and a positive correlation with serum levels of TSH (r=0.967). Histological and morphometric study in the NP-exposed group revealed dilation of endoplasmic reticulum into cystic in thyroid follicular cells. Mitochondrion was damaged in the 80 and 200 mg/kg/d groups. Exposure to NP may lead to thyroid dysfunction. It may be a potential contributor to thyroid disruption. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters: functions of synaptotagmins in neuroendocrine and endocrine secretion.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-08-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion. Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems.

  10. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Ronald; Navarrete Santos, Anne; Navarrete Santos, Alexander; Riemann, Dagmar; Knelangen, Julia; Blüher, Matthias; Koch, Holger; Fischer, Bernd

    2012-01-13

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPARγ2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 μM) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 μM) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  11. Olfactory influences on mood and autonomic, endocrine, and immune function.

    PubMed

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Graham, Jennifer E; Malarkey, William B; Porter, Kyle; Lemeshow, Stanley; Glaser, Ronald

    2008-04-01

    Despite aromatherapy's popularity, efficacy data are scant, and potential mechanisms are controversial. This randomized controlled trial examined the psychological, autonomic, endocrine, and immune consequences of one purported relaxant odor (lavender), one stimulant odor (lemon), and a no-odor control (water), before and after a stressor (cold pressor); 56 healthy men and women were exposed to each of the odors during three separate visits. To assess the effects of expectancies, participants randomized to the "blind" condition were given no information about the odors they would smell; "primed" individuals were told what odors they would smell during the session, and what changes to expect. Experimenters were blind. Self-report and unobtrusive mood measures provided robust evidence that lemon oil reliably enhances positive mood compared to water and lavender regardless of expectancies or previous use of aromatherapy. Moreover, norepinephrine levels following the cold pressor remained elevated when subjects smelled lemon, compared to water or lavender. DTH responses to Candida were larger following inhalation of water than lemon or lavender. Odors did not reliably alter IL-6 and IL-10 production, salivary cortisol, heart rate or blood pressure, skin barrier repair following tape stripping, or pain ratings following the cold pressor.

  12. Olfactory Influences on Mood and Autonomic, Endocrine, and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Graham, Jennifer E.; Malarkey, William B.; Porter, Kyle; Lemeshow, Stanley; Glaser, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Despite aromatherapy’s popularity, efficacy data are scant, and potential mechanisms are controversial. This randomized controlled trial examined the psychological, autonomic, endocrine, and immune consequences of one purported relaxant odor (lavender), one stimulant odor (lemon), and a no-odor control (water), before and after a stressor (cold pressor); 56 healthy men and women were exposed to each of the odors during three separate visits. To assess the effects of expectancies, participants randomized to the “blind” condition were given no information about the odors they would smell; “primed” individuals were told what odors they would smell during the session, and what changes to expect. Experimenters were blind. Self-report and unobtrusive mood measures provided robust evidence that lemon oil reliably enhances positive mood compared to water and lavender regardless of expectancies or previous use of aromatherapy. Moreover, norepinephrine levels following the cold pressor remained elevated when subjects smelled lemon, compared to water or lavender. DTH responses to Candida were larger following inhalation of water than lemon or lavender. Odors did not reliably alter IL-6 and IL-10 production, salivary cortisol, heart rate or blood pressure, skin barrier repair following tape stripping, or pain ratings following the cold pressor. PMID:18178322

  13. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  14. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  15. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  16. Changes of Pain Perception, Autonomic Function, and Endocrine Parameters during Treatment of Anorectic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Karl-Jurgen; Boettger, Silke; Wagner, Gerd; Wilsdorf, Christine; Gerhard, Uwe Jens; Boettger, Michael K.; Blanz, Bernhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The underlying mechanisms of reduced pain perception in anorexia nervosa (AN) are unknown. To gain more insight into the pathology, the authors investigated pain perception, autonomic function, and endocrine parameters before and during successful treatment of adolescent AN patients. Method: Heat pain perception was assessed in 15…

  17. Aging does not affect the sleep endocrine response to total sleep deprivation in humans.

    PubMed

    Murck, H; Antonijevic, I A; Schier, T; Frieboes, R M; Barthelmes, J; Steiger, A

    1999-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased sleep continuity, slow wave sleep (SWS), growth hormone (GH) release and an increased hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) is a strong stimulus for sleep. To determine if aging affects the response to TSD, for the first time the combined effects of TSD on conventional and spectral sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters and GH, cortisol and prolactin secretion were compared in elderly (60-80 years; n = 7) vs. younger subjects (20-30 years; n = 7). MANOVA revealed a reduction of SWS in the elderly. TSD led to an increase in SWS, a decrease in sleep onset latency, rapid eye movement (REM) density and by trend REM-latency without a global group difference. GH was reduced, whereas prolactin was enhanced in the elderly. After TSD GH was unchanged and prolactin secretion was enhanced without group difference. Thus, the plasticity of the sleep-endocrine system in response to TSD is sustained during aging. The possible involvement of the GABAergic system, that seems not to be severely impaired with age, is proposed.

  18. Ovarian regeneration: The potential for stem cell contribution in the postnatal ovary to sustained endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Truman, Alisha M; Tilly, Jonathan L; Woods, Dori C

    2017-04-15

    The endocrine function of the ovary is dependent upon the ovarian follicle, which on a cellular basis consists of an oocyte surrounded by adjacent somatic cells responsible for generating sex steroid hormones and maintenance of hormonal stasis with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. As females age, both fertility and the endocrine function of the ovary decline due to waning follicle numbers as well as aging-related cellular dysfunction. Although there is currently no cure for ovarian failure and endocrine disruption, recent advances in ovarian biology centered on ovarian stem cell and progenitor cell populations have brought the prospects of cell- or tissue-based therapeutic strategies closer to fruition. Herein, we review the relative contributions of ovarian stem cells to ovarian function during the reproductive lifespan, and postulate steps toward the development of ovarian stem cell-based approaches to advance fertility treatments, and also importantly to provide a physiological long-term means of endocrine support. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects hormone receptor activity, steroidogenesis, and expression of endocrine-related genes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Du, Guizhen; Hu, Jialei; Huang, Hongyu; Qin, Yufeng; Han, Xiumei; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widespread and persistent chemical in the environment. We investigated the endocrine-disrupting effects of PFOS using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Reporter gene assays were used to detect receptor-mediated (anti-)estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic, and (anti-)thyroid hormone activities. The effect of PFOS on steroidogenesis was assessed both at hormone levels in the supernatant and at expression levels of hormone-induced genes in the H295R cell. A zebrafish-based short-term screening method was developed to detect the effect of PFOS on endocrine function in vivo. The results indicate that PFOS can act as an estrogen receptor agonist and thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. Exposure to PFOS decreased supernatant testosterone (T), increased estradiol (E2) concentrations in H295R cell medium and altered the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, PFOS increased early thyroid development gene (hhex and pax8) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene (CYP17, CYP19a, CYP19b) expression, and changed the expression pattern of estrogen receptor production genes (esr1, esr2b) after 500 µg/L PFOS treatment in zebrafish embryos. These results indicate that PFOS has the ability to act as an endocrine disruptor both in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the function of nuclear hormone receptors, interfering with steroidogenesis, and altering the expression of endocrine-related genes in zebrafish embryo. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Verifying of endocrine disruptor chemical affect to the mouse testes: can raman spectroscopy support histology study?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriana, Bibin B.; Oshima, Yusuke; Takanezawa, Sota; Tay, Tat W.; Rosawati Soeratman, Catherine Linda; Alam, Mohammad S.; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Zhu, Xiao B.; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-02-01

    One of suspect environmental endocrine disruptors that affect mouse male reproduction by altering the morphology of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells is phthalate. The effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), one of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate , on immature mouse testes in vivo were examined. We have recently shown that MEHP induced Sertoli cells necrosis and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in mice by TUNEL method, F-actin staining, and ultrastructural study, but there is no data for biochemical changing of testes due to those methods could not explore. To verify in detail of it, we conducted Raman spectroscopy study with 785 nm wavelength laser line, 50mW of laser power and 3 minutes of exposure time to analysis the MEHP-treated testicular tissue, which has been fixatived by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA). Five weeks old (5 w.o) male mice were used in this experiment. As the results, the alterations were observed by Raman spectroscopy that there are significantly differences of DNA, actin filament, type IV collagen and amide I between control group (0 μM MEHP) and treatment group (100 μM MEHP). These results significantly support histology staining observation (such as the apoptotic spermatogenic cells which is associated with DNA fragmentation and F-actin disruption) and ultrastructural observation (such as mitochondria rupture and disintegration of nucleus membrane). Raman spectroscopy can be used for 4% PFA-fixatived tissue observation. However, we recommend that Raman spectroscopy may be able to be expanded as an armamentarium not just for the clarification of histology staining and ultrastructural study, but furthermore, it may be as a non-invasion assessment for screening animal tissue toxicity of chemical in future.

  1. Prenatal acetaminophen affects maternal immune and endocrine adaptation to pregnancy, induces placental damage, and impairs fetal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Kristin; Solano, M Emilia; Huber, Samuel; Flavell, Richard A; Kessler, Timo; Barikbin, Roja; Jung, Roman; Karimi, Khalil; Tiegs, Gisa; Arck, Petra C

    2015-10-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP; ie, Paracetamol or Tylenol) is generally self-medicated to treat fever or pain and recommended to pregnant women by their physicians. Recent epidemiological studies reveal an association between prenatal APAP use and an increased risk for asthma. Our aim was to identify the effects of APAP in pregnancy using a mouse model. Allogeneically mated C57Bl/6J females were injected i.p. with 50 or 250 mg/kg APAP or phosphate-buffered saline on gestation day 12.5; nonpregnant females served as controls. Tissue samples were obtained 1 or 4 days after injection. APAP-induced liver toxicity was mirrored by significantly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. In uterus-draining lymph nodes of pregnant dams, the frequencies of mature dendritic cells and regulatory T cells significantly increased on 250 mg/kg APAP. Plasma progesterone levels significantly decreased in dams injected with APAP, accompanied by a morphologically altered placenta. Although overall litter sizes and number of fetal loss remained unaltered, a reduced fetal weight and a lower frequency of hematopoietic stem cells in the fetal liver were observed on APAP treatment. Our data provide strong evidence that prenatal APAP interferes with maternal immune and endocrine adaptation to pregnancy, affects placental function, and impairs fetal maturation and immune development. The latter may have long-lasting consequences on children's immunity and account for the increased risk for asthma observed in humans. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of clinical practice on nursing students' mental and immune-endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jie; Jin, Hua; Shen, Simei; Li, Zhiling; Gu, Guixiong

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the stressful effects of clinical learning environments on nursing students and to better understand the importance of reducing anxiety. Ninety-two female nursing students were randomly recruited. State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), General Self-Efficacy scale (GSES), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), General Maladjustment Scale (GM), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the personal information questionnaire were administered along with an immune-endocrine profile, red blood cells and plasma cortisol. The nursing students' state and trait anxiety scores were significantly higher in clinic than in school. With one-way ANOVA, nursing students from rural areas, not liking nurse work and being pessimistic to employment prospects, and not being assigned in an ideal teaching hospital had higher scores of SAI. High levels of anxiety were associated with low scores of GSES, objective support of SSRS and high scores of GM. Additionally, the subjects' anxiety related to poor sleep quality, and students with high levels of anxiety showed a significantly lower percentage of CD3 and CD4. In conclusion, clinical practice can raise nursing students' State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. The level of anxiety is related to some internal and external factors. Severe anxiety not only affects student's physical and mental health and successful practice, but also reduces T lymphocyte immune functions. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4+ cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals’ endocrine system. PMID:27775083

  4. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-10-24

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4(+) cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals' endocrine system.

  5. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microcystins (MCs) are able to exert negative effects on the reproductive system of fish. However, few data are actually available on the effects of MC-LR on the reproductive system of female fish. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to 2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1) of MC-LR for 21 d, and its effects on oogenesis, sex hormones, transcription of genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and reproduction were investigated for the first time. It was observed that egg production significantly declined at ⩾ 10 μg L(-1) MC-LR. MC-LR exposure to zebrafish increased the concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) at 10 μg L(-1) level, whereas concentrations of E2, VTG and testosterone declined at 50 μg L(-1) MC-LR. The transcriptions of steroidogenic pathway gene (cyp19a, cyp19b, 17βhsd, cyp17 and hmgra) changed as well after the exposure and corresponded well with the alterations of hormone levels. A number of intra- and extra-ovarian factors, such as gnrh3, gnrhr1, fshβ, fshr, lhr, bmp15, mrpβ, ptgs2 and vtg1 which regulate oogenesis, were significantly changed with a different dose-related effect. Moreover, MC-LR exposure to female zebrafish resulted in decreased fertilization and hatching rates, and may suggest the possibility of trans-generational effects of MC-LR exposure. The results demonstrate that MC-LR could modulate endocrine function and oogenesis, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance in female zebrafish. These data suggest there is a risk for aquatic population living in MC polluted areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thymus-Associated Parathyroid Hormone Has Two Cellular Origins with Distinct Endocrine and Immunological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijie; Farley, Alison; Chen, Lizhen; Kirby, Beth J.; Kovacs, Christopher S.; Blackburn, C. Clare; Manley, Nancy R.

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of extracellular calcium and inorganic phosphorus homeostasis. Although the parathyroid glands were thought to be the only source of PTH, extra-parathyroid PTH production in the thymus, which shares a common origin with parathyroids during organogenesis, has been proposed to provide an auxiliary source of PTH, resulting in a higher than expected survival rate for aparathyroid Gcm2 −/− mutants. However, the developmental ontogeny and cellular identity of these “thymic” PTH–expressing cells is unknown. We found that the lethality of aparathyroid Gcm2 −/− mutants was affected by genetic background without relation to serum PTH levels, suggesting a need to reconsider the physiological function of thymic PTH. We identified two sources of extra-parathyroid PTH in wild-type mice. Incomplete separation of the parathyroid and thymus organs during organogenesis resulted in misplaced, isolated parathyroid cells that were often attached to the thymus; this was the major source of thymic PTH in normal mice. Analysis of thymus and parathyroid organogenesis in human embryos showed a broadly similar result, indicating that these results may provide insight into human parathyroid development. In addition, medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) express PTH in a Gcm2-independent manner that requires TEC differentiation and is consistent with expression as a self-antigen for negative selection. Genetic or surgical removal of the thymus indicated that thymus-derived PTH in Gcm2 −/− mutants did not provide auxiliary endocrine function. Our data show conclusively that the thymus does not serve as an auxiliary source of either serum PTH or parathyroid function. We further show that the normal process of parathyroid organogenesis in both mice and humans leads to the generation of multiple small parathyroid clusters in addition to the main parathyroid glands, that are the likely source of physiologically relevant

  7. Comparison of pramipexole and modafinil on arousal, autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Samuels, E R; Hou, R H; Langley, R W; Szabadi, E; Bradshaw, C M

    2006-11-01

    The noradrenergic locus coeruleus is a major wakefulness-promoting nucleus of the brain, which is also involved in the regulation of autonomic and endocrine functions. The activity of the locus coeruleus is believed to be tonically enhanced by a mesocoerulear dopaminergic pathway arising from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain. Both modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting drug, and pramipexole, a D(2)/D(3)receptor agonist with sedative properties, may act on this pathway, with modafinil increasing and pramipexole decreasing locus coeruleus activity. The aim of this study was to compare the two drugs on alertness, autonomic and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers. Pramipexole (0.5mg), modafinil (200mg), and their combination were administered to 16 healthy males in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Methods included tests of alertness (pupillographic sleepiness test, critical flicker fusion frequency, visual analogue scales), autonomic functions (resting pupil diameter, light and darkness reflex responses, heart rate, blood pressure, salivation, core temperature), and endocrine functions (blood concentrations of prolactin, growth hormone, and thyroid stimulating hormone). Data were analysed by ANOVA. Pramipexole reduced alertness, caused pupil dilatation, increased heart rate, reduced prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone, and increased growth hormone level. Modafinil caused small increases in blood pressure and core temperature, and reduced prolactin levels. The sedative effect of pramipexole and the autonomic effects of modafinil are consistent with altered activity in the mesocoerulear pathway; the pupil dilatation following pramipexole suggests reduced dopaminergic excitation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

  8. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ambruzs, Dana M.; Moorman, Mark A.; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M.; Payne, Janice K.; Kelly, Jonathan R.; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z.; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A.; Kroon, Evert J.; D’Amour, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%–80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%–89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%–50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%–98% endocrine cells and 1%–3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Significance Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin

  9. The endocrine function of human placenta: an overview.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mariana A

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, several tightly coordinated and regulated processes take place to enable proper fetal development and gestational success. The formation and development of the placenta is one of these critical pregnancy events. This organ plays essential roles during gestation, including fetal nourishment, support and protection, gas exchange and production of several hormones and other mediators. Placental hormones are mainly secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast, in a highly and tightly regulated way. These hormones are important for pregnancy establishment and maintenance, exerting autocrine and paracrine effects that regulate decidualization, placental development, angiogenesis, endometrial receptivity, embryo implantation, immunotolerance and fetal development. In addition, because they are released into maternal circulation, the profile of their blood levels throughout pregnancy has been the target of intense research towards finding potential robust and reliable biomarkers to predict and diagnose pregnancy-associated complications. In fact, altered levels of these hormones have been associated with some pathologies, such as chromosomal anomalies or pre-eclampsia. This review proposes to revise and update the main pregnancy-related hormones, addressing their major characteristics, molecular targets, function throughout pregnancy, regulators of their expression and their potential clinical interest.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHINYLESTRADIOL-MEDIATED CHANGES IN ENDOCRINE FUNCTION AND REPRODUCTION IMPAIRMENT IN JAPANESE MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many biochemical endpoints currently are used to describe endocrine function in fish; however, the sensitivity of these parameters as biomarkers of impaired reproduction or sexual development is not well understood. In the present study, adult Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) we...

  12. New roles of carboxypeptidase E in endocrine and neural function and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Niamh X; Wetsel, William C; Murthy, Saravana R K; Park, Joshua J; Pacak, Karel; Loh, Y Peng

    2012-04-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) or carboxypeptidase H was first discovered in 1982 as an enkephalin-convertase that cleaved a C-terminal basic residue from enkephalin precursors to generate enkephalin. Since then, CPE has been shown to be a multifunctional protein that subserves many essential nonenzymatic roles in the endocrine and nervous systems. Here, we review the phylogeny, structure, and function of CPE in hormone and neuropeptide sorting and vesicle transport for secretion, alternative splicing of the CPE transcript, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans. With this and the analysis of mutant and knockout mice, the data collectively support important roles for CPE in the modulation of metabolic and glucose homeostasis, bone remodeling, obesity, fertility, neuroprotection, stress, sexual behavior, mood and emotional responses, learning, and memory. Recently, a splice variant form of CPE has been found to be an inducer of tumor growth and metastasis and a prognostic biomarker for metastasis in endocrine and nonendocrine tumors.

  13. New Roles of Carboxypeptidase E in Endocrine and Neural Function and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Wetsel, William C.; Murthy, Saravana R. K.; Park, Joshua J.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) or carboxypeptidase H was first discovered in 1982 as an enkephalin-convertase that cleaved a C-terminal basic residue from enkephalin precursors to generate enkephalin. Since then, CPE has been shown to be a multifunctional protein that subserves many essential nonenzymatic roles in the endocrine and nervous systems. Here, we review the phylogeny, structure, and function of CPE in hormone and neuropeptide sorting and vesicle transport for secretion, alternative splicing of the CPE transcript, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans. With this and the analysis of mutant and knockout mice, the data collectively support important roles for CPE in the modulation of metabolic and glucose homeostasis, bone remodeling, obesity, fertility, neuroprotection, stress, sexual behavior, mood and emotional responses, learning, and memory. Recently, a splice variant form of CPE has been found to be an inducer of tumor growth and metastasis and a prognostic biomarker for metastasis in endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. PMID:22402194

  14. Childhood craniopharyngioma: survival, local control, endocrine and neurologic function following radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Kramer, S.

    1983-02-01

    Between 1961 and 1978, 19 patients with a diagnosis of childhood or teenage craniopharyngioma received supervoltage radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either partial surgical resection (10 patients), total gross resection (3 patients), or aspiration and biopsy (6 patients). Fourteen patients were treated primarily and five were treated for recurrence. The five-year survival was 73% with a 10-year survival of 64%. Sixteen percent developed a recurrence following radiotherapy. Long term effects were assesed in terms of neurologic, intellectual, psychological and endocrine function. Seventy-nine percent had none or minimal neurologic disability. The mean full scale IQ for the group was 90. There were no additional endocrine deficiencies that could be directly attributed to radiation. Behavioral disorders occurred in 50%. These results are at least comparable, if not superior, to those of surgery.

  15. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition, causes pup mortality and affects sexual differentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, P R; Christiansen, S; Boberg, J; Nellemann, C; Hass, U

    2010-04-01

    Risk assessment is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds. Humans are exposed to a mixture of chemicals and recent studies in our laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development, even though the doses of the single compounds are below their individual NOAELs for anti-androgenic effects. Consequently, we have initiated a large project where the purpose is to study mixture effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides at low doses. In the initial range-finding mixture studies, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with five doses of a mixture of the fungicides procymidone, mancozeb, epoxyconazole, tebuconazole and prochloraz. The mixture ratio was chosen according to the doses of each individual pesticide that produced no observable effects on pregnancy length and pup survival in our laboratory and the dose levels used ranged from 25 to 100% of this mixture. All dose levels caused increased gestation length and dose levels above 25% caused impaired parturition leading to markedly decreased number of live born offspring and high pup perinatal mortality. The sexual differentiation of the pups was affected at 25% and higher as anogenital distance was affected in both male and female offspring at birth and the male offspring exhibited malformations of the genital tubercle, increased nipple retention, and decreased prostate and epididymis weights at pup day 13. The results show that doses of endocrine disrupting pesticides, which appear to induce no effects on gestation length, parturition and pup mortality when judged on their own, induced marked adverse effects on these endpoints in concert with other pesticides. In addition, the sexual differentiation of the offspring was affected. This as well as the predictability of the combination effects based on dose-additivity modelling will be studied further in a large dose-response study.

  16. Seasonal variation in the endocrine-testicular function of captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Verreschi, Ieda T N; Guimarães, Marcelo A B V; Cassaro, Kátia; Pessuti, Cecilia; Barnabe, Renato Campanarut

    2004-05-01

    Captive adult male jaguars (Panthera onca) from two locations in southeast Brazil were studied to evaluate the effects of season on endocrine and testicular function. For assessment of testicular steroidogenic activity, androgen metabolite concentrations were measured in fecal samples collected one to three times per week over 14 ( n=14 ), 9 ( n=1 ) or 7 months ( n=1 ). To assess seasonality, data were grouped by season (summer: December-February; autumn: March-May; winter: June-August; spring: September-November). Additionally, samples collected in the dry season (March-August) were compared with those collected in the wet season (September-February). There were no differences ( P>0.05 ) in fecal androgen concentrations in samples collected in spring, summer, autumn, and winter ( 480.8+/-50.4 ng/g, 486.4+/-42.0 ng/g, 335.4+/-37.7 ng/g, and 418.6+/-40.4 ng/g dry feces). However, there were differences ( P<0.05 ) in fecal androgen concentrations between the dry and wet seasons ( 380.5+/-28.0 ng/g versus 483.9+/-32.3 ng/g dry feces). Sperm samples, collected from all males twice (approximately 6 months apart) were similar; mean (+/-S.E.M.) motility, concentration and morphology were 57.0 %4.5%, 6.3+/-2.4 x 10(6) ml(-1), and 60.8+/-3.1 %, respectively. In conclusion, androgen metabolite concentrations in the captive male jaguar were not affected by season, but there was a difference between the wet and dry periods. Further research is needed to verify these results.

  17. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  18. Type of gonadotropin during controlled ovarian stimulation affects the endocrine profile in follicular fluid and apoptosis rate in cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Requena, Antonio; Cruz, María; Agudo, David; Pacheco, Alberto; García-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the type of gonadotropin affects the secretion of oocyte-specific factors, the endocrine pattern in follicular fluid, and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells. Prospective and observational study into an university-affiliated private in vitro fertilization setting. Ninety women included in our oocyte donation program were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or urinary FSH. Main outcome measures were growth-differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) expression, hormonal profile and apoptosis rate. No statistically significant differences were observed for GDF-9 and BMP-15 among the three treatment groups. Estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid were significantly higher in women treated with hMG compared with recombinant FSH or urinary FSH. Testosterone levels were also higher in the group treated with hMG. A statistically significant association was found between the degree of apoptosis in cumulus cells and the type of gonadotropin. The type of gonadotropin used during controlled ovarian stimulation significantly affects endocrine profiles in follicular fluid and the apoptosis rate in cumulus cells. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of oocyte-secreted factors between treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effect of octacostyl alcohol preparation on blood free radical metabolism and cardiac endocrine function of rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-ying; Liu, Hua-gang; Lin, Jing-song; Cao, Jun-tao

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of octacostyl alcohol preparation on the motor function, blood free radical metabolism and cardiac endocrine function of rats. A rat model of exercise fatigue was used for this study. The rats were made to perform continuous exhaustive exercise, and the total exercise time of the rats till exhaustion was recorded followed by examination of the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), plasma endothelin (ET), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Compared with rats without interventions for exercise fatigue, the rats receiving octacostyl alcohol preparation had significant prolonged exercise time till exhaustion (P<0.05), with also significantly enhanced serum SOD activity (P<0.05), significantly decreased MDA level and plasma ET (P<0.05) and increased CGRP and ANP levels (P<0.05). Octacostyl alcohol preparation produced more favorable effect on all the indices measured than pyruvic acid-creatine (P<0.05). The octacostyl alcohol preparation can promote the motor function, increases blood antioxidase activity, suppressed lipid peroxidation in rats engaged in exhaustive exercise. The preparation also produces favorable effect on cardiac endocrine function for heart protection during exercise.

  20. [The effect of normobaric hypoxia on the functioning of links in the endocrine system].

    PubMed

    Shakhtarin, V V; Kiriachkov, Iu Iu; Palyga, G F; Khmelevskiĭ, Ia M; Sloventantor, V Iu; Simakova, G M; Kruglikov, A P

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the data on change in the blood level of ACTH, STH, TSH, cortisol, T3, insulin, C-peptide during a 25-minute session of respiration using a gaseous hypoxic mixture with 10% oxygen (GHM-10). The investigation was performed in 23 healthy volunteers. Change in the hormonal status, characteristic of a moderate stress-reaction, was observed in 60% of the examinees. It was found out that during a GHM-10 session a degree of change in function of the studied factors of the endocrine system showed correlation with change in the activity of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Transcriptional analysis of the mammalian heart with special reference to its endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Monica Forero; de Bold, Adolfo J

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacological and gene ablation studies have demonstrated the crucial role of the endocrine function of the heart as mediated by the polypeptide hormones ANF and BNP in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. The importance of these studies lies on the fact that hypertension and chronic congestive heart failure are clinical entities that may be regarded as states of relative deficiency of ANF and BNP. These hormones are produced by the atrial muscle cells (cardiocytes), which display a dual secretory/muscle phenotype. In contrast, ventricular cardiocytes display mainly a muscle phenotype. Comparatively little information is available regarding the genetic background for this important phenotypic difference with particular reference to the endocrine function of the heart. We postulated that comparison of gene expression profiles between atrial and ventricular muscles would help identify gene transcripts that underlie the phenotypic differences associated with the endocrine function of the heart. Results Comparison of gene expression profiles in the rat heart revealed a total of 1415 differentially expressed genes between the atria and ventricles based on a 1.8 fold cut-off. The identification of numerous chamber specific transcripts, such as ANF for the atria and Irx4 for the ventricles among several others, support the soundness of the GeneChip data and demonstrates that the differences in gene expression profiles observed between the atrial and ventricular tissues were not spurious in nature. Pathway analysis revealed unique expression profiles in the atria for G protein signaling that included Gαo1, Gγ2 and Gγ3, AGS1, RGS2, and RGS6 and the related K+ channels GIRK1 and GIRK4. Transcripts involved in vesicle trafficking, hormone secretion as well as mechanosensors (e.g. the potassium channel TREK-1) were identified in relationship to the synthesis, storage and secretion of hormones. Conclusion The data developed in this investigation

  2. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES AND EFFECTS ON SEXUAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN THE MALE RAT. A FOCUS ON THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTER SCREENING AND TESTING ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid function in the male rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Advisory Committee.

    Stoker TE, Parks LG, Gray LE, Cooper RL.

  3. Endocrine and visual function after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of perioptic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kocher, M; Treuer, H; Hoevels, M; Semrau, R; Sturm, V; Mueller, R-P

    2013-02-01

    To find out whether the use of stereotactic techniques for fractionated radiotherapy reduces toxicity to the endocrine and visual system in patients with benign perioptic tumors. From 1993 to 2009, 29 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The most frequent tumor types were grade I meningioma (n = 11) and pituitary adenoma (n = 10, 7 nonfunctioning, 3 growth hormone-producing). Patients were immobilized with the GTC frame (Radionics, USA) and the planning target volume (PTV; median 24.7, 4.6-58.6 ml) was irradiated with a total dose of 52.2 Gy (range, 45.0-55.8 Gy) in 1.8-Gy fractions using a linear accelerator (6 MeV photons) equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Maximum doses to the optic system and pituitary gland were 53.4 Gy (range, 11.5-57.6 Gy) and 53.6 Gy (range, 12.0-57.9 Gy). Median follow-up was 45 months (range, 10-105 months). Local control was achieved in all but 1 patient (actuarial rate 92% at 5 years and 10 years). In 9 of 29 patients (31%), partial remission was observed (actuarial response rate 40% at 5 years and 10 years). In 4 of 26 patients (15%) with at least partial pituitary function, new hormonal deficits developed (actuarial rate 21% at 5 years and 10 years). This rate was significantly higher in patients treated for a larger PTV (< /> 25 ml: 0% vs. 42% at 5 years and 10 years, p = 0.028). Visual function improved in 4 of 15 patients (27%) who had prior impairment. None of the patients developed treatment-related optic neuropathy, but 2 patients experienced new disease-related visual deficits. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for benign tumors of the perioptic and sellar region results in satisfactory response and local control rates and does not affect the visual system. The assumption that patients can be spared hypophyseal insufficiency only holds for small tumors.

  4. Consequences of endocrine disrupting chemicals on reproductive endocrine function in birds: establishing reliable end points of exposure.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, M A; Quinn, M J; Lavoie, E; Abdelnabi, M A; Thompson, N; Hazelton, J L; Wu, J M; Beavers, J; Jaber, M

    2005-08-01

    It has been difficult to establish reliable indices of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) appropriate for a variety of avian species because of a vast array of reproductive strategies. Data from mammals, reptiles and fish provide insight on likely mechanisms of action for EDCs. However, many of the effects of EDCs are weaker than the actions of the native hormones, making it difficult to assess adverse effects in domestic and wild birds. It is clear that differential sensitivity to EDCs exists across species, due to the timing and mode of exposure, compound toxicity and age of the individual. Our studies on EDCs are conducted in the quail model system, with focus on reproductive endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses. Studies have included EDC exposure, either by egg injection or via diet. Results from egg injection studies showed the following: (1) estradiol administered by embryonic day 12 demasculinized male sexual behavior, altered hypothalamic neurotransmitters and reduced hen day production and fertility in a dose dependent fashion, (2) methoxychlor (MXC) or vinclozolin impaired male sexual behavior in adult quail and (3) DDE exposure impaired reproductive and immune related end points. Two-generation studies were conducted on Japanese and northern bobwhite quail with dietary methoxychlor (MXC) exposure (0, 5 and 10 ppm) beginning in adults (P1), continuing in their offspring (F1), with F2 offspring raised on control diet. MXC exposure impaired male sexual behavior, hypothalamic catecholamines and plasma steroid hormones. Moreover, MXC exposure had reproductive consequences observable at both the lower and higher doses of MXC in F1 and F2 generations. These data demonstrate that embryonic EDC exposure interferes with sexual differentiation of neural systems that direct reproduction.

  5. Non-coding RNAs: Functions and applications in endocrine-related cancer.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Suresh, Padmanaban S; Tsutsumi, Rie

    2015-11-15

    A significant fraction of the human genome is transcribed as non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This non-coding transcriptome has challenged the notion of the central dogma and its involvement in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is well established. Interestingly, several ncRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and current non-coding transcriptome research aims to use our increasing knowledge of these ncRNAs for the development of cancer biomarkers and anti-cancer drugs. In endocrine-related cancers, for which survival rates can be relatively low, there is a need for such advancements. In this review, we aimed to summarize the roles and clinical implications of recently discovered ncRNAs, including long ncRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs, tRNA- and Y RNA-derived ncRNAs, and small nucleolar RNAs, in endocrine-related cancers affecting both sexes. We focus on recent studies highlighting discoveries in ncRNA biology and expression in cancer, and conclude with a discussion on the challenges and future directions, including clinical application. ncRNAs show great promise as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets, but further work is necessary to realize the potential of these unconventional transcripts.

  6. Endocrine disruption in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Urbatzka, Ralph; Opitz, Robert; Würtz, Sven; Behrends, Thomas; Hermelink, Björn; Hofmann, Frauke; Jagnytsch, Oana; Kroupova, Hana; Lorenz, Claudia; Neumann, Nadja; Pietsch, Constanze; Trubiroha, Achim; Van Ballegooy, Christoph; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka

    2009-04-01

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. The main sink of such substances, called endocrine disrupters (ED), are surface waters. Thus, aquatic vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are most endangered. ED can adversely affect reproductive biology and the thyroid system. ED act by (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic modes of action, resulting in abnormal sexual differentiation and impaired reproduction. These effects are mainly driven by direct interferences of ED with sex steroid receptors rather than indirectly by impacting synthesis and bioavailability of sex steroids, which in turn might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to the human-produced waste of ED, natural sources, such as parasites and decomposition of leaves, also might act as ED, markedly affecting sexual differentiation and reproduction in fish and amphibians. Although the thyroid system has essential functions in both fish and amphibians, amphibian metamorphosis has been introduced as the most sensitive model to detect thyroidal ED; no suitable fish model exists. Whereas ED may act primarily on only one specific endocrine target, all endocrine systems will eventually be deregulated as they are intimately connected to each other. The recent ecotoxicological issue of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) present in the aquatic environment indicates a high potential for further endocrine modes of action on aquatic vertebrates by ED derived from PhACs, such as glucocorticoids, progestins, and beta-agonists.

  7. Acupuncture Affects Autonomic and Endocrine but Not Behavioural Responses Induced by Startle in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Villas-Boas, Julia Dias; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Trigo, Pablo Ignacio; Almeida, Norma Aparecida dos Santos; de Almeida, Fernando Queiroz; de Medeiros, Magda Alves

    2015-01-01

    Startle is a fast response elicited by sudden acoustic, tactile, or visual stimuli in a variety of animals and in humans. As the magnitude of startle response can be modulated by external and internal variables, it can be a useful tool to study reaction to stress. Our study evaluated whether acupuncture can change cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability); and behavioural (reactivity) and endocrine (cortisol levels) parameters in response to startle. Brazilian Sport horses (n = 6) were subjected to a model of startle in which an umbrella was abruptly opened near the horse. Before startle, the horses were subjected to a 20-minute session of acupuncture in acupoints GV1, HT7, GV20, and BL52 (ACUP) and in nonpoints (NP) or left undisturbed (CTL). For analysis of the heart rate variability, ultrashort-term (64 s) heart rate series were interpolated (4 Hz) and divided into 256-point segments and the spectra integrated into low (LF; 0.01–0.07 Hz; index of sympathetic modulation) and high (HF; 0.07–0.50 Hz; index of parasympathetic modulation) frequency bands. Acupuncture (ACUP) changed the sympathovagal balance with a shift towards parasympathetic modulation, reducing the prompt startle-induced increase in LF/HF and reducing cortisol levels 30 min after startle. However, acupuncture elicited no changes in behavioural parameters. PMID:26413116

  8. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph F; Neuman, Joshua C; Brill, Allison L; Brar, Harpreet K; Thompson, Mary F; Cadena, Mark T; Connors, Kelsey M; Busch, Rebecca A; Heneghan, Aaron F; Cham, Candace M; Jones, Elaina K; Kibbe, Carly R; Davis, Dawn B; Groblewski, Guy E; Kudsk, Kenneth A; Kimple, Michelle E

    2015-09-15

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis.

  9. The gastrin-releasing peptide analog bombesin preserves exocrine and endocrine pancreas morphology and function during parenteral nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Joseph F.; Neuman, Joshua C.; Brill, Allison L.; Brar, Harpreet K.; Thompson, Mary F.; Cadena, Mark T.; Connors, Kelsey M.; Busch, Rebecca A.; Heneghan, Aaron F.; Cham, Candace M.; Jones, Elaina K.; Kibbe, Carly R.; Davis, Dawn B.; Groblewski, Guy E.; Kudsk, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of digestive organs by enteric peptides is lost during total parental nutrition (PN). Here we examine the role of the enteric peptide bombesin (BBS) in stimulation of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas during PN. BBS protects against exocrine pancreas atrophy and dysfunction caused by PN. BBS also augments circulating insulin levels, suggesting an endocrine pancreas phenotype. While no significant changes in gross endocrine pancreas morphology were observed, pancreatic islets isolated from BBS-treated PN mice showed a significantly enhanced insulin secretion response to the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist exendin-4, correlating with enhanced GLP-1 receptor expression. BBS itself had no effect on islet function, as reflected in low expression of BBS receptors in islet samples. Intestinal BBS receptor expression was enhanced in PN with BBS, and circulating active GLP-1 levels were significantly enhanced in BBS-treated PN mice. We hypothesized that BBS preserved islet function indirectly, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. We confirmed the ability of BBS to directly stimulate intestinal enteroid cells to express the GLP-1 precursor preproglucagon. In conclusion, BBS preserves the exocrine and endocrine pancreas functions during PN; however, the endocrine stimulation is likely indirect, through the enteroendocrine cell-pancreas axis. PMID:26185331

  10. Long-term effects of treatment on endocrine function in children with brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Panahon, A.; Brecher, M.L.

    1983-11-01

    Fourteen children with brain tumors received endocrine evaluations at least one year following completion of cranial irradiation. Treatment consisted of operation (13 patients), craniospinal irradiation (6), whole brain irradiation (5), posterior fossa irradiation (3), and chemotherapy (10). Endocrine evaluation included bone age roentgenography and measurement of growth hormone (using sequential arginine and insulin stimulation), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, plasma cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Ten of 12 children (83%) had abnormal responses to both tests of growth hormone stimulation. All growth hormone-deficient patients treated prior to puberty and tested at least 2 years following completion of cranial irradiation had decelerated linear growth. Results of thyroid function tests were abnormal in 4 patients: 2 patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism, and 2 showed secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. Two patients had inadequate cortisol responses to insulin hypoglycemia. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin, and serum testosterone levels were appropriate for age in all patients.

  11. Long-term effects of treatment on endocrine function in children with brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Duffner, P K; Cohen, M E; Anderson, S W; Voorhess, M L; MacGillivray, M H; Panahon, A; Brecher, M L

    1983-11-01

    Fourteen children with brain tumors received endocrine evaluations at least one year following completion of cranial irradiation. Treatment consisted of operation (13 patients), craniospinal irradiation (6), whole brain irradiation (5), posterior fossa irradiation (3), and chemotherapy (10). Endocrine evaluation included bone age roentgenography and measurement of growth hormone (using sequential arginine and insulin stimulation), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, plasma cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Ten of 12 children (83%) had abnormal responses to both tests of growth hormone stimulation. All growth hormone-deficient patients treated prior to puberty and tested at least 2 years following completion of cranial irradiation had decelerated linear growth. Results of thyroid function tests were abnormal in 4 patients: 2 patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism, and 2 showed secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. Two patients had inadequate cortisol responses to insulin hypoglycemia. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin, and serum testosterone levels were appropriate for age in all patients.

  12. Elimination of Von Hippel-Lindau Function Perturbs Pancreas Endocrine Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Sapna; García-Núñez, Alejandro; Hebrok, Matthias; Cano, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the human homolog of the Vhlh gene [encoding the von-Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein] lead to tumor development. In mice, depletion of Vhlh in pancreatic ß-cells causes perturbed glucose homeostasis, but the role of this gene in other pancreatic cells is poorly understood. To investigate the function of VHL/HIF pathway in pancreatic cells, we inactivated Vhlh in the pancreatic epithelium as well as in the endocrine and exocrine lineages. Our results show that embryonic depletion of Vhlh within the pancreatic epithelium causes postnatal lethality due to severe hypoglycemia. The hypoglycemia is recapitulated in mice with endocrine-specific removal of Vhlh, while animals with loss of Vhlh predominantly in the exocrine compartment survive to adulthood with no overt defects in glucose metabolism. Mice with hypoglycemia display diminished insulin release in response to elevated glucose. Significantly, the glucagon response is impaired both in vivo (circulating glucagon levels) as well as in an in vitro secretion assay in isolated islets. Hypoxia also impairs glucagon secretion in a glucagon-expressing cell line in culture. Our results reveal a novel role for the hypoxia/HIF pathway in islet hormone secretion and maintenance of the fine balance that allows for the establishment of normoglycemia. PMID:23977255

  13. Endocrine function after immunosuppression of pancreatic allograft by ionizing irradiation in the primate

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1986-05-01

    The object of this preliminary study was to evaluate the endocrine function after heterotopic intraperitoneal segmental pancreatic allotransplantation with unligated duct in irradiated, totally pancreatectomized primates. All allograft recipients received, pre- and peroperative donor-specific blood transfusions and peroperative external irradiation from a linear accelerator; 200 rads was administered weekly and increased to a total dose of 1,500 rads. Pancreatic transplantation was performed between 2 and 6 weeks after completion of irradiation and preoperative blood transfusions. As previously reported, only minimal pancreatic allograft survival was achieved following preoperative irradiation. One recipient remained normoglycaemic for greater than 100 days after transplantation, the longest surviving pancreatic allograft recipient reported from this laboratory. Intravenous glucose tolerance test results in this recipient revealed normoglycaemia, reduced K-value, hypoinsulinaemia, normal glucagon response, reduced C-peptide values, and moderate glucose intolerance. Aortography and electron-microscopic examination of allograft biopsy tissue confirmed the presence of a functioning allograft.

  14. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  15. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism affects mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Kvetny, J; Wilms, L; Pedersen, P L; Larsen, J

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine mitochondrial function in cells from persons with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid controls. The participating persons were examined clinically and had basal oxygen consumption (VO(2)) determined. The concentrations of thyroid hormones and thyrotropine stimulating hormone were determined, and mitochondrial function in isolated mononuclear blood cells was examined by enzymatic methods [citrate synthase activity (CS)] and by flow cytometry (mitochondrial membrane potential by TMRM fluorescence and mitochondrial mass by MTG fluorescence). The ratio of T(4)/T(3) was lowered in subclinical hypothyroidism patients compared to controls (2.5+/-0.5 vs. 2.9+/-0.4, p=0.005). VO(2) was increased in persons with subclinical hypothyroidism compared to controls (adolescents: 134+/-27 ml O(2)/min*m(2) vs. 119+/-27 ml O(2)/min*m(2), p=0.006, adults: 139+/-14 ml O(2)/min*m(2) vs. 121+/-17 ml O(2)/min*m(2), p=0.001). The mitochondrial function, represented by citrate synthase activity, MTG, and TMRM fluorescence were all increased (CS in subclinical hypothyroidism vs. controls: 0.074+/-0.044 nmol/mg*min vs. 0.056+/-0.021 nmol/mg*min, p=0.005; MTG fluorescence in subclinical hypothyroidism vs. controls: 7,482+/-1,733 a.u. vs. 6,391+/-2,171 a.u., p=0.027; TMRM fluorescence in subclinical hypothyroidism vs. controls: 13,449+/-3,807 a.u. vs. 11,733+/-4,473 a.u, p=0.04). Our results indicate an increased mitochondrial stimulation, eventually caused by increased deiodination of T(4) to intracellular bioactive iodothyronines in adults and adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism.

  17. Cinacalcet therapy in patients affected by primary hyperparathyroidism associated to Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome type 1 (MEN1).

    PubMed

    Giusti, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Gronchi, Giorgio; Cioppi, Federica; Masi, Laura; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria; Ferolla, Piero; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the main endocrinopathy associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome. Cinacalcet is a calcimimetic agent licensed for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease, and for the reduction of marked hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma and sporadic hyperparathyroidism requiring surgery but for whom parathyroidectomy is contraindicated. It may provide a medical alternative for the management of primary hyperparathyroidism in subjects affected by Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1. In this longitudinal, intervention study, 33 MEN1 patients had been enrolled, 10 males and 23 females with a mean age of 40 ± 11.9 years, range 20-63. Primary hyperparathyroidism was the first clinical manifestation in 12 patients. All subjects commenced with Cinacalcet 30 mg/day, 22 patients starting therapy with calcimimetics as an alternative to surgery, and 11 patients opting for the medication after the onset of persistent post-surgical primary hyperparathyroidism. Duration of follow-up was 12 months. The results of this study show significant reductions in serum calcium. The changes in hormonal secretions of pituitary and gastroenteropancreatic glands were not significant, demonstrating the overall safety of this drug in this disease. Cinacalcet has been well tolerated by 28 patients, whereas five individuals complained of heartburn and grade 1 nausea, which did not prevent the completion of the study. In conclusion, Cinacalcet has resulted to be well tolerated and safe in patients with MEN1 syndrome and the calcium homeostasis was stabilized.

  18. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roepke, Troy A; Snyder, Mark J; Cherr, Gary N

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), progesterone (P4) and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2)). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC50 values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT(L. anamesus)>OCT>TBT(S. purpuratus)>E2>EE2>DDD>BisA>P4>E1>E3. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E2, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor-mediated actions. Tamoxifen, a partial ER agonist, alone inhibited development at concentrations as low as 0.02 ng

  19. Endocrine Function in a Patient with Asymmetrical Acral Hypertrophy and Giantism: A Possible Variant of the Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mims, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Endocrine function was evaluated in a 38-year-old man who had patchy asymmetrical acral hypertrophy and giantism. The history and clinical manifestations were consistent with previously described cases of the Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Pituitary and peripheral hormone concentrations were generally elevated, but his endocrine status appeared normal by clinical evaluation. Of particular interest were elevated growth hormone and somatomedin-A concentrations and responses to provocative tests. These findings suggest that this patient had abnormal cell receptor pathophysiology as the cause of the asymmetrical acral hypertrophy and giantism, which often occurred in the same anatomical site. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:212575

  20. SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN ANDROGEN AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION AMONG VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES: INTERSPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species Differences in Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Structure and Function Among Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Interspecies Extrapolations regarding Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
    VS Wilson1, GT Ankley2, M Gooding 1,3, PD Reynolds 1,4, NC Noriega 1, M Cardon 1, P Hartig1,...

  1. SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN ANDROGEN AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION AMONG VERTEBRATES AND INVERTEBRATES: INTERSPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS REGARDING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Species Differences in Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Structure and Function Among Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Interspecies Extrapolations regarding Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
    VS Wilson1, GT Ankley2, M Gooding 1,3, PD Reynolds 1,4, NC Noriega 1, M Cardon 1, P Hartig1,...

  2. Endocrine function following high dose proton therapy for tumors of the upper clivus

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, J.D.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Munzenrider, J.; Birnbaum, S.; Carroll, R.; Klibanski, A.; Riskind, P.; Urie, M.; Verhey, L.; Goitein, M.

    1988-09-01

    The endocrine status of patients receiving proton radiation for tumors of the upper clivus was reviewed to evaluate the effect of high dose treatment on the pituitary gland. The fourteen patients had chordomas or low grade chondrosarcomas and were all treated by the same techniques. The median tumor dose was 69.7 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) with a range from 66.6 to 74.4 CGE. (CGE is used because modulated protons have an RBE of 1.1 compared to 60Co). The daily fraction size was 1.8-2.1 CGE. The median follow-up time is 48 months, ranging from 30 to 68 months. All treatments were planned using a computerized multi-dimensional system with the position of the pituitary outlined on the planning CT scan. Review of the dose distribution indicated that the dose to the pituitary ranged from 60.5 to 72.3 CGE, with a median of 67.6 CGE. One female patient had decreased thyroid and gonadotropin function at the time of diagnosis and has been on hormone replacement since that time. The other three females were all pre-menopausal at the time of radiotherapy. At this time four patients (3 males and 1 female) have developed endocrine abnormalities 14 to 45 months after irradiation. All four had evidence of hypothyroidism and two have also developed corticotropin deficiency. The three males had decreased testosterone levels; the female patient developed amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. All four are asymptomatic with ongoing hormone replacement.

  3. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2017-08-16

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Androgen Receptor Involvement in Rat Amelogenesis: An Additional Way for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals to Affect Enamel Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jedeon, Katia; Loiodice, Sophia; Salhi, Khaled; Le Normand, Manon; Houari, Sophia; Chaloyard, Jessica; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with the steroid axis can affect amelogenesis, leading to enamel hypomineralization similar to that of molar incisor hypomineralization, a recently described enamel disease. We investigated the sex steroid receptors that may mediate the effects of EDCs during rat amelogenesis. The expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and progesterone receptor was dependent on the stage of ameloblast differentiation, whereas ERβ remained undetectable. AR was the only receptor selectively expressed in ameloblasts involved in final enamel mineralization. AR nuclear translocation and induction of androgen-responsive element-containing promoter activity upon T treatment, demonstrated ameloblast responsiveness to androgens. T regulated the expression of genes involved in enamel mineralization such as KLK4, amelotin, SLC26A4, and SLC5A8 but not the expression of genes encoding matrix proteins, which determine enamel thickness. Vinclozolin and to a lesser extent bisphenol A, two antiandrogenic EDCs that cause enamel defects, counteracted the actions of T. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, the following: 1) ameloblasts express AR; 2) the androgen signaling pathway is involved in the enamel mineralization process; and 3) EDCs with antiandrogenic effects inhibit AR activity and preferentially affect amelogenesis in male rats. Their action, through the AR pathway, may specifically and irreversibly affect enamel, potentially leading to the use of dental defects as a biomarker of exposure to environmental pollutants. These results are consistent with the steroid hormones affecting ameloblasts, raising the issue of the hormonal influence on amelogenesis and possible sexual dimorphism in enamel quality.

  5. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Gold, Stefan M; Witte, Jan; Bartsch, Katharina; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph

    2004-10-15

    In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of life during an 8-week aerobic bicycle training in a waitlist control design. In the immune-endocrine study (1) 28 patients were included, the coordinative extension study (2) included 39 patients. Training was performed at 60% VO(2)max after determining individual exertion levels through step-by-step ergometry. Metabolic (lactate), endocrine (cortisol, adrendocortico-releasing hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine), immune (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor), and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF)) parameters were compared from a prestudy and a poststudy endurance test at 60% VO(2)max for 30 min. In study (1), lowered lactate levels despite higher workload levels indicated a training effect. Disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire for Multiple Sclerosis, HAQUAMS) significantly increased in the training group. No significant training effects were seen for endocrine and immune parameters or neurotrophins. In study (2), two out of three coordinative parameters of the lower extremities were significantly improved. In summary, low-level aerobic training in MS improves not only quality of life but also coordinative function and physical fitness.

  6. Endocrine and metabolic changes in transition dairy cows are affected by prepartum infusions of a serotonin precursor.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Sauerwein, Helga; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-06-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. In addition, 5-HT participates in a variety of metabolic pathways, mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The hypothesis of the present study was that the prepartum administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, would affect endocrine systems related to calcium homeostasis, and interact with other endocrine and metabolic pathways during the transition period. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (control group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before estimated parturition date and ended the day of parturition, resulting in a minimum of 4 d of infusion (8.4 ± 0.7 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected before the daily infusions, and postpartum daily until d 7, and on d 30. Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were transiently increased at parturition and on d 1 in control cows. In the 5-HTP group PTH remained unchanged. The concentration of pyridinoline (PYD), an established marker for calcium release from the bone to the bloodstream, increased on d 1 postpartum only in the 5-HTP group. In control cows, PYD concentrations did not change on d 1 postpartum. Melatonin concentrations were slightly but significantly increased in the 5-HTP group compared with the control group. Insulin concentrations decreased in both groups postpartum. Before parturition, leptin concentrations decreased in both groups and remained at this level until d 30 postpartum. Plasma IgG concentrations decreased in both groups on d -1 postpartum. Haptoglobin increased in both groups on d -1 and remained at this level until d 7 postpartum. No differences between groups were observed for insulin, glucagon, IgG, leptin

  7. Effect of temperament and prolonged transportation on endocrine and functional variables in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fazio, E; Medica, P; Cravana, C; Cavaleri, S; Ferlazzo, A

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged transportation on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, total and free triiodothyronine (T(3), fT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4), fT(4)) concentrations, and functional variables (heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT)) in calm and temperamental Limousin young beef bulls. Exit velocity measurement was used to classify bulls' temperament as calm (group I: consisted of eight slowest bulls) and temperamental (group II: consisted of five fastest bulls). Calm subjects showed an increase of ACTH (P<0.05) and T(4) (P<0.01) concentrations after transportation compared with before transportation values. Temperamental subjects showed higher ACTH (P<0.01) concentrations before transportation, and lower T(4) (P<0.05) and fT(4) (P<0.001) concentrations after transportation than calm subjects. Related to functional variables, temperamental young beef bulls showed a decrease of RT (P<0.05) after transportation compared with before values, higher RT (P<0.001) before transportation, and higher HR (P<0.001) and RR (P<0.01) after transportation than calm subjects. Data obtained suggest that longer periods of transportation could minimise the magnitude and duration of the endocrine and functional responses to stress of young beef bulls; such responses probably decrease or disappear during transport, in accordance with animal temperament.

  8. Renal function and endocrine responses to arm exercise in euhydrated individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takashi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Keiko; Ito, Tomoyuki; Goto, Masaki; Shimomatsu, Tomoya; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the renal and endocrine responses to arm exercise in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) under euhydration conditions (ad libitum drinking of water) and determined the physiological effects of exercise on renal function in these subjects. Eleven SCI (spinal lesions between T6 and L1, American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale A) and 14 able-bodied (AB) persons first rested for 1 h in a sitting position, before undergoing 2-h arm-crank ergometer exercise at 60% of maximum oxygen consumption followed by a 2-h recovery period. On another day, all subjects participated in a time control study (5 h of rest condition in sitting position). Urine and blood samples were collected hourly. There were no differences in mean blood pressure between the two groups. SCI patients showed attenuated increase in plasma adrenaline and increase in plasma aldosterone compared with AB controls, but similar changes in human atrial natriuretic polypeptide, plasma renin activity and plasma antidiuretic hormone following the exercise. Creatinine clearance, osmolal clearance, free water clearance and fractional excretion of Na(+) did not change during exercise in any of the subjects. These findings suggested that activated aldosterone and attenuated adrenaline responses during exercise in SCI could be due to adaptation to disordered sympathetic nervous system triggered to maintain renal function. The results showed no exercise-related adverse effects on renal function in hydrated subjects with SCI.

  9. Fetal signaling through placental structure and endocrine function: illustrations and implications from a nonhuman primate model.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Julienne N

    2009-01-01

    The placenta is a transmitter of fetal need and fetal quality, interfacing directly with maternal physiology and ecology. Plasticity of placental structure and function across the developmental timeframe of gestation may serve as an important tool by which a fetus calibrates its growth to shifting maternal ecology and resource availability, and thereby signals its quality and adaptability to a changing environment. Signals of this quality may be conveyed by the size of the placental interface, an important marker of fetal access to maternal resources, or by production of placental insulin-like growth factor-II, a driver of fetoplacental growth. Litter size variation in the common marmoset monkey offers the opportunity to explore intrauterine resource allocation and placental plasticity in an important nonhuman primate model. Triplet marmosets are born at lower birth weights and have poorer postnatal outcomes and survivorship than do twins; triplet placentas differ in placental efficiency, microscopic morphology, and endocrine function. Through placental plasticity, triplet fetuses are able to adjust functional access to maternal resources in a way that allows pregnancy to proceed. However, the costs of such mechanisms may relate to reduced fetal growth and altered postnatal outcomes, with the potential to lead to adverse adult health consequences, suggesting an important link between the placenta itself and the developmental origins of health and disease.

  10. The endocrine interface of environmental and egg factors affecting chick quality.

    PubMed

    Decuypere, E; Bruggeman, V

    2007-05-01

    Day-old chicks are the endproduct of the hatchery industry and form important starting material for the broiler farms. The major objective is to obtain a high hatchability of marketable chicks and a low spread of hatch. For the farmers, these chicks have to perform well, which is translated in high viability, high growth rate, high breast meat yield, and low feed conversion. A good-quality 1-d-old chick is hence a crucial hinge between the hatchery and the broiler farm. Moreover, maximal hatchability is not always synonymous with maximal posthatch viability and growth potential of the chick. Quantitative and qualitative scoring of chick quality is assessed. We will briefly discuss some recently developed scoring systems, which will convert differences in qualitative parameters into a quantitative score. Preincubation factors such as egg storage duration and age of broiler breeders, as well as incubation conditions, affect day-old chick quality and subsequent broiler performance. Heat production and metabolism, hormonal balances of thyroid hormones and corticosterone, and gas exchange (O(2), CO(2)) are of fundamental importance for embryonic development and survival during incubation. Results from our studies indicated that embryos with higher pCO(2) levels in the air cell and higher triiodothyronine-thyroxine ratios at internal pipping or in the newly hatched chicks had higher hatchability, chick quality, and posthatch chick growth until 7 d of age. Incubation factors such as temperature, turning conditions, or gaseous environment also affect development, change concentrations of hormones related to metabolism and growth of the embryo, and in this way affect 1-d-old chick quality. Moreover, the spread of the hatch process is affected by incubation conditions as well as by the aforementioned preincubation factors. Depending on the spread of the hatching curve together with the place in the sequence of hatching (early or late) and in interaction with quality of the

  11. Short-term exposure to an endocrine disruptor affects behavioural consistency in male threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L

    2011-10-01

    It has been established that exposure to xenooestrogens can have profound effects on reproductive and aggressive behaviours in aquatic organisms. Studies on the effects of 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) on behaviour, however, rarely examine these effects over multiple trials, across time, or across contexts. In addition, it is possible that individuals vary in their sensitivity to EE2 and individuals may differ in the degree to which their behaviour is affected. The study of consistent individual differences in behaviour has grown in popularity in recent years perhaps because of the evolutionary questions this behavioural variation raises. Adult male threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from an anadromous population repeatedly received the simultaneous presentation of a dummy male and dummy female conspecific both before and after exposure to a short-term, nominal (15 ng L(-1)) concentration of 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2). These before and after measures were then compared against one another as well as against responses of males in a control group that was not exposed to EE2. Courtship, aggression, and nesting behaviours were all affected by EE2 exposure. In addition, behavioural consistency over trials was markedly reduced after EE2 exposure, as shown by lower repeatability values in the after exposure measures and in weaker correlations between the before and after exposure measures in the EE2 group compared to the control group. This suggests that male threespine stickleback vary in their sensitivity to EE2. This study is one of the first to examine the effects of short-term EE2 exposure on behaviour across trials and has important implications for population-level fitness consequences of xenooestrogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive function in postmenopausal breast cancer patients one year after completing adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole and/or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Aldridge, Julie; Ribi, Karin; Sun, Zhuoxin; Thompson, Alastair; Harvey, Vernon; Thürlimann, Beat; Cardoso, Fatima; Pagani, Olivia; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine therapy for breast cancer may affect cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cognitive function improves after cessation of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Change in cognitive function was assessed in 100 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the BIG 1-98 trial, who were randomized to receive 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole alone or in sequence. Cognitive function was evaluated by computerized tests during the fifth year of trial treatment (Y5) and 1 year after treatment completion (Y6). Cognitive test scores were standardized according to age-specific norms and the change assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There was significant improvement in the composite cognitive function score from Y5 to Y6 (median of change = 0.22, effect size = 0.53, P < 0.0001). This improvement was consistent in women taking either tamoxifen or letrozole at Y5 (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0002, respectively). For postmenopausal patients who received either adjuvant letrozole or tamoxifen alone or in sequence, cognitive function improved after cessation of treatment. PMID:21046229

  13. Maternal stress alters endocrine function of the feto-placental unit in rats.

    PubMed

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Lesage, Jean; Breton, Christophe; Bréant, Bernadette; Hahn, Tom; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Dickson, Suzanne L; Seckl, Jonathan; Blondeau, Bertrand; Vieau, Didier; Maccari, Stefania; Viltart, Odile

    2007-06-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) can cause early and long-term developmental effects resulting in part from altered maternal and/or fetal glucocorticoid exposure. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of chronic restraint stress during late gestation on feto-placental unit physiology and function in embryonic (E) day 21 male rat fetuses. Chronic stress decreased body weight gain and food intake of the dams and increased their adrenal weight. In the placenta of PS rats, the expression of glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) was decreased, whereas GLUT3 and GLUT4 were slightly increased. Moreover, placental expression and activity of the glucocorticoid "barrier" enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 was strongly reduced. At E21, PS fetuses exhibited decreased body, adrenal pancreas, and testis weights. These alterations were associated with reduced pancreatic beta-cell mass, plasma levels of glucose, growth hormone, and ACTH, whereas corticosterone, insulin, IGF-1, and CBG levels were unaffected. These data emphasize the impact of PS on both fetal growth and endocrine function as well as on placental physiology, suggesting that PS could program processes implied in adult biology and pathophysiology.

  14. Daily affect and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    The specific affective experiences related to changes in various aspects of female sexual function have received little attention as most prior studies have focused instead on the role of clinical mood and anxiety disorders and their influence on sexual dysfunction. We sought to understand the transaction between daily affect and female sexual function in effort to provide a more nuanced understanding of the interplay between affective and sexual experiences. The present study used a 2-week daily diary approach to examine same-day and temporal relations between positive and negative affect states and sexual function in young women. We examined the unique relations between positive (i.e., joviality, serenity, self-assurance) and negative (i.e., fear, sadness, hostility) affects and female sexual response (i.e., desire, subjective arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasmic function, and sexual pain) while controlling for higher order sexual distress, depression, and anxiety, as well as age effects and daily menstruation. Analyses revealed different aspects of both positive and negative affects to be independently related to sexual response indices. Specifically, results indicated that joviality was related to same-day sexual desire and predicted increased desire the following day. This latter relation was partially mediated by sexual activity. Further, greater sexual desire predicted next-day calmness, which was partially mediated by sexual activity. Notably, fear was related to same-day subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasmic function, and vaginal pain, whereas poorer orgasmic function predicted greater next-day sadness. These findings describe the manner in which changes in affect correspond to variations in female sexual function, thus highlighting the inextricability of mental and sexual health. Further, these findings may offer insight into the progression of normative levels of affect and sexual function as they develop into comorbid depression, anxiety, and

  15. Endocrine system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  16. The endocrine disruptor mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the differentiation of human liposarcoma cells (SW 872).

    PubMed

    Campioli, Enrico; Batarseh, Amani; Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    Esters of phthalic acid (phthalates) are largely used in industrial plastics, medical devices, and pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily released from plastics into the environment and can be found in measurable levels in human fluids. Phthalates are agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), through which they regulate translocator protein (TSPO; 18 kDa) transcription in a tissue-specific manner. TSPO is a drug- and cholesterol-binding protein involved in mitochondrial respiration, steroid formation, and cell proliferation. TSPO has been shown to increase during differentiation and decrease during maturation in mouse adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the differentiation of human SW 872 preadipocyte cells, and examine the role of TSPO in the process. After 4 days of treatment with 10 µM MEHP, we observed changes in the transcription of acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase, glucose transporters 1 and 4, and the S100 calcium binding protein B, all of which are markers of preadipocyte differentiation. These observed gene expression changes coincided with a decrease in cellular proliferation without affecting cellular triglyceride content. Taken together, these data suggest that MEHP exerts a differentiating effect on human preadipocytes. Interestingly, MEHP was able to temporarily increase TSPO mRNA levels through the PPAR-α and β/δ pathways. These results suggest that TSPO can be considered an important player in the differentiation process itself, or alternatively a factor whose presence is essential for adipocyte development.

  17. The Endocrine Disruptor Mono-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Affects the Differentiation of Human Liposarcoma Cells (SW 872)

    PubMed Central

    Campioli, Enrico; Batarseh, Amani; Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    Esters of phthalic acid (phthalates) are largely used in industrial plastics, medical devices, and pharmaceutical formulations. They are easily released from plastics into the environment and can be found in measurable levels in human fluids. Phthalates are agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), through which they regulate translocator protein (TSPO; 18 kDa) transcription in a tissue-specific manner. TSPO is a drug- and cholesterol-binding protein involved in mitochondrial respiration, steroid formation, and cell proliferation. TSPO has been shown to increase during differentiation and decrease during maturation in mouse adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the differentiation of human SW 872 preadipocyte cells, and examine the role of TSPO in the process. After 4 days of treatment with 10 µM MEHP, we observed changes in the transcription of acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase, glucose transporters 1 and 4, and the S100 calcium binding protein B, all of which are markers of preadipocyte differentiation. These observed gene expression changes coincided with a decrease in cellular proliferation without affecting cellular triglyceride content. Taken together, these data suggest that MEHP exerts a differentiating effect on human preadipocytes. Interestingly, MEHP was able to temporarily increase TSPO mRNA levels through the PPAR-α and β/δ pathways. These results suggest that TSPO can be considered an important player in the differentiation process itself, or alternatively a factor whose presence is essential for adipocyte development. PMID:22205965

  18. Visual food cues decrease postprandial glucose concentrations in lean and obese men without affecting food intake and related endocrine parameters.

    PubMed

    Brede, Swantje; Sputh, Annika; Hartmann, Ann-Christin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Lehnert, Hendrik; Klement, Johanna

    2017-10-01

    The abundance of highly palatable food items in our environment represents a possible cause of overconsumption. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated that watching pictures of food increases activation in brain areas involved in homeostatic and hedonic food cue processing. Nevertheless, the impact of food cues on actual food intake and metabolic parameters has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that watching high-calorie food cues increases food intake and modifies anticipatory blood parameters in lean and especially in obese men. In 20 normal-weight and 20 obese healthy fasted men, we assessed the effects of watching pictures of high-calorie food items versus neutral contents on food intake measured during a standardized test buffet and subsequent snacking as well as on glucose homeostasis and endocrine parameters. Compared to neutral pictures, viewing food pictures reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations in lean (p = 0.016) and obese (p = 0.044) subjects, without any differences in insulin or C-peptide concentrations (all p > 0.4). Viewing food pictures did not affect total calorie intake during the buffet (all p > 0.5) and snack consumption (all p > 0.4). Concentrations of ghrelin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and glucagon also remained unaffected (all p > 0.08). These data indicate that preprandial processing of food cues curbs postprandial blood glucose excursions, without immediately affecting eating behavior in normal-weight and obese men. Findings indicate that exposure to food cues does not acutely trigger calorie overconsumption but rather improves the glucoregulatory response to food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining the role of endogenous orexins in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis endocrine function using transient dual orexin receptor antagonism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Michel A; Sciarretta, Carla; Brisbare-Roch, Catherine; Strasser, Daniel S; Studer, Rolf; Jenck, Francois

    2013-04-01

    The orexin neuropeptide system regulates wakefulness and contributes to physiological and behavioral stress responses. Moreover, a role for orexins in modulating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been proposed. Brain penetrating dual orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists such as almorexant decrease vigilance and have emerged as a novel therapeutic class for the treatment of insomnia. Almorexant was used here as a pharmacological tool to examine the role of endogenous orexin signaling in HPA axis endocrine function under natural conditions. After confirming the expression of prepro-orexin and OXR-1 and OXR-2 mRNA in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands, the effects of systemic almorexant were investigated on peripheral HPA axis hormone release in the rat under baseline, stress and pharmacological challenge conditions. Almorexant did not alter basal or stress-induced corticosterone release despite affecting wake and sleep stages (detected by radiotelemetric electroencephalography/electromyography) during the stress exposure. Moreover, almorexant did not affect the release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone at different time points along the diurnal rhythm, nor corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)- and ACTH-stimulated neuroendocrine responses, measured in vivo under stress-free conditions. These results illustrate that dual OXR antagonists, despite modulating stress-induced wakefulness, do not interfere with endocrine HPA axis function in the rat. They converge to suggest that endogenous orexin signaling plays a minor role in stress hormone release under basal conditions and under challenge.

  20. Endocrine and metabolic function in male Carioca High-conditioned Freezing rats.

    PubMed

    Mousovich-Neto, F; Lourenço, A L; Landeira-Fernandez, J; Corrêa da Costa, V M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Carioca High-conditioned Freezing rats (CHF) regarding their endocrine and metabolic backgrounds. We found an increase in serum corticosterone (CTRL: 96.7 ± 21.65 vs CHF: 292.0 ± 4 0.71 ng/ml) and leptin (CTRL: 9.5 ± 1.51 vs CHF: 19.2 ± 4.32 ng/ml). Serum testosterone (CTRL: 3.3 ± 0.29 vs CHF: 2.0 ± 0.28 ng/ml) and T3 (CTRL: 52.4 ± 2.74 vs CHF: 42.7 ± 2.94 ng/dl) were decreased in the CHF group, but serum TSH and T4 were unaffected. Body weight and food intake were unchanged, nevertheless retroperitoneal fat (CTRL: 2.2 ± 0.24 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.64 g) and epididymal fat (CTRL: 2.6 ± 0.20 vs CHF: 4.8 ± 0.37 g) depot weights were around 2-fold higher in CHF animals. BAT weight was similar in both groups. Serum triglycerides (CTRL: 41.4 ± 6.03 vs CHF: 83.2 ± 17.09 mg/dl) and total cholesterol (CTRL: 181.6 ± 5.61 vs CHF: 226.4 ± 13.04 mg/dl) were higher in the CHF group. Fasting glycemia (CTRL: 68.7 ± 3.04 vs CHF: 82.3 ± 2.99 mg/dl) was also higher in the CHF group, however glucose tolerance test response and serum insulin levels were similar between the groups. Oxygen consumption (CTRL: 10.5 ± 0.40 vs CHF: 7.9 ± 0.58 VO2ml/min/kg(0.75)) and BAT D2 activity (CTRL: 0.7 ± 0.17 vs CHF: 0.3 ± 0.04 fmolT4/min/mg ptn) were lower in the CHF group. Our data show that anxiety could impair endocrine and metabolic functions and may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases.

  1. Physiological and therapeutical roles of ginger and turmeric on endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Al-Suhaimi, Ebtesam A; Al-Riziza, Noorah A; Al-Essa, Reham A

    2011-01-01

    The natural product ginger (Zingiber officinale) has active constituents gingerol, Shogaol and Zerumbone, while turmeric (Curcuma longa) contains three active major curcuminoids, namely, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. They have the same scientific classification and are reported to have anti-inflammatory and many therapeutic effects. This article reviews the physiological and therapeutic effects of ginger and turmeric on some endocrine gland functions, and signal pathways involved to mediate their actions. With some systems and adipose tissue, ginger and turmeric exert their actions through some/all of the following signals or molecular mechanisms: (1) through reduction of high levels of some hormones (as: T4, leptin) or interaction with hormone receptors; (2) by inhibition of cytokines/adipokine expression; (3) acting as a potent inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzymes, which play an essential role between inflammation and progression of diseases; (4) mediation of their effects through the inhibition of signaling transcription factors; and/or (5) decrease the proliferative potent by down-regulation of antiapoptotic genes, which may suppress tumor promotion by blocking signal transduction pathways in the target cells. These multiple mechanisms of protection against inflammation and oxidative damage make ginger and curcumin particularly promising natural agents in fighting the ravages of aging and degenerative diseases, and need to be paid more attention by studies.

  2. Endocrine system and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Endocrine function and bone disease during long-term chelation therapy with deferasirox in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Casale, Maddalena; Citarella, Serena; Filosa, Aldo; De Michele, Elisa; Palmieri, Francesco; Ragozzino, Alfonso; Amendola, Giovanni; Pugliese, Umberto; Tartaglione, Immacolata; Della Rocca, Filomena; Cinque, Patrizia; Nobili, Bruno; Perrotta, Silverio

    2014-12-01

    Iron overload in β-thalassemia major (TM) typically results in iron-induced cardiomyopathy, liver disease, and endocrine complications. We examined the incidence and progression of endocrine disorders (hypothyroidism, diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, hypogonadism), growth and pubertal delay, and bone metabolism disease during long-term deferasirox chelation therapy in a real clinical practice setting. We report a multicenter retrospective cohort study of 86 transfusion-dependent patients with TM treated with once daily deferasirox for a median duration of 6.5 years, up to 10 years. No deaths or new cases of hypothyroidism or diabetes occurred. The incidence of new endocrine complications was 7% (P = 0.338, for change of prevalence from baseline to end of study) and included hypogonadism (n = 5) and hypoparathyroidism (n = 1). Among patients with hypothyroidism or diabetes at baseline, no significant change in thyroid parameters or insulin requirements were observed, respectively. Mean lumbar spine bone mineral density increased significantly (P < 0.001) and the number of patients with lumbar spine osteoporosis significantly decreased (P = 0.022) irrespective of bisphosphonate therapy, hormonal replacement therapy, and calcium or vitamin D supplementation. There were no significant differences in the number of pediatric patients below the 5th centile for height between baseline and study completion. Six pregnancies occurred successfully, and four of them were spontaneous without ovarian stimulation. This is the first study evaluating endocrine function during the newest oral chelation therapy with deferasirox. A low rate of new endocrine disorders and a stabilization of those pre-exisisting was observed in a real clinical practice setting.

  4. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  5. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  6. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They ... levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They ...

  7. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endocrine targets of hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Chi; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine is an important and tightly regulated system for maintaining body homeostasis. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into blood stream to guide the target cells responding to all sorts of stimulations. For maintaining body homeostasis, the secretion and activity of a particular hormone needs to be adjusted in responding to environmental challenges such as changes in nutritional status or chronic stress. Hypoxia, a status caused by reduced oxygen availability or imbalance of oxygen consumption/supply in an organ or within a cell, is a stress that affects many physiological and pathological processes. Hypoxic stress in endocrine organs is especially critical because endocrine glands control body homeostasis. Local hypoxia affects not only the particular gland but also the downstream cells/organs regulated by hormones secreted from this gland. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that function as master regulators of oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies report that aberrant expression of HIFs in endocrine organs may result in the development and/or progression of diseases including diabetes, endometriosis, infertility and cancers. In this article, we will review recent findings in HIF-mediated endocrine organ dysfunction and the systemic syndromes caused by these disorders. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. GATA factors in endocrine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Färkkilä, Anniina; Soini, Tea; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are structurally-related zinc finger proteins that recognize the consensus DNA sequence WGATAA (the GATA motif), an essential cis-acting element in the promoters and enhancers of many genes. These transcription factors regulate cell fate specification and differentiation in a wide array of tissues. As demonstrated by genetic analyses of mice and humans, GATA factors play pivotal roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of several endocrine organs including the adrenal cortex, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid, pituitary, and testis. Additionally, GATA factors have been shown to be mutated, overexpressed, or underexpressed in a variety of endocrine tumors (e.g., adrenocortical neoplasms, parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and sex cord stromal tumors). Emerging evidence suggests that GATA factors play a direct role in the initiation, proliferation, or propagation of certain endocrine tumors via modulation of key developmental signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis, such as the WNT/β-catenin and TGFβ pathways. Altered expression or function of GATA factors can also affect the metabolism, ploidy, and invasiveness of tumor cells. This article provides an overview of the role of GATA factors in endocrine neoplasms. Relevant animal models are highlighted. PMID:26027919

  11. Solid non-functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas: correlating computed tomography and pathology.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Giulia A; Ambrosetti, Maria Chiara; Zivelonghi, Caterina; Lombardo, Fabio; Butturini, Giovanni; Cingarlini, Sara; Capelli, Paola; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2017-08-04

    Since prognosis and treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors (pNET) are based on tumor grade, contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) features of solid non-functioning pNETs were studied and correlated with pathology tumor grading. MDCTs of diagnosed pNETs were reviewed retrospectively. Each tumor was analyzed for location, size, homogeneity, margins, arterial and venous phase enhancement, main pancreatic duct diameter, calcifications, vascular invasion, lymph-nodes enlargement, and liver metastases. Of 154 pNETs presenting between January 2000 and May 2016 with available histology from resected specimen or biopsy, there were 65 G1, 72 G2 and 17 G3 pNETs. Tumor diameter varied significantly between the three groups. Tumors >20 mm were more frequently malignant and non-homogeneous than smaller tumors. G1 tumors were more commonly hypervascular and G3 tumors more often non-hypervascular in the arterial phase. Arterial phase non-hyperdensity and tumor non-homogeneity had a higher rate of metastatic lesions. Vascular invasion correlated with presence of metastases and histological grade. G3 tumors were all >20 mm (p = 0.007), more often non-hypervascular in the arterial phase (p = 0.0025), and non-hyperdense in the venous phase (p = 0.009), and showed more often vascular invasion (p = 0.0198). CT correlated with tumor grade; differentiating low-grade and high-grade pNETs through routine CT imaging might improve patient management. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Circadian rhythm of the Leydig cells endocrine function is attenuated during aging.

    PubMed

    Baburski, Aleksandar Z; Sokanovic, Srdjan J; Bjelic, Maja M; Radovic, Sava M; Andric, Silvana A; Kostic, Tatjana S

    2016-01-01

    Although age-related hypofunction of Leydig cells is well illustrated across species, its circadian nature has not been analyzed. Here we describe changes in circadian behavior in Leydig cells isolated from adult (3-month) and aged (18- and 24-month) rats. The results showed reduced circadian pattern of testosterone secretion in both groups of aged rats despite unchanged LH circadian secretion. Although arrhythmic, the expression of Insl3, another secretory product of Leydig cells, was decreased in both groups. Intracellular cAMP and most important steroidogenic genes (Star, Cyp11a1 and Cyp17a1), together with positive steroidogenic regulator (Nur77), showed preserved circadian rhythm in aging although rhythm robustness and expression level were attenuated in both aged groups. Aging compromised cholesterol mobilization and uptake by Leydig cells: the oscillatory transcription pattern of genes encoding HDL-receptor (Scarb1), hormone sensitive lipase (Lipe, enzyme that converts cholesterol esters from lipid droplets into free cholesterol) and protein responsible for forming the cholesterol esters (Soat2) were flattened in 24-month group. The majority of examined clock genes displayed circadian behavior in expression but only a few of them (Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Per3 and Rev-Erba) were reduced in 24-month-old group. Furthermore, aging reduced oscillatory expression pattern of Sirt1 and Nampt, genes encoding key enzymes that connect cellular metabolism and circadian network. Altogether circadian amplitude of Leydig cell's endocrine function decreased during aging. The results suggest that clock genes are more resistant to aging than genes involved in steroidogenesis supporting the hypothesis about peripheral clock involvement in rhythm maintenance during aging.

  13. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to 1-year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury.

    PubMed

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette; Liebach, Annette; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-06-01

    Severe brain injury may increase the risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective of the present study was to assess the pattern and prevalence of pituitary hormone alterations 3 months after a severe brain injury with relation to functional outcome at a 1-year follow-up. Prospective study at a tertiary university referral centre. A total of 163 patients admitted to neurorehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, n=111) or non-TBI (n=52) were included. The main outcome measures were endocrine alterations 3.3 months (median) after the brain injury and their relationship to the functioning and ability of the patients at a 1-year follow-up, as measured by the Functional Independence Measure and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. Three months after the injury, elevated stress hormones (i.e. 30 min stimulated cortisol, prolactin and/or IGF1) and/or suppressed gonadal or thyroid hormones were recorded in 68 and 32% of the patients respectively. At 1 year after the injury, lower functioning level (Functional Independence Measure) and lower capability of performing normal life activities (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended) were related to both the elevated stress hormones (P≤0.01) and the reduced gonadal and/or thyroid hormones (P≤0.01) measured at 3 months. The present study suggests that brain injury-related endocrine alterations that mimic secondary hypogonadism and hypothyroidism and that occur with elevated stress hormones most probably reflect a prolonged stress response 2-5 months after severe brain injury, rather than pituitary insufficiency per se. These endocrine alterations thus seem to reflect a more severe disease state and relate to 1-year functional outcome. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Integration of endocrine and mechanical signals in the regulation of myometrial functions during pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Shynlova, Oksana; Tsui, Prudence; Jaffer, Shabana; Lye, Stephen J

    2009-05-01

    In this review, we describe a new model to explain the regulation of myometrial function during pregnancy and labour. We propose that the myometrium undergoes dramatic changes in phenotype from early pregnancy until the onset of labour, characterized by an early proliferative phase, an intermediate phase of cellular hypertrophy and matrix elaboration, a third phase in which the cells assume a contractile phenotype and the final phase in which cells become highly active and committed to labour. The last phase of myometrial differentiation is postpartum uterine involution, completing the reproductive cycle following pregnancy and labour by returning the uterus to its non-pregnant receptive state. We further propose that phenotypic modulation of the uterine myocytes is the result of integration of endocrine signals and mechanical stimulation of the uterus by the growing fetus. Our previous studies have shown that these signals are important in regulating the onset of labour and we now have indications that they regulate earlier myometrial smooth muscle differentiation. We show that the high rate of myometrial cell proliferation in early pregnancy which reflects important aspects of many smooth muscle populations during development. The proliferative phenotype was associated with dramatic changes in the expression of IGF family proteins and coincided with an up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic pathway. Preliminary evidence suggests that myometrial hyperplasia was controlled by the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. The modulation of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin blocked the proliferative activity of the uterine myocytes. The growth and remodeling of the myometrium during pregnancy was associated with increased synthesis of extra cellular matrix (ECM) proteins and their corresponding integrin receptors. Our results show a decrease in expression of fibrillar collagens and a coordinated temporal increase in expression of components of the basement membrane near term

  15. Comparison of pramipexole with and without domperidone co-administration on alertness, autonomic, and endocrine functions in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Ebony R; Hou, Ruihua H; Langley, Robert W; Szabadi, Elemer; Bradshaw, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject It is known that the dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole, used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, often causes nausea that can be treated in patients by the co-administration of an antiemetic, for example domperidone. In experimental studies of pramipexole it may be necessary to administer domperidone alongside pramipexole to alleviate nausea, and as such it is necessary to know how the co-administration of domperidone may alter the observed effects of pramipexole. What this study adds Results from our study indicate that the co-administration of pramipexole and domperidone may reduce the likelihood of observing an effect that is present when pramipexole is administered alone. Although domperidone is mainly a peripherally acting drug, it appears that a high enough concentration of the drug crosses the blood–brain barrier to partially antagonize some of the autonomic actions of pramipexole. Therefore, this report provides a cautionary note to the use of domperidone alongside pramipexole where the results of interest are those from pramipexole alone. Aims To investigate the effects of the D2-receptor agonist pramipexole with and without the co-administration of the peripherally acting D2-receptor antagonist domperidone on measures of alertness, autonomic and endocrine function. Methods Sixteen male volunteers participated in four weekly sessions of pramipexole 0.5 mg, domperidone 40 mg, their combination, and placebo administered according to a balanced, double-blind design. Alertness (visual analogue scales (VAS), critical flicker fusion frequency, pupillographic sleepiness test), autonomic (pupil diameter, light and darkness reflexes, blood pressure, heart rate, salivation, temperature) and endocrine (prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH)) functions were assessed. Data were analyzed with anova with multiple comparisons. Results The pre-post treatment changes in VAS alertness were

  16. Discovery of the porcine NGN3 gene and testing its endocrine function in the pig

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. NGN3 is both necessary and sufficient to drive endocrine differentiation in the developing pancreas in mouse and humans. Until now, the sequence for NGN3 eluded discovery despite completion of the pig genome a...

  17. Functional and Morphological Changes in Endocrine Pancreas following Cola Drink Consumption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats. Methods Wistar rats drank: water (group W), regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened) or “light” cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened). After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas. Results Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05), CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10) decrease (−52%,p<0.01), strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01), hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005) and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01) were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (−42%, p<0.01) and β cells (−58%, p<0.001) and a moderate increase in α cells’ size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001). Group L showed reduction in β cells’ size (−9%, p<0.001) and only after wash-out (L12) a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001) with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01). Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6). Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1) (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001) and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2) (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001). Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold) and Prx2 (2-fold) after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12). Conclusion Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially

  18. Functional and morphological changes in endocrine pancreas following cola drink consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Otero-Losada, Matilde; Cao, Gabriel; González, Julián; Muller, Angélica; Ottaviano, Graciela; Lillig, Christopher; Capani, Francisco; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Milei, José

    2015-01-01

    We report the effects of long-term cola beverage drinking on glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreas function and morphology in rats. Wistar rats drank: water (group W), regular cola beverage (group C, sucrose sweetened) or "light" cola beverage (group L, artificially sweetened). After 6 months, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized and the remaining animals consumed water for the next 6 months when euthanasia was performed. Biochemical assays, insulinemia determination, estimation of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), morphometry and immunohistochemistry evaluations were performed in pancreas. Hyperglycemia (16%, p<0.05), CoQ10 (coenzyme-Q10) decrease (-52%,p<0.01), strong hypertriglyceridemia (2.8-fold, p<0.01), hyperinsulinemia (2.4 fold, p<0.005) and HOMA-IR increase (2.7 fold, p<0.01) were observed in C. Group C showed a decrease in number of α cells (-42%, p<0.01) and β cells (-58%, p<0.001) and a moderate increase in α cells' size after wash-out (+14%, p<0.001). Group L showed reduction in β cells' size (-9%, p<0.001) and only after wash-out (L12) a 19% increase in size (p<0.0001) with 35% decrease in number of α cells (p<0.01). Groups C and L showed increase in α/β-cell ratio which was irreversible only in C (α/β = +38% in C6,+30% in C12, p<0.001vs.W6). Regular cola induced a striking increase in the cytoplasmic expression of Trx1 (Thioredoxin-1) (2.25-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2.7-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001) and Prx2 (Peroxiredoxin-2) (3-fold in C6 vs. W6; 2-fold in C12 vs. W12, p<0.0001). Light cola induced increase in Trx1 (3-fold) and Prx2 (2-fold) after wash-out (p<0.0001, L12 vs. W12). Glucotoxicity may contribute to the loss of β cell function with depletion of insulin content. Oxidative stress, suggested by increased expression of thioredoxins and low circulating levels of CoQ10, may follow sustained hyperglycemia. A likely similar panorama may result from the effects of artificially sweetened cola though via other downstream routes.

  19. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... metabolism (how the body converts food to fuel), reproduction, growth and development, and the way your body ... body. It controls overall endocrine system functions including reproduction, stress responses, growth, lactation (production and secretion of ...

  20. Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, T M; Clegg, E D; Cooper, R L; Wood, W P; Anderson, D G; Baetcke, K P; Hoffmann, J L; Morrow, M S; Rodier, D J; Schaeffer, J E; Touart, L W; Zeeman, M G; Patel, Y M

    1998-01-01

    This report is an overview of the current state of the science relative to environmental endocrine disruption in humans, laboratory testing, and wildlife species. Background information is presented on the field of endocrinology, the nature of hormones, and potential sites for endocrine disruption, with specific examples of chemicals affecting these sites. An attempt is made to present objectively the issue of endocrine disruption, consider working hypotheses, offer opposing viewpoints, analyze the available information, and provide a reasonable assessment of the problem. Emphasis is placed on disruption of central nervous system--pituitary integration of hormonal and sexual behavioral activity, female and male reproductive system development and function, and thyroid function. In addition, the potential role of environmental endocrine disruption in the induction of breast, testicular, and prostate cancers, as well as endometriosis, is evaluated. The interrelationship of the endocrine and immune system is documented. With respect to endocrine-related ecological effects, specific case examples from the peer-reviewed literature of marine invertebrates and representatives of the five classes of vertebrates are presented and discussed. The report identifies some data gaps in our understanding of the environmental endocrine disruption issue and recommends a few research needs. Finally, the report states the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Policy Council's interim position on endocrine disruption and lists some of the ongoing activities to deal with this matter. PMID:9539004

  1. Environmental endocrine disruption: an effects assessment and analysis.

    PubMed

    Crisp, T M; Clegg, E D; Cooper, R L; Wood, W P; Anderson, D G; Baetcke, K P; Hoffmann, J L; Morrow, M S; Rodier, D J; Schaeffer, J E; Touart, L W; Zeeman, M G; Patel, Y M

    1998-02-01

    This report is an overview of the current state of the science relative to environmental endocrine disruption in humans, laboratory testing, and wildlife species. Background information is presented on the field of endocrinology, the nature of hormones, and potential sites for endocrine disruption, with specific examples of chemicals affecting these sites. An attempt is made to present objectively the issue of endocrine disruption, consider working hypotheses, offer opposing viewpoints, analyze the available information, and provide a reasonable assessment of the problem. Emphasis is placed on disruption of central nervous system--pituitary integration of hormonal and sexual behavioral activity, female and male reproductive system development and function, and thyroid function. In addition, the potential role of environmental endocrine disruption in the induction of breast, testicular, and prostate cancers, as well as endometriosis, is evaluated. The interrelationship of the endocrine and immune system is documented. With respect to endocrine-related ecological effects, specific case examples from the peer-reviewed literature of marine invertebrates and representatives of the five classes of vertebrates are presented and discussed. The report identifies some data gaps in our understanding of the environmental endocrine disruption issue and recommends a few research needs. Finally, the report states the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Policy Council's interim position on endocrine disruption and lists some of the ongoing activities to deal with this matter.

  2. Visually induced nausea causes characteristic changes in cerebral, autonomic and endocrine function in humans

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Adam D; Ban, Vin F; Coen, Steven J; Sanger, Gareth J; Barker, Gareth J; Gresty, Michael A; Giampietro, Vincent P; Williams, Steven C; Webb, Dominic L; Hellström, Per M; Andrews, Paul L R; Aziz, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An integrated understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the genesis of nausea remains lacking. We aimed to describe the psychophysiological changes accompanying visually induced motion sickness, using a motion video, hypothesizing that differences would be evident between subjects who developed nausea in comparison to those who did not. A motion, or a control, stimulus was presented to 98 healthy subjects in a randomized crossover design. Validated questionnaires and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for the assessment of anxiety and nausea. Autonomic and electrogastrographic activity were measured at baseline and continuously thereafter. Plasma vasopressin and ghrelin were measured in response to the motion video. Subjects were stratified into quartiles based on VAS nausea scores, with the upper and lower quartiles considered to be nausea sensitive and resistant, respectively. Twenty-eight subjects were exposed to the motion video during functional neuroimaging. During the motion video, nausea-sensitive subjects had lower normogastria/tachygastria ratio and cardiac vagal tone but higher cardiac sympathetic index in comparison to the control video. Furthermore, nausea-sensitive subjects had decreased plasma ghrelin and demonstrated increased activity of the left anterior cingulate cortex. Nausea VAS scores correlated positively with plasma vasopressin and left inferior frontal and middle occipital gyri activity and correlated negatively with plasma ghrelin and brain activity in the right cerebellar tonsil, declive, culmen, lingual gyrus and cuneus. This study demonstrates that the subjective sensation of nausea is associated with objective changes in autonomic, endocrine and brain networks, and thus identifies potential objective biomarkers and targets for therapeutic interventions. Key points Nausea is a highly individual and variable experience. The reasons for this variability are incompletely understood although

  3. Medications affecting functional status in older persons.

    PubMed

    Corsonello, Andrea; Onder, Graziano; Maggio, Marcello; Corica, Francesco; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that functional status is an important outcome of pharmacologic treatments in older people. At the moment, studies have shown diverse effects of medications on functional status. For example, some have shown potentially detrimental effects, while others have found improvements on physical function in elders. Overall, suboptimal prescribing and the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may negatively affect functional status. The use of selected drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS), e.g. benzodiazepines and antipsychotics, is generally associated with an increased risk of functional decline. The greater sensitivity of older people to these drugs, together with age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, account for the observed detrimental effect and suggests a cautious approach to older and frail patients when prescribing CNS agents. On the other hand, selected drugs may slow or delay functional decline in older people. In particular, drugs aimed at targeting sarcopenia (loss in muscle mass and strength), such as testosterone in androgen deficiency, ACE-inhibitors, vitamin D and β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB), as well as the recently developed selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may hold extreme importance. This review will provide available evidence of the diverse impacts of drug medications on functional status in older persons.

  4. Long-term endocrine sequelae after treatment of medulloblastoma: prospective study of growth and thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Oberfield, S E; Allen, J C; Pollack, J; New, M I; Levine, L S

    1986-02-01

    Endocrine evaluations were performed prospectively in 22 patients with medulloblastoma (ages 2 1/2 to 23 1/2 years at diagnosis), after craniospinal radiation with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean craniospinal hypothalamic-pituitary). and thyroid radiation doses were 3600 and 2400 rads, respectively. Fourteen (73%) of 19 patients who had not yet completed their growth experienced a decrease in growth velocity. However, only three of 10 of these children, who underwent growth hormone stimulation tests, had evidence of deficient growth hormone responses, suggesting that growth hormone secretory or regulatory dysfunction, rather than absolute growth hormone deficiency, is present in the majority of these children. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were noted in 15 of 22 patients; one patient had hypothalamic hypothyroidism. Thus, the late effects of therapy for medulloblastoma include frequent endocrine morbidity involving hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid dysfunction.

  5. Cushing's syndrome presenting as treatment-resistant bipolar affective disorder: A step in understanding endocrine etiology of mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ummar, I. Syed; Rajaraman, Venkateswaran; Loganathan, N.

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is the multisystem disorder which is due to cortisol excess. It is very difficult to diagnose in early stages, especially when psychiatric manifestations are the predominant complaints. It could result in significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of resistant bipolar affective disorder secondary to CS. Early diagnosis and treatment will lead to better functional outcome and prevention of neurocognitive side-effects of excessive cortisol. PMID:26124528

  6. Male endocrine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Zamip

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation for endocrine function is a pivotal part of the male infertility workup. Endocrine dysfunction may result from endogenous and exogenous sources. This article describes the traditional roles that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis plays in spermatogenesis and testicular dysfunction, as well as other insults that may contribute to hypospermatogenesis. Recent research into the role alternative hormonal axes play in spermatogenesis and promising new technologies that may correct inborn or acquired endocrinopathies leading to impaired sperm growth and maturation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR.

  8. Endocrine dysfunction in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Leal, A M O; Foss, N T

    2009-01-01

    Leprosy is still an endemic disease, especially in Third World countries, and, because of migration, it still persists in Europe and the United States. The disease affects the peripheral nerves, skin, and multiple internal organs, making its clinical recognition difficult. In particular, the endocrine manifestations caused by leprosy have been underestimated, even by specialists. The endocrine changes present in leprosy include hypogonadism, sterility, and osteoporosis. In addition, the spectral immune nature of leprosy offers an attractive model to investigate the pathogenetic correlation between the patterns of inflammation in the poles of its spectrum and the hormonal disarrangements observed in this disease. It is important that those involved in leprosy management be aware of the potential endocrine changes and their treatment to address the disease in all of its aspects. In this article, we review the findings on endocrine dysfunction in leprosy, including a survey of the literature and of our own work.

  9. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... high or too low, you may have an endocrine disease or disorder. Endocrine diseases and disorders also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Featured Topics Adrenal Insufficiency ... Topics Research Discoveries & News Children with Cushing ...

  11. Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs) and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change) of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU) has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope) number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices. PMID:26740809

  12. Endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Pombo, M; Castro-Feijóo, L

    2005-12-01

    Man does not come into the world pre-determined. The lifetime set of environmental conditions impinging on a given individual has been termed the ambiome, which together with the genome and the proteome determines each individual's development and construction. Among the most important elements making up the ambiome are endocrine disruptors. An endocrine disruptor is a chemical substance that has adverse effects on an organism or its progeny, through the endocrine system. The number of known endocrine disruptors is large and continuously increasing, and includes both naturally occurring and synthetic substances. We are convinced that they entail genuine problems; although it is difficult to assess their magnitude and real significance, and we will certainly need some time, probably several decades, to obtain conclusive results; but even so, we consider that the existing body of evidence about effects of endocrine disruptors on human health is sufficiently worrying to justify precautionary measures.

  13. ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported increases in the incidence of endocrine-related conditions have led to speculation about environmental causes. Environmental scientists are focusing increased research effort into understanding the mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors affect human and ecological h...

  14. ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported increases in the incidence of endocrine-related conditions have led to speculation about environmental causes. Environmental scientists are focusing increased research effort into understanding the mechanisms by which endocrine disruptors affect human and ecological h...

  15. [Effects of magnesium valproate on endocrine system and reproductive functions of female epileptics].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Ding, Jun-Qing; Huang, Xi-Shun

    2011-08-09

    To explore the effects of valproate (VPA) on endocrine system in adolescent and reproductive female patients with epilepsy. A total of 30 adolescent and reproductive female patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy at our hospital during July 2009 to March 2010 were recruited. All cases with magnesium VPA alone were included. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were detected respectively at pre-therapy and 3, 6 and 12 months post-therapy. And the changes of menstruation and ovaries were recorded. The serum concentration of PRL was lower at 3 and 6 months post-therapy than that at pre-therapy. There was significant difference (P = 0.010 and 0.014). The serum concentration of E2 significantly decreased after a 3-month therapy of valproate (P < 0.05). While comparing the parameter's level between the initial test and at a 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up, the level of P significantly decreased in the later groups than that of the former one while the level of T showed a marked increase. The levels of FSH and LH were not significantly different at pre- and post-therapy. And 6 (20%) of them presented with menstrual dysfunctions and 3 (10%) polycystic ovary. The valproate therapy can not only cause the changes of endocrine system and hormonal levels, but also induce such endocrine dysfunction syndromes as menstrual suspension and polycystic ovary. It eventually causes polycystic ovary syndrome.

  16. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  17. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System A A A ... is called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  18. Exocrine and endocrine functional reserve in the course of chronic pancreatitis as studied by maximal stimulation tests.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, G; Bovo, P; Zamboni, M; Bosello, O; Filippini, M; Riela, A; Brocco, G; Rossi, L; Pelle, C; Chiavenato, A

    1992-01-01

    Thirty patients suffering from chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (18 calcified) were entered into a study of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function based on two maximal stimulation tests, namely the secretin-cerulein test and the glucagon test with serum assays of C peptide. The glucagon test was also performed in 19 control subjects. In addition, 10 chronic pancreatitis patients and nine controls were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with serum insulin determinations. C peptide basal values were decreased only in patients with severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (P less than 0.001), while delta C peptide values were also reduced in patients with moderate exocrine insufficiency (P less than 0.001). Lipase output correlated very well with delta C peptide values (P less than 0.001). While serum insulin levels during OGTT and C peptide basal values showed no significant differences between the chronic pancreatitis and control groups, delta C peptide values were significantly reduced in chronic pancreatitis patients (P less than 0.02). Both endocrine and exocrine function are impaired in chronic pancreatitis, as demonstrated by maximal tests, even in early stages of the disease.

  19. Effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions throughout the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masayuki; Takahashi, Masaki; Endo, Naoya; Numao, Shigeharu; Takagi, Shun; Miyashita, Masashi; Midorikawa, Taishi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic and endocrine functions during the day and on exercise tolerance in the evening. Ten healthy young males completed two, 2-day control and sleep deprivation trials. For the control trial, participants were allowed normal sleep from 23:00 to 07:00 h. For the sleep deprivation trial, participants did not sleep for 34 h. Autonomic activity was measured from 19:00 h on day 1 to 16:00 h on day 2 by frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability. Endocrine function was examined by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol from venous blood samples collected on day 2 at 09:00, 13:00, and 17:00 h and immediately after an exercise tolerance testing. Autonomic regulation, particularly parasympathetic regulation estimated from the high-frequency component of heart rate variability analysis, was significantly higher in the sleep deprivation trial than in the control trial in the morning and afternoon of day 2. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations were significantly higher at 09:00 and 13:00 h of day 2 under sleep deprivation. Heart rate during exercise was significantly lower following sleep deprivation. Therefore, the effects of sleep deprivation on autonomic regulation depend on the time of the day.

  20. Is reproduction of the snail Physella acuta affected by endocrine disrupting compounds? An in situ bioassay in three Iberian basins.

    PubMed

    De Castro-Català, N; López-Doval, J; Gorga, M; Petrovic, M; Muñoz, I

    2013-12-15

    An in situ bioassay was conducted in three Iberian basins (Ebro, Llobregat and Júcar Rivers) to study the reproductive effects on the freshwater snail Physella acuta. Adult individuals were transplanted in specially designed cylindrical cages. Endpoints included mortality, number of eggs and clutches, number of eggs per clutch and embryo development after 8 days. The results were contrasted with laboratory controls. Significant changes in P. acuta reproduction parameters were detected in all of the rivers: the number of clutches or eggs per snail decreased in the Ebro and Llobregat basins downstream but the number of eggs per clutch increased. The complete development of snails was delayed at some sites downstream in the Júcar and the Ebro basins. The results were contrasted with concentrations of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) and their Estrogenic Equivalent Quotients (EEQs). Positive relationships (Pearson correlations) were identified between the number of eggs per clutch and the total EDC concentration, bisphenol A (BPA) and their EEQs, lipid regulators and diuretics. These endocrine-disrupting chemicals may constitute a toxicological risk for the reproductive performance of snails in the studied basins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Glucocorticoid treatment and endocrine pancreas function: implications for glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rafacho, Alex; Ortsäter, Henrik; Nadal, Angel; Quesada, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are broadly prescribed for numerous pathological conditions because of their anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and immunosuppressive effects, among other actions. Nevertheless, GCs can produce undesired diabetogenic side effects through interactions with the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Under conditions of excess and/or long-term treatment, GCs can induce peripheral insulin resistance (IR) by impairing insulin signalling, which results in reduced glucose disposal and augmented endogenous glucose production. In addition, GCs can promote abdominal obesity, elevate plasma fatty acids and triglycerides, and suppress osteocalcin synthesis in bone tissue. In response to GC-induced peripheral IR and in an attempt to maintain normoglycaemia, pancreatic β-cells undergo several morphofunctional adaptations that result in hyperinsulinaemia. Failure of β-cells to compensate for this situation favours glucose homeostasis disruption, which can result in hyperglycaemia, particularly in susceptible individuals. GC treatment does not only alter pancreatic β-cell function but also affect them by their actions that can lead to hyperglucagonaemia, further contributing to glucose homeostasis imbalance and hyperglycaemia. In addition, the release of other islet hormones, such as somatostatin, amylin and ghrelin, is also affected by GC administration. These undesired GC actions merit further consideration for the design of improved GC therapies without diabetogenic effects. In summary, in this review, we consider the implication of GC treatment on peripheral IR, islet function and glucose homeostasis. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORT ON IN VITRO ASSAYS FOR THE AGENCY'S ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the 1996 legislative mandate for an endocrine screening and testing program, we are helping develop, standardize and validate relatively sensitive, robust and relatively simple methods for in vitro screening of chemicals that affect estrogen, and androgen function ...

  3. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORT ON IN VITRO ASSAYS FOR THE AGENCY'S ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the 1996 legislative mandate for an endocrine screening and testing program, we are helping develop, standardize and validate relatively sensitive, robust and relatively simple methods for in vitro screening of chemicals that affect estrogen, and androgen function ...

  4. Relative functions of Gαs and its extra-large variant XLαs in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, M

    2012-09-01

    Gαs is a ubiquitous signaling protein necessary for the actions of many neurotransmitters, hormones, and autocrine/paracrine factors. Loss-of-function mutations within the gene encoding Gαs, GNAS, are responsible for multiple human diseases, including Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy, progressive osseous heteroplasia, and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Gain-of-function mutations in the same gene are found in various endocrine and nonendocrine tumors and in patients with McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone. In addition to Gαs, GNAS gives rise to multiple additional coding and noncoding transcripts. Among those, XLαs is a paternally expressed product that is partially identical to Gαs. This article reviews the cellular actions of Gαs and XLαs, focusing on the significance of XLαs relative to Gαs in mammalian physiology and human disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Endocrine Disruptors

    MedlinePlus

    ... plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. The NIEHS supports studies to determine whether exposure to endocrine disruptors may result in human health effects including lowered fertility and an increased incidence of ...

  6. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders. PMID:25654063

  7. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeesuk

    2014-12-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders.

  8. Phytosteroids beyond estrogens: Regulators of reproductive and endocrine function in natural products.

    PubMed

    Dean, Matthew; Murphy, Brian T; Burdette, Joanna E

    2017-02-15

    Foods and botanical supplements can interfere with the endocrine system through the presence of phytosteroids - chemicals that interact with steroids receptors. Phytoestrogens are well studied, but compounds such as kaempferol, apigenin, genistein, ginsenoside Rf, and glycyrrhetinic acid have been shown to interact with non-estrogen nuclear receptors. These compounds can have agonist, antagonist, or mixed agonist/antagonist activity depending on compound, receptor, cell line or tissue, and concentration. Some phytosteroids have also been shown to inhibit steroid metabolizing enzymes, resulting in biological effects through altered endogenous steroid concentrations. An interesting example, compound A (4-[1-chloro-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenyl acetate hydrochloride (1:1)) is a promising selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM) based on a phytosteroid isolated from Salsola tuberculatiformis Botschantzev. Given that $6.9 billion of herbal supplements are sold each year, is clear that further identification and characterization of phytosteroids is needed to ensure the safe and effective use of botanical supplements.

  9. Endocrine disorders and medically assisted procreation.

    PubMed

    Luk, J

    2011-04-01

    A normal endocrine environment is imperative to maintain normal reproduction in women. The major endocrine organs that play a part in the reproductive system include hypothalamic pituitary axis, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, and the ovary. Each endocrine organ is in close communication and relationship with one another. Any endocrine disorders that significantly affect any of these organs would disrupt reproduction resulting in infertility. In this review, we will provide an overview of the common endocrine disorders and the available medical management including assisted reproductive technology (ART) and hormonal supplementation to overcome the endocrine disorders in order to achieve fertility for the female patients.

  10. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal has been neglected in endocrine disruption regulatory testing strategy. The adrenal is a vital organ, adrenocortical insufficiency is recognised in life threatening "adrenal crises" and Addison's disease, and the consequences of off-target toxicological inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenesis is well recognised in clinical medicine, where drugs such as aminoglutethimide and etomidate killed patients via unrecognised inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP11B1) along the cortisol and aldosterone pathways. The consequences of adrenocortical dysfunction during early development are also recognised in the congenital salt wasting and adrenogenital syndromes presenting neonatally, yet despite a remit to focus on developmental and reproductive toxicity mechanisms of endocrine disruption by many regulatory agencies (USEPA EDSTAC; REACH) the assessment of adrenocortical function has largely been ignored. Further, every step in the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathway (ACTH receptor, StAR, CYP's 11A1, 17, 21, 11B1, 11B2, and 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ4,5 isomerase) is known to be a potential target with multiple examples of chemicals inhibiting these targets. Many of these chemicals have been detected in human and wildlife tissues. This raises the question of whether exposure to low level environmental chemicals may be affecting adrenocortical function. This review examines the omission of adrenocortical testing in the current regulatory frameworks; the characteristics that make the adrenal cortex particularly vulnerable to toxic insult; chemicals and their toxicological targets within the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathways; the typical manifestations of adrenocortical toxicity (e.g. human iatrogenically induced pharmacotoxicological adrenal insufficiency, manifestations in typical mammalian regulatory general toxicology studies, manifestations in wildlife) and models of adrenocortical functional assessment. The utility of the

  11. Jean Camus and Gustave Roussy: pioneering French researchers on the endocrine functions of the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Prieto, Ruth; Pascual, José M

    2017-08-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the hypothalamus was known merely as an anatomical region of the brain lying beneath the thalamus. An increasing number of clinicopathological reports had shown the association of diabetes insipidus and adiposogenital dystrophy (Babinski-Fröhlich's syndrome), with pituitary tumors involving the infundibulum and tuber cinereum, two structures of the basal hypothalamus. The French physicians Jean Camus (1872-1924) and Gustave Roussy (1874-1948) were the first authors to undertake systematic, controlled observations of the effects of localized injuries to the basal hypothalamus in dogs and cats by pricking the infundibulo-tuberal region (ITR) with a heated needle. Their series of surgical procedures, performed between 1913 and 1922, allowed them to claim that both permanent polyuria and adiposogenital dystrophy were symptoms caused by damage to the ITR. Their results challenged the dominant doctrine of hypopituitarism as cause of diabetes insipidus and adiposogenital dystrophy that derived from the experiments performed by Paulescu and Cushing a decade earlier. With their pioneering research, Camus and Roussy influenced the experimental work on the hypothalamus performed by Percival Bailey and Frederic Bremer at Cushing's laboratory, confirming the hypothalamic origin of these symptoms in 1921. More importantly, they provided the foundations for the physiological paradigm of Neuroendocrinology, the hypothalamus' control over the endocrine secretions of the pituitary gland, as well as over water balance and fat metabolism. This article aims to credit Camus and Roussy for their groundbreaking, decisive contributions to postulate the hypothalamus being the brain region in control of endocrine homeostasis and energy metabolism.

  12. Effects of Alcohol on the Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The endocrine system ensures a proper communication between various organs of the body to maintain a constant internal environment. The endocrine system also plays an essential role in enabling the body to respond and appropriately cope with changes in the internal or external environments, such as respond to stress and injury. These functions of the endocrine system to maintain body homeostasis are aided by its communication with the nervous system, immune system and body’s circadian mechanism. Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiological and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. PMID:24011889

  13. A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease affects the tyrosine kinase activity associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B.

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, M P; Panariello, L; Quadro, L; Dathan, N A; Fattoruso, O; Colantuoni, V

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that a Hirschsprung (HSCR) mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene abolishes in cis the tyrosine-phosphorylation associated with the activating mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) in transiently transfected Cos cells. Yet the double mutant RET2AHS retains the ability to form stable dimers, thus dissociating the dimerization from the phosphorylation potential. Co-transfection experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids RET2A and RET2AHS in different ratios drastically reduced the phosphorylation levels of the RET2A protein, suggesting a dominant-negative effect of the HSCR mutation. Also, the phosphorylation associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) allele was affected in experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids co-transfected under the same conditions. Finally, analysis of the enzymic activity of MEN2A and MEN2B tumours confirmed the relative levels of tyrosine phosphorylation observed in Cos cells, indicating that this condition, in vivo, may account for the RET transforming potential. PMID:8670046

  14. Thoracic and duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: natural history and function of menin in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Pieterman, C R C; Conemans, E B; Dreijerink, K M A; de Laat, J M; Timmers, H Th M; Vriens, M R; Valk, G D

    2014-06-01

    Mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene lead to loss of function of its protein product menin. In keeping with its tumor suppressor function in endocrine tissues, the majority of the MEN1-related neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 11q13. In sporadic NETs, MEN1 mutations and LOH are also reported, indicating common pathways in tumor development. Prevalence of thymic NETs (thNETs) and pulmonary carcinoids in MEN1 patients is 2-8%. Pulmonary carcinoids may be underreported and research on natural history is limited, but disease-related mortality is low. thNETs have a high mortality rate. Duodenopancreatic NETs (dpNETs) are multiple, almost universally found at pathology, and associated with precursor lesions. Gastrinomas are usually located in the duodenal submucosa while other dpNETs are predominantly pancreatic. dpNETs are an important determinant of MEN1-related survival, with an estimated 10-year survival of 75%. Survival differs between subtypes and apart from tumor size there are no known prognostic factors. Natural history of nonfunctioning pancreatic NETs needs to be redefined because of increased detection of small tumors. MEN1-related gastrinomas seem to behave similar to their sporadic counterparts, while insulinomas seem to be more aggressive. Investigations into the molecular functions of menin have led to new insights into MEN1-related tumorigenesis. Menin is involved in gene transcription, both as an activator and repressor. It is part of chromatin-modifying protein complexes, indicating involvement of epigenetic pathways in MEN1-related NET development. Future basic and translational research aimed at NETs in large unbiased cohorts will clarify the role of menin in NET tumorigenesis and might lead to new therapeutic options.

  15. Clinical and Biochemical Data of Adult Thalassemia Major patients (TM) with Multiple Endocrine Complications (MEC) versus TM Patients with Normal Endocrine Functions: A long-term Retrospective Study (40 years) in a Tertiary Care Center in Italy

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elsedfy, Heba; Soliman, Ashraf T.; Elhakim, Ihab Zaki; Kattamis, Christos; Soliman, Nada A.; Elalaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the older generation of adult TM patients has a higher incidence of morbidities and co-morbidities. At present, little information is available on adult TM patients with multiple endocrine complications (MEC). The main objectives of this longitudinal retrospective survey were: 1) to establish the incidence and progression of MEC (3 or more) in TM patients; 2) to compare the clinical, laboratory and imaging data to a sex and age-matched group of TM patients without MEC; 3) to assess the influence of iron overload represented by serum ferritin (peak and mean annual value at the last endocrine observation). Patients and methods The study was started in January 1974 and was completed by the same physician at the end of December 2015. The registry database of the regularly followed TM patients from diagnosis included 145 adults (> 18 years). All TM patients were of Italian ethnic origin. Eleven out of 145 patients (7.5 %) developed MEC. Twenty-four other patients (12 females and 12 males) had a normal endocrine function (16.5 %) and served as controls. Results In our survey, four important, relevant aspects emerged in the MEC group. These included the late age at the start of chelation therapy with desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO); the higher serum ferritin peak (8521.8 ± 5958.9 vs 3575.2 ± 1801.4 ng/ml); the upper proportion of splenectomized (81.8 % vs. 28.5%) patients and poor compliance registered mainly during the peripubertal and pubertal age (72.7 % vs.16.6 %) in TM patients developing MEC versus those without endocrine complications. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed in all TM patients between LIC and final height (r: −0.424; p = 0.031). Conclusions Our study supports the view that simultaneous involvement of more than one endocrine gland is not uncommon (7.5 %). It mainly occurred in TM patients who started chelation therapy with DFO late in life and who had irregular/poor compliance to treatment. Therefore

  16. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K.; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  18. Neuroendocrine targets of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Gore, Andrea C

    2010-01-01

    The central neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, as well as stress responsiveness. These processes are initiated by signals in the central nervous system, specifically the hypothalamus, and are conveyed first by neural and then by endocrine effectors. The neuroendocrine systems, as the links between the brain and peripheral endocrine organs, play critical roles in the ability of an organism to respond to its environment under normal circumstances. When neuroendocrine homeostasis is disrupted by environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals, a variety of perturbations can ensue, particularly when endocrine disruption occurs during critical developmental time periods. This article will discuss the evidence for environmental endocrine disruption of neuroendocrine systems and the effects on endocrine and reproductive functions.

  19. Exocrine and endocrine testicular function during the treatment of experimental orchitis and nonspecific orchoepididymitis by low-energy laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznikov, Leonid L.; Pupkova, Ludmila S.; Bell, H.; Murzin, Alexander G.

    1995-05-01

    Investigations into the biological effects of low-energy laser radiation (LLR) are characterized by a score of challenges, which are due primarily to a cascade of laser-induced and sometimes antagonistic processes. To investigate these processes on various biologic levels, we analyzed local and general effects of LLR on the exocrine and endocrine functions of the accessory sex glands in experimentally induced orchitis and orchoepididymitis in rabbits, and in clinical studies on male patients. The results indicate that LLR may alter the inflammatory response, including the exudative reaction, macrophage migration, and fibroblast activity. Furthermore, LLR may result in changes in serum concentrations of LH, FSH, and ACTH, prolactin, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone. Some of these changes may be at least partially responsible for the well-known anti-inflammatory effects of LLR.

  20. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation on endocrine function in children with brain tumors. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Brecher, M.L.; Panahon, A.; Gilani, B.B.

    1985-11-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the endocrine function of 11 children treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) for brain tumors. All tumors were remote from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Children were studied before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of CRT. T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, plasma cortisol, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone values were normal before and after treatment in all patients. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency was identified in 0 of 7 patients before treatment, in 2 of 7 patients 3 months post-CRT, in 9 of 11 patients 6 months post-CRT, and in 7 of 8 patients 12 months post-CRT. Growth deceleration was identified in five of seven prepubertal patients. GH deficiency is an extremely common sequelae of CRT, beginning as early as 3 months after the completion of CRT. The deficit is progressive over time.

  1. Unique effects on hepatic function, lipid metabolism, bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Klipping, Christine; Zimmerman, Yvette; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver. In combination with drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG), E4 blocks ovulation and has less effect on haemostatic biomarkers in comparison with ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with DRSP. This study evaluates the impact of several doses of E4/DRSP and E4/LNG on safety parameters such as liver function, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrine parameters. Methods This was a dose-finding, single-centre, controlled study performed in healthy women aged 18 to 35 years with a documented pretreatment ovulatory cycle. Participants received 5 mg or 10 mg E4/3 mg DRSP; 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg E4/150 μg LNG; or 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP as a comparator for three consecutive cycles in a 24/4-day regimen. Changes from baseline to end of treatment in liver parameters, lipid metabolism, bone markers and growth endocrinology were evaluated. Results A total of 109 women were included in the study. Carrier proteins were minimally affected in the E4/DRSP and E4/LNG groups, in comparison with the EE/DRSP group, where a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin was observed. Similarly, minor effects on lipoproteins were observed in the E4 groups, and the effects on triglycerides elicited by the E4 groups were significantly lower than those in the EE/DRSP group. No imbalances in bone markers were observed in any groups. No alterations in insulin-like growth factor were observed in the E4 groups. Conclusions E4-containing combinations have a limited effect on liver function, lipid metabolism, and bone and growth endocrine parameters. Chinese Abstract 摘要 目的 雌四醇(E4)是来源于人胎儿肝脏的天然雌激素。雌四醇与屈螺酮(DRSP)或左炔诺孕酮(LNG)配伍的复方口服避孕药制剂,能够抑制排卵,同时相较于炔雌醇(EE)与屈螺酮配伍制剂,它对凝血功能的各项指标影响较小。本研究的目的是为了评估不同

  2. The Endocrine Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  3. The Endocrine Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  4. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome as models for studying hormonal regulation of human testicular endocrine functions.

    PubMed

    Trabado, Séverine; Lamothe, Sophie; Maione, Luigi; Bouvattier, Claire; Sarfati, Julie; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Men with Kallmann syndrome (KS) and those with congenital isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with normal olfaction share a chronic, usually profound deficit, in FSH and LH, the two pituitary gonadotropins. Many studies indicate that this gonadotropin deficiency is already present during fetal life, thus explaining the micropenis, cryptorchidism and marked testicular hypotrophy already present at birth. In addition, neonatal activation of gonadotropin secretion is compromised in boys with severe CHH/Kallmann, preventing the first phase of postnatal testicular activation. Finally, CHH is characterized by the persistence, in the vast majority of cases, of gonadotropin deficiency at the time of puberty and during adulthood. This prevents the normal pubertal testicular reactivation required for physiological sex steroid and testicular peptide production, and for spermatogenesis. CHH/KS thus represents a pathological paradigm that can help to unravel, in vivo, the role of each gonadotropin in human testicular exocrine and endocrine functions at different stages of development. Recombinant gonadotropins with pure LH or FSH activity have been used to stimulate Leydig's cells and Sertoli's cells, respectively, and thereby to clarify their paracrine interaction in vivo. The effects of these pharmacological probes can be assessed by measuring the changes they provoke in circulating testicular hormone concentrations. This review discusses the impact of chronic gonadotropin deficiency on the endocrine functions of the interstitial compartment, which contains testosterone-, estradiol- and INSL3-secreting Leydig's cells. It also examines the regulation of inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) secretion in the seminiferous tubules, and the insights provided by studies of human testicular stimulation with recombinant gonadotropins, used either individually or in combination.

  5. Application of endocrine disruptor screening program fish short-term reproduction assay: Reproduction and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to Bermuda pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael; Fort, Chelsea E; Fort, Hayley M; Bacon, Jamie P

    2015-06-01

    A modified tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) 21-d fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) was used to evaluate the effects of sediment exposure from freshwater and brackish ponds in Bermuda on reproductive fecundity and endocrine function in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Reproductively active male and female fish were exposed to control sediment and sediment from 2 freshwater ponds (fathead minnow) and 2 marine ponds (killifish) contaminated with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals via flow-through exposure for 21 d. Reproductive fecundity was monitored daily. At termination, the status of the reproductive endocrine system was assessed by the gonadosomatic index, gonadal histology, plasma steroids (estrogen [E2], testosterone [T], and 11-ketotestosterone [11-KT]), steroidogenic enzymes (aromatase and combined 3β/17β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [3β/17β-HSD]), and plasma vitellogenin (VTG). Decreased reproductive fecundity, lower male body weight, and altered endocrinological measures of reproductive status were observed in both species. Higher plasma T levels in female minnows and 11-KT levels in both male and female minnows and female killifish exposed to freshwater and brackish sediments, respectively. Decreased female E2 and VTG levels and gonadal cytochrome P19 (aromatase) activity were also found in sediment exposed females from both species. No effect on female 3β/17β-HSD activity was found in either species. The FSTRA provided a robust model capable of modification to evaluate reproductive effects of sediment exposure in fish. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. Effects of acute exercise on pancreatic endocrine function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, S H; Karstoft, K; Winding, K; Holst, J J; Pedersen, B K; Solomon, T P J

    2015-02-01

    We determined the effects of exercise on pancreatic endocrine responses to metabolic stimuli in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and examined the influence of subjects' diabetic status. Fourteen subjects underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) infusion and arginine injection, the morning after a 1-h walk or no exercise. Subjects were stratified by high and low fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, as well as by current use/non-use of antidiabetic medication. In the entire cohort, exercise did not alter insulin secretion, while glucagon levels were increased in all clamp phases (p < 0.05 to <0.01). In subjects with low FPG levels, exercise increased GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05), with the same trend being observed for arginine (p = 0.08). The same trends were seen for subjects with low HbA1c levels. Furthermore, exercise increased GLP-1- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (p < 0.05) in subjects who were antidiabetic drug-naïve. Exercise-induced increases in insulin secretion are blunted in subjects with T2D with high rates of hyperglycaemia and in those using antidiabetic drugs.

  7. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Allan

    1980-01-01

    The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes consist of three distinct disease entities. They have in common adenomatous, carcinomatous or hyperplastic involvement of a variety of endocrine glands, and an autosomal dominant inheritance. MEN I includes hyperparathyroidism, islet cell and pituitary tumors. The components of MEN IIa are hyperparathyroidism, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. MEN IIb includes multiple neuromas, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. Effective tests are available for the early detection of components of the syndromes in potentially affected patients. Screening can lead to therapeutic intervention before clinical sequelae ensue. PMID:6247851

  8. Threshold-dependent cooperativity of Pdx1 and Oc1 in pancreatic progenitors establishes competency for endocrine differentiation and β-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Christopher V.E.; Won, Kyoung-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pdx1 and Oc1 are co-expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors and regulate the pro-endocrine gene Neurog3. Their expression diverges in later organogenesis, with Oc1 absent from hormone+ cells and Pdx1 maintained in mature β cells. In a classical genetic test for cooperative functional interactions, we derived mice with combined Pdx1 and Oc1 heterozygosity. Endocrine development in double-heterozygous pancreata was normal at embryonic day (e)13.5, but defects in specification and differentiation were apparent at e15.5, the height of the second wave of differentiation. Pancreata from double heterozygotes showed alterations in the expression of genes crucial for β-cell development and function, decreased numbers and altered allocation of Neurog3-expressing endocrine progenitors, and defective endocrine differentiation. Defects in islet gene expression and β-cell function persisted in double heterozygous neonates. These results suggest that Oc1 and Pdx1 cooperate prior to their divergence, in pancreatic progenitors, to allow for proper differentiation and functional maturation of β cells. PMID:27292642

  9. DIFFERENCES IN THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ERA: IMPLICATIONS FOR IN VITRO TESTING OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian receptors and assay systems are generally used for in vitro analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) with the assumption that minor differences in amino acid sequences among species do not translate into significant differences in receptor function. We have fou...

  10. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  11. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marcel Cerqueira Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and localization of

  12. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men.

    PubMed Central

    Telisman, S; Cvitković, P; Jurasović, J; Pizent, A; Gavella, M; Rocić, B

    2000-01-01

    Blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to Pb and 51 reference subjects. All of the subjects lived in Zagreb, Croatia. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of BPb, ALAD, and/or EP with reproductive parameters indicated a Pb-related decrease in sperm density, in counts of total, motile, and viable sperm, in the percentage and count of progressively motile sperm, in parameters of prostate secretory function (SfZn, acid phosphatase, and citric acid in seminal fluid), and an increase in abnormal sperm head morphology, serum testosterone, and estradiol. These associations were confirmed by results of multiple regression, which also showed significant (p < 0. 05) influence of BCd, SZn, SCu, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, or age on certain reproductive parameters. These effects were mainly of lower rank and intensity as compared to Pb-related reproductive effects, whereas BCd contributed to a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology and serum testosterone. No significant Pb- or Cd-related influence was found on levels of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C(4) and fructose in seminal fluid or on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in serum. The seminal fluid concentrations of Pb (SfPb) and Cd (SfCd) were measured in 118 of the 149 subjects, and a highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlation was found between BPb and SfPb levels (r = 0.571) and between BCd and SfCd levels (r = 0.490). The overall study results indicate that even moderate exposures to Pb (BPb < 400 microg/L) and Cd (BCd < 10 microg/L) can significantly reduce human

  13. [Endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic renal failure - part II].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kędzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kędzierska, Joanna; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of fluids and electrolytes, acid-base balance, and volume regulation. In subjects with chronic renal failure, particularly at its later stages, these adaptive responses are impaired and some of these alterations are of clinical relevance. The ways in which chronic renal failure affects function of endocrine organs include impaired secretion of kidney-derived hormones, altered peripheral hormone metabolism, disturbed binding to carrier proteins, accumulation of hormone inhibitors, as well as abnormal target organ responsiveness. Apart from secondary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid dysfunction and impaired growth, reviewed in our previous study, endocrine disturbances that most frequently affect this group of patients include: abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamicpituitary- gonadal axes, bone loss and gynecomastia. The clinical picture and laboratory findings of these endocrine disturbances depend on the treatment strategy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  14. Does iron deficiency anemia affect olfactory function?

    PubMed

    Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dizdar, Denizhan; Develioglu, Omer; Topak, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study found a negative effect of IDA on olfactory function. IDA leads to a reduction in olfactory function, and decreases in hemoglobin levels result in further reduction in olfactory function. Objective This study examined the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on olfactory function. Method The study enrolled 50 IDA patients and 50 healthy subjects. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test. The diagnosis of IDA was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Patients with IDA had a significantly lower threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) value, and a lower threshold compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of smell selectivity values.

  15. The impact of endocrine disruptors on endocrine targets.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, E; Palioura, E; Kandarakis, S A; Koutsilieris, M

    2010-07-01

    Endocrine disruption represents one of the most controversial environmental issues of our époque. So far, many substances, both natural and artificial, have been recognized to interfere with endocrine signaling pathways. In intact laboratory animals, this interaction has been documented to generate adverse health outcomes by impairing normal functions. With regard to humans, evidence is limited and inconsistent to clearly establish a causal inference, however, accumulating data incriminate endocrine disrupting chemicals to reproductive disorders and disturbed thyroid homeostasis. Recently, as a result of animal models and preliminary human studies, a new area of interest has arisen concerning the implication of endocrine disruptors in the etiology of obesity and diabetes, the two major, life-threatening, epidemics of modern world. This article reviews the evidence linking endocrine disrupting chemicals to a broad spectrum of clinical perturbations from reproduction and thyroid to metabolic regulation.

  16. Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations

  17. [The central mechanisms of the stimulating influence of intervalic hypoxic conditioning on the endocrine function of the pancreas in rats].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A V

    1997-01-01

    In the investigation of Wistar rats the morpho-functional state of the neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of n. vagus (DVC), locus coeruleus (LC) and peptidergic neurons of medical parvocellular subnuclei of paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVHmp) in the conditions of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) (6 hours a day on the altitude 6000 m for 21 day) was studied. Immunocytochemical method was used to determine the functional state of peptidergic neurons of PVMmp and of the median eminence of hypothalamus, which are synthesizing neurotensin, cholecystokinin, bombesin, leu- and met-enkephalins, calcitonin-gene-related peptide and vasointestinal peptide. It was established that IHT leads to the activation of peptidergic neurons of PVHmp, neurons of DVC and to the lesser restrain of LC. It is demonstrated that these structures may take part in realisation of IHT's stimulating effect on the state of pancreatic beta-cells. In consists of insulin-stimulating and insulocyteprotective effects, that can be realised by the hypothalamic and neuroconducting ways of regulation of endocrine pancreas, with direct participation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  18. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  19. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant.

  20. Impacts of prenatal nutrition on animal production and performance: a focus on growth and metabolic and endocrine function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Prabhat; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2017-01-01

    The concept of foetal programming (FP) originated from human epidemiological studies, where foetal life nutrition was linked to health and disease status later in life. Since the proposal of this phenomenon, it has been evaluated in various animal models to gain further insights into the mechanisms underlying the foetal origins of health and disease in humans. In FP research, the sheep has been quite extensively used as a model for humans. In this paper we will review findings mainly from our Copenhagen sheep model, on the implications of late gestation malnutrition for growth, development, and metabolic and endocrine functions later in life, and discuss how these implications may depend on the diet fed to the animal in early postnatal life. Our results have indicated that negative implications of foetal malnutrition, both as a result of overnutrition and, particularly, late gestation undernutrition, can impair a wide range of endocrine functions regulating growth and presumably also reproductive traits. These implications are not readily observable early in postnatal life, but are increasingly manifested as the animal approaches adulthood. No intervention or cure is known that can reverse this programming in postnatal life. Our findings suggest that close to normal growth and slaughter results can be obtained at least until puberty in animals which have undergone adverse programming in foetal life, but manifestation of programming effects becomes increasingly evident in adult animals. Due to the risk of transfer of the adverse programming effects to future generations, it is therefore recommended that animals that are suspected to have undergone adverse FP are not used for reproduction. Unfortunately, no reliable biomarkers have as yet been identified that allow accurate identification of adversely programmed offspring at birth, except for very low or high birth weights, and, in pigs, characteristic changes in head shape (dolphin head). Future efforts should be

  1. [Protective effect of L-carnitine combined with sildenafil on the reproductive endocrine function of diabetic male rats].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhao-Rong; Shang, Xue-Jun; Kang, Ning; Zhan, Xu-Xin; Xia, Xin-Yi; Cui, Ying-Xia; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the protective effect of L-carnitine (LC) combined with sildenafil on the reproductive endocrine function of male rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, group A taken as normal controls, and groups B, C, D and E made into DM models by injection of streptozotocin at 65 mg/kg. Then the rats in groups A and B were treated with normal saline, C with sildenafil at 5 mg per kg per d, D with LC at 300 mg per kg per d, and E with sildenafil at 5 mg per kg per d plus LC at 300 mg per kg per d, all via gastric gavage for 6 weeks, followed by determination of the levels of testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the serum of the rats. After 6 weeks of treatment, the T, FSH and LH levels were (25.25 +/- 2.67) nmol/L, (5.78 +/- 0.61) IU/L and (625.21 +/- 43.45) ng/L in group A, (9.63 +/- 1.71) nmol/L, (1.98 +/- 0.42) IU/L and (479.89 +/- 27.62) ng/L in group B, (18.98 +/- 3.07) nmol/L, (5.08 +/- 0.33) IU/L and (586.57 +/- 31.72) ng/L in group C, (16.18 +/- 2.65) nmol/L, (4.63 +/- 0.30) IU/L and (540.78 +/- 25.52) ng/L in group D, and (23.65 +/- 2.66) nmol/L, (5.59 +/- 0.48) IU/L and (621.53 +/- 36. 40) ng/L in group E. The three parameters were significantly lower in B than in the other four groups (P < 0.01), and so were they in C and D than in A and E (P < 0.05), but showed no significant differences either between C and D (P > 0. 05) or between A and E (P > 0.05). Six-week medication of either sildenafil or LC alone could increase the levels of T, FSH and LH in the serum of DM rats, but the combination of the two had an even more obvious increasing effect, which indicates a still better protective effect on the reproductive endocrine function of diabetic male rats.

  2. [Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Lanfranco, F; Gianotti, L; Destefanis, S; Arvat, E; Ghigo, E; Camanni, F

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a syndrome with multifactorial etiology in which several genetic, biologic, psychological and social factors are involved. Patients affected by anorexia nervosa (AN) may develop multiple endocrine abnormalities, e.g. amenorrhea, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity, low T3 syndrome and peculiar changes of somatotroph axis function. These endocrine abnormalities are also found after prolonged starvation and may represent an adaptive response developed in order to save energy and proteins. It is still a matter of debate whether these endocrine changes are etiologic or secondary. In fact, several evidences suggest the existence in AN of hypothalamus functional alterations, which may be involved in the development and maintenance of the food intake disorder; on the other hand, the increased CRH secretion seems to be secondary to malnutrition as well as GH hypersecretion coupled to low IGF-I levels; the latter is a common finding in AN, as well as in other undernutrition and malabsorption conditions, type 1 diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and catabolic states. Hypothalamic amenorrhea, which is one of the diagnostic criteria for AN, is not linked only to the reduction of body weight but reflects also deep alterations of gonadotropin secretory pattern. Low T3 syndrome is frequently found in AN; on the other hand, an iodide-induced hypothyroidism is quite uncommon. T3 reduction in AN seems to be an adaptive response to prolonged starvation; however the presence of a simultaneous central dysregulation cannot be excluded. Finally, AN patients frequently show defects in urinary concentration or dilution with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, which may be due to intrinsic defects in the neurohypophysis or to abnormalities of its regulatory afferent neurons.

  3. ALTERATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS OF WILDLIFE POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and human populations are affected by contaminants in natural settings. This problem has been a growing concern over the last decade with the realization that various environmental chemicals can alter the development and functioning of endocrine organs, cells and target ...

  4. ALTERATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS OF WILDLIFE POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and human populations are affected by contaminants in natural settings. This problem has been a growing concern over the last decade with the realization that various environmental chemicals can alter the development and functioning of endocrine organs, cells and target ...

  5. Ligand structure-function relationships in the vitamin D endocrine system from the perspective of drug development (including cancer treatment).

    PubMed

    Norman, Anthony W; Mizwicki, Mathew T; Okamura, William H

    2003-01-01

    It has become readily apparent to many scientists and pharmaceutical companies that the vitamin D endocrine system offers a wide array of drug development opportunities. There are already successes, as noted by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 (Roche, and Abbott) for renal osteodystrophy and osteoporosis and 1alpha(OH)D3 (Leo, Chugai, Teijin) for renal osteodystrophy and (in Japan) osteoporosis, 1alpha,24(OH)2-24-cyclopropyl-D3 (Dovonex) and 1alpha,24(OH)2D3 (Teijin) for psoriasis, and 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 (Abbott) for renal osteodystrophy, as well as drugs under active development. Yet there are still many important and challenging drug development frontiers, particularly in the area of cancer treatment and immune system disorders where exploration is only in the initial early stages. In addition, the application of vitamin D-related drugs in neurology and brain pathology should not be overlooked. It is to be hoped that the cellular and molecular basis for the vexing problem of analog-induced hypercalcemia will be elucidated. Given that there are believed to be over 2000 analogs of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 already available for consideration, it is to be expected that over the next decade a significant number of new vitamin D structure-function drug development projects will be brought to conclusion.

  6. No improvement of pancreas transplant endocrine function by exogenous insulin infusion (islet rest) in the postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Dafoe, D C; Campbell, D A; Rosenberg, L; Merion, R M; Ucros, I; Vinik, A I; Klandorf, H; Turcotte, J G

    1989-07-01

    The concept of islet exhaustion maintains that exposure of pancreatic islets to hyperglycemia and other stresses leads to islet dysfunction and irreparable damage. The process of pancreatic transplantation places many stresses on islets (e.g., counter-regulatory hormones, steroids, cyclosporine toxicity). As practiced by some centers, it may be important to administer exogenous insulin in the postoperative period to provide islet rest. Using a porcine pancreas transplant model that simulates clinical transplantation, we studied 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) received constant insulin infusion for 7 days after transplantation; the control group (n = 5) received vehicle only. The islets in the insulin infusion group were rested as evidenced by a significantly decreased mean C-peptide level (0.27 +/- 0.04 ng/ml) as compared to the control group (0.66 +/- 0.08 ng/ml) (P less than 0.05). After insulin infusion was discontinued, intravenous glucose tolerance testing found insulin, C-peptide and glucagon responses were not different between groups. Glucose clearance was also comparable; K values were -1.79 and -1.60 in the insulin infusion and control groups, respectively. In conclusion, islet rest by insulin infusion for 7 postoperative days did not improve subsequent pancreas transplant endocrine function.

  7. [Endocrine disease symptoms].

    PubMed

    Reincke, M

    2013-10-01

    Diseases of the endocrine system can be classified according to the prevalence into two categories: very frequent endocrinopathies, which affect a population of several millions in Germany and include diabetes mellitus, endemic goiter, osteoporosis and obesity. On the other hand there are a large number of rare endocrine diseases which share the paradox of other rare diseases: they are also often falsely suspected in patients who are not affected but at the same time there are sometimes long delays in diagnosis in those who do have the disease. In cases of adrenal insufficiency, absolute glucocorticoid deficiency can progress to an adrenal crisis which is fatal if not treated. Patients with de Quervain thyroiditis often suffer from prolonged episodes of fever with tender, diffuse goiter and neck pain. Pheochromocytomas should be recognized early in the course of disease because of life-threatening cardiovascular complications. This article highlights the essential characteristics in order to increase awareness.

  8. [Neurotrophic control in the development and function of two endocrine organs: the ovary and the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vásquez, Siraam

    2007-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) are important for the survival, differentiation and function of sympathetic and sensorial neurons of central and peripheral nervous system. However, similar functions have been described of NTs in non-neural organs. Nerve Growth factor (NGF) participates in the foliculogenesis and ovulation in the ovary, as well as in the islet morphogenesis and insulin secretion of the pancreatic beta cell. The NTs act by binding to two distinct classes of transmembranal receptors: p75 and Trks. Both receptor types lead to activation of intracellular signaling cascades that end with cell survival or apoptosis. In this review different actions of the NTs in the ovarian and the pancreas are described.

  9. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Reifschneider, Kent; Auble, Bethany A.; Rose, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life. PMID:26287247

  10. Prediction of the endocrine disruption profile of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Bro, E; Millot, F

    2015-01-01

    Numerous manmade chemicals released into the environment can interfere with normal, hormonally regulated biological processes to adversely affect the development and reproductive functions of living species. Various in vivo and in vitro tests have been designed for detecting endocrine disruptors, but the number of chemicals to test is so high that to save time and money, (quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) models are increasingly used as a surrogate for these laboratory assays. However, most of them focus only on a specific target (e.g. estrogenic or androgenic receptor) while, to be more efficient, endocrine disruption modelling should preferentially consider profiles of activities to better gauge this complex phenomenon. In this context, an attempt was made to evaluate the endocrine disruption profile of 220 structurally diverse pesticides using the Endocrine Disruptome simulation (EDS) tool, which simultaneously predicts the probability of binding of chemicals on 12 nuclear receptors. In a first step, the EDS web-based system was successfully applied to 16 pharmaceutical compounds known to target at least one of the studied receptors. About 13% of the studied pesticides were estimated to be potential disruptors of the endocrine system due to their high predicted affinity for at least one receptor. In contrast, about 55% of them were unlikely to be endocrine disruptors. The simulation results are discussed and some comments on the use of the EDS tool are made.

  11. Polyaniline-coated chitosan-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: Preparation for the extraction and analysis of endocrine-disrupting phenols in environmental water and juice samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xilan; Cheng, Jing; Zhou, Hongbin; Li, Feng; Wu, Wenlin; Ding, Kerong

    2015-08-15

    In the present study, chitosan (CHI) functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic microspheres coated with polyaniline (PANI) were synthesized for the first time. The chitosan-functionalized magnetic microspheres (Fe3O4@CHI) were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, and then aniline was polymerized on the magnetic core. The obtained Fe3O4@CHI@PANI microspheres were spherical core-shell structure with uniform size at about 100nm with 20-30nm diameter core. The microspheres had a high saturation magnetization of 32emu g(-)(1), which was sufficient for magnetic separation. The obtained Fe3O4@CHI@PANI magnetic microspheres were applied as magnetic adsorbents for the extraction of aromatic compounds via π-π interaction between polyaniline shell and aromatic compounds. Three endocrine-disrupting phenols, including bisphenol A (BPA), 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP), and triclosan (TCS) were selected as the model analytes to verify the extraction ability of Fe3O4@CHI@PANI. The hydrophilic chitosan-functionalized Fe3O4 core (Fe3O4@CHI) improved the dispersibility of Fe3O4@CHI@PANI microspheres, and then improve its extraction efficiency. The dominant parameters affecting enrichment efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under optimal condition, the proposed method was evaluated, and applied to the analysis of phenols in real water and juice samples. The results demonstrated the method based on Fe3O4@CHI@PANI magnetic microspheres had good linearity (R(2)>0.996), and limits of detection (0.10-0.13ng mL(-1)), high repeatability (RSD<6.6%) and good recovery (85.0-106.7%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary diversification in stickleback affects ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Luke J; Matthews, Blake; Des Roches, Simone; Chase, Jonathan M; Shurin, Jonathan B; Schluter, Dolph

    2009-04-30

    Explaining the ecological causes of evolutionary diversification is a major focus of biology, but surprisingly little has been said about the effects of evolutionary diversification on ecosystems. The number of species in an ecosystem and their traits are key predictors of many ecosystem-level processes, such as rates of productivity, biomass sequestration and decomposition. Here we demonstrate short-term ecosystem-level effects of adaptive radiation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) over the past 10,000 years. These fish have undergone recent parallel diversification in several lakes in coastal British Columbia, resulting in the formation of two specialized species (benthic and limnetic) from a generalist ancestor. Using a mesocosm experiment, we demonstrate that this diversification has strong effects on ecosystems, affecting prey community structure, total primary production, and the nature of dissolved organic materials that regulate the spectral properties of light transmission in the system. However, these ecosystem effects do not simply increase in their relative strength with increasing specialization and species richness; instead, they reflect the complex and indirect consequences of ecosystem engineering by sticklebacks. It is well known that ecological factors influence adaptive radiation. We demonstrate that adaptive radiation, even over short timescales, can have profound effects on ecosystems.

  13. [Photoperiodic control of gonadal endocrine function in silver-gray foxes and its alteration during domestication].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Trut, L N

    1988-01-01

    Studies have been made on the level of estradiol and progesterone in domesticated and nondomesticated female silver foxes under different photoperiodic regime. The duration of the "light--darkness" cycle was equal to 24 h. Total duration of the light period was equal to 9 1/2 h; illumination was natural for 7 h, being artificial for the rest 2 1/2 h in a dark part of a day. It was demonstrated that additional illumination affects the hormonal level and sexual activity, the effect being dependent on the particular time of illumination. Nocturnal illumination significantly increased the level of sex hormones in the blood, domesticated animals being more sensitive as compared to nondomesticated ones.

  14. The effects of cisplatin and other divalent platinum compounds on glucose metabolism and pancreatic endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, R S; Mayor, G H; Gingerich, R L; Hook, J B; Rosenbaum, R W; Bond, J T

    1983-07-01

    Three divalent platinum compounds, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (cis-DDP), trans-dichlorodiammineplatinum (trans-DDP), and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate, were examined for their effects on glucose metabolism in male F-344 rats. Rats were treated with a single iv dose of cis-DDP (0, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg), trans-DDP (0, 5, 7.5, or 15 mg/kg) or tetrachloroplatinate (0, 6, or 18 mg/kg). Glucose tolerance was evaluated 2, 4, 7, and 14 days following platinum treatment by serially measuring plasma glucose before and following an ip glucose load. Administration of 5 mg/kg cis-DDP impaired glucose tolerance on Days 2 and 4, but not on Days 7 and 14. Plasma immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) was elevated at all times following cis-DDP treatment and thus was not correlated with the transient impairment in glucose tolerance. Plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) response to a glucose load was deficient relative to the degree of hyperglycemia in cis-DDP-treated (5 mg/kg) animals on Days 2 and 4. However, neither histopathological damage of the pancreas nor pancreatic stores of IRI were affected by cis-DDP treatment. In contrast to cis-DDP, equimolar or greater than equimolar doses of trans-DDP or tetrachloroplatinate did not significantly affect glucose tolerance at any time examined. These results indicate that cis-DDP-mediated glucose intolerance is unique to the geometry of the complex and is related to properties other than the presence of a divalent platinum atom. Furthermore, glucose intolerance following cis-DDP treatment appears to be related to a relative deficiency in insulin secretion.

  15. [Xenoestrogens: endocrine disrupting compounds].

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Milena; Murias, Marek

    2008-11-01

    In recent years much attention has been paid to the issues of chemicals that disrupt the normal function of endocrine system, namely xenoestrogens. These chemicals can mimic the activity of endogenous estrogens, antagonize their interaction with estrogen receptors or disrupt the synthesis, metabolism and functions of endogenous female hormones. Due to the fact that they act thanks to many different mechanisms, it is very difficult to estimate their estrogenic activity by means of a simple tests. The important issue remains the fact that xenoestrogens may have a positive or negative influence on the function of the endocrine system. It seems to be very important that there are many sources of xenoestrogens, that is not only vegetables and fruit (phytoestrogens), but also metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb), dental appliances (alkilphenols), food containers or blood containers (PVC--polyvinyl chloride, DEHP--di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), cosmetics (parabens) and pesticides (DDT--dichlor-diphenyl-trichlorethylane, endosulfane).

  16. Effect of surgery and radiotherapy on visual and endocrine function in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Colao, A; Cerbone, G; Cappabianca, P; Ferone, D; Alfieri, A; Di Salle, F; Faggiano, A; Merola, B; de Divitiis, E; Lombardi, G

    1998-05-01

    The effect of surgery alone or followed by radiotherapy in recovering visual abnormalities, debulking tumor mass and restoring hormone impairments was evaluated in 84 patients with clinical nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) subjected to 1-10 yr follow-up. All patients underwent surgery via transsphenoidal (in 69) or transcranic-pterional approach (in 15). Radiotherapy was performed after surgery in 59 of 72 patients with incomplete tumor removal. The assessment of pituitary function was performed in all patients before and every 1-2 yr after surgery and/or radiotherapy. Radiological and ophthalmologic assessment was performed before and 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery, then yearly. At diagnosis, headache and visual disturbances occurred in 63 and 58 patients, respectively, while deficiency of GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH and ADH was documented in 55, 7, 19 47 and 6 patients, respectively. After surgery, gonadal function recovered in 12 women, visual disturbances improved in 43 patients (15 regained normal vision), pituitary function improved in 8 of 62 patients, worsened in 34 patients. At MRI, complete tumor removal was documented in 12 of 84 patients. After surgery alone, tumor regrowth was observed in 7 patients between 3-7 yr. After radiotherapy, vision improved in 9, remained unchanged in 49 and worsened in 1 of 59 patients. After radiotherapy, tumor regrowth was documented in 9 patients between 2-12 yr and the prevalence of hypopituitarism raised from 28.8% to 92% after 1 and 10 yr. In conclusion, surgery alone is effective only in a minority of patients (14.3%) and radiotherapy causes hypopituitarism in rather the totality of patients after 10 yr. The prevalence of tumor regrowth was similar in irradiated ones (15%) and non irradiated patients (28%; chi(2), p = 0.4). Therefore, a careful radiological followup is suggested after surgery so that radiotherapy can be performed promptly on the basis of clinical data, tumor regrowth and/or invasiveness

  17. Maternal stress and plural breeding with communal care affect development of the endocrine stress response in a wild rodent.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Davis, Garrett T; Romero, L Michael

    2015-09-01

    Maternal stress can significantly affect offspring fitness. In laboratory rodents, chronically stressed mothers provide poor maternal care, resulting in pups with hyperactive stress responses. These hyperactive stress responses are characterized by high glucocorticoid levels in response to stressors plus poor negative feedback, which can ultimately lead to decreased fitness. In degus (Octodon degus) and other plural breeding rodents that exhibit communal care, however, maternal care from multiple females may buffer the negative impact on pups born to less parental mothers. We used wild, free-living degus to test this hypothesis. After parturition, we manipulated maternal stress by implanting cortisol pellets in 0%, 50-75%, or 100% of adult females within each social group. We then sampled pups for baseline and stress-induced cortisol, negative feedback efficacy, and adrenal sensitivity. From groups where all mothers were implanted with cortisol, pups had lower baseline cortisol levels and male pups additionally had weaker negative feedback compared to 0% or 50-75% implanted groups. Contrary to expectations, stress-induced cortisol did not differ between treatment groups. These data suggest that maternal stress impacts some aspects of the pup stress response, potentially through decreased maternal care, but that presence of unstressed mothers may mitigate some of these effects. Therefore, one benefit of plural breeding with communal care may be to buffer post-natal stress.

  18. Function of the vitamin D endocrine system in mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Welsh, JoEllen

    2017-09-15

    The nuclear receptor for 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D), the active form of vitamin D, has anti-tumor actions in many tissues. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in normal mammary gland and in many human breast cancers suggesting it may represent an important tumor suppressor gene in this tissue. When activated by 1,25D, VDR modulates multiple cellular pathways including those related to energy metabolism, terminal differentiation and inflammation. There is compelling pre-clinical evidence that alterations in vitamin D status affect breast cancer development and progression, while clinical and epidemiological data are suggestive but not entirely consistent. The demonstration that breast cells express CYP27B1 (which converts the precursor vitamin D metabolite 25D to the active metabolite 1,25D) and CYP24A1 (which degrades both 25D and 1,25D) provides insight into the difficulties inherent in using dietary vitamin D, sun exposure and/or serum biomarkers of vitamin D status to predict disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that the normally tight balance between CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 becomes deregulated during cancer development, leading to abrogation of the tumor suppressive effects triggered by VDR. Research aimed at understanding the mechanisms that govern uptake, storage, metabolism and actions of vitamin D steroids in normal and neoplastic breast tissue remain an urgent priority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of adiponectin secretion by soy isoflavones has implication for endocrine function of the testis.

    PubMed

    Pfaehler, Andrew; Nanjappa, Manjunatha K; Coleman, Elaine S; Mansour, Mahmoud; Wanders, Desiree; Plaisance, Eric P; Judd, Robert L; Akingbemi, Benson T

    2012-02-25

    Testicular Leydig cells are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone (T), which is required to maintain male fertility. There is now growing evidence that environmental stressors, including chemicals present in food, air and water, may affect energy balance. A relationship between energy balance and reproductive capacity has been proposed for a long time. In the present study, developmental exposures of male rats to soy isoflavones in the maternal diet from gestational day 12 to day 21 post-partum enhanced adiponectin expression in adipose tissue and increased serum adiponectin concentrations in adulthood. However, exposure to soy isoflavones caused a decrease in T production and expression of adiponectin and its receptor (adipoR2) in Leydig cells. In separate experiments, incubation of Leydig cells with recombinant adiponectin in the absence of isoflavones caused a decrease in T biosynthesis associated with diminished expression of the cholesterol transporter steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Thus, chemical-induced alterations in serum adiponectin concentrations have implication for steroid hormone secretion. The results also imply that changes in adipose tissue metabolism occasioned by exposure to dietary estrogens, and perhaps other estrogenic agents, possibly contribute to deficiencies in reproductive capacity attributed to these compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems.

  1. Neonatal stress affects the aging trajectory of female rats on the endocrine, temperature, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Baldy, Cécile; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Human and animal studies on sleep-disordered breathing and respiratory regulation show that the effects of sex hormones are heterogeneous. Because neonatal stress results in sex-specific disruption of the respiratory control in adult rats, we postulate that it might affect respiratory control modulation induced by ovarian steroids in female rats. The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of adult female rats exposed to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is ∼30% smaller than controls (24), but consequences of NMS on respiratory control in aging female rats are unknown. To address this issue, whole body plethysmography was used to evaluate the impact of NMS on the HVR (12% O2, 20 min) of middle-aged (MA; ∼57 wk old) female rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator 3 h/day for 10 consecutive days (P3 to P12). Controls were undisturbed. To determine whether the effects were related to sexual hormone decline or aging per se, experiments were repeated on bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) young (∼12 wk old) adult female rats. OVX and MA both reduced the HVR significantly in control rats but had little effect on the HVR of NMS females. OVX (but not aging) reduced the anapyrexic response in both control and NMS animals. These results show that hormonal decline decreases the HVR of control animals, while leaving that of NMS female animals unaffected. This suggests that neonatal stress alters the interaction between sex hormone regulation and the development of body temperature, hormonal, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Artemisia scoparia enhances adipocyte development and endocrine function in vitro and enhances insulin action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Richard, Allison J; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. SCO has metabolically beneficial effects on adipocytes in vitro and adipose

  3. Bovine herpesvirus 4 is tropic for bovine endometrial cells and modulates endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, Gaetano; Herath, Shan; Sartori, Chiara; Cavirani, Sandro; Flammini, Cesidio Filippo; Sheldon, Iain Martin

    2007-07-01

    Bovine postpartum uterine disease, metritis, affects about 40% of animals and is widely considered to have a bacterial aetiology. Although the gamma-herpesvirus bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from several outbreaks of metritis or abortion, the role of viruses in endometrial pathology and the mechanisms of viral infection of uterine cells are often ignored. The objectives of the present study were to explore the interaction, tropism and outcomes of BoHV-4 challenge of endometrial stromal and epithelial cells. Endometrial stromal and epithelial cells were purified and infected with a recombinant BoHV-4 carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette to monitor the establishment of infection. BoHV-4 efficiently infected both stromal and epithelial cells, causing a strong non-apoptotic cytopathic effect, associated with robust viral replication. The crucial step for the BoHV-4 endometriotropism appeared to be after viral entry as there was enhanced transactivation of the BoHV-4 immediate early 2 gene promoter following transient transfection into the endometrial cells. Infection with BoHV-4 increased cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression and prostaglandin estradiol secretion in endometrial stromal cells, but not epithelial cells. Bovine macrophages are persistently infected with BoHV-4, and co-culture with endometrial stromal cells reactivated BoHV-4 replication in the persistently infected macrophages, suggesting a symbiotic relationship between the cells and virus. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence of cellular and molecular mechanisms, supporting the concept that BoHV-4 is a pathogen associated with uterine disease.

  4. MYC functions are specific in biological subtypes of breast cancer and confers resistance to endocrine therapy in luminal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andrew R; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Agarwal, Devika; Elsheikh, Somaia; Nolan, Christopher C; Diez-Rodriguez, Maria; Macmillan, R Douglas; Ball, Graham R; Caldas, Carlos; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A

    2016-01-01

    Background: MYC is amplified in approximately 15% of breast cancers (BCs) and is associated with poor outcome. c-MYC protein is multi-faceted and participates in many aspects of cellular function and is linked with therapeutic response in BCs. We hypothesised that the functional role of c-MYC differs between molecular subtypes of BCs. Methods: We therefore investigated the correlation between c-MYC protein expression and other proteins involved in different cellular functions together with clinicopathological parameters, patients' outcome and treatments in a large early-stage molecularly characterised series of primary invasive BCs (n=1106) using immunuohistochemistry. The METABRIC BC cohort (n=1980) was evaluated for MYC mRNA expression and a systems biology approach utilised to identify genes associated with MYC in the different BC molecular subtypes. Results: High MYC and c-MYC expression was significantly associated with poor prognostic factors, including grade and basal-like BCs. In luminal A tumours, c-MYC was associated with ATM (P=0.005), Cyclin B1 (P=0.002), PIK3CA (P=0.009) and Ki67 (P<0.001). In contrast, in basal-like tumours, c-MYC showed positive association with Cyclin E (P=0.003) and p16 (P=0.042) expression only. c-MYC was an independent predictor of a shorter distant metastases-free survival in luminal A LN+ tumours treated with endocrine therapy (ET; P=0.013). In luminal tumours treated with ET, MYC mRNA expression was associated with BC-specific survival (P=0.001). In ER-positive tumours, MYC was associated with expression of translational genes while in ER-negative tumours it was associated with upregulation of glucose metabolism genes. Conclusions: c-MYC function is associated with specific molecular subtypes of BCs and its overexpression confers resistance to ET. The diverse mechanisms of c-MYC function in the different molecular classes of BCs warrants further investigation particularly as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26954716

  5. Artemisia scoparia Enhances Adipocyte Development and Endocrine Function In Vitro and Enhances Insulin Action In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Allison J.; Fuller, Scott; Fedorcenco, Veaceslav; Beyl, Robbie; Burris, Thomas P.; Mynatt, Randall; Ribnicky, David M.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Failure of adipocytes to expand during periods of energy excess can result in undesirable metabolic consequences such as ectopic fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Blinded screening studies have indicated that Artemisia scoparia (SCO) extracts can enhance adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in cultured adipocytes. The present study tested the hypothesis that SCO treatment modulates fat cell development and function in vitro and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments utilized a Gal4-PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) fusion protein-luciferase reporter assay to examine PPARγ activation. To investigate the ability of SCO to modulate adipogenesis and mature fat cell function in 3T3-L1 cells, neutral lipid accumulation, gene expression, and protein secretion were measured by Oil Red O staining, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting, respectively. For the in vivo experiments, diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% w/w SCO for four weeks. Body weight and composition, food intake, and fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured. Phospho-activation and expression of insulin-sensitizing proteins in epididymal adipose tissue (eWAT) were measured by immunoblotting. Results Ethanolic extracts of A. scoparia significantly activated the PPARγ LBD and enhanced lipid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. SCO increased the transcription of several PPARγ target genes in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells and rescued the negative effects of tumor necrosis factor α on production and secretion of adiponectin and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in fully differentiated fat cells. DIO mice treated with SCO had elevated adiponectin levels and increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in eWAT when compared to control mice. In SCO-treated mice, these changes were also associated with decreased fasting insulin and glucose levels. Conclusion SCO has metabolically beneficial

  6. Positive and negative affective processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs during the viewing of affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Hong; Pan, Xiaohong

    2015-02-01

    Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using graph theory metrics have revealed that the functional network of the human brain possesses small-world characteristics and comprises several functional hub regions. However, it is unclear how the affective functional network is organized in the brain during the processing of affective information. In this study, the fMRI data were collected from 25 healthy college students as they viewed a total of 81 positive, neutral, and negative pictures. The results indicated that affective functional networks exhibit weaker small-worldness properties with higher local efficiency, implying that local connections increase during viewing affective pictures. Moreover, positive and negative emotional processing exhibit dissociable functional hubs, emerging mainly in task-positive regions. These functional hubs, which are the centers of information processing, have nodal betweenness centrality values that are at least 1.5 times larger than the average betweenness centrality of the network. Positive affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the right orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and the right putamen in the positive emotional network; negative affect scores correlated with the betweenness values of the left OFC and the left amygdala in the negative emotional network. The local efficiencies in the left superior and inferior parietal lobe correlated with subsequent arousal ratings of positive and negative pictures, respectively. These observations provide important evidence for the organizational principles of the human brain functional connectome during the processing of affective information. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Endocrine function of the ovaries of blue foxes (Alopex ladopus) during postnatal ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Polyntsev, Iu V; Diveeva, G M; Rozen, V B; Sobol', A V; Shelina, N P

    1979-01-01

    Progesterone, androgen and estradiol levels in the blood plasma were radioimmunologically studied in female Alopex lagopus aged 2 to 9 months with different weight at birth. The blood sex steroid level showed a sharp elevation at the age of 4 months. The weight gain stops by this time. Thus, by the age of 4 months in females the sexual system becomes mature. From the age of 5 to 8 months there is a fall of the blood sex hormones, corresponding to anestrus, and by the age of 9 months there is a significant rise in the level of sex hormones pointing to activation of the ovarian function by the reproductive season. Large females had a tendency to earlier sexual maturation in comparison with the small ones. Since in the female animals of the species under study two peaks of sexual hormone concentration were revealed in the course of a year it is suggested that at the preceding evolutional stages representatives of the family were capable of reproducing twice a year.

  8. Circumventricular organs: definition and role in the regulation of endocrine and autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    2000-01-01

    1. The circumventricular organs (CVO) are structures that permit polypeptide hypothalamic hormones to leave the brain without disrupting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and permit substances that do not cross the BBB to trigger changes in brain function. 2. In mammals, CVO include only the median eminence and adjacent neurohypophysis, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, subfornical organ and the area postrema. 3. The CVO are characterized by their small size, high permeability and fenestrated capillaries. The subcommissural organ is not highly permeable and does not have fenestrated capillaries, but new evidence indicates that it may be involved in the hypertension produced by aldosterone acting on the brain. 4. Feedback control of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion is exerted by free steroids diffusing into the brain, but substances such as cytokines and angiotensin II act on CVO to produce increases in CRH secretion. Gonadal steroids also diffuse into the brain to regulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone secretion is regulated by thyroid hormones transported across cerebral capillaries. However, CVO may be involved in the negative feedback control of growth hormone and prolactin secretion.

  9. Endocrine aspects of male sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Buvat, Jacques; Maggi, Mario; Gooren, Louis; Guay, Andre T; Kaufman, Joel; Morgentaler, Abraham; Schulman, Claude; Tan, Hui Meng; Torres, Luiz Otavio; Yassin, Aksam; Zitzmann, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Endocrine disorders may adversely affect men's sexual function. To provide recommendations based on best evidence for diagnosis and treatment of endocrine-related male sexual dysfunctions. The Endocrine Aspects of Male Sexual Dysfunctions Committee, including 11 members from eight countries and four continents, collaborated with the Endocrine subcommittee of the Standards Committee of the International Society for Sexual Medicine. Medical literature was reviewed in detail, followed by extensive internal committee discussion over 2 years, then public presentation and discussion with the other experts before finalizing the report. Recommendations based on grading of evidence-base medical literature and interactive discussion. From animal studies, it is derived that testosterone modulates mechanisms involved in erectile machinery, including expression of enzymes that both initiate and terminate erection. In addition, testosterone is essential for sexual motivation. Whether these findings could be extrapolated to human erections is unclear. Testosterone plays a broad role in men's overall health. Recent studies have established strong associations between low testosterone and metabolic and cardiovascular imbalances. In some studies, low testosterone decreased longevity; however, longitudinal studies do not support the predictive value of low testosterone for further cardiovascular events. The article proposes a standardized process for diagnosis and treatment of endocrine-related male sexual dysfunctions, updating the knowledge on testosterone and prostate safety. There is no compelling evidence that testosterone treatment causes prostate cancer or its progression in men without severe testosterone deficiency (TD). The possible roles of prolactin and thyroid hormones are also examined. Men with erectile dysfunction, hypoactive sexual desire and retarded ejaculation, as well as those with visceral obesity and metabolic diseases, should be screened for TD and treated

  10. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin. In addition, their effects on keratinocytes, melanocytes, sebocytes, inflammatory and immunological cells, and skin stem cells produce inflammatory and allergic skin diseases, chloracne, disorders of skin pigmentation, skin cancer, and skin aging. Mechanisms, which EDCs use to induce these skin disorders are complicated, and involve the interference of endogenous hormones and most importantly the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signal pathway. Further studies on EDCs and skin diseases are necessary to elucidate these mechanisms.

  11. Elucidating the links between endocrine disruptors and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Blawas, Ashley M; Gray, Kimberly; Heindel, Jerrold J; Lawler, Cindy P

    2015-06-01

    Recent data indicate that approximately 12% of children in the United States are affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disorders, intellectual disabilities, and autism spectrum disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates a multifactorial etiology for these disorders, with social, physical, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, and chemical toxicants acting together to influence risk. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during the early stages of life can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus alter brain function and disease susceptibility later in life. This article highlights research efforts and pinpoints approaches that could shed light on the possible associations between environmental chemicals that act on the endocrine system and compromised neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  12. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function with regard to blood cadmium in Croatian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Jurasović, Jasna; Cvitković, Petar; Pizent, Alica; Colak, Bozo; Telisman, Spomenka

    2004-12-01

    In 123 Croatian men with no occupational exposure to metals, the influence of cadmium on reproductive parameters was examined after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, and biomarkers of lead, copper, zinc, and selenium. The following variables were measured: blood cadmium (BCd), blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum copper (SCu), serum zinc (SZn), serum selenium (SSe), activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in blood, testis size, semen quality (including sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology), indicators in seminal fluid (the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C4, fructose, zinc, acid phosphatase, and citric acid), and hormones in serum (follicle-stimulating hormone--FSH, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol). The median and range BCd values were 2.94 (0.49-11.93) microg/L in 61 smokers and 0.59 (0.20-3.71) microg/L in 62 nonsmokers (p < 0.0001). Smoking habits (cigarettes/day) highly significantly correlated with BCd (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for potential confounding variables by multiple regression, BCd was significantly associated with a decrease in testis size (p < 0.03) and an increase in serum estradiol (p < 0.005), FSH (p < 0.03), and testosterone (p < 0.04). Smoking was significantly associated with a decrease in serum prolactin (p < 0.006) and LDH-C4 in seminal fluid (p < 0.03). Several reproductive parameters were significantly associated with BPb and ALAD, biomarkers of lead, and/or with SCu, SZn, SSe, and GPx. The necessity of controlling for various metals, and other potential confounders when assessing the influence of a particular metal on reproductive function in men, is emphasized.

  13. Effects of nutritional restriction on metabolic, endocrine, and ovarian function in llamas (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Norambuena, M C; Silva, M; Urra, F; Ulloa-Leal, C; Fernández, A; Adams, G P; Huanca, W; Ratto, M H

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of nutritional restriction on ovarian function in llamas. Mature female llamas were assigned randomly to a Control group, fed 100% of maintenance energy requirements (MER) (n=8), or a Restricted group (n=8) fed from 70% to 40% of MER until a body condition score of 2.5 was attained. Blood samples were taken every-other-day to determine plasma concentrations of LH, estradiol, leptin and metabolic markers, and follicular dynamics were monitored daily by ultrasonography for 30 days (Experiment 1). Llamas were then treated with GnRH to compare the ovulatory response and corpus luteus (CL) development between groups (Experiment 2). Blood samples were taken to measure LH, leptin, progesterone and metabolic markers and ovarian structures were assessed as in Experiment 1. Llamas in the Restricted group had lower body mass and body condition scores than those in the Control group (P<0.001). Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and urea were higher in the Restricted group (P<0.05) than in the Control group. The day-to-day diameter profiles of the dominant follicles were smaller (P<0.05) in the Restricted group than in the Control group but plasma estradiol concentration did not differ. The ovulation rate and LH secretion in response to GnRH did not differ. Day-to-day profiles of CL diameter, plasma progesterone and leptin concentrations were smaller (P<0.01) in the Restricted group. In conclusion, nutritional restriction in llamas was associated with suppressed follicle and CL development, and lower plasma concentrations of progesterone and leptin.

  14. μ and κ opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning.

    PubMed

    Ragen, B J; Freeman, S M; Laredo, S A; Mendoza, S P; Bales, K L

    2015-04-02

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MORs) and κ opioid receptors (KORs) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [(3)H][D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) to label MORs and [(3)H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus (CG), striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in "neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen" (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the CG, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function.

  15. μ and κ Opioid receptor distribution in the monogamous titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus): Implications for social behavior and endocrine functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ragen, Benjamin J.; Freeman, Sara M.; Laredo, Sarah A.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Bales, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    The opioid system is involved in infant-mother bonds and adult-adult bonds in many species. We have previously shown that μ opioid receptors (MOR) and κ opioid receptors (KOR) are involved in regulating the adult attachment of the monogamous titi monkey. The present study sought to determine the distribution of MOR and KOR in the titi monkey brain using receptor autoradiography. We used [3H]DAMGO to label MORs and [3H]U69,593 to label KORs. MOR binding was heterogeneous throughout the titi monkey brain. Specifically, MOR binding was observed in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, septal regions, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and thalamus. Binding was particularly dense in the septum, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, mediodorsal thalamus with moderate binding in the nucleus accumbens. Consistent with other primate species, MOR were also observed in “neurochemically unique domains of the accumbens and putamen” (NUDAPs). In general KOR binding was more homogenous. KORs were primarily found in the cingulate gyrus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. Dense KOR binding was observed in the claustrum. Relative MOR and KOR binding in the titi monkey striatum was similar to other humans and primates, but was much lower compared to rodents. Relative MOR binding in the titi monkey hypothalamus was much greater than that found in rodents. This study was the first to examine MOR and KOR binding in a monogamous primate. The location of these receptors gives insight into where ligands may be acting to regulate social behavior and endocrine function. PMID:25637809

  16. Bromocriptine and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Spark, R F; Dickstein, G

    1979-06-01

    Bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist, has been used to treat many endocrine disorders. In hyperprolactinemia associated with galactorrhea, amenorrhea, oligospermia, and impotence, bromocriptine reduces prolactin levels to normal and allows for satisfactory return of sexual and reproductive function in 90% of patients. In acromegaly, bromocriptine brings about subjective improvement in 75% of patients with reduction in growth-hormone levels to normal in 22% of patients. Bromocriptine has been used in premenstrual tension, functional infertility, Nelson's syndrome, and Cushing's disease with variable benefit. In low doses, side-effects are minimal. In higher doses, digital vasospasm and gastrointestinal bleeding have occurred. Although bromocriptine has been used in a wide variety of endocrine disorders, it appears to be most useful in treatment of male and female infertility associated with hyperprolactinemia.

  17. Autophagy in the endocrine glands.

    PubMed

    Weckman, Andrea; Di Ieva, Antonio; Rotondo, Fabio; Syro, Luis V; Ortiz, Leon D; Kovacs, Kalman; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy is an important cellular process involving the degradation of intracellular components. Its regulation is complex and while there are many methods available, there is currently no single effective way of detecting and monitoring autophagy. It has several cellular functions that are conserved throughout the body, as well as a variety of different physiological roles depending on the context of its occurrence in the body. Autophagy is also involved in the pathology of a wide range of diseases. Within the endocrine system, autophagy has both its traditional conserved functions and specific functions. In the endocrine glands, autophagy plays a critical role in controlling intracellular hormone levels. In peptide-secreting cells of glands such as the pituitary gland, crinophagy, a specific form of autophagy, targets the secretory granules to control the levels of stored hormone. In steroid-secreting cells of glands such as the testes and adrenal gland, autophagy targets the steroid-producing organelles. The dysregulation of autophagy in the endocrine glands leads to several different endocrine diseases such as diabetes and infertility. This review aims to clarify the known roles of autophagy in the physiology of the endocrine system, as well as in various endocrine diseases.

  18. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shou-Qiang; Chen, Zan-Xiong; Kong, Min-Li; Xie, Yan-Qi; Zhou, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Di; Paul, Gunther; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day) during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4) was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049) and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227) and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351). In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females. PMID:27626407

  19. Measuring myokines with cardiovascular functions: pre-analytical variables affecting the analytical output.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Sansoni, Veronica; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of molecules have been associated to an endocrine function of the skeletal muscle. Circulating myokine levels, in turn, have been associated with several pathophysiological conditions including the cardiovascular ones. However, data from different studies are often not completely comparable or even discordant. This would be due, at least in part, to the whole set of situations related to the preparation of the patient prior to blood sampling, blood sampling procedure, processing and/or store. This entire process constitutes the pre-analytical phase. The importance of the pre-analytical phase is often not considered. However, in routine diagnostics, the 70% of the errors are in this phase. Moreover, errors during the pre-analytical phase are carried over in the analytical phase and affects the final output. In research, for example, when samples are collected over a long time and by different laboratories, a standardized procedure for sample collecting and the correct procedure for sample storage are acknowledged. In this review, we discuss the pre-analytical variables potentially affecting the measurement of myokines with cardiovascular functions.

  20. Endocrine Tumor: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Endocrine Tumor Endocrine Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Endocrine Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  1. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kedzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kedzierska, Joanna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of adverse consequences, including endocrine disorders. The endocrine changes associated with HIV infection have been studied in depth and, as the results of so far carried out studies suggest, their aetiology is usually multifactoral. Their pathogenesis includes direct infection of endocrine glands by HIV or opportunistic organisms, infiltration by neoplasms and adverse effects of drugs. Endocrine problems that most frequently affect this group of patients include: hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, impaired growth hormone release, lipodystrophy and bone loss. They may develop in both the early as well as late stages of the infection, ranging from subclinical disturbances to overt endocrine symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to review the aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated endocrine disturbances with a special emphasis on the most recent literature.

  2. Endocrine disrupters--a threat to women's health?

    PubMed

    Waring, R H; Harris, R M

    2011-02-01

    Endocrine disruption has been a topic of public concern for many years and its study remains high on the scientific agenda. Endocrine disrupters (EDs) are compounds which may be of industrial or natural origin and which act to dysregulate steroid function and metabolism. As well as their actions on nuclear steroid receptors, EDs can inhibit the pathways of steroid synthesis and degradation. They not only affect reproductive function but also affect a range of tissues which are steroid sensitive such as the central nervous system and thyroid. Results from the latest studies suggest that EDs may also affect the immune system, glucose homeostasis and can act as epigenetic modulators resulting in transgenerational effects. Research in this area has led to the development of drugs used in the treatment of several types of hormone-sensitive cancer. However, despite many years of effort, the effects on human health of long-term environmental exposure to EDs, whether singly or as mixtures, remain unknown.

  3. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    PubMed

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  4. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  5. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  6. Celiac disease and endocrine autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Kahaly, George J; Schuppan, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a small-intestinal inflammatory disease that is triggered by the ingestion of the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, barley and rye. Endocrine autoimmunity is prevalent in patients with CD and their relatives. The genes that predispose to endocrine autoimmune diseases, e.g. type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseases, and Addison's disease, i.e. DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8, are also the major genetic determinants of CD, which is the best understood HLA-linked disease. Thus, up to 30% of first-degree relatives both of patients with CD and/or endocrine autoimmunity are affected by the other disease. In CD, certain gluten proteins bind with high affinity to HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 in the small-intestinal mucosa, to activate gluten-specific T cells which are instrumental in the destruction of the resorptive villi. Here, the autoantigen tissue transglutaminase increases the T cell response by generating deamidated gluten peptides that bind more strongly to DQ2 or DQ8. Classical symptoms such as diarrhea and consequences of malabsorption like anemia and osteoporosis are often absent in patients with (screening-detected) CD, but this absence does not significantly affect these patients' incidence of endocrine autoimmunity. Moreover, once autoimmunity is established, a gluten-free diet is not able to induce remission. However, ongoing studies attempt to address how far a gluten-free diet may prevent or retard the development of CD and endocrine autoimmunity in children at risk. The close relationship between CD and endocrine autoimmunity warrants a broader immune genetic and endocrine screening of CD patients and their relatives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  8. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  9. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  10. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  11. Endocrine disruption, parasites and pollutants in wild freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Jobling, S; Tyler, C R

    2003-01-01

    Disruption of the endocrine system has been shown to occur in wild freshwater fish populations across the globe. Effects range from subtle changes in the physiology and sexual behaviour of fish to permanently altered sexual differentiation, impairment of gonad development and/or altered fertility. A wide variety of adverse environmental conditions may induce endocrine disruption, including sub-optimal temperatures, restricted food supply, low pH, environmental pollutants, and/or parasites. Furthermore, it is conceivable that any/all of these factors could act simultaneously to cause a range of disparate or inter-related effects. Some of the strongest evidence for a link between an adverse health effect, as a consequence of endocrine disruption, and a causative agent(s) is between the condition of intersex in wild roach (Rutlius rutilus) in UK rivers and exposure to effluents from sewage treatment works. The evidence to indicate that intersex in roach (and other cyprinid fish living in these rivers) is caused by chemicals that mimic and/or disrupt hormone function/balance in treated sewage effluent is substantial. There are a few parasites that affect the endocrine system directly in fish, including the tape worm Ligula intestinalis and a few parasites from the micropsora phylum. L. intestinalis acts at the level of the hypothalamus restricting GnRH secretion (resulting in poorly developed gonads) and is one of the very few examples where an endocrine disrupting event has been shown to result in a population-level effect (reducing it). It is well established that many parasites affect the immune system and thus the most common effect of parasites on the endocrine system in fish is likely to be an indirect one.

  12. Endocrine receptors as targets for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Altman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly detailed knowledge of cellular signalling pathways is providing a sound basis for the development of specific drugs aimed at selected components of the pathways. Many of these targets are receptors and the multitude of hormone receptors makes endocrine functions a rich proving ground for this research. This article reviews a recent meeting (Insights into Receptor Function and New Drug Development Targets; 5th Endocrinology Colloquium of the Fondation Ipsen, Paris, December 5, 2005) where progress in defining suitable targets for drug therapies in the endocrine system and in designing drugs for some of these targets was discussed. Although the family of G-protein-coupled receptors, ubiquitous in the endocrine system, was the central focus, comparisons with other receptor families were made. Many mutations affecting genes coding for receptors or other components of signalling pathways have been found in a wide range of endocrine disorders including obesity, parathyroid malfunction, disorders involving thyroid-stimulating hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, and tumours in the anterior pituitary, as well as in many types of cancer. These are being used to dissect the normal control mechanisms as well as to provide information for the development of selective drugs. Recently identified mutations that affect the intracellular traffic in newly synthesised receptors open up possibilities of another dimension of cellular regulation of signalling. Both the discovery of hormones such as apelin and its pairing with an 'orphan' receptor, and the unexpected action of a drug against cannabinoid receptors point to further levels of complexity in cardiovascular regulation. Deeper understanding of the evolution of receptor families and of the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction is enabling the design of highly specific agonists and antagonists. Pharmacological intervention is not limited to the ligand-receptor interaction but can extend to inhibition of

  13. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  15. Prediction of Endocrine System Affectation in Fisher 344 Rats by Food Intake Exposed with Malathion, Applying Naïve Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Mora, Juan David Sandino; Hurtado, Darío Amaya; Sandoval, Olga Lucía Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected. The experimental data were processed using Naïve Bayes (NB) machine learning classifier, which was subsequently optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs). The model was executed in an application with a graphical user interface programmed in C#. There was a tendency to suffer bigger alterations, increasing levels in the parathyroid gland in dosages between 4 and 5 mg/kg/day, in contrast to the thyroid gland for doses between 739 and 868 mg/kg/day. It was showed a greater resistance for females to contract effects on the endocrine system by the ingestion of malathion. Females were more susceptible to suffer alterations in the pituitary gland with exposure times between 3 and 6 months. The prediction model based on NB classifiers allowed to analyze all the possible combinations of the studied variables and improving its accuracy using GAs. Excepting the pituitary gland, females demonstrated better resistance to contract effects by increasing levels on the rest of endocrine system glands.

  16. Prediction of Endocrine System Affectation in Fisher 344 Rats by Food Intake Exposed with Malathion, Applying Naïve Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Juan David Sandino; Hurtado, Darío Amaya; Sandoval, Olga Lucía Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. Methods: It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected. The experimental data were processed using Naïve Bayes (NB) machine learning classifier, which was subsequently optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs). The model was executed in an application with a graphical user interface programmed in C#. Results: There was a tendency to suffer bigger alterations, increasing levels in the parathyroid gland in dosages between 4 and 5 mg/kg/day, in contrast to the thyroid gland for doses between 739 and 868 mg/kg/day. It was showed a greater resistance for females to contract effects on the endocrine system by the ingestion of malathion. Females were more susceptible to suffer alterations in the pituitary gland with exposure times between 3 and 6 months. Conclusions: The prediction model based on NB classifiers allowed to analyze all the possible combinations of the studied variables and improving its accuracy using GAs. Excepting the pituitary gland, females demonstrated better resistance to contract effects by increasing levels on the rest of endocrine system glands. PMID:27833725

  17. Superovulation does not affect the endocrine activity nor increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zong; Zhang, Gang; Yu, Jing; Lu, Xi-Lan; Li, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the dual effects of superovulation on the endocrine activity and susceptibility to carcinogenesis of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring in mice The mice were superovaluted. The relative uterine weight, ERα protein expression, and endocrine activity of female offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) were measured. Furthermore, proliferative lesion of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) was assessed by histopathologic examinations. There were no significant differences in relative uterine weight, ERα protein expression, incidence of proliferative lesion in mammary glands, and incidence of atypical hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma, and squamous metaplasia in uterine among the offspring (F1 generation and F2 generation) in each group. Likewise, there were no significant intergroup differences in the serum levels of sex related hormones. No significant alterations were found in the endocrine activity and susceptibility to carcinogenesis of uterine and mammary glands of female offspring in mice produced by superovaluted oocytes compared with those of naturally conceived offspring.

  18. Endocrine controls of keratin expression.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Paus, Ralf; Tiede, Stephan; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2009-04-01

    Keratins are a family of intermediate filaments that serve various crucial roles in skin physiology. For mammalian skin to function properly, and to produce epidermal and hair keratins that are optimally adapted for their environment, it is critical that keratin gene and protein expression are stringently controlled. Given that the skin is not only targeted by multiple hormones, but also constitutes a veritable peripheral endocrine organ, it is not surprizing that intracutaneous keratin expression is underlined by tight endocrine controls. These controls encompass thyroid hormones, steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids (GCs), retinoic acid (RA) and vitamin D, and several neuroendocrine mediators. Here, we review why a better understanding of the endocrine controls of keratin expression is not only required for an improved insight into normal human skin and hair function, but may also open new therapeutic avenues in a wide range of skin and hair diseases.

  19. The endocrine control of reproduction in Nereidae: a new multi-hormonal model with implications for their functional role in a changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, A. J.; Soame, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Nereidae are vital to the functioning of estuarine ecosystems and are major components in the diets of over-wintering birds and commercial fish. They use environmental cues to synchronize reproduction. Photoperiod is the proximate cue, initiating vitellogenesis in a temperature-compensated process. The prevailing paradigm in Nereidae is of a single ‘juvenile’ hormone controlling growth and reproduction. However, a new multi-hormone model is presented here that integrates the environmental and endocrine control of reproduction. This is supported by evidence from in vitro bioassays. The juvenile hormone is shown to be heat stable and cross reactive between species. In addition, a second neuro-hormone, identified here as a gonadotrophic hormone, is shown to be present in mature females and is found to promote oocyte growth. Furthermore, dopamine and melatonin appear to switch off the juvenile hormone while serotonin and oxytocin promote oocyte growth. Global warming is likely to uncouple the phase relationship between temperature and photoperiod, with significant consequences for Nereidae that use photoperiod to cue reproduction during the winter in northern latitudes. Genotypic adaptation of the photoperiodic response may be possible, but significant impacts on fecundity, spawning success and recruitment are likely in response to short-term extreme events. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may also impact on putative steroid hormone pathways in Nereidae with similar consequences. These impacts may have significant implications for the functional role of Nereidae and highlight the importance of comparative endocrinology studies in these and other invertebrates. PMID:19833648

  20. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  1. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  2. Fetal and Neonatal Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different from adults, children are not exposed only to chemical toxins in the environment but may also be exposed during their intrauterine life. Hundreds of toxic substances, which include neuro-immune and endocrine toxic chemical components that may influence the critical steps of hormonal, neurological and immunological development, may affect the fetus via the placental cord and these substances may be excreted in the meconium. Children and especially newborns are more sensitive to environmental toxins compared to adults. Metabolic pathways are immature, especially in the first months of life. The ability of the newborn to metabolize, detoxify and eliminate many toxins is different from that of the adults. Although exposures occur during fetal or neonatal period, their effects may sometimes be observed in later years. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of these substances on the endocrine system and to provide evidence for preventive measures. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22672860

  3. Global skeletal uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (GSU) in patients affected by endocrine diseases: comparison with biochemical markers of bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Scillitani, A; Dicembrino, F; Chiodini, I; Minisola, S; Fusilli, S; Di Giorgio, A; Garrubba, M; D'Aloiso, L; Frusciante, V; Torlontano, M; Modoni, S; Trischitta, V; Trischitta, V; Carnevale, V

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed to clinically validate the global skeletal uptake (GSU) of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP), and to compare it with a marker of bone formation (i.e. serum osteocalcin or OC) and an index of bone resorption (i.e. urinary deoxypyridinoline or U-DPD) in different endocrine disorders affecting the skeleton. We studied 29 female patients with thyrotoxicosis (TT), 27 with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), 16 with acromegaly (AC), 15 with Cushing's syndrome (CS), and altogether 110 healthy women matched for age, BMI and menstrual status. In all subjects total body digital scan images (TBDS) were acquired at 5 min and at 4 h after the administration of (99m)Tc-MDP; the whole body retention (WBR) of the tracer was measured by counting two identical sets of rectangular ROIs, and GSU was subsequently calculated by drawing an irregular ROI on 4 h TBDS images. Serum OC was assessed by IRMA and urinary DPD by fluorometric detection after reverse phase high pressure chromatography. In TT patients GSU (40.0 +/- 5.1 vs 36.5 +/- 4.8%), OC (19.1 +/- 11.8 vs 7.1 +/- 2.9 microg/l) and U-DPD (62.4 +/- 42.7 vs 19.5 +/- 5.3 pmol/pmol) were significantly ( p<0.01) higher than in controls. PHPT patients showed GSU (47.2 +/- 6.6 vs 37.8 +/- 5.3%), OC (38.6 +/- 40.9 vs 8.2 +/- 2.5 microg/l), and U-DPD (55.0 +/- 51.3 vs 21.9 +/- 6.1 pmol/pmol) values significantly ( p<0.001) higher than controls. In CS patients, GSU (39.6 +/- 6.4 vs 32.7 +/- 3.5%; p<0.01) and U-DPD (22.8 +/- 8.4 vs 16.5 +/- 2.7 pmol/pmol; p<0.05) were higher, whereas OC (3.6 +/- 2.4 vs 5.2 +/- 1.9 mg/l; p<0,05) was lower than in controls. In AC patients, GSU (34.9 +/- 5.3 vs 35.2 +/- 3.4%) did not differ significantly from controls, whereas OC (16.8 +/- 8.8 vs 6.9 +/- 2.9 microg/l; p<0.001) and U-DPD (30.9 +/- 13.6 vs 21.0 +/- 5.7 pmol/pmol; p<0.01) were higher. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was performed with disease activity, creatinine clearance, age, and years since

  4. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Eroschenko, V P; Fox, G A; Fry, D M; Gorsline, J

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  5. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eroschenko, V.P.; Fox, G.A.; Fry, D.M.; Gorsline, J.

    1984-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  6. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  7. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  8. Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids mimic direct but not receptor-mediated inhibitory effects of estrogens and phytoestrogens on testicular endocrine function. Possible significance for Leydig cell insufficiency in alcohol addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Stammel, W.; Thomas, H. ); Staib, W.; Kuehn-Velten, W.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Possible effects of various tetrahydroisoquinolines (TIQs) on rat testicular endocrine function were tested in vitro in order to prove whether these compounds may be mediators of the development of Leydig cell insufficiency. TIQ effects on different levels of regulation of testis function were compared in vitro with estrogen effects, since both classes of compounds have structural similarities. Gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production by testicular Leydig cells was inhibited by tetrahydropapaveroline and isosalsoline, the IC{sub 50} values being comparable to those of estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and the phytoestrogens, coumestrol and genistein; salsolinol and salsoline were less effective, and salsolidine was ineffective. None of these TIQs interacted significantly with testicular estrogen receptor as analyzed by estradiol displacement. However, tetrahydropapaveroline, isosalsoline and salsolinol competitively inhibited substrate binding to cytochrome P45OXVII, with similar efficiency as the estrogens did; salsoline and salsolidine were again much less effective.

  9. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015

  10. Immunologic endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S

    2010-02-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA-like molecules determining tissue-specific targeting that, with the loss of tolerance, leads to organ-specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Addison disease, and many others result from autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in patients with type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. Although therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  12. Effects of Wastewater Discharges on Endocrine and Reproductive Function of Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.) and Implications for the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Olivier, Heather M.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Alvarez, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Ana River (SAR) in southern California is impacted by effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), which are sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) and urban runoff. The Santa Ana River is one of only three river basins supporting native populations of the federally listed Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) at the time the fish was included on the list 2000. In 2004 and 2005, a U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service study was undertaken to determine if the threatened Santa Ana sucker was potentially exposed to OWCs and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the SAR by using the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a surrogate fish model. Four Santa Ana River sites were chosen along a gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents: (1) a point source of tertiary treated wastewater effluent (TTWE), (2) Rialto Drain (just below a WWTP), (3) Prado Dam (11 kilometers [km] below WWTPs), and (4) Sunnyslope Creek (no WWTP but having urban runoff influence). A reference site having no WWTPs or urban runoff, Thousand Palms, was also sampled. Chemical analyses of passive sampler extracts results showed that 15 OWCs and EDCs were detected in water from the Santa Ana River sites. Many of these compounds contributed to activity from an estrogenic in-vitro assay that showed a significant potential for impacting endocrine and reproductive systems compared to the 25 organochlorine compounds detected in aquatic biota. The site showing compounds having highest influence on sex steroid hormone activities was the point source for TTWE. Sex steroid hormone levels, secondary sex characteristics, organosomatic indices, and sperm quality parameters indicated impairment of endocrine and reproductive function of male western mosquitofish in the Santa Ana River. Exposure to EDCs and consequent impairment in mosquitofish followed the gradient of proximity to WWTP effluents, where the most significant effects were found at TTWE point source and

  13. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    SciTech Connect

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. )

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  14. Lexical and Affective Prosody in Children with High Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Bemis, Rhyannon H.; Skwerer, Daniela Plesa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We investigated perception and production of lexical stress and processing of affective prosody in adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA). We hypothesized preserved processing of lexical and affective prosody, but atypical lexical prosody production. Method 16 children with HFA and 15 typically developing (TD) peers participated in three experiments: 1. Perception of affective prosody, 2. Lexical stress perception, 3. Lexical stress production. In Experiment 1, participants labeled sad, happy, and neutral spoken sentences that were low-pass filtered, to eliminate verbal content. In Experiment 2 participants disambiguated word meanings based on lexical stress (HOTdog, vs. hotDOG). In Experiment 3 participants produced these words in a sentence completion task. Productions were analyzed using acoustic measures. Results Accuracy levels showed no group differences. Participants with HFA could determine affect from filtered sentences and disambiguate words based on lexical stress. They produced appropriately differentiated lexical stress patterns but demonstrated atypically long productions indicating reduced ability in natural prosody production. Conclusions Children with HFA were as capable as their TD peers in receptive tasks of lexical stress and affective prosody. Prosody productions were atypically long, despite accurate differentiation of lexical stress patterns. Future research should use larger samples and spontaneous vs. elicited productions. PMID:20530388

  15. Diffuse traumatic brain injury affects chronic corticosterone function in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K; Rumney, Benjamin M; May, Hazel G; Permana, Paska; Adelson, P David; Harman, S Mitchell; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    As many as 20–55% of patients with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience chronic endocrine dysfunction, leading to impaired quality of life, impaired rehabilitation efforts and lowered life expectancy. Endocrine dysfunction after TBI is thought to result from acceleration–deceleration forces to the brain within the skull, creating enduring hypothalamic and pituitary neuropathology, and subsequent hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine (HPE) dysfunction. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that a single diffuse TBI results in chronic dysfunction of corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid released in response to stress and testosterone. We used a rodent model of diffuse TBI induced by midline fluid percussion injury (mFPI). At 2months postinjury compared with uninjured control animals, circulating levels of CORT were evaluated at rest, under restraint stress and in response to dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid commonly used to test HPE axis regulation. Testosterone was evaluated at rest. Further, we assessed changes in injury-induced neuron morphology (Golgi stain), neuropathology (silver stain) and activated astrocytes (GFAP) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Resting plasma CORT levels were decreased at 2months postinjury and there was a blunted CORT increase in response to restraint induced stress. No changes in testosterone were measured. These changes in CORT were observed concomitantly with altered complexity of neuron processes in the PVN over time, devoid of neuropathology or astrocytosis. Results provide evidence that a single moderate diffuse TBI leads to changes in CORT function, which can contribute to the persistence of symptoms related to endocrine dysfunction. Future experiments aim to evaluate additional HP-related hormones and endocrine circuit pathology following diffuse TBI. PMID:27317610

  16. Probing the binding of an endocrine disrupting compound-Bisphenol F to human serum albumin: Insights into the interactions of harmful chemicals with functional biomacromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Fang; Xu, Tianci; Yang, Lijun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lei

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) as an endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) pollutant in the environment poses a great threat to human health. To evaluate the toxicity of BPF at the protein level, the effects of BPF on human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated at three temperatures 283, 298, and 308 K by multiple spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results showed that BPF effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA via static quenching. The number of binding sites, the binding constant, the thermodynamic parameters and the binding subdomain were measured, and indicated that BPF could spontaneously bind with HSA on subdomain IIA through H-bond and van der Waals interactions. Furthermore, the conformation of HSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of BPF. The work provides accurate and full basic data for clarifying the binding mechanisms of BPF with HSA in vivo and is helpful for understanding its effect on protein function during its transportation and distribution in blood.

  17. STATUS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING ACTIVITIES IN THE US: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have witnessed a growing concern for chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect the normal functioning of the endocrine system. In 1996, the US Congress passed the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) that mandated the US Environmental Protection Ag...

  18. A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION, WITH COMMENTS ON THE US EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have witnessed a growing concern for chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect the normal functioning of the endocrine system. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of the World Health Organization has recently reviewed the curren...

  19. Development of a Computational Model for Female Fathead Minnows exposed to Two Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens and androgens) are known to affect reproductive functions in fish. A synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills, 17á-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is discharged from wastewater treatment plants into water bodies throughout the United ...

  20. STATUS OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING ACTIVITIES IN THE US: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EDSTAC RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have witnessed a growing concern for chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect the normal functioning of the endocrine system. In 1996, the US Congress passed the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) that mandated the US Environmental Protection Ag...

  1. Development of a Computational Model for Female Fathead Minnows exposed to Two Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens and androgens) are known to affect reproductive functions in fish. A synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills, 17á-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is discharged from wastewater treatment plants into water bodies throughout the United ...

  2. A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION, WITH COMMENTS ON THE US EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have witnessed a growing concern for chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect the normal functioning of the endocrine system. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of the World Health Organization has recently reviewed the curren...

  3. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Falchetti, Alberto; Monte, Francesca Del; Sala, Silvia Carbonell; Gozzini, Alessia; Luzi, Ettore; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours) within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions) is recommended. PMID:17014705

  4. The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Leso, Veruscka; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe adverse effects on human health. Consequently, in order to gather information on the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on endocrine organs, we reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the endocrine effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to different types of nanoparticles. Our aim was to understand the potential endocrine disrupting risks posed by nanoparticles, to assess their underlying mechanisms of action and identify areas in which further investigation is needed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of nanoparticles as endocrine disruptors. Current data support the notion that different types of nanoparticles are capable of altering the normal and physiological activity of the endocrine system. However, a critical evaluation of these findings suggests the need to interpret these results with caution since information on potential endocrine interactions and the toxicity of nanoparticles is quite limited. PMID:23949635

  5. Endocrine FGFs: Evolution, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Konishi, Morichika

    2015-01-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family comprises 22 structurally related polypeptides that play crucial roles in neuronal functions, development, and metabolism. FGFs are classified as intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine FGFs based on their action mechanisms. Paracrine and endocrine FGFs are secreted signaling molecules by acting via cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs). Paracrine FGFs require heparan sulfate as a cofactor for FGFRs. In contrast, endocrine FGFs, comprising FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, require α-Klotho or β-Klotho as a cofactor for FGFRs. Endocrine FGFs, which are specific to vertebrates, lost heparan sulfate-binding affinity and acquired a systemic signaling system with α-Klotho or β-Klotho during early vertebrate evolution. The phenotypes of endocrine FGF knockout mice indicate that they play roles in metabolism including bile acid, energy, and phosphate/active vitamin D metabolism. Accumulated evidence for the involvement of endocrine FGFs in human genetic and metabolic diseases also indicates their pathophysiological roles in metabolic diseases, potential risk factors for metabolic diseases, and useful biomarkers for metabolic diseases. The therapeutic utility of endocrine FGFs is currently being developed. These findings provide new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endocrine FGFs and potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases. PMID:26483756

  6. An endocrine role for brown adipose tissue?

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Joan; Cereijo, Rubén; Villarroya, Francesc

    2013-09-01

    White adipose tissue is recognized as both a site of energy storage and an endocrine organ that produces a myriad of endocrine factors called adipokines. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main site of nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals. The amount and activity of brown adipocytes are associated with protection against obesity and associated metabolic alterations. These effects of BAT are traditionally attributed to its capacity for the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose to sustain thermogenesis. However, recent data suggest that the beneficial effects of BAT could involve a previously unrecognized endocrine role through the release of endocrine factors. Several signaling molecules with endocrine properties have been found to be released by brown fat, especially under conditions of thermogenic activation. Moreover, experimental BAT transplantation has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity mainly by influencing hepatic and cardiac function. It has been proposed that these effects are due to the release of endocrine factors by brown fat, such as insulin-like growth factor I, interleukin-6, or fibroblast growth factor-21. Further research is needed to determine whether brown fat plays an endocrine role and, if so, to comprehensively identify which endocrine factors are released by BAT. Such research may reveal novel clues for the observed association between brown adipocyte activity and a healthy metabolic profile, and it could also enlarge a current view of potential therapeutic tools for obesity and associated metabolic diseases.

  7. Triphenyltin as a potential human endocrine disruptor.

    PubMed

    Golub, Mari; Doherty, John

    2004-01-01

    Organotin compounds have been implicated as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disruptors primarily through studies in aquatic organisms, with little information available in mammals. Among the organotins, aryltins have been less studied than alkyltins. Extensive data is available on mammalian developmental and reproductive toxicity of one aryltin compound, triphenyltin (TPT), from toxicity studies conducted in connection with the registration of triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) as a pesticide and supporting publications from the open literature. Indications of adverse functional and morphological effects on the reproductive tract of rats were reported in a dose range of 1.4-20 mg/kg/d. Gonadal histopathology (both ovaries and testes) and infertility were affected at the higher doses, while reproductive-tract cancer, smaller litter sizes, and reproductive organ weights were affected at the lower end of the dose range. In vitro studies indicate that TPT can directly activate androgen receptor-mediated transcription and inhibit enzymes that are involved in steroid hormone metabolism. These data suggest that the aryltin TPT can be active as a reproductive toxicant in mammals and may be a human endocrine disruptor.

  8. The significance of Ciona intestinalis as a stem organism in integrative studies of functional evolution of the chordate endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shin; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Tsubasa; Aoyama, Masato; Osugi, Tomohiro; Shiraishi, Akira; Satake, Honoo

    2016-02-01

    Ascidians are the closest phylogenetic neighbors to vertebrates and are believed to conserve the evolutionary origin in chordates of the endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems involving neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Ciona intestinalis harbors various homologs or prototypes of vertebrate neuropeptides and peptide hormones including gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), tachykinins (TKs), and calcitonin, as well as Ciona-specific neuropeptides such as Ciona vasopressin, LF, and YFV/L peptides. Moreover, molecular and functional studies on Ciona tachykinin (Ci-TK) have revealed the novel molecular mechanism of inducing oocyte growth via up-regulation of vitellogenesis-associated protease activity, which is expected to be conserved in vertebrates. Furthermore, a series of studies on Ciona GnRH receptor paralogs have verified the species-specific regulation of GnRHergic signaling including unique signaling control via heterodimerization among multiple GnRH receptors. These findings confirm the remarkable significance of ascidians in investigations of the evolutionary processes of the peptidergic systems in chordates, leading to the promising advance in the research on Ciona peptides in the next stage based on the recent development of emerging technologies including genome-editing techniques, peptidomics-based multi-color staining, machine-learning prediction, and next-generation sequencing. These technologies and bioinformatic integration of the resultant "multi-omics" data will provide unprecedented insights into the comprehensive understanding of molecular and functional regulatory mechanisms of the Ciona peptides, and will eventually enable the exploration of both conserved and diversified endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems in the evolutionary lineage of chordates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Spatiotemporal Pattern of Glis3 Expression Indicates a Regulatory Function in Bipotent and Endocrine Progenitors during Early Pancreatic Development and in Beta, PP and Ductal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hong Soon; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jeon, Kilsoo

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Glis-similar 3 (Glis3) has been implicated in the development of neonatal, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development as well as its function in PP cells. To obtain greater insights into the functions of Glis3 in pancreas development, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Glis3 protein in a knockin mouse strain expressing a Glis3-EGFP fusion protein. Immunohistochemistry showed that Glis3-EGFP was not detectable during early pancreatic development (E11.5 and E12.5) and at E13.5 and 15.5 was not expressed in Ptf1a+ cells in the tip domains indicating that Glis3 is not expressed in multipotent pancreatic progenitors. Glis3 was first detectable at E13.5 in the nucleus of bipotent progenitors in the trunk domains, where it co-localized with Sox9, Hnf6, and Pdx1. It remained expressed in preductal and Ngn3+ endocrine progenitors and at later stages becomes restricted to the nucleus of pancreatic beta and PP cells as well as ductal cells. Glis3-deficiency greatly reduced, whereas exogenous Glis3, induced Ppy expression, as reported for insulin. Collectively, our study demonstrates that Glis3 protein exhibits a temporal and cell type-specific pattern of expression during embryonic and neonatal pancreas development that is consistent with a regulatory role for Glis3 in promoting endocrine progenitor generation, regulating insulin and Ppy expression in beta and PP cells, respectively, and duct morphogenesis. PMID:27270601

  10. Functional significance of preserved affect recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Johannesen, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Affect recognition (AR) is a core component of social information processing, thus may be critical to understanding social behavior and functioning in broader aspects of daily living. Deficits in AR are well documented in schizophrenia, however, there is also evidence that many individuals with schizophrenia perform AR tasks at near-normal levels. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the functional significance of AR deficits in schizophrenia by comparing subgroups with normal-range and impaired AR performance on proxy and interviewer-rated measures of real-world functioning. Schizophrenia outpatients were classified as normal-range (N=17) and impaired (N=31) based on a logistic cut point in the sample distribution of BLERT scores, referenced to a normative sample of healthy control subjects (N=56). The derived schizophrenia subgroups were then compared on proxy (UCSD, UPSA, SSPA, MMAA) and interviewer-rated (QLS, ILSS) measures of functioning, as well as battery of neurocognitive tests. Initial analyses indicated superior MMAA and QLS performance in the near-normal AR subgroup. Covariate analyses indicated that group differences in neurocognition fully mediated the observed associations between AR and MMAA and attenuated the observed relationships between AR classification and QLS. These results support three main conclusions. First, AR, like many other domains of psychopathology studied in schizophrenia, is preserved in select subgroups. Second, there is a positive relationship between AR performance and functional outcome measures. Third, neurocognition appears to mediate the relationship between AR and measures of functioning. PMID:20202689

  11. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  12. Affective temperament and executive functions in emergency medicine professionals.

    PubMed

    Jaracz, Marcin; Paciorek, Przemysław; Buciński, Adam; Borkowska, Alina

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that choice of profession is related to differences in affective temperament, which is probably due to various predispositions needed to efficiently perform particular professions. The aim of the present study was to assess affective temperament and executive functions in a sample of emergency medicine professionals. 75 emergency medicine professionals were enrolled in the study. Affective temperament was assessed by means of TEMPS-A. Executive functions were assessed by means of Trail Making Test and Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Subjects showed significantly higher rates of hyperthymic, compared to depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments. The principal component analysis revealed that hyperthymic temperament contributes to a different factor, than the remaining ones. Higher rates of depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments were related to poorer performance in Trail Making Test, whereas hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effect. Due to the size of the sample, results of the present study may have lacked power to show all the relationships between tested variables. Hyperthymic temperament promotes efficient performance of complex tasks under time pressure. Depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments have the opposite effect. This makes hyperthymic temperament a desirable trait in emergency medicine professionals, performing complex medical tasks under extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A critical review finds styrene lacks direct endocrine disruptor activity.

    PubMed

    Gelbke, Heinz-Peter; Banton, Marcy; Leibold, Edgar; Pemberton, Mark; Samson, Susan Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission lists styrene (S) as an endocrine disruptor based primarily on reports of increased prolactin (PRL) levels in S-exposed workers. The US Environmental Protection Agency included S in its list of chemicals to be tested for endocrine activity. Therefore, the database of S for potential endocrine activity is assessed. In vitro and in vivo screening studies, as well as non-guideline and guideline investigations in experimental animals indicate that S is not associated with (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, or thyroid-modulating activity or with an endocrine activity that may be relevant for the environment. Studies in exposed workers have suggested elevated PRL levels that have been further examined in a series of human and animal investigations. While there is only one definitively known physiological function of PRL, namely stimulation of milk production, many normal stress situations may lead to elevations without any chemical exposure. Animal studies on various aspects of dopamine (DA), the PRL-regulating neurotransmitter, in the central nervous system did not give mechanistic explanations on how S may affect PRL levels. Overall, a neuroendocrine disruption of PRL regulation cannot be deduced from a large experimental database. The effects in workers could not consistently be reproduced in experimental animals and the findings in humans represented acute reversible effects clearly below clinical and pathological levels. Therefore, unspecific acute workplace-related stress is proposed as an alternative mode of action for elevated PRL levels in workers.

  14. Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review.

    PubMed

    Rana, S V S

    2014-07-01

    An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.

  15. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Points to Consider: Histopathology Evaluation of the Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function Assay (OPPTS 890.1450, OPPTS 890.1500) in Rats to Screen for Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Keane, Kevin A; Parker, George A; Regan, Karen S; Picut, Catherine; Dixon, Darlene; Creasy, Dianne; Giri, Dipak; Hukkanen, Renee R

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a multitiered approach to determine the potential for environmental chemicals to alter the endocrine system. The Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile/Peripubertal Female and Male Rats (OPPTS 890.1450, 890.1500) are 2 of the 9 EDSP tier 1 test Guidelines, which assess upstream mechanistic pathways along with downstream morphological end points including histological evaluation of the kidneys, thyroid, and select male/female reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, testes, and epididymides). These assays are part of a battery of in vivo and in vitro screens used for initial detection of test article endocrine activity. In this Points to Consider article, we describe tissue processing, evaluation, and nomenclature to aid in standardization of assay results across laboratories. Pubertal assay end points addressed include organ weights, estrous cyclicity, clinical pathology, hormonal assays, and histological evaluation. Potential treatment-related findings that may indicate endocrine disruption are reviewed. Additional tissues that may be useful in assessment of endocrine disruption (vagina, mammary glands, and liver) are discussed. This Points to Consider article is intended to provide information for evaluating peripubertal tissues within the context of individual assay end points, the overall pubertal assay, and tier I assays of the EDSP program. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  16. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Points to Consider*: Histopathology Evaluation of the Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function Assay (OPPTS 890.1450, OPPTS 890.1500) in Rats to Screen for Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin A.; Parker, George A.; Regan, Karen S.; Picut, Catherine; Dixon, Darlene; Creasy, Dianne; Giri, Dipak; Hukkanen, Renee R.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a multitiered approach to determine the potential for environmental chemicals to alter the endocrine system. The Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile/Peripubertal Female and Male Rats (OPPTS 890.1450, 890.1500) are 2 of the 9 EDSP tier 1 test Guidelines, which assess upstream mechanistic pathways along with downstream morphological end points including histological evaluation of the kidneys, thyroid, and select male/female reproductive tissues (ovaries, uterus, testes, and epididymides). These assays are part of a battery of in vivo and in vitro screens used for initial detection of test article endocrine activity. In this Points to Consider article, we describe tissue processing, evaluation, and nomenclature to aid in standardization of assay results across laboratories. Pubertal assay end points addressed include organ weights, estrous cyclicity, clinical pathology, hormonal assays, and histological evaluation. Potential treatment-related findings that may indicate endocrine disruption are reviewed. Additional tissues that may be useful in assessment of endocrine disruption (vagina, mammary glands, and liver) are discussed. This Points to Consider article is intended to provide information for evaluating peripubertal tissues within the context of individual assay end points, the overall pubertal assay, and tier I assays of the EDSP program. PMID:25948506

  17. Abnormal GABAergic function and negative affect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephan F; Demeter, Elise; Phan, K Luan; Tso, Ivy F; Welsh, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system have been reported in postmortem studies of schizophrenia, and therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia often involve potentiation of GABA receptors (GABAR) to augment antipsychotic therapy and treat negative affect such as anxiety. To map GABAergic mechanisms associated with processing affect, we used a benzodiazepine challenge while subjects viewed salient visual stimuli. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients and 13 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they viewed salient emotional images. Subjects received intravenous lorazepam (LRZ; 0.01 mg/kg) or saline in a single-blinded, cross-over design (two sessions separated by 1-3 weeks). A predicted group by drug interaction was noted in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) as well as right superior frontal gyrus and left and right occipital regions, such that psychosis patients showed an increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, rather than the decreased signal exhibited by the comparison group. A main effect of reduced BOLD signal in bilateral occipital areas was noted across groups. Consistent with the role of the dmPFC in processing emotion, state negative affect positively correlated with the response to the LRZ challenge in the dmPFC for the patients and comparison subjects. The altered response to LRZ challenge is consistent with altered inhibition predicted by postmortem findings of altered GABAR in schizophrenia. These results also suggest that negative affect in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder is associated-directly or indirectly-with GABAergic function on a continuum with normal behavior.

  18. Nitric oxide affects plant mitochondrial functionality in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zottini, Michela; Formentin, Elide; Scattolin, Michela; Carimi, Francesco; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Terzi, Mario

    2002-03-27

    In this report, we show that nitric oxide affects mitochondrial functionality in plant cells and reduces total cell respiration due to strong inhibition of the cytochrome pathway. The residual respiration depends on the alternative pathway and novel synthesis of alternative oxidase occurs. These modifications are associated with depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, suggesting a conserved signalling pathway in plants and animals. This signal cascade is triggered at the mitochondrial level and induces about 20% of cell death. In order to achieve a higher level of cell death, the addition of H(2)O(2) is necessary.

  19. Endocrine manifestations of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michelle P

    2011-02-01

    The endocrinopathies associated with eating disorders involve multiple systems and mechanisms designed to preserve energy and protect essential organs. Those systems that are most affected are in need of significant energy, such as the reproductive and skeletal systems. The changes in neuropeptides and in the hypothalamic axis that mediate these changes also receive input from neuroendocrine signals sensitive to satiety and food intake and in turn may be poised to provide significant energy conservation. These adaptive changes are described, including the thyroid, GH, and cortisol axes, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. Articles were found via PubMed search for both original articles and reviews summarizing current understanding of the endocrine changes of eating disorders based on peer review publications on the topic between 1974 and 2009. The signals that control weight and food intake are complex and probably involve multiple pathways that appear to have as a central control the hypothalamus, in particular the medial central area. The hypothalamic dysfunction of eating disorders provides a reversible experiment of nature that gives insight into understanding the role of various neuropeptides signaling nutritional status, feeding behavior, skeletal repair, and reproductive function.

  20. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adrenomedullin and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Letizia, C; Rossi, G; Cerci, S

    2003-12-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a recently discovered potent vasodilatory peptide, originally isolated in extracts of human pheochromocytoma, with activities including maintenance of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis through vasodilatation, diuresis and natriuresis. Human AM consists of 52 amino acids with a 6-member ring structure linked by a disulfide bond and amidated COOH terminal, which belongs to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and amylin. The main sites of AM production are the lungs, vascular tissues (both endothelial and smooth muscle cells), heart, kidney, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, placenta, anterior pituitary gland and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine system. Intravenous injection of AM increases blood flow predominantly in the tissues with the highest AM expression, suggesting that AM functions primarily as a paracrine/autocrine hormone, but it is also important as circulating hormone. The objective of this review is to analyze the evidence that AM may play a role in some endocrine disorders.

  2. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    PubMed

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts.

  3. How does temperature affect the function of tissue macrophages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages create a major danger signal following injury or infection and upon activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn help to generate febrile conditions. Thus, like other cells of the body, tissue macrophages are often exposed to naturally occurring elevations in tissue temperature during inflammation and fever. However, whether macrophages sense and respond to temperature changes in a specific manner which modulates their function is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of temperatures on macrophage function, and summarize the possible underlying molecular mechanisms which have been identified. Mild, physiological range hyperthermia has been shown to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in regulating macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and at the meeting presentation, we will show new data demonstrating that hyperthermia can indeed exert both positive and negative signals to macrophages. While some thermal effects are correlated with the induction of heat shock factors/heat shock proteins, overall it is not clear how mild hyperthermia can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We also summarize data which shows that hyperthermia can affect other macrophage effector functions, including the anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Overall, these studies may help us to better understand the immunological role of tissue temperature and may provide important information needed to maximize the application of heat in the treatment of various diseases including cancer.

  4. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... System The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries ...

  5. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  6. [Postpartum endocrine syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Châtel, P; Luton, D

    2008-05-01

    Postpartum endocrine syndromes occur in the year after delivery. They are due to immunologic and vascular modifications during pregnancy. The Sheehan syndrome is the first described postpartum endocrine syndrome and consists on a hypophyse necrosis in relation with a hypovolemic shock during delivery. The immunologic consequences of the pregnancy are the most frequent, sometimes discrete and transitory. The physiological evolution of the endocrine glands during pregnancy and the most frequent post-partum endocrine syndromes are discussed: postpartum lymphocytic hypophysitis, thyroiditis and Sheehan' syndrome.

  7. Selecting appropriate animal models and experimental designs for endocrine disruptor research and testing studies.

    PubMed

    Stokes, William S

    2004-01-01

    Evidence that chemicals in the environment may cause developmental and reproductive abnormalities in fish and wildlife by disrupting normal endocrine functions has increased concern about potential adverse human health effects from such chemicals. US laws have now been enacted that require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and validate a screening program to identify chemicals in food and water with potential endocrine-disrupting activity. EPA subsequently proposed an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program that uses in vitro and in vivo test systems to identify chemicals that may adversely affect humans and ecologically important animal species. However, the endocrine system can be readily modulated by many experimental factors, including diet and the genetic background of the selected animal strain or stock. It is therefore desirable to minimize or avoid factors that cause or contribute to experimental variation in endocrine disruptor research and testing studies. Standard laboratory animal diets contain high and variable levels of phytoestrogens, which can modulate physiologic and behavioral responses similar to both endogenous estrogen as well as exogenous estrogenic chemicals. Other studies have determined that some commonly used outbred mice and rats are less responsive to estrogenic substances than certain inbred mouse and rat strains for various estrogen-sensitive endpoints. It is therefore critical to select appropriate biological models and diets for endocrine disruptor studies that provide optimal sensitivity and specificity to accomplish the research or testing objectives. An introduction is provided to 11 other papers in this issue that review these and other important laboratory animal experimental design considerations in greater detail, and that review laboratory animal and in vitro models currently being used or evaluated for endocrine disruptor research and testing. Selection of appropriate animal models and experimental design

  8. Cyclodextrin-functionalized Fe3O4@TiO2: reusable, magnetic nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water supplies.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Sukumaran

    2013-05-28

    Water-dispersible, photocatalytic Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles have been prepared by anchoring cyclodextrin cavities to the TiO2 shell, and their ability to capture and photocatalytically destroy endocrine-disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A and dibutyl phthalate, present in water, has been demonstrated. The functionalized nanoparticles can be magnetically separated from the dispersion after photocatalysis and hence reused. Each component of the cyclodextrin-functionalized Fe3O4@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle has a crucial role in its functioning. The tethered cyclodextrins are responsible for the aqueous dispersibility of the nanoparticles and their hydrophobic cavities for the capture of the organic pollutants that may be present in water samples. The amorphous TiO2 shell is the photocatalyst for the degradation and mineralization of the organics, bisphenol A and dibutyl phthalate, under UV illumination, and the magnetism associated with the 9 nm crystalline Fe3O4 core allows for the magnetic separation from the dispersion once photocatalytic degradation is complete. An attractive feature of these "capture and destroy" nanomaterials is that they may be completely removed from the dispersion and reused with little or no loss of catalytic activity.

  9. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of two monophasic combined oral contraceptives, containing either nomegestrol acetate/17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) or levonorgestrel/ ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE) on endocrine function, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Methods Randomised, open-label, multi-centre trial involving 121 healthy women, aged 18-50 years old. Participants received NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 in markers of adrenal and thyroid function, androgens, and SHBG. Results Total cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) increased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater increases in the LNG/EE group. No relevant changes from baseline or differences between the groups were observed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4). Androgens and androgen precursors decreased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater decreases in the LNG/EE group (except for free testosterone). A greater increase in SHBG was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. Conclusions NOMAC/E2 has significantly less influence on markers of adrenal and thyroid function and androgens than LNG/EE. The clinical relevance of these findings requires further study. PMID:21942708

  10. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system produces hormones which are powerful natural chemicals that regulate important life processes. Endocrine disruptors are human-made chemicals distributed globally which have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and produce serious biological e...

  11. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system produces hormones which are powerful natural chemicals that regulate important life processes. Endocrine disruptors are human-made chemicals distributed globally which have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and produce serious biological e...

  12. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Paula A.; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 ∙− production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  13. MicroRNAs affect dendritic cell function and phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Lesley A; Boardman, Dominic A; Tung, Sim L; Lechler, Robert; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that have been linked with immunity through regulating/modulating gene expression. A role for these molecules in T-cell and B-cell development and function has been well established. An increasing body of literature now highlights the importance of specific miRNA in dendritic cell (DC) development as well as their maturation process, antigen presentation capacity and cytokine release. Given the unique role of DC within the immune system, linking the innate and adaptive immune responses, understanding how specific miRNA affect DC function is of importance for understanding disease. In this review we summarize recent developments in miRNA and DC research, highlighting the requirement of miRNA in DC lineage commitment from bone marrow progenitors and for the development of subsets such as plasmacytoid DC and conventional DC. In addition, we discuss how infections and tumours modulate miRNA expression and consequently DC function. PMID:25244106

  14. Common alleles of predisposition in endocrine neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Eng, Charis

    2010-06-01

    The identification of germline high penetrance gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene as causative of multiple endocrine neoplasia led to accurate molecular diagnosis, predictive testing and gene-informed preventative medicine. Many syndromic endocrine neoplasias fell under this clinically utile model, although not all endocrine neoplasias were accounted for by these high penetrance predisposition genes associated with the validated practice of clinical cancer genetics. The past decade has seen the identification of low penetrance alleles for various endocrine neoplasias, including medullary and epithelial thyroid carcinomas and isolated pituitary adenomas. Functional characterisation of these effects, which range from subtle expressional or micro-RNA regulation, and the analysis of the conferred risks, which are typically low and below the threshold for medical actionability, remain scientific challenges before these may be incorporated into routine clinical practice.

  15. A study on endocrine dysfunction in thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay K; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Roy, Dipankar; Maisnam, Indira; Ghosh, Moloy K

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence and severity of hormonal imbalance affecting growth, gonadal and thyroid function in thalassaemic patients and to find out whether any correlation exists between the degree of tissue iron-overload and several patients characteristics like age, gender, foetal haemoglobin (HbF) level, type of thalassaemia (beta or E-beta), and the presence of specific endocrine abnormality. Sixty-eight consecutive non-chelated, transfusion-dependent patients of beta and E-beta-thalassaemia with significant tissue iron overload (serum ferritin more than 2000 microg/l) were included. Standing height was noted and clinical features of hypogonadism were recorded. Insulin tolerance test was done to assess growth hormone reserve. Serum oestradiol, T3,T4,TSH were measured in fasting clotted sample, while pooled sera (from 3 consevutive morning samples) was used for testosterone, FSH and LH. Hypogonadism was the commonest abnormality, both in males (52.28%) and females (35.89%) followed by growth retardation (20.58%) and reduced growth hormone reserve (7.35%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction with regard to patient's age, gender, type of thalassaemia (beta or E-beta) amd HbF level. Hypogonadic females had a significantly elevated mean serum ferritin level. Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 23.52% of patients, related to the duration of disease. No association was found between pituitarty and thyroid dysfunction.

  16. Human infertility: are endocrine disruptors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Pinto, André; Carvalho, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesise that these compounds may disrupt hormonal homoeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine-disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to summarise the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. Current data suggest that environmental levels of EDs may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both sexes, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. EDs may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to EDs is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to EDs is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility. PMID:23985363

  17. Human infertility: are endocrine disruptors to blame?

    PubMed

    Marques-Pinto, André; Carvalho, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesise that these compounds may disrupt hormonal homoeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine-disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to summarise the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. Current data suggest that environmental levels of EDs may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both sexes, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. EDs may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to EDs is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to EDs is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility.

  18. Elucidating the Links Between Endocrine Disruptors and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Blawas, Ashley M.; Gray, Kimberly; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Lawler, Cindy P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data indicate that approximately 12% of children in the United States are affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disorders, intellectual disabilities, and autism spectrum disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates a multifactorial etiology for these disorders, with social, physical, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, and chemical toxicants acting together to influence risk. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during the early stages of life can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus alter brain function and disease susceptibility later in life. This article highlights research efforts and pinpoints approaches that could shed light on the possible associations between environmental chemicals that act on the endocrine system and compromised neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:25714811

  19. Endocrine problems in children and adolescents who have disabilities.

    PubMed

    Zacharin, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of disability span almost all aspects of life, for families and for an affected individual. Endocrine aspects of disability cover disorders of hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction, bone health, puberty, fertility, sexual function and contraceptive needs. Adequate endocrine assessment for a child with a disability requires extensive and sensitive history to address social issues, general nutrition, vitamin D status, specific hypothalamic pituitary problems, together with parental concerns regarding puberty and contraception. Bone health assessment includes history of minimal trauma fracture, need for intervention or fitness for surgery. Strategic interventions to improve outcome include management of puberty, vitamin D status, biomechanical stimulation with vibration and standing and possible consideration for bisphosphonate in special circumstances. Both early and late puberty cause major family concerns. The paediatrician must be aware of a range of management options to improve outcomes for the child and family.

  20. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  1. Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, T H; Brown, R; Brugger, K E; Campbell, P M; Holt, M; Länge, R; McCahon, P; Tattersfield, L J; van Egmond, R

    2000-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals proposes a tiered approach for the ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors, integrating exposure and hazard (effects) characterization. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors should direct specific tests for wildlife species, placing hazard data into a risk assessment context. Supplementing the suite of mammalian screens now under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) validation, high priority should be given to developing a fish screening assay for detecting endocrine activity in oviparous species. Taking into account both exposure characterization and alerts from endocrine screening, higher tier tests are also a priority for defining adverse effects. We propose that in vivo mammalian and fish assays provide a comprehensive screening battery for diverse hormonal functions (including androgen, estrogen, and thyroid hormone), whereas Amphibia should be considered at higher tiers if there are exposure concerns. Higher tier endocrine-disruptor testing should include fish development and fish reproduction tests, whereas a full life-cycle test could be subsequently used to refine aquatic risk assessments when necessary. For avian risk assessment, the new OECD Japanese quail reproduction test guideline provides a valuable basis for developing a test to detecting endocrine-mediated reproductive effects; this species could be used, where necessary, for an avian life-cycle test. For aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, data from existing developmental and reproductive tests remain of high value for ecological risk assessment. High priority should be given to research into comparative endocrine physiology of invertebrates to support data extrapolation to this diverse fauna. PMID:11102288

  2. Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Matthew J; Ettinger, Ulrich; Foster, Russell; Williams, Steven C R; Calvert, Gemma A; Hampshire, Adam; Zelaya, Fernando O; O'Gorman, Ruth L; McMorris, Terry; Owen, Adrian M; Smith, Marcus S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. However, the effects of dehydration on brain function are unknown. We investigated this question using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 10 healthy adolescents (mean age = 16.8, five females). Each subject completed a thermal exercise protocol and nonthermal exercise control condition in a cross-over repeated measures design. Subjects lost more weight via perspiration in the thermal exercise versus the control condition (P < 0.0001), and lateral ventricle enlargement correlated with the reduction in body mass (r = 0.77, P = 0.01). Dehydration following the thermal exercise protocol led to a significantly stronger increase in fronto-parietal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response during an executive function task (Tower of London) than the control condition, whereas cerebral perfusion during rest was not affected. The increase in BOLD response after dehydration was not paralleled by a change in cognitive performance, suggesting an inefficient use of brain metabolic activity following dehydration. This pattern indicates that participants exerted a higher level of neuronal activity in order to achieve the same performance level. Given the limited availability of brain metabolic resources, these findings suggest that prolonged states of reduced water intake may adversely impact executive functions such as planning and visuo-spatial processing.

  3. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  4. Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J.M.; Gurrola, G.B.; Valdivia, H.H.F.; Possani, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na+-, K+- and Ca++-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na+-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K+-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca++-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells. PMID:23891887

  5. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  6. The endocrine quiz.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P; Nagesh, V Sri

    2014-05-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  7. Pediatric endocrine surgery.

    PubMed

    Telander, R L; Zimmerman, D; Kaufman, B H; van Heerden, J A

    1985-12-01

    The pediatric surgeon is in a unique position to understand endocrine surgery and, therefore, is expected to develop considerable expertise in this area. In recent years numerous advances and changes have occurred in pediatric endocrine surgery that have led to greater understanding of the disease processes and syndromes and the development of new diagnostic techniques and surgical approaches.

  8. The endocrine quiz

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Nagesh, V. Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject. PMID:24944922

  9. Female infertility of endocrine origin.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Rita Vasconcellos; Clapauch, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Infertility is defined as the failure to conceive, with no contraception, after one year of regular intercourse in women<35 years and after 6 months in women>35 years. A review on causes, management and treatment of endocrine causes of was performed. Epidemiological data suggest that around 10% to 15% of couples are infertile. Anovulatory problems are responsible from 25% to 50% of causes of . Advanced age, obesity, and drugs, have a negative effect on fertility. Different hypothalamic, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and ovarian disorders may affect fertility as well. Infertility is a growing phenomenon in developed societies. We here provide information about how to identify endocrine patients with ovulatory dysfunction. Women must be advised about limiting factors to be avoided, in order to protect their fertility.

  10. Endocrine-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade and expert insights on their management.

    PubMed

    Sznol, Mario; Postow, Michael A; Davies, Marianne J; Pavlick, Anna C; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Shaheen, Montaser; Veloski, Colleen; Robert, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Agents that modulate immune checkpoint proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), have become a mainstay in cancer treatment. The clinical benefit afforded by immune checkpoint inhibitors can be accompanied by immune-related adverse events (irAE) that affect the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and endocrine system. The types of irAEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are generally consistent across tumor types. Immune-related endocrine events can affect the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as other downstream target organs. These events are unique when compared with other irAEs because the manifestations are often irreversible. Immune-related endocrine events are typically grade 1/2 in severity and often present with non-specific symptoms, making them difficult to diagnose. The mechanisms underlying immune-related target organ damage in select individuals remain mostly undefined. Management includes close patient monitoring, appropriate laboratory testing for endocrine function, replacement of hormones, and consultation with an endocrinologist when appropriate. An awareness of the symptoms and management of immune-related endocrine events may aid in the safe and appropriate use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies: thyroid storm

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Richard; Matfin, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a common endocrine condition that may be secondary to a number of underlying processes. Thyroid storm (also known as thyroid or thyrotoxic crisis) represents the severe end of the spectrum of thyrotoxicosis and is characterized by compromised organ function. Whilst rare in the modern era, the mortality rate remains high, and prompt consideration of this endocrine emergency, with specific treatments, can improve outcomes. PMID:23148158

  12. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  13. Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates obesity and glucose homeostasis by promoting thermogenesis and endocrine function of classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Kodo, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Satoru; Mori, Jun; Itoh, Ikuyo; Fukuhara, Shota; Shigehara, Keiichi; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Kosaka, Kitaro; Hosoi, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO’s anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks. At 8 weeks, EPO-injected mice showed significantly reduced body weight with reduced epididymal and subcutaneous white fat mass and unchanged caloric intake and locomotor activity. HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index) and glucose levels during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were significantly lower in HFD-EPO mice than in HFD-Con mice. EPO-injected mice also showed increased oxygen consumption, indicative of metabolic rate, and skin temperature around iBAT tissue masses. EPO significantly upregulated the PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a transcriptional factor with a crucial role in brown adipocyte differentiation. EPO significantly increased phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is downstream of erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and known to stabilize PRDM16. EPO’s suppression of myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) and microRNA-133a (miR-133a) via β3-adrenergic receptor caused PRDM16 upregulation. EPO-mediated enhancement of EpoR/STAT3 and β-adrenergic receptor/Mef2c/miR-133 pathways dramatically increases total uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an essential enzyme for BAT thermogenesis. Furthermore, EPO activated BAT’s endocrine functions. EPO facilitated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and excretion in iBAT, associated with reduction of liver gluconeogenesis-related genes. Thus, EPO

  14. Erythropoietin (EPO) ameliorates obesity and glucose homeostasis by promoting thermogenesis and endocrine function of classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Kodo, Kazuki; Sugimoto, Satoru; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Mori, Jun; Itoh, Ikuyo; Fukuhara, Shota; Shigehara, Keiichi; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Kosaka, Kitaro; Hosoi, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), clinically used as a hematopoietic drug, has received much attention due to its nonhematopoietic effects. EPO reportedly has beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT: main part of classical BAT) could play a role in EPO's anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects in diet-induced obese mice. Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD-Con), and half were additionally given an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human EPO (200 IU/kg) (HFD-EPO) thrice a week for four weeks. At 8 weeks, EPO-injected mice showed significantly reduced body weight with reduced epididymal and subcutaneous white fat mass and unchanged caloric intake and locomotor activity. HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index) and glucose levels during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were significantly lower in HFD-EPO mice than in HFD-Con mice. EPO-injected mice also showed increased oxygen consumption, indicative of metabolic rate, and skin temperature around iBAT tissue masses. EPO significantly upregulated the PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a transcriptional factor with a crucial role in brown adipocyte differentiation. EPO significantly increased phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is downstream of erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and known to stabilize PRDM16. EPO's suppression of myocyte enhancer factor 2c (Mef2c) and microRNA-133a (miR-133a) via β3-adrenergic receptor caused PRDM16 upregulation. EPO-mediated enhancement of EpoR/STAT3 and β-adrenergic receptor/Mef2c/miR-133 pathways dramatically increases total uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), an essential enzyme for BAT thermogenesis. Furthermore, EPO activated BAT's endocrine functions. EPO facilitated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and excretion in iBAT, associated with reduction of liver gluconeogenesis-related genes. Thus, EPO

  15. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  16. Potency matters: thresholds govern endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Borgert, Christopher J; Baker, Stephen P; Matthews, John C

    2013-10-01

    Whether thresholds exist for endocrine active substances and for endocrine disrupting effects of exogenous chemicals has been posed as a question for regulatory policy by the European Union. This question arises from a concern that the endocrine system is too complex to allow estimations of safe levels of exposure to any chemical with potential endocrine activity, and a belief that any such chemical can augment, retard, or disrupt the normal background activity of endogenous hormones. However, vital signaling functions of the endocrine system require it to continuously discriminate the biological information conveyed by potent endogenous hormones from a more concentrated background of structurally similar, endogenous molecules with low hormonal potential. This obligatory ability to discriminate important hormonal signals from background noise can be used to define thresholds for induction of hormonal effects, without which normal physiological functions would be impossible. From such thresholds, safe levels of exposure can be estimated. This brief review highlights how the fundamental principles governing hormonal effects - affinity, efficacy, potency, and mass action - dictate the existence of thresholds and why these principles also define the potential that exogenous chemicals might have to interfere with normal endocrine functioning.

  17. Functional Roles Affect Diversity-Succession Relationships for Boreal Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Heloise; Johansson, Therese; Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim

    2013-01-01

    Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of “functional” groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species). We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists) responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies). Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood) thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience. PMID:23977350

  18. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, P.; Blackburne, H.; Dixon, L.; Dobbs, B.; Eglinton, T.; Ing, A.; Mulder, R.; Porter, R.J.; Wakeman, C.; Frizelle, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and

  19. Viewpoint: Policy Requirements for Protecting Wildlife from Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Gwynne

    2006-01-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present a threat to biodiversity, even in remote areas. To date, numerous wildlife species have been affected by EDCs in the environment, but it is likely that many more species are suffering effects that have not yet been reported. Impaired reproduction, damaged brain function, and deficits of the immune system are of particular concern. In order to bring all endocrine-disrupting chemicals under control, the development of screens and tests to identify EDCs must be expedited. However, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) considers that sufficient information is already available to merit action on several such substances. In addition, it must be recognized that proving the mechanism of action for some chemicals may take decades. Therefore, it is important to enable certain chemicals to be brought under stricter control on the basis of strong suspicion of endocrine disruption or biochemical signaling disruption. Furthermore, the risk assessment process itself also must be modified, and some suggestions are discussed in this article. WWF maintains that any effect that could reasonably be expected to affect the population level should be taken forward in environmental risk characterization, in particular, behavioral effects should be given more consideration. Current chemical management policies are not protective, and we argue for modifications in them to be made. PMID:16818260

  20. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    PubMed

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature.

  1. Endocrine responses to space flights.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Fickova, M; Kolena, J; Knopp, J; Tigranian, R A; Popova, I A; Grogoriev, A I

    2001-07-01

    Simultaneously with human space flights several series of observations were performed by using experimental animals--mainly rats--exposed to space flights on board of special satellites BION-COSMOS or in Shuttle Transportation Systems (STS). The aims of these experiments were to study in more details: the mechanisms of the changes in bones and skeletal muscle, the alterations of the function of immune system, the radiation effects on organism, the mechanism of the changes of endocrine functions, the evaluation of the role of hormones in alteration of metabolic processes in organism. The advantages of these animal experiments were the possibilities to analyze not only the plasma samples, but it was possible to obtain samples of organs or tissues: for morphological and biochemical analysis for studies of the changes in enzyme activities and in gene expressions, for measurement of metabolic processes and for investigation of the hormone production in endocrine glands and estimation of the response of tissues to hormones. It was also possible to compare the endocrine response to spaceflight and to other stress stimuli. These animal studies are interesting for verification of some hypothesis in the mechanism of adaptation of human organism to the changes of gravity. The disadvantage was, however, that the animals in almost all experiments could be examined only after space flight. The actual inflight changes were investigated only in two SLS flights. In this short review it is not possible to evaluate all hormonal data available on the response of endocrine system to the conditions of space flights. Therefore we will concentrate on the response of pituitary adrenocortical system, pituitary thyroid and pituitary gonadal functions.

  2. Concurrent and sequential initiation of ovarian function suppression with chemotherapy in premenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: an exploratory analysis of TEXT and SOFT.

    PubMed

    Regan, M M; Walley, B A; Francis, P A; Fleming, G F; Láng, I; Gómez, H L; Colleoni, M; Tondini, C; Pinotti, G; Salim, M; Spazzapan, S; Parmar, V; Ruhstaller, T; Abdi, E A; Gelber, R D; Coates, A S; Goldhirsch, A; Pagani, O

    2017-09-01

    Recent breast cancer treatment guidelines recommend that higher-risk premenopausal patients should receive ovarian function suppression (OFS) as part of adjuvant endocrine therapy. If chemotherapy is also given, it is uncertain whether to select concurrent or sequential OFS initiation. We analyzed 1872 patients enrolled in the randomized phase III TEXT and SOFT trials who received adjuvant chemotherapy for hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer and upon randomization to an OFS-containing adjuvant endocrine therapy, initiated gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist triptorelin. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was compared between patients who received OFS concurrently with chemotherapy in TEXT (n = 1242) versus sequentially post-chemotherapy in SOFT (n = 630). Because timing of trial enrollment relative to adjuvant chemotherapy differed, we implemented landmark analysis re-defining BCFI beginning 1 year after final dose of chemotherapy (median, 15.5 and 8.1 months from enrollment to landmark in TEXT and SOFT, respectively). As a non-randomized treatment comparison, we implemented comparative-effectiveness propensity score methodology with weighted Cox modeling. Distributions of several clinico-pathologic characteristics differed between groups. Patients who were premenopausal post-chemotherapy in SOFT were younger on average. The median duration of adjuvant chemotherapy was 18 weeks in both groups. There were 231 (12%) BC events after post-landmark median follow-up of about 5 years. Concurrent use of triptorelin with chemotherapy was not associated with a significant difference in post-landmark BCFI compared with sequential triptorelin post-chemotherapy, either in the overall population (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.72-1.72; P = 0.72; 4-year BCFI 89% in both groups), or in the subgroup of 692 women <40 years at diagnosis (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.69-1.84) who are less likely to develop chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. Based on

  3. Steroid hormones as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Rooney, A.A.; Crain, D.A.; Orlando, E.F.

    1999-07-01

    Xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity have been shown to adversely affect the endocrine system of wildlife. Various species exhibit abnormalities of (1) plasma sex steroid hormones, (2) altered steroid synthesis form the gonad in vitro and (3) altered steroidogenic enzyme function. These endpoints are sensitive and relatively easy to measure quantitatively with reliability and precision. These observations have led to the conclusion that sex steroid hormones could be markers of exposure to, and altered function from, endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs). However, there are serious limitations in the use of steroid hormones as generalized markers of EDC exposure. Steroid hormones exhibit seasonal, ontogenetic, gender and species-specific variation. Moreover, the regulation of sex steroid plasma concentrations is a relatively complex phenomenon capable of short-term (minutes-hours) alteration due to environmental inputs, such as acute stress--an activational response. Alterations in steroids synthesis and degradation also can be a response to altered embryonic development due to EDC exposure--an organizational response. If steroid hormones are to be used as biomarkers, then closely controlled, well designed sampling has to be performed. Additionally, an appreciation of the variation possible in endocrine responses among the species to be studied must be obtained.

  4. One-pot synthesized functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase sorbent for solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting compounds in milks.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Marina, María Luisa; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-01-08

    A new procedure for the determination of 12 naturally occurring hormones and some related synthetic chemicals in milk, commonly used as growth promoters in cattle, is reported. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a new one-pot synthesized ordered mesoporous silica (of the SBA-15 type) functionalized with octadecyl groups (denoted as SBA-15-C18-CO) as reversed-phase sorbent. The analytes were eluted with methanol and then submitted to HPLC with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, the method quantification limit for the analytes ranged from 0.023 to 1.36μg/mL. The sorbent affored the extraction of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, progesterone, hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, nandrolone, prednisolone and testosterone with mean recoveries ranging from 72% to 105% (except for diethylstilbestrol) with RSD<11%. These results were comparable and, in some cases, even better than those obtained with other extraction methods, therefore SBA-15-C18-CO mesoporous silica possess a high potential as a reversed-phase sorbent for SPE of the 12 mentioned endocrine disrupting compounds in milk samples.

  5. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  6. [Contamination, endocrine disruptors and cancer].

    PubMed

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Since the mid-twentieth century, many species, very different from each other and located in all areas and comers of the planet, began presenting various alterations, many of which suggested to be related to endocrine disorders. Research has shown that such alterations were caused by exposure to various chemical contaminants that could affect the health and cause serious illnesses. Among them stands a diverse and large group of compounds, with very different chemical structures, capable of altering the hormonal balance, act at very low doses and with different mechanisms of action, that are called "endocrine disrupting chemicals". When released into the environment or as part of objects, food or medicines, constitute a major risk to animals and humans, which produces not only endocrine dysfunctions but also different cancers, which include the most common types. Despite the importance and significance of the impact of these compounds, they are not sufficiently known or understood, so the aim of this review is to show their origin and impact in the field of human health, highlighting their role as inducers of cancer, which has led to multiple clinical and biological investigations.

  7. Desmoglein Isoform Distribution Affects Stratum Corneum Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Matsuyoshi, Norihisa; Wu, Hong; Lin, Chenyan; Wang, Zhi Hong; Brown, Barbara E.; Stanley, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Desmogleins are desmosomal cadherins that mediate cell–cell adhesion. In stratified squamous epithelia there are two major isoforms of desmoglein, 1 and 3, with different distributions in epidermis and mucous membrane. Since either desmoglein isoform alone can mediate adhesion, the reason for their differential distribution is not known. To address this issue, we engineered transgenic mice with desmoglein 3 under the control of the involucrin promoter. These mice expressed desmoglein 3 with the same distribution in epidermis as found in normal oral mucous membranes, while expression of other major differentiation molecules was unchanged. Although the nucleated epidermis appeared normal, the epidermal stratum corneum was abnormal with gross scaling, and a lamellar histology resembling that of normal mucous membrane. The mice died shortly after birth with severe dehydration, suggesting excessive transepidermal water loss, which was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo measurement. Ultrastructure of the stratum corneum showed premature loss of cohesion of corneocytes. This dysadhesion of corneocytes and its contribution to increased transepidermal water loss was confirmed by tape stripping. These data demonstrate that differential expression of desmoglein isoforms affects the major function of epidermis, the permeability barrier, by altering the structure of the stratum corneum. PMID:11309406

  8. Antidiuretic action of angiotensin II in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis: evidence for endocrine control of kidney function in cyclostomes.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C S; Brown, J A; Rankin, J C

    2010-10-01

    Intravenous infusion of angiotensin II ([Asn¹ Val⁵]-Ang II) at 10⁻⁹ mol min⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body mass produced a significant antidiuresis in river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis, captured during upstream migration and maintained in fresh water. Although the renin-angiotensin hormonal system (RAS) is now recognized in jawless fishes, until this study, the role of homologous Ang II in L. fluviatilis kidney function had not been examined. This study provides the first evidence for an antidiuretic action of Ang II in cyclostomes and, in evolutionary terms, suggests a renal function for the RAS in early vertebrates.

  9. Impairment of diastolic function in adult patients affected by osteogenesis imperfecta clinically asymptomatic for cardiac disease: casuality or causality?

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fornari, Rachele; Di Lorenzo, Gabriella; Celli, Mauro; Lubrano, Carla; Falcone, Stefania; Fabbrini, Elisa; Greco, Emanuela; Zambrano, Anna; Brama, Marina; Prossomariti, Giancarlo; Marzano, Sara; Marini, Mario; Conti, Francesco; D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Spera, Giovanni

    2009-01-09

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare inherited connective disorder causing increased bone fragility and low bone mass. OI includes severe bone fragility, impaired dentinogenesis, with less common alterations in the joints, blood vessels, heart valves, skin. Interestingly, description of left ventricular rupture, aortic dissection and heart valves incompetence has been previously described. Death may occur in OI patients for cardiac disease in asyntomatic subjects. Aim of our study has been to evaluate the presence of potential subclinical cardiac disorders and to characterize cardiac functional parameters by echocardiography in adults with OI in absence of cardiac symptoms. Forty patients (21 females and 19 males) affected by type I, III, IV OI and 40 control subjects (20 females and 20 males) were evaluated in the study. Patients and controls underwent clinical examination, screening for endocrine and metabolic disorders, 12-lead electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. In particular, all subjects were evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography with continuous- and pulse-wave Doppler. Patients and controls belonged to NYHA class I and no significant electrocardiographic alteration was documented in both groups. Thirty-eight patients (95%) showed valvular regurgitation compared to one control subject (2.5%; P<0.001). As regards the diastolic function parameters, in OI patients E wave velocity was reduced by 23% (95% CI: 9% to 29%; P<0.001), E/A ratio was reduced by 17% (95% CI: 15% to 26%; P<0.001) while isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT) was increased by 47% (95% CI: 26% to 53%; P<0.001) and E wave deceleration time (DT) was increased by 18% (95% CI: 13% to 26%; P<0.001) compared to controls. In conclusion, our data indicate that adult patients affected by OI have an altered diastolic function in absence of other metabolic alterations. These diastolic echocardiographic parameters might worsen over time, especially if other cardiovascular risk factors (e

  10. Gestational Exposure to Bisphenol A Affects the Function and Proteome Profile of F1 Spermatozoa in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Karmakar, Polash Chandra; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) has been linked to offspring reproductive abnormalities. However, exactly how BPA affects offspring fertility remains poorly understood. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gestational BPA exposure on sperm function, fertility, and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice (F0) were gavaged with BPA at three different doses (50 μg/kg bw/day, 5 mg/kg bw/day, and 50 mg/kg bw/day) on embryonic days 7 to 14. We investigated the function, fertility, and related processes of F1 spermatozoa at postnatal day 120. We also evaluated protein profiles of F1 spermatozoa to monitor their functional affiliation to disease. Results: BPA inhibited sperm count, motility parameters, and intracellular ATP levels in a dose-dependent manner. These effects appeared to be caused by reduced numbers of stage VIII seminiferous epithelial cells in testis and decreased protein kinase A (PKA) activity and tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. We also found that BPA compromised average litter size. Proteins differentially expressed in spermatozoa from BPA treatment groups are known to play a critical role in ATP generation, oxidative stress response, fertility, and in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides mechanistic support for the hypothesis that gestational exposure to BPA alters sperm function and fertility via down-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation through a PKA-dependent mechanism. In addition, we anticipate that the BPA-induced changes in the sperm proteome might be partly responsible for the observed effects in spermatozoa. Citation: Rahman MS, Kwon WS, Karmakar PC, Yoon SJ, Ryu BY, Pang MG. 2017. Gestational exposure to bisphenol-A affects the function and proteome profile of F1 spermatozoa in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:238–245; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP378 PMID:27384531

  11. [The role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of endocrine function and in the control of energy balance in humans].

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Jan; Stepień, Henryk

    2007-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been recently recognized as an important modulatory system in the function of brain, endocrine, and immune tissues. It appears to play a very important regulatory role in the secretion of hormones related to reproductive functions and response to stress. The important elements of this system are: endocannabinoid receptors (types CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (N-arachidonoylethanolamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol), enzymes involved in their synthesis and degradation, as well as cannabinoid antagonists. In humans this system also controls energy homeostasis and mainly influences the function of the food intake centers of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract activity. The endocannabinoid system regulates not only the central and peripheral mechanisms of food intake, but also lipids synthesis and turnover in the liver and adipose tissue as well as glucose metabolism in muscle cells. Rimonabant, a new and selective central and peripheral cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1) blocker, has been shown to reduce body weight and improve cardiovascular risk factor (metabolic syndrome) in obese patients by increasing HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin blood levels as well as decreasing LDL-cholesterol, leptin, and C-reactive protein (a proinflammatory marker) concentrations. It is therefore possible to speculate about a future clinical use of CB1 antagonists, as a means of improving gonadotrophin pulsatility and fertilization capacity as well as the prevention of cardiovasculary disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs acting as agonists of CB1 receptors (Dronabinol, Dexanabinol) are currently proposed for evaluation as drugs to treat neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), epilepsy, anxiety, and stroke.

  12. Maternal metabolic stress may affect oviduct gatekeeper function.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, Lies; Van Hoeck, Veerle; Maillo, Veronica; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Marei, Waleed Fawzy A; Vlaeminck, Bruno; Thys, Sofie; Sturmey, Roger G S; Bols, Peter; Leroy, Jo

    2017-03-03

    We hypothesized that elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) modify in vitro bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) metabolism and barrier function. Hereto, BOECs were studied in a polarized system with 24h-treatments at day 9: 1) CONTROL (0µM NEFA + 0%EtOH), 2) SOLVENT CONTROL (0µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH), 3) BASAL NEFA (720µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH in the basal compartment), 4) APICAL NEFA (720µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH in the apical compartment). FITC-albumin was used for monolayer permeability assessment, and related to Transepithelial Electric Resistance (TER). Fatty acid (FA), glucose, lactate and pyruvate concentrations were measured in spent medium. Intracellular lipid droplets (LD) and FA-uptake were studied using Bodipy 493/503 and immunolabelling of FA-transporters (FAT/CD36, FABP3 and caveolin1). BOEC-mRNA was retrieved for qRT-PCR. Results revealed that APICAL NEFA reduced relative TER-increase (46.85%) during treatment, and increased FITC-albumin flux (27.59%) compared to other treatments. In BASAL NEFA, FAs were transferred to the apical compartment as free FAs: mostly palmitic and oleic acid increased, respectively 56.0 % and 33.5% of initial FA-concentrations. APICAL NEFA allowed no FA-transfer, but induced LD-accumulation and upregulated FA-transporter expression (↑CD36, ↑FABP3, ↑CAV1-protein-expression). Gene expression in APICAL NEFA indicated increased anti-apoptotic (↑BCL2) and anti-oxidative (↑SOD1) capacity, upregulated lipid metabolism (↑CPT1, ↑ACSL1 and ↓ACACA), and FA-uptake (↑CAV1). All treatments had similar carbohydrate metabolism and oviduct function specific gene expression (=OVGP1, ESR1, FOXJ1). Overall, elevated NEFAs affected BOEC-metabolism and barrier function differently depending on NEFA-exposure side. Data substantiate the concept of the oviduct as a gatekeeper that may actively alter early embryonic developmental conditions.

  13. An assessment of pancreatic endocrine function and insulin sensitivity in patients with transient neonatal diabetes in remission

    PubMed Central

    Shield, J; Temple, I; Sabin, M; Mackay, D; Robinson, D; Betts, P; Carson, D; Cave, H; Chevenne, D; Polak, M

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine derived indices of ß cell function, peripheral insulin sensitivity, and the pancreatic response to intravenous glucose loading in children with a previous history of transient neonatal diabetes currently in remission, repeated after a period of two or more years. Methods: The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was used to measure the first phase insulin response (FPIR) cumulatively at one and three minutes. In addition, fasting insulin and glucose values were used to estimate insulinogenic indices (ß cell function) and QUICKI (insulin sensitivity). Patients: Six patients with known previous transient neonatal diabetes currently in remission with no exogenous insulin requirement were tested. Control data from 15 children of a similar age were available for derived fasting indices of ß cell functional capacity and insulin sensitivity. Results: One child had a subnormal insulin secretory response to intravenous glucose that remained abnormal two and four years later. The other children had relatively normal or entirely normal responses over two years. Measures of ß cell function and insulin sensitivity in the fasting state showed comparable results to those obtained from normal controls. Conclusions: Most children with transient neonatal diabetes in remission have no evidence of ß cell dysfunction or insulin resistance in the fasting state, although they might have been expected to show subtle defects given the tendency to relapse in adolescence. Measures of insulin response to intravenous glucose loading are often normal but suggest future recurrence if profoundly abnormal. PMID:15210671

  14. Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: Epidemiology and prognosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Rubin, Joseph; Farnell, Michael B.; Grant, Clive S.; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PETs) are uncommon tumors with an annual incidence less than 1 per 100,000 persons per year in the general population. PETs that produce hormones resulting in symptoms are designated as functional. The majority of PETs are nonfunctional. Of the functional tumors, insulinomas are the most common, followed by gastrinomas. The clinical course of patients with PETs is variable and depends on the extent of the disease and the treatment rendered. Patients with completely resected tumors generally have a good prognosis, and aggressive surgical therapy in patients with advanced disease may also prolong survival. The epidemiology, prognosis and established and novel prognostic markers of PETs are reviewed. PMID:18508996

  15. Dietary supplementation of yucca (Yucca schidigera) affects ovine ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Valocký, Igor; Kádasi, Attila; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Petrilla, Vladimír; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2017-01-15

    Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay. Granulosa cells were aspirated from the ovary, and their proliferation and apoptosis were detected using immunocytochemistry. To assess secretory activity and its response to gonadotropin, ovarian fragments of treated and control ewes were cultured with and without follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 IU/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones into the culture medium was evaluated. Finally, to examine the direct action of yucca on the ovary, ovarian fragments from control ewes were cultured with and without yucca extract (1, 10, or 100 μg/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones was measured. Yucca supplementation significantly decreased the size of small antral follicles (2 to <5 mm in diameter), increased accumulation of the apoptosis marker bax, and decreased serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) levels. It inhibited the release of P4 (but not other hormones), to prevent the stimulatory action of FSH on P4 output and promoted insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) release by fragments cultured with FSH. However, yucca supplementation did not affect the size of larger follicles and number of follicles, volume and weight of ovaries, length and weight of oviducts, caspase 3 accumulation, cell proliferation, testosterone (T) or IGF-I serum levels, or T or E2 release by cultured ovarian fragments and their response to FSH. Yucca addition to culture medium inhibited P4 and IGF-I, but not T or E2

  16. Long term effects of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy on quality of life in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kool, M; Fontein, D B Y; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Nortier, J W R; Rutgers, E J T; Marang-van de Mheen, P J; van de Velde, C J H

    2015-06-01

    The standard treatment for hormone-receptor positive, postmenopausal early breast cancer patients is 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Previous studies demonstrate that prolonging adjuvant endocrine therapy may improve disease-free survival. However, endocrine therapy is known for its adverse events, which may negatively affect Quality of Life (QoL). The aim of this study is to assess the impact of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy on long-term QoL outcomes. 471 patients selected from the IDEAL trial were invited to complete a questionnaire 1-1.5 years after starting with extended therapy. The questionnaire consisted of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. Mean QoL outcomes were compared with EORTC reference values for stage I and II breast cancer patients and the general population. Furthermore, QoL outcomes were compared between different treatment regimens. A difference of eight points was considered clinically relevant. IDEAL patients receiving extended adjuvant endocrine therapy have significantly and clinically relevant better global QoL compared with reference values for stage I and II breast cancer patients (79.6 versus 64.6; p < 0.01) and the general population (79.6 versus 71.2; p < 0.01). Similar results were found for emotional function, pain, appetite loss, diarrhea and financial problems. Between treatment regimens prior to extended adjuvant endocrine therapy, differences were only found on specific QoL domains (e.g. arm symptoms). Breast cancer patients on extended adjuvant endocrine therapy have significantly and clinically relevant better global QoL compared with other stage I-II breast cancer patients and the general population, 6-8.5 years after diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endocrine Profiling and Prioritization Using ToxCast Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is charged with screening pesticide chemicals and environmental contaminants for their potential to affect the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife (http://www.epa.gov/endo/). The prioritization of chemicals for test...

  18. Endocrine Profiling and Prioritization Using ToxCast Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is charged with screening pesticide chemicals and environmental contaminants for their potential to affect the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife (http://www.epa.gov/endo/). The prioritization of chemicals for test...

  19. Research on Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA researchers are developing innovative approaches, tools, models and data to improve the understanding of potential risks to human health and wildlife from chemicals that could disrupt the endocrine system.

  20. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    stresses. common endocrine diseases are diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, nodular goiter , The human adrenal consists of an outer cortex...about 40% goiter or thyroid carcinoma. of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Insulin requirements in diabetics are frequently increased in

  1. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns initiate inflammation and perturb the endocrine function of bovine granulosa cells from ovarian dominant follicles via TLR2 and TLR4 pathways.

    PubMed

    Price, Jennifer C; Bromfield, John J; Sheldon, I Martin

    2013-09-01

    Bacterial infections of the uterus or mammary gland commonly cause disease and infertility by perturbing growth and steroidogenesis of the dominant follicle in the ovary of cattle. Cells of the innate immune system use Toll-like receptors TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by bacteria, leading to activation of MAPK and nuclear factor-κBκ pathways and production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6, and the chemokine IL-8. The present study tested whether granulosa cells from dominant follicles have functional TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 pathways. Supernatants of primary bovine granulosa cells accumulated IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 when treated for 24 hours with Pam3CSK4 (PAM) that binds TLR2 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that binds TLR4 but not flagellin that binds TLR5. Granulosa cell responses to PAM or LPS were rapid, with increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 within 30 minutes and increased abundance of IL6, IL1B, IL10, TNF, IL8, and CCL5 mRNA after 3 hours of treatment. Accumulation of IL-6 in response to PAM and LPS was attenuated using small interfering RNA targeting TLR2 and TLR4, respectively. Furthermore, treating granulosa cells with inhibitors targeting MAPK or nuclear factor-κB reduced the accumulation of IL-6 in response to LPS or PAM. Treatment with LPS or PAM reduced the accumulation of estradiol and progesterone, and the PAMPs reduced granulosa cell expression of CYP19A1 mRNA and protein. In conclusion, bacterial PAMPs initiate inflammation and perturb the endocrine function of bovine granulosa cells from dominant follicles via TLR2 and TLR4 pathways.

  2. Effects of acute psychosocial stress exposure on endocrine and affective reactivity in college students differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability.

  3. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer.

  4. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  5. Update in endocrine autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.

  6. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Lencu, Codruţa; Alexescu, Teodora; Petrulea, Mirela; Lencu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease.

  7. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    PubMed Central

    LENCU, CODRUŢA; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary – cortical, and involuntary – metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves’ disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease. PMID:27857512

  8. Functional neuroimaging of human vocalizations and affective speech.

    PubMed

    Frühholz, Sascha; Sander, David; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have verified the important integrative role of the basal ganglia during affective vocalizations. They, however, also point to additional regions supporting vocal monitoring, auditory-motor feedback processing, and online adjustments of vocal motor responses. For the case of affective vocalizations, we suggest partly extending the model to fully consider the link between primate-general and human-specific neural components.

  9. Regulation of synaptic functions in central nervous system by endocrine hormones and the maintenance of energy homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiping P; Han, Weiping

    2012-10-01

    Energy homoeostasis, a co-ordinated balance of food intake and energy expenditure, is regulated by the CNS (central nervous system). The past decade has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of metabolic processes and brain circuitry which responds to a broad range of neural, nutrient and hormonal signals. Accumulating evidence demonstrates altered synaptic plasticity in the CNS in response to hormone signals. Moreover, emerging observations suggest that synaptic plasticity underlies all brain functions, including the physiological regulation of energy homoeostasis, and that impaired synaptic constellation and plasticity may lead to pathological development and conditions. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of postsynaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, and the presynaptic components by hormone signals. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms by which hormones regulate energy homoeostasis may lead to novel strategies in treating metabolic disorders.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTION AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN LARGE-MOUTH BASS FROM FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous efforts from this laboratory, have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefo...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTION AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN LARGE-MOUTH BASS FROM FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous efforts from this laboratory, have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefo...

  12. COMPARISON OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens have the potential to disrupt endocrine function in a myriad of species. However, in vitro assays designed to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) typically utilize mammalian estrogen receptors. Our overall objective is to charac...

  13. COMPARISON OF FATHEAD MINNOW AND HUMAN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BINDING TO ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental estrogens have the potential to disrupt endocrine function in a myriad of species. However, in vitro assays designed to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) typically utilize mammalian estrogen receptors. Our overall objective is to charac...

  14. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  15. Selenium and endocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Geoffrey J; Arthur, John R

    2005-03-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is capable of exerting multiple actions on endocrine systems by modifying the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins, many of which have clearly defined functions. Well-characterized selenoenzymes are the families of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), thioredoxin reductases (TRs) and iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds). These selenoenzymes are capable of modifying cell function by acting as antioxidants and modifying redox status and thyroid hormone metabolism. Se is also involved in cell growth, apoptosis and modifying the action of cell signalling systems and transcription factors. During thyroid hormone synthesis GPX1, GPX3 and TR1 are up-regulated, providing the thyrocytes with considerable protection from peroxidative damage. Thyroidal D1 in rats and both D1 and D2 in humans are also up-regulated to increase the production of bioactive 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3). In the basal state, GPX3 is secreted into the follicular lumen where it may down-regulate thyroid hormone synthesis by decreasing hydrogen peroxide concentrations. The deiodinases are present in most tissues and provide a mechanism whereby individual tissues may control their exposure to T3. Se is also able to modify the immune response in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Low sperm production and poor sperm quality are consistent features of Se-deficient animals. The pivotal link between Se, sperm quality and male fertility is GPX4 since the enzyme is essential to allow the production of the correct architecture of the midpiece of spermatozoa. Se also has insulin-mimetic properties, an effect that is probably brought about by stimulating the tyrosine kinases involved in the insulin signalling cascade. Furthermore, in the diabetic rat, Se not only restores glycaemic control but it also prevents or alleviates the adverse effects that diabetes has on cardiac, renal and platelet function.

  16. Endocrine consequences of perinatal methadone exposure.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, C; Bero, L; Ignar, D; Lurie, S; Field, E

    1987-01-01

    In summary, we have shown that marked acute responses as well as persistent changes in hypothalamopituitary responsivity to opiate challenge result from perinatal opioid addiction. We have also shown that different endocrine systems and opioid receptor subtypes develop at different rates, and that the responses of these systems depend upon the relative timing of the treatment regimen and the functional development of the particular opioid system involved. It should be emphasized that these studies have investigated only a single developmental window. The additional critical question of how opioid neuron function is affected by treatment during the period of active neuronal differentiation has not yet been answered. However, these studies do demonstrate the utility of this neuroendocrine model in assessing opioid function following chronic treatment regimens. By using neuroendocrine function as an end point, multiple systems can be studied simultaneously in the same animal. This has a particular advantage in studying the effects of chronic drug exposure on the developing nervous system, because hormone secretion is an easily quantifiable and early maturing functional index which can be used to identify vulnerable (and resistant) systems. Endogenous opioid systems appear to be particularly important in neuroendocrine regulation during the early phase of development, when other neural controls have not yet matured. Our preliminary results suggest that specific opioid systems that mature early may be especially important in the specific neuroendocrine effects of perinatal opiate addiction.

  17. Regulation of synaptic functions in central nervous system by endocrine hormones and the maintenance of energy homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zhiping P.; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Energy homoeostasis, a co-ordinated balance of food intake and energy expenditure, is regulated by the CNS (central nervous system). The past decade has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of metabolic processes and brain circuitry which responds to a broad range of neural, nutrient and hormonal signals. Accumulating evidence demonstrates altered synaptic plasticity in the CNS in response to hormone signals. Moreover, emerging observations suggest that synaptic plasticity underlies all brain functions, including the physiological regulation of energy homoeostasis, and that impaired synaptic constellation and plasticity may lead to pathological development and conditions. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of postsynaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, and the presynaptic components by hormone signals. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms by which hormones regulate energy homoeostasis may lead to novel strategies in treating metabolic disorders. PMID:22582733

  18. Frozen Soil Characteristics That Affect Land Mine Functioning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    ii Introduction .............................................. 1 Backgroun ...Table 3 also presents the results of the mine functioning perform- ance . The M12 mine requires between 1739 and 3287 N to function, as indicated by the

  19. Model of pediatric pituitary hormone deficiency separates the endocrine and neural functions of the LHX3 transcription factor in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Stephanie C.; Malik, Raleigh E.; Showalter, Aaron D.; Sloop, Kyle W.; Rhodes, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of most pediatric hormone deficiency diseases is poorly understood. Children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) have insufficient levels of multiple anterior pituitary hormones causing short stature, metabolic disease, pubertal failure, and often have associated nervous system symptoms. Mutations in developmental regulatory genes required for the specification of the hormone-secreting cell types of the pituitary gland underlie severe forms of CPHD. To better understand these diseases, we have created a unique mouse model of CPHD with a targeted knockin mutation (Lhx3 W227ter), which is a model for the human LHX3 W224ter disease. The LHX3 gene encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, which has essential roles in pituitary and nervous system development in mammals. The introduced premature termination codon results in deletion of the carboxyl terminal region of the LHX3 protein, which is critical for pituitary gene activation. Mice that lack all LHX3 function do not survive beyond birth. By contrast, the homozygous Lhx3 W227ter mice survive, but display marked dwarfism, thyroid disease, and female infertility. Importantly, the Lhx3 W227ter mice have no apparent nervous system deficits. The Lhx3 W227ter mouse model provides a unique array of hormone deficits and facilitates experimental approaches that are not feasible with human patients. These experiments demonstrate that the carboxyl terminus of the LHX3 transcription factor is not required for viability. More broadly, this study reveals that the in vivo actions of a transcription factor in different tissues are molecularly separable. PMID:21149718

  20. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are designed to be bioactive against certain targets but can cause toxicity to nontarget species by a variety of other modes of action including disturbance of endocrine function. As such, pesticides have been found to bind and alter the function of hormone receptors, ...

  1. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are designed to be bioactive against certain targets but can cause toxicity to nontarget species by a variety of other modes of action including disturbance of endocrine function. As such, pesticides have been found to bind and alter the function of hormone receptors, ...

  2. [Effect of lighting schedules on the ontogeny of gonad and adrenal endocrine function in female silver-black foxes Vulpes vulpes with two genetically determined types of behavior].

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, N S; Krass, P M; Trut, L N; Ivanova, L N; Beliaev, D K

    1980-01-01

    Additional illumination of animals nonselected for domesticative behaviour, results in the earlier increase of estradiol level in the blood and in higher production of this hormone by the gonads during pubertal period. Artificial illumination regimes do not significantly affect estradiol-producing activity of the ovaries in animals selected for domesticated behaviour. At the same time, additional illumination of the females with this type of behaviour increased progesteron-producing function of the adrenals during sexual maturation. Thus, selection of silver foxes for the domesticated type of behaviour affects the sensitivity of hormonal function of the ovaries and adrenals to photoperiodic factor of the environment.

  3. Parenting characteristics of female caregivers of children affected by chronic endocrine conditions: a comparison between disorders of sex development and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine D; Fedele, David A; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2011-12-01

    Rearing a child with a chronic illness is stressful and can potentially affect parenting style, which may result in poorer outcomes for children. The purpose of this study was to compare parenting characteristics of female caregivers rearing children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) to female caregivers rearing children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Caregivers of both groups were matched according to age and compared on measures of stress and parenting practices. Both groups demonstrated significant levels of stress and negative parenting practices. Children with T1DM and male children with non-life-threatening DSD were perceived as more vulnerable by their caregivers. Better understanding of parenting experiences of female caregivers rearing children with DSD, particularly male children, will facilitate the development of individualized interventions to ameliorate negative parenting practices and stress, with the long-term goal of improved health outcomes for their children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mouse models for inherited endocrine and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Piret, Siân E; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2011-12-01

    In vivo models represent important resources for investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying endocrine and metabolic disorders, and for pre-clinical translational studies that may include the assessments of new treatments. In the study of endocrine diseases, which affect multiple organs, in vivo models provide specific advantages over in vitro models, which are limited to investigation of isolated systems. In recent years, the mouse has become the popular choice for developing such in vivo mammalian models, as it has a genome that shares ∼85% identity to that of man, and has many physiological systems that are similar to those in man. Moreover, methods have been developed to alter the expression of genes in the mouse, thereby generating models for human diseases, which may be due to loss- or gain-of-function mutations. The methods used to generate mutations in the mouse genome include: chemical mutagenesis; conventional, conditional and inducible knockout models; knockin models and transgenic models, and these strategies are often complementary. This review describes some of the different strategies that are utilised for generating mouse models. In addition, some mouse models that have been successfully generated by these methods for some human hereditary endocrine and metabolic disorders are reviewed. In particular, the mouse models generated for parathyroid disorders, which include: the multiple endocrine neoplasias; hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome; disorders of the calcium-sensing receptor and forms of inherited hypoparathyroidism are discussed. The advances that have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms of these human diseases by investigations of these mouse models are described.

  5. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Overlapping physiological responses and endocrine biomarkers that are indicative of stress responsiveness and immune function in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C

    2014-12-01

    Acknowledgment that modern livestock production systems impose stress on animals has been accepted by the scientific community and producers. As the economic burden has increased for livestock producers, expectations for animal performance have increased, thus placing more strain on the entire production system. Whether or not periodic exposure to stress within the production system jeopardizes the well-being of animals continues to be an area of debate largely because of the inability to accurately quantify the magnitude and severity of the stress response on other biological systems. Adding to the confusion is the fact that activation of the stress axis can be both beneficial and detrimental to the body depending on the duration of the stress response and the frequency at which an animal is exposed to stressful stimuli. Few would argue that continuous long-term stress inhibits livestock productivity and overall well-being. Less clear is whether or not occasional exposure to acute stress jeopardizes the productivity and well-being of livestock. To fully appreciate the complexity associated with activation of the stress axis and the overall biological impact on the body, one must delve deep into the scientific literature and examine the science in an unbiased manner. It is imperative to appreciate and understand that activation of the stress axis is an essential survival mechanism necessary to maintain homeostasis during biologically challenging times. Acute activation of the stress axis leads to repartitioning of energy to organs and tissues essential for coping with stress, redirection of blood flow from the peripheral to large muscle groups, decreased digestive function, and priming of the immune system to prepare for subsequent infections. Conversely, chronic activation of the stress axis disrupts digestive function, causes catabolism of muscle and adipose tissue, and suppresses overall immune function, thus making an animal more susceptible to disease. But

  6. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase suppresses the adverse phenotype of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells and improves endocrine response in endocrine-sensitive cells.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Stephen; Barnfather, Peter; Hayes, Edd; Bramble, Pamela; Christensen, James; Nicholson, Robert I; Barrett-Lee, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is a major clinical problem. Previous reports have demonstrated that cell models of acquired endocrine resistance have altered cell-matrix adhesion and a highly migratory phenotype, features which may impact on tumour spread in vivo. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an intracellular kinase that regulates signalling pathways central to cell adhesion, migration and survival and its expression is frequently deregulated in breast cancer. In this study, we have used the novel FAK inhibitor PF573228 to address the role of FAK in the development of endocrine resistance. Whilst total-FAK expression was similar between endocrine-sensitive and endocrine-resistant MCF7 cells, FAK phosphorylation status (Y397 or Y861) was altered in resistance. PF573228 promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of FAK phosphorylation at Y397 but did not affect other FAK activation sites (pY407, pY576 and pY861). Endocrine-resistant cells were more sensitive to these inhibitory effects versus MCF7 (mean IC(50) for FAK pY397 inhibition: 0.43 μM, 0.05 μM and 0.13 μM for MCF7, TamR and FasR cells, respectively). Inhibition of FAK pY397 was associated with a reduction in TamR and FasR adhesion to, and migration over, matrix components. PF573228 as a single agent (0-1 μM) did not affect the growth of MCF7 cells or their endocrine-resistant counterparts. However, treatment of endocrine-sensitive cells with PF573228 and tamoxifen combined resulted in greater suppression of proliferation versus single agent treatment. Together these data suggest the importance of FAK in the process of endocrine resistance, particularly in the development of an aggressive, migratory cell phenotype and demonstrate the potential to improve endocrine response through combination treatment.

  8. EFFECT OF THE ANTI-ANDROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR VINCLOZOLIN ON EMBRYONIC TESTIS CORD FORMATION AND POSTNATAL TESTIS DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION. (R827405)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is...

  9. EFFECT OF THE ANTI-ANDROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR VINCLOZOLIN ON EMBRYONIC TESTIS CORD FORMATION AND POSTNATAL TESTIS DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION. (R827405)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vinclozolin is a systemic dicarboximide fungicide that is used on fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, and turf grass. Vinclozolin and its metabolites are known to be endocrine disruptors and act as androgen receptor antagonists. The hypothesis tested in the current study is...

  10. Effects of a Short-term Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz on Endocrine Function and Gene Expression in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prochloraz is a fungicide known to cause endocrine disruption through effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To determine the short-term impacts of prochloraz on gene expression and steroid production, adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exp...

  11. Effects of a Short-term Exposure to the Fungicide Prochloraz on Endocrine Function and Gene Expression in Female Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prochloraz is a fungicide known to cause endocrine disruption through effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To determine the short-term impacts of prochloraz on gene expression and steroid production, adult female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exp...

  12. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  13. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  15. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of scientific information has shown that man-made industrial chemicals and pesticides may interfere with the normal functioning of human and wildlife endocrine systems. These agents are referred to collectively as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and they are ...

  16. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS USING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A growing body of scientific information has shown that man-made industrial chemicals and pesticides may interfere with the normal functioning of human and wildlife endocrine systems. These agents are referred to collectively as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and they are ...

  17. Update on the Mammalian Tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system provides a number of target sites that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental agents. In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system (http://w...

  18. Update on the Mammalian Tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system provides a number of target sites that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental agents. In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system (http://w...

  19. Functional characterization of a rare germline mutation in the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 (CDKN1B) in a Spanish patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Donatella; De Gisi, Silvia; Riccardi, Miriam; Scrima, Marianna; De Marco, Carmela; Robledo, Mercedes; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of germline mutations in the CDKN1B gene that encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 in multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1)-like Spanish index patients. The CDKN1B gene has recently been identified as a tumor susceptibility gene for MEN4, with six germline mutations reported so far in patients with a MEN-like phenotype but negative for MEN1 mutations. Fifteen Spanish index cases with MEN-like symptoms were screened for mutations in the CDKN1B gene and the mutant variant was studied functionally by transcription/translation assays in vitro and in transiently transfected HeLa cells. We report the identification of a heterozygous GAGA deletion in the 5'-UTR of CDKN1B, NM_004064.3:c.-32_-29del, in a patient affected by gastric carcinoid tumor and hyperparathyroidism. This deletion falls inside the region that is responsible for CDKN1B transcription and is predicted to destroy a secondary stem and loop structure that includes the GAGAGA element responsible for ribosome recruitment. Accordingly, in vitro studies of coupled transcription/translation assays and transient transfection in HeLa cells showed that the GAGA deletion in the CDKN1B 5'-UTR significantly impairs the transcription of downstream reporter luciferase (of ∼40-60%) and, possibly, the translation of the corresponding mRNA. This mutation was associated with a significant reduction in the amount of CDKN1B mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes from the patient, as demonstrated by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results confirm that germline CDKN1B mutations may predispose to a human MEN4 condition and add novel evidence that alteration in the transcription/translation rate of CDKN1B mRNA might be the mechanism implicated in tumor susceptibility.

  20. Obesity: an endocrine tumor?

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Omer; Alyamaç, Evrim

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most common disorders in clinical practice. The prevalance of obesity has increased by more than 60% since 1990. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting many factors into the blood, known as adipokines, including leptin, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, etc. This article examines the hypothesis that obesity may be evaluated as an endocrine tumor, regarding its genetic basis, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes, neovascularisation within the adipose tissue associated with growth, and beneficisal metabolic effects of surgical removal of excess adipose tissue by liposuction. Assuming obesity as an endocrine tumor may bring out new treatment modalities. Liposuction as "cytoreductive surgery", antiangiogenic teraphy or anti-neoplastic drugs may be important components of obesity treatment in future.

  1. The absence of corpus luteum formation alters the endocrine profile and affects follicular development during the first follicular wave in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Sudo, Natsuko; Sato, Ayako; Shirasuna, Koumei; Tetsuka, Masa; Kida, Katsuya; Schams, Dieter; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-12-01

    We previously established a bovine experimental model showing that the corpus luteum (CL) does not appear following aspiration of the preovulatory follicle before the onset of LH surge. Using this model, the present study aimed to determine the profile of follicular development and the endocrinological environment in the absence of CL with variable nadir circulating progesterone (P(4)) concentrations during the oestrous cycle in cattle. Luteolysis was induced in heifers and cows and they were assigned either to have the dominant follicle aspirated (CL-absent) or ovulation induced (CL-present). Ultrasound scanning to observe the diameter of each follicle and blood collection was performed from the day of follicular aspiration or ovulation and continued for 6 days. The CL-absent cattle maintained nadir circulating P(4) throughout the experimental period and showed a similar diameter between the largest and second largest follicle, resulting in co-dominant follicles. Oestradiol (E(2)) concentrations were greater in the CL-absent cows than in the CL-present cows at day -1, day 1 and day 2 from follicular deviation. The CL-absent cows had a higher basal concentration, area under the curve (AUC), pulse amplitude and pulse frequency of LH than the CL-present cows. After follicular deviation, the CL-absent cows showed a greater basal concentration, AUC and pulse amplitude of growth hormone (GH) than the CL-present cows. These results suggest that the absence of CL accompanying nadir circulating P(4) induces an enhancement of LH pulses, which involves the growth of the co-dominant follicles. Our results also suggest that circulating levels of P(4) and E(2) affect pulsatile GH secretion in cattle.

  2. Endocrine aspects of sexual dysfunction in men.

    PubMed

    Morales, Alvaro; Buvat, Jacques; Gooren, Louis J; Guay, Andre T; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Tan, Hui Meng; Torres, Luiz O

    2004-07-01

    Endocrine disorders of sex steroid hormones may adversely affect men's sexual function. Aim. To provide expert opinions/recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge for the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of endocrinologic sexual medicine disorders. An International Consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual medicine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 17 committees. Committee members established specific objectives and scopes for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge in the respective sexual medicine topic represent the opinion of experts from five continents developed in a scientific and debate process. Concerning the Endocrine committee, there were eight experts from seven countries. Expert opinions/recommendations are based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion over 2 years, public presentation and deliberation. Hypogonadism is a clinical and biochemical syndrome characterized by a deficiency in serum androgen levels which may decrease sexual interest, quality of erections and quality of life. Biochemical investigations include testosterone and either bioavailable or calculated free testosterone; prolactin should be considered when hypogonadism has been documented. If clinically indicated, androgen therapy should maintain testosterone within the physiological range avoiding supraphysiologic values. Digital rectal examination and determination of serum prostate specific antigen values are mandatory prior to therapy and regularly thereafter. Androgen therapy is usually long-term requiring regular follow-up, frequent monitoring of blood levels and beneficial and adverse therapeutic responses. Safe and effective treatments for endocrinologic sexual medicine disorders examined by prospective, placebo-controlled, multi-institutional clinical trials are needed.

  3. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS AND ALLIGATOR EMBRYOS: A LESSON FROM WILDLIFE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity adversely affect wildlife. A number of these contaminants have been hypothesized to induce non lethal, multigenerational effects by acting as endocrine disrupting agents. One case is that of the alligator...

  4. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS AND ALLIGATOR EMBRYOS: A LESSON FROM WILDLIFE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity adversely affect wildlife. A number of these contaminants have been hypothesized to induce non lethal, multigenerational effects by acting as endocrine disrupting agents. One case is that of the alligator...

  5. Factors affecting functional outcome after lower extremity amputation.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Abdullah Bin; Saeed, Usama Bin; Zain-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Ahmad Khan, Rana Dawood; Yasin, Ajmal

    2015-11-01

    More than 100,000 major lower extremity amputations -- amputations at the metatarsal, below-knee or above-knee level -- are performed yearly in the United States. Despite improvements in long-term outcome, operative mortality following such amputations has remained stable at 9% to 10% over the last 20 years. Several predictors for functional outcome of amputee patients are mentioned in the literature. The current study was planned to assess the impact of comorbidities on functional status after lower extremity amputations. It was a prospective comparative study held at the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, and affiliated hospitals. The study included 104 patients regardless of age and gender. Patients were allocated into trans-metatarsal (TM) group, below-knee (BK) amputation group and above-knee (AK) amputation group. Comorbidities before amputation included diabetes mellitus (70.7%), coronary heart disease (57.1%), chronic kidney disease (53.6%), and/or congestive heart failure (52.1%). Mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge was 9%, and hospital readmission was 27.7%. Stroke, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and poor baseline cognitive function were associated with the poorest functional outcome after amputation. Patients undergoing BK or AK amputation failed to return to their functional baseline within 6 months. Higher amputation level, history of stroke, ESRD, poor baseline cognitive scores, and female gender are factors associated with inferior functional status after amputation.

  6. Neurotoxicity of endocrine disruptors: possible involvement in brain development and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Masuo, Yoshinori; Ishido, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals that act as endocrine disruptors do not appear to pose a risk to human reproduction; however, their effects on the central nervous systems are less well understood. Animal studies suggested that maternal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) produced changes in rearing behavior, locomotion, anxiety, and learning/memory in offspring, as well as neuronal abnormalities. Some investigations suggested that EDC exert effects on central monoaminergic neurons, especially dopaminergic neurons. Our data demonstrated that EDC attenuate the development of dopaminergic neurons, which might be involved in developmental disorders. Perinatal exposure to EDC might affect neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus, thereby potentially modulating neuronal development, leading to impaired cognitive and memory functions. Endocrine disruptors also attenuate gender differences in brain development. For example, the locus ceruleus is larger in female rats than in males, but treatments with bisphenol-A (BPA) enlarge this region in males. Some reports indicated that EDC induce hypothyroidism, which might be evidenced as abnormal brain development. Endocrine disruptors might also affect mature neurons, resulting in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The current review focused on alterations in the brain induced by EDC, specifically on the possible involvement of EDC in brain development and neurodegeneration.

  7. How does adjuvant chemotherapy affect menopausal symptoms, sexual function, and quality of life after breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Marino, Jennifer L; Saunders, Christobel M; Emery, Laura I; Green, Helena; Doherty, Dorota A; Hickey, Martha

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and menopausal symptoms, sexual function, and quality of life. Participants attended a menopause clinic with a dedicated service for cancer survivors at a large tertiary women's hospital. Information about breast cancer treatments including adjuvant chemotherapy was collected from medical records. Menopausal symptoms were recorded with the Greene Climacteric Scale and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, Breast Cancer, and Endocrine Symptom Subscales. Sexual symptoms were recorded using Fallowfield's Sexual Activity Questionnaire. Quality of life was measured with Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scales. The severity of vasomotor, psychological, or sexual symptoms (apart from pain) did not differ between those who had received adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 339) and other breast cancer survivors (n = 465). After adjustment for current age, time since menopause, and current use of antiestrogen endocrine therapy, the risk of "severe pain" with sexual intercourse was twice as common after chemotherapy (31.6% vs 20.0%, odds ratio [OR] 2.18, 95% CI 1.25-3.79). Those treated with chemotherapy were more likely to report "severe problems" with physical well-being (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.12-3.28) and lower breast cancer-specific quality of life (OR 1.89 95% CI 1.13-3.18), but did not differ in other quality of life measures. In this large study of breast cancer patients presenting to a specialty menopause clinic, previous chemotherapy was not associated with current vasomotor or psychological symptoms. Severe pain with intercourse was significantly more common in those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

  8. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation affects brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Dan Cao; Yingjie Li; Ling Wei; Yingying Tang

    2016-08-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the emotional processing as well as in the functional brain network. Hyperactivity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would be found in anxious participants. However, it is still unclear what the role of PFC played in a resting functional network. Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) is an effective tool to create virtual lesions on brain regions. In this paper, we applied cTBS over right prefrontal area, and investigated the effects of cTBS on the brain activity for functional connectivity by the method of graph theory. We recorded 64-channels EEG on thirteen healthy participants in the resting condition and emotional tasks before and after 40 s of cTBS. This work focused on the effect of cTBS on cortical activities in the resting condition by calculating the coherence between EEG channels and building functional networks before and after cTBS in the delta, theta, alpha and beta bands. Results revealed that 1) The functional connectivity after cTBS was significantly increased compared with that before cTBS in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands in the resting condition; 2) The efficiency-cost reached the maximum before and after cTBS both with the cost about 0.3 in the bands above, which meant that the information transmission of functional brain network with this cost was highly efficient; 3) the clustering coefficient and path length after cTBS was significantly increased in delta, theta and beta bands. In conclusion, cTBS over PFC indeed enhanced the functional connectivity in the resting condition. In addition, the information transmission in the resting brain network was highly efficient with the cost about 0.3.

  9. Uncertainties for endocrine disrupters: our view on progress.

    PubMed

    Daston, George P; Cook, Jon C; Kavlock, Robert J

    2003-08-01

    hormonal activity should include androgens and compounds that affect thyroid function, and expanded the mandate to include all chemicals under EPA's jurisdiction, potentially including the 70,000 chemicals regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee [EDSTAC], 1998). EDSTAC recommended an extensive process of prioritization, screening, and testing of chemicals for endocrine-disrupting activity, including a screening battery that involves a combination of at least eight in vitro and in vivo assays spanning a number of taxa (EDSTAC, 1998). What started out as a hypothesis has become one of the biggest testing programs conceived in the history of toxicology and the only one that has ever been based on mechanism of action as its premise. As we pass the 10th anniversary of the emergence of the endocrine disruptor hypothesis, it is useful to look back on the progress that has been made in answering the nine questions posed as data gaps in the EPA's research strategy (EPA, 1998a)--not only to see what we have learned, but also to examine whether the questions are still appropriate for the goal, what gaps remain, and what directions should be emphasized in the future.

  10. Factors affecting the development of lung function in Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Y; Pariès, J; Harrabi, I; Zbidi, A; Tabka, Z; Richalet, J P; Buvry, A

    2008-01-01

    We undertook to evaluate the impacts of morphology at birth, physical activity, anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors on lung function in healthy Tunisian children. Pulmonary function parameters were measured with a Minato portable spirometer in a randomized population of 756 healthy children (388 males and 368 females) aged between 6 and 16. The morphology at birth, the gestational age, the physical activity, the socioeconomic status, the type of habitation, and the environmental factors were all assessed by a standard questionnaire. Using univariate analysis, we found that: (1) morphometric parameters (height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory perimeter), as well as sex were highly associated with pulmonary function parameters; (2) Height at birth showed strong significant relations with FVC, FEV(1), and FEV(1)/FVC; (3) lung function parameters were influenced by physical training of our children, socioeconomic status, indoor pollution, and passive smoking; and (4) we did not observe any association between the gestational age and the weight at their birth and lung function parameters. Using a general linear model analysis, morphometric parameters, age, sex, type of heating, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory perimeters had significant relation with respiratory parameters. In our population of healthy Tunisian children, the main predictive factors of the pulmonary development were the morphological factors such as height, weight, maximal inspiratory, and expiratory thoracic perimeter, sex and age, and the environmental conditions such as type of heating but not morphology at birth, physical activity, or socioeconomic status.

  11. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530

  12. The kynurenine pathway and parasitic infections that affect CNS function.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Nicholas H; Too, Lay Khoon; Khaw, Loke Tim; Guo, Jintao; Hee, Leia; Mitchell, Andrew J; Grau, Georges E; Ball, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism has been implicated in brain function, immunoregulation, anti-microbial mechanisms and pregnancy. Some of these actions are due to depletion of tryptophan and others to the formation of biologically active metabolites. This review focuses on the roles of the kynurenine pathway in host responses during two parasitic diseases of major health and economic importance, malaria and toxoplasmosis, with an emphasis on their impacts on CNS function. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System A A A en español Tu sistema endocrino ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  14. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  16. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  17. Form and Function in the Affective Training of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, John L.; Seagull, Arthur A.

    1968-01-01

    Presently a contradiction exists between form and function in teacher education. Although creativity and self-awareness are voiced as goals for teachers and their students, teachers are all too often educated by means of lectures, a form which holds quiet attentiveness rather than intellectual aggression a chief value. In their own classes,…

  18. Role of Cognition and Affect in a Functional Behavioral Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Polly

    2000-01-01

    This article attempts to present a multidimensional perspective of functional behavioral analysis that will lead to psychoeducational interventions in which students with emotional/behavioral disorders are taught to think clearly, solve problems, and self-regulate the intensity of their emotions. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  19. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  20. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  1. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  2. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.

  3. Chronic Ankle Instability Does Not Affect Lower Extremity Functional Performance.

    PubMed

    Demeritt, Kerry M; Shultz, Sandra J; Docherty, Carrie L; Gansneder, Bruce M; Perrin, David H

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if functional performance is impaired in individuals with self-reported chronic ankle instability. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used a between-groups design to assess 3 functional variables. All data were collected at a Division III college and a military academy. Before testing, all subjects performed a 5-minute warm-up, followed by a series of stretches for the lower extremity muscles. Subjects then performed cocontraction, shuttle run, and agility hop tests in a counterbalanced fashion. Three trials for each functional test were completed and averaged for analysis. SUBJECTS: Twenty men with a history of at least 1 significant ankle sprain and episodes of at least 1 repeated ankle injury or feelings of instability or "giving way" were compared with 20 men with no prior history of ankle injury. Subjects were matched by age, height, weight, and activity level. MEASUREMENTS: Time to completion was measured in seconds for the cocontraction and the shuttle run tests. The agility hop test was measured on an error point scale. RESULTS: Using 3 separate, independent, 2-tailed t tests, we found no significant difference between groups for the cocontraction (P =.452), shuttle run (P =.680), or agility hop (P =.902) tests. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ankle instability is a subjectively reported phenomenon defined as the tendency to "give way" during normal activity. Although athletes commonly complain of subjective symptoms associated with chronic ankle instability, our findings suggest that these symptoms do not negatively influence actual functional performance. Future researchers should evaluate other, more demanding functional-performance tests to further substantiate these findings.

  4. [Novel concepts in biology of diffuse endocrine system: results and future investigations].

    PubMed

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.

  5. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than ten years, major international efforts have been aimed at understanding the mechanism and extent of endocrine disruption in experimental models, wildlife, and people; its occurrence in the real world; and in developing tools for screening and prediction of risk. Mu...

  6. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than ten years, major international efforts have been aimed at understanding the mechanism and extent of endocrine disruption in experimental models, wildlife, and people; its occurrence in the real world; and in developing tools for screening and prediction of risk. Mu...

  7. Unmasking the truth behind endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    DiDiego, Michele Lamse; Eggert, Julia A; Pruitt, Rosanne H; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2005-10-01

    The increase in reproductive cancers and developmental problems over the past 70 years has led researchers to suspect environmental influences as a root cause. Evidence from wildlife and laboratory studies suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors (EnDs) may be the cause. An EnD is a foreign substance or mixture that alters the function of the endocrine system. They can be found in food, water, soil, or air. Research into their possible role provides an opportunity to decrease modifiable risk factors.

  8. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  9. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  10. Epigenetic alterations in endocrine-related cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodero, Sandra; Delgado-Álvarez, Elías; Fernández, Agustín F; Fernández-Morera, Juan L; Menéndez-Torre, Edelmiro; Fraga, Mario F

    2014-08-01

    Aberrant epigenetics is a hallmark of cancer, and endocrine-related tumors are no exception. Recent research has been identifying an ever-growing number of epigenetic alterations in both genomic DNA methylation and histone post-translational modification in tumors of the endocrine system. Novel microarray and ultra-deep sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of genome-wide epigenetic patterns in some tumor types such as adrenocortical, parathyroid, and breast carcinomas. However, in other cancer types, such as the multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and thyroid cancer, tumor information is limited to candidate genes alone. Future research should fill this gap and deepen our understanding of the functional role of these alterations in cancer, as well as defining their possible clinical uses.

  11. RIGHT HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN NORMALS, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Roy, Amal; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Davis, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    The happy-sad chimeric faces test has been established as a useful test of right hemispheric function. It is known to elicit a left hemifacial bias (LHF bias) in right handed subjects. 41 normals and 19 manic, depressive and schizophrenic patients each were tested. All subjects were strictly right handed. Normals and depressives showed significant LHF bias. Monies and schizophrenics did not show significant LHF Bias. This suggests right hemispheric dysfunction in both mania and schizophrenia. PMID:21584135

  12. Does hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia affect olfactory or gustatory function?

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Silke; Fasunla, Ayotunde J; Schäfers, Sophia P; Lahme, Carolin M E; Geisthoff, Urban W; Hundt, Walter; Wolf, Petra; Mandic, Robert; Werner, Jochen A; Eivazi, Behfar

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory and gustatory functions of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients have not been documented by validated tests. Disorders of the nasal/oral cavity may interfere with the olfactory and gustatory functions. Fifty-four HHT patients were investigated by smell/taste tests. HHT patients provided subjective ratings in areas such as ability to perceive smell/taste. "Sniffin' Sticks" were used for smell tests, and taste strips were used for taste tests. HHT patients rated their subjective olfactory and gustatory function on a visual analog scale from 0 (none) to 100 (high) as 65.3 ± 27.7 and 68.1 ± 25.1, respectively. Comparison of smell test results of HHT patients with normative data of sex- and age-matched controls from Hummel et al. revealed that HHT patients had lower threshold values, whereas there was no difference in identification and discrimination values. HHT patients were hyposmic. In the case of taste qualities, all values (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) in HHT patients were lower than those in normative data of Mueller et al. However, HHT patients were not hypogeusic. The duration of disease, extranasal manifestation, and treatments did not significantly correlate with smell/taste test values. Compared with healthy people, HHT patients exhibit reduced olfactory and gustatory function; however, HHT patients are hyposmic and not hypogeusic. This chemosensory deficit may highlight an early sign of disease and has no correlation with disease severity. HHT patients should be informed about these potential disease manifestations, thus enabling them to improve their quality of life.

  13. The endocrine system and ageing.

    PubMed

    Chahal, H S; Drake, W M

    2007-01-01

    Complex changes occur within the endocrine system of ageing individuals. This article explores the changes that occur in the metabolism and production of various hormones and discusses the resulting clinical consequences. As individuals age there is a decline in the peripheral levels of oestrogen and testosterone, with an increase in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin. Additionally there is a decline in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate-bound form. Even though there are complex changes within the hypothalmo-pituitary-adrenal/thyroid axis, there is minimal change in adrenal and thyroid function with ageing. The clinical significance of these deficiencies with age are variable and include reduced protein synthesis, decrease in lean body mass and bone mass, increased fat mass, insulin resistance, higher cardiovascular disease risk, increase in vasomotor symptoms, fatigue, depression, anaemia, poor libido, erectile deficiency and a decline in immune function. For each endocrine system, studies have been carried out in an attempt to reverse the effects of ageing by altering the serum hormonal levels of older individuals. However, the real benefits of hormonal treatment in older individuals are still being evaluated.

  14. Purinergic signalling in endocrine organs.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    There is widespread involvement of purinergic signalling in endocrine biology. Pituitary cells express P1, P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes to mediate hormone release. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) regulates insulin release in the pancreas and is involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones. ATP plays a major role in the synthesis, storage and release of catecholamines from the adrenal gland. In the ovary purinoceptors mediate gonadotrophin-induced progesterone secretion, while in the testes, both Sertoli and Leydig cells express purinoceptors that mediate secretion of oestradiol and testosterone, respectively. ATP released as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline is involved in activities of the pineal gland and in the neuroendocrine control of the thymus. In the hypothalamus, ATP and adenosine stimulate or modulate the release of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone, as well as arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin. Functionally active P2X and P2Y receptors have been identified on human placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and on neuroendocrine cells in the lung, skin, prostate and intestine. Adipocytes have been recognised recently to have endocrine function involving purinoceptors.

  15. Alginate Overproduction Affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Hentzer, Morten; Teitzel, Gail M.; Balzer, Grant J.; Heydorn, Arne; Molin, Søren; Givskov, Michael; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2001-01-01

    During the course of chronic cystic fibrosis (CF) infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes a conversion to a mucoid phenotype, which is characterized by overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections involve surface-attached, highly antibiotic-resistant communities of microorganisms organized in biofilms. Although biofilm formation and the conversion to mucoidy are both important aspects of CF pathogenesis, the relationship between them is at the present unclear. In this study, we report that the overproduction of alginate affects biofilm development on an abiotic surface. Biofilms formed by an alginate-overproducing strain exhibit a highly structured architecture and are significantly more resistant to the antibiotic tobramycin than a biofilm formed by an isogenic nonmucoid strain. These results suggest that an important consequence of the conversion to mucoidy is an altered biofilm architecture that shows increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatments. PMID:11514525

  16. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adams, B M; Coates, Miranda N; Jackson, S RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S; Davis, Tara L

    2015-07-15

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Does caregiving stress affect cognitive function in older women?

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Grodstein, Francine

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women provide care to their ill spouses; however, no studies have examined possible effects of caregiving stress on cognitive function. We administered 6 tests of cognitive function to 13740 Nurses' Health Study participants aged 70-79 years. We collected information on caregiving and numerous potential confounding variables via biennial mailed questionnaires. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, education, mental health index, vitality index, use of antidepressants, and history of high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease), we found modest but significantly increased risks of low cognitive function on three of the cognitive tests among women who provided care to a disabled or ill spouse compared with women who did not provide any care. For example, on the TICS, a test of general cognition, the risk of a low score was 31% higher in women who provided care compared with women who did not (RR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.10, 1.56). We found a moderately increased risk of poor performance on several cognitive tests among women who provided care to their disabled or ill husbands.

  18. Microplastics Affect the Ecological Functioning of an Important Biogenic Habitat.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; O'Connor, Nessa E; Thompson, Richard

    2017-01-03

    Biological effects of microplastics on the health of bivalves have been demonstrated elsewhere, but ecological impacts on the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of bivalve-dominated habitats are unknown. Thus, we exposed intact sediment cores containing European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) or blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in seawater to two different densities (2.5 or 25 μg L(-1)) of biodegradable or conventional microplastics in outdoor mesocosms. We hypothesized that filtration rates of the bivalves, inorganic nitrogen cycling, primary productivity of sediment dwelling microphytobenthos, and the structure of invertebrate benthic assemblages would be influenced by microplastics. After 50 days, filtration by M. edulis was significantly less when exposed to 25 μg L(-1) of either type of microplastics, but there were no effects on ecosystem functioning or the associated invertebrate assemblages. Contrastingly, filtration by O. edulis significantly increased when exposed to 2.5 or 25 μg L(-1) of microplastics, and porewater ammonium and biomass of benthic cyanobacteria decreased. Additionally the associated infaunal invertebrate assemblages differed, with significantly less polychaetes and more oligochaetes in treatments exposed to microplastics. These findings highlight the potential of microplastics to impact the functioning and structure of sedimentary habitats and show that such effects may depend on the dominant bivalve present.

  19. How optimization of potential functions affects protein folding.

    PubMed Central

    Hao, M H; Scheraga, H A

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the optimization of the potential function and the foldability of theoretical protein models is studied based on investigations of a 27-mer cubic-lattice protein model and a more realistic lattice model for the protein crambin. In both the simple and the more complicated systems, optimization of the energy parameters achieves significant improvements in the statistical-mechanical characteristics of the systems and leads to foldable protein models in simulation experiments. The foldability of the protein models is characterized by their statistical-mechanical properties--e.g., by the density of states and by Monte Carlo folding simulations of the models. With optimized energy parameters, a high level of consistency exists among different interactions in the native structures of the protein models, as revealed by a correlation function between the optimized energy parameters and the native structure of the model proteins. The results of this work are relevant to the design of a general potential function for folding proteins by theoretical simulations. PMID:8643516

  20. CXCR4 blockade induces atherosclerosis by affecting neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Bot, Ilze; Daissormont, Isabelle T M N; Zernecke, Alma; van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; Kramp, Birgit; de Jager, Saskia C A; Sluimer, Judith C; Manca, Marco; Hérias, Veronica; Westra, Marijke M; Bot, Martine; van Santbrink, Peter J; van Berkel, Theo J C; Su, Lishan; Skjelland, Mona; Gullestad, Lars; Kuiper, Johan; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Paul; Koenen, Rory R; Weber, Christian; Biessen, Erik A L

    2014-09-01

    The SDF-1α/CXCR4 dyad was previously shown by us and others to be instrumental in intimal hyperplasia as well as early stage atherosclerosis. We here sought to investigate its impact on clinically relevant stages of atherosclerosis in mouse and man. Immunohistochemical analysis of CXCR4 expression in human atherosclerotic lesions revealed a progressive accumulation of CXCR4(+) cells during plaque progression. To address causal involvement of CXCR4 in advanced stages of atherosclerosis we reconstituted LDLr(-/-) mice with autologous bone marrow infected with lentivirus encoding SDF-1α antagonist or CXCR4 degrakine, which effects proteasomal degradation of CXCR4. Functional CXCR4 blockade led to progressive plaque expansion with disease progression, while also promoting intraplaque haemorrhage. Moreover, CXCR4 knockdown was seen to augment endothelial adhesion of neutrophils. Concordant with this finding, inhibition of CXCR4 function increased adhesive capacity and reduced apoptosis of neutrophils and resulted in hyperactivation of circulating neutrophils. Compatible with a role of the neutrophil CXCR4 in end-stage atherosclerosis, CXCR4 expression by circulating neutrophils was lowered in patients with acute cardiovascular syndromes. In conclusion, CXCR4 contributes to later stages of plaque progression by perturbing neutrophil function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CXCR4 blockade induces atherosclerosis by affecting neutrophil function

    PubMed Central

    Bot, Ilze; Daissormont, Isabelle T.M.N.; Zernecke, Alma; van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Kramp, Birgit; de Jager, Saskia C.A.; Sluimer, Judith C.; Manca, Marco; Hérias, Veronica; Westra, Marijke M.; Bot, Martine; van Santbrink, Peter J.; van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Su, Lishan; Skjelland, Mona; Gullestad, Lars; Kuiper, Johan; Halvorsen, Bente; Aukrust, Paul; Koenen, Rory R.; Weber, Christian; Biessen, Erik A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The SDF-1α/CXCR4 dyad was previously shown by us and others to be instrumental in intimal hyperplasia as well as early stage atherosclerosis. We here sought to investigate its impact on clinically relevant stages of atherosclerosis in mouse and man. Methods and results Immunohistochemical analysis of CXCR4 expression in human atherosclerotic lesions revealed a progressive accumulation of CXCR4+ cells during plaque progression. To address causal involvement of CXCR4 in advanced stages of atherosclerosis we reconstituted LDLr−/− mice with autologous bone marrow infected with lentivirus encoding SDF-1α antagonist or CXCR4 degrakine, which effects proteasomal degradation of CXCR4. Functional CXCR4 blockade led to progressive plaque expansion with disease progression, while also promoting intraplaque haemorrhage. Moreover, CXCR4 knockdown was seen to augment endothelial adhesion of neutrophils. Concordant with this finding, inhibition of CXCR4 function increased adhesive capacity and reduced apoptosis of neutrophils and resulted in hyperactivation of circulating neutrophils. Compatible with a role of the neutrophil CXCR4 in end-stage atherosclerosis, CXCR4 expression by circulating neutrophils was lowered in patients with acute cardiovascular syndromes. Conclusion In conclusion, CXCR4 contributes to later stages of plaque progression by perturbing neutrophil function. PMID:24816217

  2. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, B.M.; Coates, Miranda N.; Jackson, S. RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S.; Davis, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25967372

  3. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  4. Does adiposity affect muscle function during walking in children?

    PubMed

    Lerner, Zachary F; Shultz, Sarah P; Board, Wayne J; Kung, Stacey; Browning, Raymond C

    2014-09-22

    The biomechanical mechanisms responsible for the altered gait in obese children are not well understood, particularly as they relate to increases in adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that as body-fat percentage (BF%) increased: (1) knee flexion during stance would decrease while pelvic obliquity would increase; (2) peak muscle forces normalized to lean-weight would increase for gluteus medius, gastrocnemius, and soleus, but decrease for the vasti; and (3) the individual muscle contributions to center of mass (COM) acceleration in the direction of their primary function(s) would not change for gluteus medius, gastrocnemius, and soleus, but decrease for the vasti. We scaled a musculoskeletal model to the anthropometrics of each participant (n=14, 8-12 years old, BF%: 16-41%) and estimated individual muscle forces and their contributions to COM acceleration. BF% was correlated with average knee flexion angle during stance (r=-0.54, p=0.024) and pelvic obliquity range of motion (r=0.78, p<0.001), as well as with relative vasti (r=-0.60, p=0.023), gluteus medius (r=0.65, p=0.012) and soleus (r=0.59, p=0.026) force production. Contributions to COM acceleration from the vasti were negatively correlated to BF% (vertical-- r=-0.75, p=0.002, posterior-- r=-0.68, p=0.008), but there were no correlation between BF% and COM accelerations produced by the gastrocnemius, soleus and gluteus medius. Therefore, we accept our first, partially accept our second, and accept our third hypotheses. The functional demands and relative force requirements of the hip abductors during walking in pediatric obesity may contribute to altered gait kinematics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1679 with acuity-better eye, VF rating, and DD), PS (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.2254 with acuity-better eye), ISR-C (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.041 with acuity-better eye), and ISR-T (p < 0.05; Multiple R (2) = 0.1421 with acuity-better eye). The findings suggest eye-related conditions can impact levels and perceptions of support exchanges. Our data reinforces the importance of visual function as an influence on prosocial behavior in older adults.

  6. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-07

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients.

  7. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  8. Modeled Microgravity Affects Fibroblast Functions Related to Wound Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cialdai, Francesca; Vignali, Leonardo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Colciago, Alessandra; Celotti, Fabio; Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Monici, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is crucial for the survival of an organism. Therefore, in the perspective of space exploration missions, it is important to understand if and how microgravity conditions affect the behavior of the cell populations involved in wound healing and the evolution of the process. Since fibroblasts are the major players in tissue repair, this study was focused on the behavior of fibroblasts in microgravity conditions, modeled by a RCCS. Cell cytoskeleton was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy, the ability to migrate was assessed by microchemotaxis and scratch assay, and the expression of markers of fibroblast activation, angiogenesis, and inflammation was assessed by western blot. Results revealed that after cell exposure to modeled microgravity conditions, a thorough rearrangement of microtubules occurred and α-SMA bundles were replaced by a tight network of faulty and disorganized filaments. Exposure to modeled microgravity induced a decrease in α-SMA and E-CAD expressions. Also, the expression of the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF decreased, while that of the inflammatory signal COX-2 increased. Fibroblast ability to adhere, migrate, and respond to chemoattractants (PRP), closely related to cytoskeleton integrity and membrane junctions, was significantly impaired. Nevertheless, PRP was able to partially restore fibroblast migration.

  9. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sérgio Luís; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    -dependent effect. Conclusions This study suggests that adults exposed to MeHg may be at risk for deficits in neurocognitive function. The functions disrupted in adults, namely attention, fine-motor function and verbal memory, are similar to some of those previously reported in children with prenatal exposures. PMID:12844364

  10. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  11. Does vitamin C deficiency affect cognitive development and function?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-09-19

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(-/-) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies.

  12. Can Cholesterol Metabolism Modulation Affect Brain Function and Behavior?

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Veronica; Servadio, Michela; Trezza, Viviana; Pallottini, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol is an important component for cell physiology. It regulates the fluidity of cell membranes and determines the physical and biochemical properties of proteins. In the central nervous system, cholesterol controls synapse formation and function and supports the saltatory conduction of action potential. In recent years, the role of cholesterol in the brain has caught the attention of several research groups since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, and interestingly also with psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the connection between cholesterol dysregulation and various neurologic and psychiatric disorders based on clinical and preclinical studies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 281-286, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cerebellar ataxia induced by 3-AP affects immunological function.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Ying; Cao, Bei-Bei; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that the cerebellum modulates the immune system. Here we determined whether cerebellar ataxia alters immunological function to further demonstrate an involvement of the cerebellum in immune modulation. Neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) was intraperitoneally injected in rats to induce cerebellar ataxia. Behavior and motor coordination were tested on day 7 following 3-AP injection. Nissl staining and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine neuronal loss and neurotransmitter contents, respectively, in all the three cerebellar nuclei, fastigial nucleus (FN), interposed nucleus (IN) and dentate nucleus (DN). T and B lymphocyte differentiation and function were measured by flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. 3-AP induced motor discoordination and locomotor reduction. In all the three cerebellar nuclei, FN, IN and DN, there was a neuronal loss and a decrease in contents of glutamate and GABA (but not glycine) after 3-AP injection. Importantly, CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, were increased by the 3-AP treatment. Moreover, interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells and interleukin (IL)-17-producing cells were decreased in cerebellar ataxia rats, but IL-4-producing cells and CD25-expressing cells were increased. Expression of the T helper (Th)1- and Th17-related cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17 and IL-22, was downregulated in CD4+ cells in cerebellar ataxia rats, while expression of the Th2 and regulatory T (Treg)-related cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, was upregulated. Furthermore, B lymphocyte number and anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) IgM and IgG antibody levels were elevated in cerebellar ataxia. Cerebellar ataxia alters cellular and humoral immunity.

  14. Enhanced serotonin transporter function during depression in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Willeit, Matthäus; Sitte, Harald H; Thierry, Nikolaus; Michalek, Klaus; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Zill, Peter; Winkler, Dietmar; Brannath, Werner; Fischer, Michael B; Bondy, Brigitta; Kasper, Siegfried; Singer, Ernst A

    2008-06-01

    Decreased synaptic serotonin during depressive episodes is a central element of the monoamine hypothesis of depression. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT, SERT) is a key molecule for the control of synaptic serotonin levels. Here we aimed to detect state-related alterations in the efficiency of 5-HTT-mediated inward and outward transport in platelets of drug-free depressed patients suffering from seasonal affective disorder (SAD). 5-HTT turnover rate, a measure for the number of inward transport events per minute, and tyramine-induced, 5-HTT-mediated outward transport were assessed at baseline, after 4 weeks of bright light therapy, and in summer using a case-control design in a consecutive sample of 73 drug-free depressed patients with SAD and 70 nonseasonal healthy controls. Patients were drug-naive or medication-free for at least 6 months prior to study inclusion, females patients were studied in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. All participants were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) to assess the influence of this polymorphism on 5-HTT parameters. Efficiency of 5-HTT-mediated inward (p=0.014) and outward (p=0.003) transport was enhanced in depressed patients. Both measures normalized toward control levels after therapy and in natural summer remission. Changes in outward transport showed a clear correlation with treatment response (rho=0.421, p=0.001). Changes in inward transport were mediated by changes in 5-HTT transport efficiency rather than affinity or density. 5-HTTLPR was not associated with any of the 5-HTT parameters. In sum, we conclude that the 5-HTT is in a hyperfunctional state during depression in SAD and normalizes after light therapy and in natural summer remission.

  15. Differential levels of Neurod establish zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell fates

    PubMed Central

    Dalgin, Gökhan; Prince, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    During development a network of transcription factors functions to differentiate foregut cells into pancreatic endocrine cells. Differentiation of appropriate numbers of each hormone-expressing endocrine cell type is essential for the normal development of the pancreas and ultimately for effective maintenance of blood glucose levels. A fuller understanding of the details of endocrine cell differentiation may contribute to development of cell replacement therapies to treat diabetes. In this study, by using morpholino and gRNA/Cas9 mediated knockdown we establish that differential levels of the basic-helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Neurod are required for the differentiation of distinct endocrine cell types in developing zebrafish. While Neurod plays a role in the differentiation of all endocrine cells, we find that differentiation of glucagon-expressing alpha cells is disrupted by a minor reduction in Neurod levels, whereas differentiation of insulin-expressing beta cells is less sensitive to Neurod depletion. The endocrine cells that arise during embryonic stages to produce the primary islet, and those that arise subsequently during larval stages from the intra-pancreatic duct (IPD) to ultimately contribute to the secondary islets, show similar dependence on differential Neurod levels. Intriguingly, Neurod-deficiency triggers premature formation of endocrine precursors from the IPD during early larval stages. However, the Neurod-deficient endocrine precursors fail to differentiate appropriately, and the larvae are unable to maintain normal glucose levels. In summary, differential levels of Neurod are required to generate endocrine pancreas subtypes from precursors during both embryonic and larval stages, and Neurod function is in turn critical to endocrine function. PMID:25797153

  16. Experimental endocrine manipulation by contraceptive regimen in the male marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Joachim; Luetjens, C Marc; Ehmcke, Jens; Redmann, Klaus; Damm, Oliver S; Steinhoff, Antje; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, Reinhild; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Simoni, Manuela; Schlatt, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Marmosets are used as preclinical model in reproductive research. In contrast to other primates, they display short gestation times rendering this species valid for exploration of effects on fertility. However, their peculiar endocrine regulation differs from a those of macaques and humans. We subjected male marmosets to previously clinically tested hormonal regimens that are known to effectively suppress spermatogenesis. Beside a control group, seven groups (each n=6) were investigated for different periods of up to 42 months: regimen I, (four groups) received testosterone undecanoate (TU) and norethisterone enanthate (NETE); regimen II, (two groups) received TU and NETE followed by NETE only; and regimen III, (one group) received NETE only. Testicular volume, cell ploidy and histology, endocrine changes and fertility were monitored weekly. TU and NETE and initial TU and NETE treatment followed by NETE failed to suppress spermatogenesis and fertility. Testicular volumes dropped, although spermatogenesis was only mildly affected; however, testicular cellular composition remained stable. Serum testosterone dropped when NETE was given alone but the animals remained fertile. Compared with controls, no significant changes were observed in sperm motility and fertility. Administration of TU and NETE affected testicular function only mildly, indicating that the regulatory role of chorionic gonadotrophin and testosterone on spermatogenesis is obviously limited and testicular function is maintained, although the endocrine axis is affected by the treatment. In conclusion, marmosets showed a different response to regimens of male contraception from macaques or men and have to be considered as a problematic model for preclinical trials of male hormonal contraception.

  17. Inactivation of Chibby affects function of motile airway cilia

    PubMed Central

    Voronina, Vera A.; Treuting, Piper; Love, Damon; Grubb, Barbara R.; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Adams, Allison; Li, Feng-Qian; Moon, Randall T.

    2009-01-01

    Chibby (Cby) is a conserved component of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. Cby physically interacts with β-catenin to repress its activation of transcription. To elucidate the function of Cby in vertebrates, we generated Cby−/− mice and found that after 2–3 d of weight loss, the majority of mice die before or around weaning. All Cby−/− mice develop rhinitis and sinusitis. When challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, Cby−/− mice are unable to clear the bacteria from the nasal cavity. Notably, Cby−/− mice exhibit a complete absence of mucociliary transport caused by a marked paucity of motile cilia in the nasal epithelium. Moreover, ultrastructural experiments reveal impaired basal body docking to the apical surface of multiciliated cells. In support of these phenotypes, endogenous Cby protein is localized at the base of cilia. As the phenotypes of Cby−/− mice bear striking similarities to primary ciliary dyskinesia, Cby−/− mice may prove to be a useful model for this condition. PMID:19364920

  18. [The vitamin D endocrine system].

    PubMed

    Castro, Luiz Claudio Gonçalves de

    2011-11-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system comprises a group of 7-dehydrocholesterol-derived secosteroid molecules, including its active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D), its precursors and other metabolites, its binding protein (DBP) and nuclear receptor (VDR), as well as cytochrome P450 complex enzymes participating in activation and inactivation pathways of those molecules. The biologic effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D are mediated by VDR, a ligand-activated transcription factor which is a member of the nuclear receptors family, spread in almost all human cells. In addition to its classic role in the regulation of calcium metabolism and bone health, evidence suggests that 1,25(OH)(2)D directly or indirectly modulates about 3% of the human genome, participating in the regulation of chief functions of systemic homeostasis, such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis, regulation of immune, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, and insulin metabolism. Given the critical influence of the vitamin D endocrine system in many processes of systemic metabolic equilibrium, the laboratory assays available for the evaluation of this system have to present high accuracy and reproducibility, enabling the establishment of cutoff points that, beyond being consensually accepted, reliably express the vitamin D status of the organism, and the respective clinical-metabolic impacts on the global health of the individual.

  19. Endocrine response to brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chioléro, R; Berger, M

    1994-11-01

    The neuroendocrine response (NER) is an essential component of the adaptive process to trauma, brain injury, and major surgery. While receiving additive humoral and neural afferent inputs, the brain nuclei responsible for the NER act mainly by efferent pathways to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathoadrenal system, the activations of which induce subsequent circulatory and metabolic responses. The NER to brain injury is similar to the response observed in patients with extracerebral injury, even if the response after brain injury is extremely variable. Generally, there is a biphasic pattern, with a sympathoadrenal storm associated with variable and altered stimulation of the HPA during the ebb phase. The first phase is followed by a decrease in both responses while other endocrine changes develop, involving mainly the counter-regulatory, gonadal, and thyroid hormones. The outcome after brain injury is closely correlated with the intensity of these changes, particularly with catecholamine plasma levels and the severity of the low triiodothyronine syndrome. Alterations of the thyroid hormones are largely related to a reduction in peripheral deiodination of thyroxin. Recent research shows that increased free-radical production and decreased selenium (an antioxidant) serum levels play an important role in thyroid metabolism. Two major issues remain unsolved: a) the precise definition of cerebral death, since endocrine brain function is not abolished in the state currently defined as brain death; and b) the question of whether substitutive hormone therapy should be applied in severe brain injury.

  20. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  1. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  2. Sasang constitution affects the prevalence of functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Ahn, Yo Chan; Son, Chang Gue

    2015-05-20

    Functional dyspepsia (FD), which is a very common disorder worldwide, is known to be caused by multiple factors including environmental and genetic factors. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a component of traditional Korean medicine that emphasizes inherited characteristics of the physical and psychological patterns of a patient. This study investigated whether the prevalence of FD differs depending on Sasang classification. A total 517 subjects (190 males and 327 females) were recruited, and interviewed for the presence of FD using a Rome III-based questionnaire. The Sasang constitution of all subjects were diagnosed using a Sasang constitutional analytical tool (SCAT). A Chi-square test was performed to compare prevalence of DF among different Sasang constitutional types. Of the 517 subjects, 115 (22.2 %) met the diagnostic criteria for FD, and the prevalence was significantly higher in females (26.9 %) than males (14.2 %, p < 0.01). The Sasang-constitution-based prevalence among all subjects was 27.5 % for Taeumin, 23.1 % for Soumin, and 16.4 % for Soyangin (p = 0.055). When compared by sex, the prevalence of FD among Sasang types showed significantly different patterns between males and females (p < 0.05); in females with FD, Taeumin predominated (32.5 % compared with 29.5 % and 18.8 % for Soumin and Soyangin, respectively; p < 0.05), whereas males with FD displayed a higher prevalence of Soumin (17.3 % compared with 9.1 % and 11.3 % for Taeumin and Soyangin, respectively; p > 0.05). This study identified significant differences in FD prevalence depending on Sasang constitution and sex. Our findings provide data to guide future research on the prevention and management of FD.

  3. Factors affecting the decline of ventilatory function in chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A H; Barter, C E; O'Connell, J M; Huggins, R

    1985-01-01

    Ninety six middle aged male patients with chronic bronchitis with relatively well preserved ventilatory function who were resident in Queensland, New South Wales, or Victoria took part in a prospective study to determine the relationship of various factors to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Thirty of the subjects withdrew, leaving 66 to be followed for four to six years. The mean rate of decline of the FEV1 was 58.6 (SD 51.4) ml/year. The subjects' ventilatory responses to bronchodilator and to methacholine (measures of bronchial lability) were significantly related to each other and to sputum eosinophilia. With a linear model for the data on 57 patients who had methacholine and skin tests the rate of decline of the FEV1 was found, after adjustment had been made for other variables, to be significantly related to State of residence, current smoking, response to bronchodilator, age, and occupational exposure to dust. Response to bronchodilator was interchangeable with response to methacholine. With the five variables in the model none of the following factors was related to the rate of decline of the FEV1:FEV1 on entry, FEV1% predicted normal, FEV1/VC%, skin test reaction, occupation on entry, history of sinusitis and rhinitis, and height. When data from all 66 subjects were introduced into the model, in addition to the five significant individual variables (FEV1/VC% X response to bronchodilator) was significantly related to the rate of decline of the FEV1. Of these prognostic indices, response to bronchodilator was independent of the initial FEV1, FEV/VC%, and FEV1% predicted. The difference between States, which was not explained by differences due to sampling or withdrawal of subjects, was due to a low rate of decline in Queensland. PMID:4060095

  4. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  5. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  6. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-06

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  7. Opioids and endocrine dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine effects of opioids used for the management of persistent pain are poorly understood by clinicians and patients, and hormone levels are rarely measured. It is recognized that opioids exert this effect via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Additional effects on adrenal hormones, weight, blood pressure and bone density may also occur. Symptoms and signs of sex hormone deficiency occur in both men and women but are under-reported and are often clinically unrecognized. The potential effects of long term opioid therapy on the endocrine system should be explained to patients before opioid therapy is commenced. Monitoring of sex hormones is recommended; if there are deficiencies opioids should be tapered and withdrawn, if this is clinically acceptable. If opioid therapy has to continue, hormone replacement therapy should be initiated and monitored by an endocrinologist. PMID:26516462

  8. Endocrine oncology in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, A; Rees, D A

    2011-12-01

    Endocrine tumours occur rarely in pregnant women but present clinicians with unique challenges. A high index of suspicion is often required to make a diagnosis since the symptoms and signs associated with many of these tumours, including insulinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma, mimic those of normal pregnancy or its complications, such as pre-eclampsia. The evidence base which informs management is very limited hence decisions on investigation and therapy must be individualised and undertaken jointly by the multidisciplinary medical team and the patient. The optimal strategy will depend on the nature and stage of the endocrine tumour, gestational stage, treatments available and patient wishes. Thus, surgical intervention, appropriately timed, may be considered in pregnancy for resectable adrenocortical carcinoma or phaeochromocytoma, but delayed until the postpartum period for well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Medical therapy may be required to reduce the drive to tumour growth, control symptoms of hormone excess and to minimise the risks of surgery, anaesthesia or labour.

  9. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity. PMID:19433244

  10. Pancreatic endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Asa, Sylvia L

    2011-04-01

    The endocrine cells of the pancreas and their related cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract give rise to a variety of tumors that pose a diagnostic challenge. There has been progress in understanding their histogenesis, morphology, immunohistochemistry, molecular biology and classifications. This review will focus on nomenclature/terminology, classification, the role of immunohistochemistry, molecular advances, including genetic predisposition, and potential therapeutic targets to define the role of pathology in the application of prognostic and predictive markers for this disease.

  11. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  12. Endocrine effects of the herbicide linuron on the American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sughrue, K.M.; Brittingham, M.C.; French, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Certain contaminants alter normal physiological function, morphology, and behavior of exposed organisms through an endocrine mechanism. We evaluated how the herbicide linuron, an endocrine-active compound, affects physiological parameters and secondary sex characteristics of the American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis). When administered at relatively low doses (control, 1.0, 4.0, and 16.0 mu g linuron per gram of body mass per day), linuron delayed prealternate molt progression in a dose-dependent manner. At the high dose level, linuron exposure lowered hematocrit and female plasma thyroxine concentrations and increased body mass. Neither plasma testosterone concentrations nor the color of plumage or integument of birds in the treatment groups were different from those of the control group. Overall, the physiological effects that were measured suggested disruption of thyroid function. These results highlight the importance of continual monitoring of avian populations for potential effects of exposure to pesticides and other chemicals at sublethal concentrations.

  13. Endocrine effects of the herbicide linuron on the American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sughrue, K.M.; Brittingham, M.C.; French, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Certain contaminants alter normal physiological function, morphology, and behavior of exposed organisms through an endocrine mechanism. We evaluated how the herbicide linuron, an endocrine-active compound, affects physiological parameters and secondary sex characteristics of the American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis). When administered at relatively low doses (control, 1.0, 4.0, and 16.0 μg linuron per gram of body mass per day), linuron delayed prealternate molt progression in a dose-dependent manner. At the high dose level, linuron exposure lowered hematocrit and female plasma thyroxine concentrations and increased body mass. Neither plasma testosterone concentrations nor the color of plumage or integument of birds in the treatment groups were different from those of the control group. Overall, the physiological effects that were measured suggested disruption of thyroid function. These results highlight the importance of continual monitoring of avian populations for potential effects of exposure to pesticides and other chemicals at sublethal concentrations.

  14. Effects of Environmental Endocrine Disruptors on Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Darcan, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty are under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the timing and regulation of the functions of this system may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Numerous animal and human studies concerning EDs have been conducted showing that these substances may extensively affect human health; nevertheless, there are still several issues that remain to be clarified. In this paper, the available evidence from animal and human studies on the effects of environmental EDs with the potential to cause precocious or delayed puberty was reviewed. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21448326

  15. AKT Antagonist AZD5363 Influences Estrogen Receptor Function in Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer and Synergizes with Fulvestrant (ICI182780) In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Ricardo; Pancholi, Sunil; Guest, Stephanie K; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Gao, Qiong; Thuleau, Aurélie; Simigdala, Nikiana; Polanska, Urszula M; Campbell, Hayley; Rani, Aradhana; Liccardi, Gianmaria; Johnston, Stephen; Davies, Barry R; Dowsett, Mitch; Martin, Lesley-Ann

    2015-09-01

    PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling plays an important role in breast cancer. Its interaction with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling becomes more complex and interdependent with acquired endocrine resistance. Targeting mTOR combined with endocrine therapy has shown clinical utility; however, a negative feedback loop exists downstream of PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Direct blockade of AKT together with endocrine therapy may improve breast cancer treatment. AZD5363, a novel pan-AKT kinase catalytic inhibitor, was examined in a panel of ER(+) breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, HCC1428, T47D, ZR75.1) adapted to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) or tamoxifen (TamR). AZD5363 caused a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation in all cell lines tested (GI50 < 500 nmol/L) except HCC1428 and HCC1428-LTED. T47D-LTED and ZR75-LTED were the most sensitive of the lines (GI50 ∼ 100 nmol/L). AZD5363 resensitized TamR cells to tamoxifen and acted synergistically with fulvestrant. AZD5363 decreased p-AKT/mTOR targets leading to a reduction in ERα-mediated transcription in a context-specific manner and concomitant decrease in recruitment of ER and CREB-binding protein (CBP) to estrogen response elements located on the TFF1, PGR, and GREB1 promoters. Furthermore, AZD5363 reduced expression of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Global gene expression highlighted ERBB2-ERBB3, ERK5, and IGFI signaling pathways driven by MYC as potential feedback-loops. Combined treatment with AZD5363 and fulvestrant showed synergy in an ER(+) patient-derived xenograft and delayed tumor progression after cessation of therapy. These data support the combination of AZD5363 with fulvestrant as a potential therapy for breast cancer that is sensitive or resistant to E-deprivation or tamoxifen and that activated AKT is a determinant of response, supporting the need for clinical evaluation.

  16. The endocrine system in chronic nitric oxide deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Félix; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; García-Estañ, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    The experimental model of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production has proven to be a useful tool to study cardiovascular and renal lesions produced by this type of hypertension, which are similar to those found in human hypertension. It also offers a unique opportunity to study the interaction of NO with the humoral systems, known to have a role in the normal physiology of vascular tone and renal function. This review provides a thorough and updated analysis of the interactions of NO with the endocrine system. There is special focus on the main vasoactive factors, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, catecholamines, vasopressin, and endothelin among others. Recent discoveries of crosstalk between the endocrine system and NO are also reported. Study of these humoral interactions indicates that NO is a molecule with ubiquitous function and that its inhibition alters virtually to all other known regulatory systems. Thus, hypothyroidism attenuates the pressor effect of NO inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, whereas hyperthyroidism aggravates the effects of NO synthesis inhibition; the sex hormone environment determines the blood pressure response to NO blockade; NO may play a homeostatic role against the prohypertensive effects of mineralocorticoids, thyroid hormones and insulin; and finally, NO deficiency affects not only blood pressure but also glucose and lipid homeostasis, mimicking the human metabolic syndrome X, suggesting that NO deficiency may be a link between metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

  17. Endocrine control of spermatogenesis: Role of FSH and LH/ testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Suresh; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of testicular functions (production of sperm and androgens) is an important aspect of preclinical safety assessment and testicular toxicity is comparatively far more common than ovarian toxicity. This chapter focuses (1) on the histological sequelae of disturbed reproductive endocrinology in rat, dog and nonhuman primates and (2) provides a review of our current understanding of the roles of gonadotropins and androgens. The response of the rodent testis to endocrine disturbances is clearly different from that of dog and primates with different germ cell types and spermatogenic stages being affected initially and also that the end-stage spermatogenic involution is more pronounced in dog and primates compared to rodents. Luteinizing hormone (LH)/testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are the pivotal endocrine factors controlling testicular functions. The relative importance of either hormone is somewhat different between rodents and primates. Generally, however, both LH/testosterone and FSH are necessary for quantitatively normal spermatogenesis, at least in non-seasonal species. PMID:26413400

  18. SCREENING CALIFORNIA SURFACE WATERS FOR ESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EEDC) WITH A JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT LIVER VITELLOGENIN MRNA PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern regarding the occurrence of chemicals that disrupt endocrine system functions in aquatic species has heightened over the last 15 years. However, little attention has been given to monitoring for estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) in California's freshwater ...

  19. SCREENING CALIFORNIA SURFACE WATERS FOR ESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EEDC) WITH A JUVENILE RAINBOW TROUT LIVER VITELLOGENIN MRNA PROCEDURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern regarding the occurrence of chemicals that disrupt endocrine system functions in aquatic species has heightened over the last 15 years. However, little attention has been given to monitoring for estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) in California's freshwater ...

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning Predicts Community Outcomes in Affective and Non-Affective Psychoses: A 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E.; Cohen, Bruce M.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Sperry, Sarah H.; Öngür, Dost

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neurocognitive dysfunction is a major symptom feature of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A prognostic relationship between cognition and community outcomes is well-documented in schizophrenia and increasingly recognized in bipolar disorder. However, specific associations amongst neurocognition, diagnosis, state symptomatology, and community functioning are unclear, and few studies have compared these relationships amongst patients with affective and non-affective psychoses in the same study. We examined neurocognitive, clinical, and community functioning in a cross-diagnostic sample of patients with psychotic disorders over a 6-month follow-up interval. Method Neurocognitive, clinical and community functioning were assessed in participants with schizophrenia (n=13), schizoaffective disorder (n=17), or bipolar disorder with psychosis (n=18), and healthy controls (n=18) at baseline and 6 months later. Results Neurocognitive functioning was impaired in all diagnostic groups and, despite reductions in primary symptoms, did not recover on most measures over the follow-up period. Neurocognitive impairment was not associated with diagnosis or clinical improvement. Several neurocognitive scores at baseline (but not diagnosis or clinical baseline or follow-up scores) predicted community functioning at follow-up. Discussion In one of the few studies to longitudinally examine neurocognition in association with clinical and outcomes variables in a cross diagnostic sample of psychotic disorders patients, neurocognitive deficits were pronounced across diagnoses and did not recover on most measures despite significant reductions in clinical symptoms. Baseline neurocognitive functioning was the only significant predictor of patients’ community functioning six months later. Efforts to recognize and address cognitive deficits, an approach that has shown promise in schizophrenia, should be extended to all patients with psychosis. PMID:23791391

  1. Estrogen receptor alpha somatic mutations Y537S and D538G confer breast cancer endocrine resistance by stabilizing the activating function-2 binding conformation

    PubMed Central

    Fanning, Sean W; Mayne, Christopher G; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Carlson, Kathryn E; Martin, Teresa A; Novick, Scott J; Toy, Weiyi; Green, Bradley; Panchamukhi, Srinivas; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Griffin, Patrick R; Shen, Yang; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene (ESR1), especially Y537S and D538G, have been linked to acquired resistance to endocrine therapies. Cell-based studies demonstrated that these mutants confer ERα constitutive activity and antiestrogen resistance and suggest that ligand-binding domain dysfunction leads to endocrine therapy resistance. Here, we integrate biophysical and structural biology data to reveal how these mutations lead to a constitutively active and antiestrogen-resistant ERα. We show that these mutant ERs recruit coactivator in the absence of hormone while their affinities for estrogen agonist (estradiol) and antagonist (4-hydroxytamoxifen) are reduced. Further, they confer antiestrogen resistance by altering the conformational dynamics of the loop connecting Helix 11 and Helix 12 in the ligand-binding domain of ERα, which leads to a stabilized agonist state and an altered antagonist state that resists inhibition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12792.001 PMID:26836308

  2. [Vascular risk in endocrine diseases other than diabetes].

    PubMed

    Antequera, Isabel; Cuende, José I; Nieto López-Guerrero, Jerónimo; Valdivielso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Endocrinological diseases directly affect the cardiovascular system. The deleterious effects on cardiovascular function can be direct, and linked to the increase or reduction of circulating hormones. Equally, the adverse effects may be indirect; for example following the rise in blood pressure, increase or redistribution of lean mass, or increased plasma lipoproteins. The best health care and the increasing availability of biochemical tests lead to the diagnosis of many endocrine diseases before the onset of clinical signs. This review will focus on presenting evidence of cardiovascular functional or structural impairment in cases of primary hyperparathyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and hypothyroidism in their sub-clinical forms, as well as the reversibility of complications after appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals.

    PubMed

    Schantz, S L; Widholm, J J

    2001-12-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants including phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, organochlorine pesticides, bisphenol A, and metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium have the ability to disrupt endocrine function in animals. Some of these same chemicals have been shown to alter cognitive function in animals and humans. Because hormonally mediated events play a central role in central nervous system development and function, a number of researchers have speculated that the changes in cognitive function are mediated by the endocrine-like actions of these chemicals. In this paper we review the evidence that cognitive effects of chemicals classified as environmental endocrine disruptors are mediated by changes in hormonal function. We begin by briefly reviewing the role of gonadal steroids, thyroid hormones, and glucocorticoids in brain development and brain function. We then review the endocrine changes and cognitive effects that have been reported for selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals, discuss the evidence for causal relationships between endocrine disruption and cognitive effects, and suggest directions for future research.

  4. Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Schantz, S L; Widholm, J J

    2001-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants including phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, organochlorine pesticides, bisphenol A, and metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium have the ability to disrupt endocrine function in animals. Some of these same chemicals have been shown to alter cognitive function in animals and humans. Because hormonally mediated events play a central role in central nervous system development and function, a number of researchers have speculated that the changes in cognitive function are mediated by the endocrine-like actions of these chemicals. In this paper we review the evidence that cognitive effects of chemicals classified as environmental endocrine disruptors are mediated by changes in hormonal function. We begin by briefly reviewing the role of gonadal steroids, thyroid hormones, and glucocorticoids in brain development and brain function. We then review the endocrine changes and cognitive effects that have been reported for selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals, discuss the evidence for causal relationships between endocrine disruption and cognitive effects, and suggest directions for future research. PMID:11748026

  5. Radiological imaging in endocrine hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J.; Baruah, Manash P.; Baruah, Upasana M.

    2011-01-01

    While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension. PMID:22145144

  6. Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Paula I.; Custodio, Jose B.A.; Nunes, Elsa; Moreno, Antonio; Seica, Raquel; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Santos, Maria S. . E-mail: mssantos@ci.uc.pt

    2007-05-15

    Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca{sup 2+} delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 {mu}M E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered.

  7. Endocrine disturbances in suprasellar germinomas.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, M; Fahlbusch, R; Walther, M; Mann, K

    1989-03-01

    The authors have investigated hypothalamic-pituitary function in 8 patients (aged 9-27 years) with surgically and histologically proven suprasellar germinomas. Diabetes insipidus was found in 7 patients. All the patients had hypogonadism and hypocortisolism as judged by dynamic endocrine testing. Hypothyroidism was found in 6. Moreover, growth hormone secretion, as assessed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, was defective in all patients. Comparison of results of insulin-induced hypoglycemia testing and stimulation tests by CRH and GHRH suggested that all patients had a primary suprahypophyseal lesion rather than a primary pituitary defect. The authors conclude that suprasellar germinomas, although uncommon, should be included in the differential diagnosis of juvenile suprasellar tumours and in cases suggestive of idiopathic diabetes insipidus, even if neuroradiological investigation fails to demonstrate a discrete tumour.