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Sample records for affect energy intake

  1. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  2. Prepartum dietary energy intake affects metabolism and health during the periparturient period in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Janovick, N A; Boisclair, Y R; Drackley, J K

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of prepartum plane of energy intake on metabolic profiles related to lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=23) Holsteins were randomly assigned by expected date of parturition to 1 of 3 prepartum energy intakes. A high energy diet [1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L))/kg; 15% crude protein] was fed for either ad libitum intake or restricted intake to supply 150% (OVR) or 80% (RES) of energy requirements for dry cows in late gestation. To limit energy intake to 100% of National Research Council requirements at ad libitum intake, chopped wheat straw was included as 31.8% of dry matter for a control diet (CON; 1.21 Mcal of NE(L)/kg of dry matter; 14.2% crude protein). Regardless of parity group, OVR cows had greater concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in blood prepartum compared with either CON or RES cows; however, dietary effects did not carry over to the postpartum period. Prepartum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were lower in OVR cows compared with either CON or RES cows. Postpartum, however, OVR cows had evidence of greater mobilization of triacylglycerol (TAG) from adipose tissue as NEFA were higher than in CON or RES cows, especially within the first 10 d postpartum. Prepartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was not affected by diet before parturition; however, within the first 10 d postpartum, OVR cows had greater BHBA than CON or RES cows. Prepartum diet did not affect liver composition prepartum; however, OVR cows had greater total lipid and TAG concentrations and lower glycogen postpartum than CON or RES cows. Frequency of ketosis and displaced abomasum was greater for OVR cows compared with CON or RES cows postpartum. Controlling or restricting prepartum energy intake yielded metabolic results that were strikingly similar both prepartum and postpartum, independent of parity group. The use of a bulky diet controlled prepartum energy intake in

  3. A Mediterranean-like breakfast affects energy intake and appetite-related feelings.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Aggelopoulou, Dora; Skenderi, Katerina; Koinaki, Stella; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    Energy intake and appetite feelings after the consumption of two different types of breakfast, a high-fiber, traditional, Mediterranean-type breakfast and a low-fiber, Western-type breakfast were compared. Sixteen non-obese young men received the two treatments on separate days: the Mediterranean- and the Western-type breakfasts were isocaloric, similar in volume and macronutrient content, but different in fiber content. Following a 4-hour fast, subjects offered an ad libitum lunch. Food consumed and subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were evaluated. Energy intake in the ad libitum lunch was significantly lower after the Mediterranean-type, compared to the Western-type breakfast, adjusting for previous day's energy intake (1488 ± 468 versus 1674 ± 416 kcal, respectively), whereas no energy compensation was made throughout the day. Furthermore, those who had the Mediterranean-type breakfast reported lower values in the desire to eat during study's course. These findings propose a fulfilling effect of a traditional, Mediterranean, high in fiber breakfast. PMID:25010358

  4. Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed on energy/nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality using a cross-sectional design. The setting was The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The sub...

  5. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  6. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  7. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  8. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  9. Food prices and poverty negatively affect micronutrient intakes in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Robles, Miguel; Pachón, Helena; Chiarella, Cristina

    2012-08-01

    Limited empirical evidence exists for how economic conditions affect micronutrient nutrition. We hypothesized that increasing poverty and rising food prices would reduce consumption of high-quality "luxury" foods, leading to an increased probability of inadequacy for several nutrients. The 2006 Guatemala National Living Conditions Survey was analyzed. First, energy and nutrient intakes and adequacy levels were calculated. Second, the income-nutrient relationships were investigated by assessing disparities in intakes, determining income-nutrient elasticities, and modeling nutrient intakes by reductions in income. Third, the food price-nutrient relationships were explored through determination of price-nutrient elasticities and modeling 2 price scenarios: an increase in food prices similar in magnitude to the food price crisis of 2007-2008 and a standardized 10% increase across all food groups. Disparities in nutrient intakes were greatest for vitamin B-12 (0.38 concentration index) and vitamin A (0.30 concentration index); these nutrients were highly and positively correlated with income (r = 0.22-0.54; P < 0.05). Although the baseline probability of inadequacy was highest for vitamin B-12 (83%), zinc showed the greatest increase in probability of inadequacy as income was reduced, followed by folate and vitamin A. With rising food prices, zinc intake was most acutely affected under both scenarios (P < 0.05) and folate intake in the poorest quintile (+7 percentage points) under the 10% scenario. Price-nutrient elasticities were highest for vitamin B-12 and the meat, poultry, and fish group (-0.503) and for folate and the legumes group (-0.343). The economic factors of food prices and income differentially influenced micronutrient intakes in Guatemala, notably zinc and folate intakes. PMID:22695968

  10. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  11. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific ‘learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (−0.002 kg m−2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (−94 kcal, 95% CI −122 to −66), with no difference versus water (−2 kcal, 95% CI −30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; −1.35 kg, 95% CI –2.28 to −0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; −1.24 kg, 95% CI –2.22 to −0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI

  12. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. PMID:27565749

  13. Do changes in energy intake and non-exercise physical activity affect exercise-induced weight loss? Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Stephen D.; Willis, Erik A.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Lee, Jaehoon; Washburn, Richard A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare energy intake, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), non-exercise energy expenditure (NEEx), resting metabolic rate (RMR), non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), and sedentary time between participants with weight loss <5% (non-responders) vs. ≥5% (responders) in response to exercise. Methods Overweight/obese (BMI 25–40 kg/m2), adults (18–30 yrs.) were randomized to exercise: 5 day/week, 400 or 600 kcal/session, 10 months. Results Forty participants responded and 34 did not respond to the exercise protocol. Non-responder energy intake was higher vs. responders, significant only in men (p=0.034). TDEE increased only in responders (p=0.001). NEEx increased in responders and decreased in non-responders, significant only in men (p=0.045). There were no within or between-group differences for change in RMR. NEPA increased in responders and decreased in non-responders (group-by-time interactions: total sample, p=0.049; men, p=0.016). Sedentary time decreased in both groups, significant only in men. Conclusion Men who did not lose weight in response to exercise (<5%) had higher energy intake and lower NEEx compared to men losing ≥5%. No significant differences in any parameters assessed were observed between women who lost <5% vs. those losing ≥5. Factors associated with the weight loss response to exercise in women warrant additional investigation. PMID:26193059

  14. Energy and Nutrient Intake From Pizza in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Binh T.; Dietz, William H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pizza consumption is a top contributor to children’s and adolescents’ caloric intake. The objective of this study was to examine children’s and adolescents’ pizza consumption patterns and its impact on their energy and nutrient intake. METHODS: Twenty-four–hour dietary recall data for children aged 2 to 11 and adolescents aged 12 to 19 were drawn from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We tested changes in consumption patterns, including by race/ethnicity, income, meal occasion, and source. Individual-level fixed effects regression models estimated the impact of pizza consumption on total energy intake (TEI) and intakes of sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. RESULTS: From 2003–2004 to 2009–2010, overall energy intake from pizza declined 25% among children (110 to 83 kcal, P ≤ .05). Among adolescents, although caloric intake from pizza among those who consumed pizza fell (801 to 624 kcal, P ≤ .05), overall pizza intake remained unchanged due to slightly higher pizza consumption prevalence. For children and adolescents, pizza intake fell (P ≤ .05) at dinner time and from fast food. For children and adolescents, respectively, pizza consumption was significantly associated with higher net daily TEI (84 kcal and 230 kcal) and higher intakes of saturated fat (3 g and 5 g) and sodium (134 mg and 484 mg) but not sugar intake, and such affects generally did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Pizza consumption as a snack or from fast-food restaurants had the greatest adverse impact on TEI. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse dietary effects of pizza consumption found in this study suggest that its consumption should be curbed and its nutrient content improved. PMID:25601973

  15. Marginal B-6 intake affects protein synthesis in rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, D.A.; Kretsch, M.J.; Young, L.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1986-03-05

    The role of vitamin B-6 in amino acid metabolism suggests that inadequate B-6 intake may impair protein synthesis. To test this hypothesis, 30 male rats (initially 227 g) were fed AIN76A diets that contained control, marginal or devoid levels of B-6 (5.8, 1.2 or 0.1 mg B-6/kg diet, by analysis) ad libitum for 9 weeks. Protein synthesis rates (PSRs) were measured in liver, kidney and calf muscle using a flooding dose of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. Marginal and control groups ate and gained weight at similar rates. The marginal diet did not elevate xanthurenic acid (XA) excretion following a tryptophan load. However, marginal B-6 intake did depress liver PSR by 29% (2182 vs 1549 mg/day, P<.05), liver wet weight by 15% (19.0 vs 16.1 g, P<.05) and muscle PSR by 23% (3.0 vs 2.3%/day, P<.10). Unexpectedly, marginal B-6 intake increased PSR in kidney 47% (90 vs 132 mg/day, P<.05). The devoid diet, which increased XA excretion following a tryptophan load by more than 3-fold, depressed PSRs 56% in liver and 31% in muscle. However, the devoid diet decreased food intake by 40% (25.0 vs 15.0 g/day); therefore effects of devoid B-6 intake on PSRs may have been confounded by deficits in protein-energy intake in devoid vs control groups. These data demonstrate that marginal B-6 intake alters protein synthesis in tissues of the rat.

  16. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], p<.001) and positively associated with negative affect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], p<.001). In comparison, we found no association between n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect. PMID:27188896

  17. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  18. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  19. Does temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome affect dietary intake?

    PubMed

    Irving, J; Wood, G D; Hackett, A F

    1999-11-01

    Temporomandibular disorder pain dysfunction syndrome (TDPDS) is the most common cause of facial pain after toothache. The symptoms are varied but are likely to affect the choice, intake and enjoyment of food. This has not been previously investigated. In this paper a preliminary study of 35 patients attending a department of oral and maxillofacial surgery at a general hospital is presented. Thirty-one subjects reported that eating was a problem; 15 prepared food differently and 24 considered that their choice of food was limited. Four of the five foods most often reported to be difficult to eat are valuable in the diet: meat (22), apples (20), bread (13), toast (7) and toffees (6). Twenty-three subjects reported eating a softer diet. Most (25) reported pain when eating. Such circumstances make it harder for TDPDS sufferers to meet current nutritional guidelines, especially, perhaps, for some to achieve an adequate intake of iron. PMID:10765783

  20. Exercise, energy intake, glucose homeostasis, and the brain.

    PubMed

    van Praag, Henriette; Fleshner, Monika; Schwartz, Michael W; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-11-12

    Here we summarize topics covered in an SFN symposium that considered how and why exercise and energy intake affect neuroplasticity and, conversely, how the brain regulates peripheral energy metabolism. This article is not a comprehensive review of the subject, but rather a view of how the authors' findings fit into a broader context. Emerging findings elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise and energy intake modify the plasticity of neural circuits in ways that affect brain health. By enhancing neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress robustness, exercise and intermittent energy restriction/fasting may optimize brain function and forestall metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, brain-centered glucoregulatory and immunomodulating systems that mediate peripheral health benefits of intermittent energetic challenges have recently been described. A better understanding of adaptive neural response pathways activated by energetic challenges will enable the development and optimization of interventions to reduce the burden of disease in our communities. PMID:25392482

  1. Exercise, Energy Intake, Glucose Homeostasis, and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    van Praag, Henriette; Fleshner, Monika; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Here we summarize topics covered in an SFN symposium that considered how and why exercise and energy intake affect neuroplasticity and, conversely, how the brain regulates peripheral energy metabolism. This article is not a comprehensive review of the subject, but rather a view of how the authors' findings fit into a broader context. Emerging findings elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise and energy intake modify the plasticity of neural circuits in ways that affect brain health. By enhancing neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress robustness, exercise and intermittent energy restriction/fasting may optimize brain function and forestall metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, brain-centered glucoregulatory and immunomodulating systems that mediate peripheral health benefits of intermittent energetic challenges have recently been described. A better understanding of adaptive neural response pathways activated by energetic challenges will enable the development and optimization of interventions to reduce the burden of disease in our communities. PMID:25392482

  2. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  3. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schiöth, Helgi B.; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R.; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.

    2015-01-01

    Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain. PMID:26115087

  4. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Ferriday, Danielle; Davies, Sarah R; Benedict, Christian; Elmståhl, Helena; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S

    2015-07-01

    Expectations about a food's satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g), a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g), or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload's satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = -0.61; p = 0.001). The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03). Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain. PMID:26115087

  5. Affective responsiveness is influenced by intake of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Radke, Sina; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), little is known about their impact on psychological processes and emotional competencies. Recent data indicate impaired emotion recognition in OC users compared to naturally cycling females. Building upon these findings, the current study investigated the influence of OC use on three components of empathy, i.e., emotion recognition, perspective-taking, and affective responsiveness. We compared naturally cycling women to two groups of OC users, one being tested in their pill-free week and one in the phase of active intake. Whereas groups did not differ in emotion recognition and perspective-taking, an effect of pill phase was evident for affective responsiveness: Females currently taking the pill showed better performance than those in their pill-free week. These processing advantages complement previous findings on menstrual cycle effects and thereby suggest an association with changes in endogenous and exogenous reproductive hormones. The current study highlights the need for future research to shed more light on the neuroendocrine alterations accompanying OC intake. PMID:27039036

  6. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  7. Does milk matter: Is children's intake affected by the type or amount of milk served at a meal?

    PubMed

    Kling, Samantha M R; Roe, Liane S; Sanchez, Christine E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-10-01

    Increasing the energy density (ED) and portion size of foods promotes additional energy intake, but the effect of similar changes in milk is unknown. Using a crossover design, we tested the effect of varying the ED and portion size of milk served with lunch on preschool children's intake. Lunch was served in childcare classrooms on 4 days to 125 children aged 3-5 y (67 boys; 58 girls). Across the meals, milk was varied in ED (lower-ED [1% fat]; higher-ED [3.25% fat]) and portion size (100% [183 g]; 150% [275 g]). Foods in the meal were not varied; children ate as much of the meal as they wanted. Serving higher-ED milk did not affect milk intake by weight, but increased energy intake from milk by 31 ± 2 kcal compared to serving lower-ED milk (P < 0.0001). Serving the 150% portion of milk increased milk intake by 20 ± 3 kcal compared to serving the 100% portion (P < 0.0001). Increases in both ED and portion size combined to increase milk intake by 49 ± 4 kcal (63%; P < 0.0001). Across all children, food intake decreased when higher-ED rather than lower-ED milk was served, but meal energy intake (food + milk) did not change significantly. This response varied by sex: for boys, serving higher-ED milk decreased food intake by 43 ± 8 kcal (P < 0.0001) but did not affect meal energy intake, while for girls, higher-ED milk did not reduce food intake so that meal energy intake increased by 24 ± 10 kcal (P = 0.03). Thus, boys adjusted food intake in response to changes in ED of milk consumed with lunch, but girls did not. Serving milk in larger portions promotes intake of this nutrient-dense beverage, but the effects of milk ED on meal intake vary between children. PMID:27338218

  8. Increasing the size of portion options affects intake but not portion selection at a meal.

    PubMed

    Zuraikat, Faris M; Roe, Liane S; Privitera, Gregory J; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    In an environment with large portion sizes, allowing consumers more control over their portion selection could moderate the effects on energy intake. We tested whether having subjects choose a portion from several options influenced the amount selected or consumed when all portion sizes were systematically increased. In a crossover design, 24 women and 26 men ate lunch in the lab once a week for 3 weeks. At each meal, subjects chose a portion of macaroni and cheese from a set of 3 portion options and consumed it ad libitum. Across 3 conditions, portion sizes in the set were increased; the order of the conditions was counterbalanced across subjects. For women the portion sets by weight (g) were 300/375/450, 375/450/525, and 450/525/600; for men the portions were 33% larger. The results showed that increasing the size of available portions did not significantly affect the relative size selected; across all portion sets, subjects chose the smallest available portion at 59% of meals, the medium at 27%, and the largest at 15%. The size of portions offered did, however, influence meal intake (P < 0.0001). Mean intake (±SEM) was 16% greater when the largest set was offered (661 ± 34 kcal) than when the medium and smallest sets were offered (both 568 ± 18 kcal). These results suggest that portions are selected in relation to the other available options, and confirm the robust effect of portion size on intake. Although presenting a choice of portions can allow selection of smaller amounts, the sizes offered are a critical determinant of energy intake. Thus, the availability of choices could help to moderate intake if the portions offered are within an appropriate range for energy needs. PMID:26721718

  9. Reductions in entree energy density increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of an entrée influences children's energy intake (EI), but the effect of simultaneously changing both ED and portion size of an entrée on preschool children's EI is unknown. In this within-subject crossover study, 3- to 5-year-old children (30 boys, 31 girls) in a day...

  10. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Jacobs, Ashley G; Higgins, Kelly A; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Each of the macronutrients, carbohydrate, protein and fat, has a unique set of properties that influence health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, there has been a progression of thinking regarding the mechanisms by which each may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this time period, the emphasis was on metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency). This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (i.e., contribute to disordered eating). At this point the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited. PMID:27431364

  11. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. Objective: How RRVfood is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Design: Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRVfood, the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. Results: The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRVprop) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRVprop was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. Conclusion: These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117. PMID:21543545

  12. Factors affecting pasture intake and total dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, O P; Smith, T R

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the most relevant variables for estimating pasture intake and total dry matter (DM) intake in grazing dairy cows using 27 previously published studies. Variables compared were pasture allowance, days in milk, amount of forage, amount of concentrate and total supplementation, pasture allowance and supplementation interaction, fat-corrected milk, body weight (BW), metabolic BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes in pasture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of pasture, and NDF in pasture selected. The variables were selected using stepwise regression analysis for total DM intake and pasture DM intake. Variables selected in the total DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.95) were pasture allowance, total supplementation, interaction of pasture allowance and supplementation, fat-corrected milk, BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes and pasture NDF content. Pasture DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.90) was similar to total DM intake equation, but supplementation coefficient was negative, showing substitution effect in supplementing grazing cows. The intake of NDF as a percentage of BW was higher than 1.3% when considering NDF content of the pasture allowance. Low pasture allowance groups had values higher than 1.3%. PMID:11049073

  13. Association between energy intake and viewing television, distractibility, and memory for advertisements12345

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K; Coulon, Sandra M; Markward, Nathan; Greenway, Frank L; Anton, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Background: The effect of television viewing (TVV) with and without advertisements (ads) on energy intake is unclear. Objective: The objectives were to test 1) the effect of TVV, with and without ads, on energy intake compared with a control and reading condition and 2) the association of distractibility and memory for ads with energy intake and body weight. Design: Forty-eight (26 female) adults (age: 19–54 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 20–35 completed this laboratory-based study. All participants completed 4 buffet-style meals in random order in the following conditions: 1) control, 2) while reading, 3) while watching TV with food and nonfood ads (TV-ads), and 4) while watching TV with no ads (TV-no ads). Energy intake was quantified by weighing foods. Distractibility and memory for ads in the TV-ads condition were quantified with a norm-referenced test and recognition task, respectively. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that energy and macronutrient intake did not differ significantly among the 4 conditions (P > 0.65). Controlling for sex, memory for ads was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) and energy intake but only when viewing TV (r = 0.39, P < 0.05 during the TV-no ads condition, and r = 0.29, P = 0.06 during the TV-ads condition). Controlling for sex, distractibility was associated with body weight (r = 0.36, P < 0.05) but not energy intake. Distractibility, however, accounted for 13% of the variance in men's energy intake (P = 0.11). Conclusions: TVV did not affect energy intake, but individual characteristics (memory for ads) were associated with body weight and energy intake in certain conditions. These characteristics should be considered in food intake and intervention studies. PMID:19056603

  14. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between residual energy intake and growth, feed intake, and carcass traits of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1992-02-01

    Residual energy intake, defined as actual minus predicted energy intake during a production period, was estimated for each of 650 bull calves of 31 Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. Residual energy intake, measured under ad libitum feeding, had heritabilities similar to those of growth rate and energy conversion ratio with an estimate of approximately .3. Residual energy intake was related to average daily energy intake both phenotypically and genetically such that selection for decreased residual energy intake would lead to a decrease in daily feed intake. Such selection would also tend to increase carcass fatness (i.e., genetically fat animals are the most efficient). Residual energy intake estimated with and without correction for carcass composition were closely correlated. Thus, residual energy intake may be estimated without the knowledge of carcass composition in growing bulls of dual-purpose breeds. PMID:1548200

  15. THE IMPACT OF COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE ON ENERGY INTAKE (EI) AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake (EI) and macronutrient selection. William Rumpler, David Paul, Donna Rhodes. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 Twelve men were fed a defined beverage continuously for two 8-week periods but ...

  16. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVI. Body temperature and physical activity of female mice during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Yuko; Bernard, Amelie; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hambly, Catherine; Al Jothery, Aqeel; Vaanholt, Lobke M; Król, Elzbieta; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Lactation is the most energy-demanding phase of mammalian reproduction, and lactation performance may be affected by events during pregnancy. For example, food intake may be limited in late pregnancy by competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and fetuses. Hence, females may need to compensate their energy budgets during pregnancy by reducing activity and lowering body temperature. We explored the relationships between energy intake, body mass, body temperature and physical activity throughout pregnancy in the MF1 mouse. Food intake and body mass of 26 females were recorded daily throughout pregnancy. Body temperature and physical activity were monitored every minute for 23 h a day by implanted transmitters. Body temperature and physical activity declined as pregnancy advanced, while energy intake and body mass increased. Compared with a pre-mating baseline period, mice increased energy intake by 56% in late pregnancy. Although body temperature declined as pregnancy progressed, this served mostly to reverse an increase between baseline and early pregnancy. Reduced physical activity may compensate the energy budget of pregnant mice but body temperature changes do not. Over the last 3 days of pregnancy, food intake declined. Individual variation in energy intake in the last phase of pregnancy was positively related to litter size at birth. As there was no association between the increase in body mass and the decline in intake, we suggest the decline was not caused by competition for abdominal space. These data suggest overall reproductive performance is probably not constrained by events during pregnancy. PMID:23720802

  17. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P < 0.005) fat intake (118 v 93 g d-1): there was no difference in the absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P < 0.05) and fat intake lower (P < 0.01) at club A. CONCLUSIONS: The mean energy intake of these players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211

  18. Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Geurden, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg−0.8 d−1) and growth (g kg−0.8 d−1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P<0.05). Regardless of dietary P/E ratio, the inclusion of carbohydrate compared to fat as main NPE source reduced DEI and growth of trout by ∼20%. The diet-induced differences in FI and DEI show that trout did not compensate for the dietary differences in digestible energy or digestible protein contents. Further, changes in body fat store and plasma glucose did not seem to exert a homeostatic feedback control on DEI. Independent of the diet composition, heat production of trout did not differ (P>0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism. PMID:22496852

  19. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  20. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation. PMID:23171246

  1. Presentation and interpretation of food intake data: factors affecting comparability across studies.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Macintyre, Una E; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented as per capita intake or for consumers only. To identify the foods mostly consumed, foods are reported and ranked according to total number of times consumed, number of consumers, total intake, or nutrient contribution by individual foods or food groups. Presentation of food intake data primarily depends on a study's aim; reported data thus often are not comparable across studies. Food intake data further depend on the dietary assessment methodology used and foods in the database consulted; and are influenced by the inherent limitations of all dietary assessments. Intake data can be presented as either single foods or as clearly defined food groups. Mixed dishes, reported as such or in terms of ingredients and items added during food preparation remain challenging. Comparable presentation of food consumption data is not always possible; presenting sufficient information will assist valid interpretation and optimal use of the presented data. A checklist was developed to strengthen the reporting of food intake data in science communication. PMID:23800564

  2. L-Ornithine intake affects sympathetic nerve outflows and reduces body weight and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yuuki; Koosaka, Yasutaka; Maruyama, Ryuutaro; Imanishi, Kazuki; Kasahara, Kazuaki; Matsuda, Ai; Akiduki, Saori; Hishida, Yukihiro; Kurata, Yasutaka; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Satomi, Jun; Tanida, Mamoru

    2015-02-01

    Ingesting the amino acid l-ornithine effectively improves lipid metabolism in humans, although it is unknown whether it affects the activities of autonomic nerves that supply the peripheral organs related to lipid metabolism, such as adipose tissues. Thus, we investigated the effects of l-ornithine ingestion on autonomic nerves that innervate adipose tissues and the feeding behaviors of rats. Intragastric injection of l-ornithine (2.5%) in urethane-anesthetized rats activated sympathetic nerve activity to white adipose tissue (WAT-SNA), and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT-SNA). In addition, WAT-SNA responses to l-ornithine were abolished in rats with ablated abdominal vagal nerves. l-ornithine ingestion for 9 weeks also significantly reduced rats' body weight, food intake, and abdominal fat weight. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) levels in the hypothalamus and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels in brown adipose tissue were significantly increased in rats that ingested 2.5% l-ornithine for 9 weeks. These results suggested that ingested l-ornithine was taken up in the gastrointestinal organs and stimulated afferent vagal nerves and activated the central nervous system. Subsequently, increased hypothalamic POMC activated sympathetic neurotransmission to adipose tissues and accelerated energy expenditure. PMID:25526897

  3. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  4. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

  5. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. PMID:26921486

  6. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet cats from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (years 2007-2011) was carried out to test whether current recommendations are suitable for pet cats. Data of 80 adult cats (median age: 9.0 years, median deviation from ideal weight: +22.5%, majority neutered) at maintenance were available. Six percentage of the cats were healthy and the others were affected by various chronic diseases. A standardized questionnaire was used, cat owners weighed cat and food. For ration calculation, the software Diet Check Munich(™) was used (ME prediction according to National Research Council, 2006: Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC). Data were analysed for the factors deviation from ideal weight, breed, age, gender, disease and type of feeding [prepared food (dry, wet) vs. home-made]. Over- or underweight were defined as ≥15% deviation from ideal body weight (BW) according to Kienzle and Moik (British Journal of Nutrition 2011, 106, Suppl 1: S113). Cat owner's estimation of ideal BW was higher than literature data from Kienzle and Moik (2011). Based on literature data, 26.3% of the pet cats were normal weight, 63.7% overweight and 10% underweight. The mean ME intake of all adult cats amounted to 0.40 ± 0.14 MJ/kg actual BW(0.67) (n = 80). When the data were analysed according to normal, over- and underweight, there was a significant effect with normal weight cats eating 0.46 MJ/kg BW(0.67) . Underweight cats ate even more (0.49 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ), whereas overweight cats ate considerably less (0.36 MJ/kg BW(0.67) ). The other factors had no influence on ME intake of adult cats. PMID:26456847

  7. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens in adult male rats affects hypothalamic regulation of food intake, induces obesity and alters glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Rossetti, María Florencia; Alzamendi, Ana; Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo

    2015-02-01

    The absence of phytoestrogens in the diet during pregnancy has been reported to result in obesity later in adulthood. We investigated whether phytoestrogen withdrawal in adult life could alter the hypothalamic signals that regulate food intake and affect body weight and glucose homeostasis. Male Wistar rats fed from conception to adulthood with a high phytoestrogen diet were submitted to phytoestrogen withdrawal by feeding a low phytoestrogen diet, or a high phytoestrogen-high fat diet. Withdrawal of dietary phytoestrogens increased body weight, adiposity and energy intake through an orexigenic hypothalamic response characterized by upregulation of AGRP and downregulation of POMC. This was associated with elevated leptin and T4, reduced TSH, testosterone and estradiol, and diminished hypothalamic ERα expression, concomitant with alterations in glucose tolerance. Removing dietary phytoestrogens caused manifestations of obesity and diabetes that were more pronounced than those induced by the high phytoestrogen-high fat diet intake. PMID:25486512

  8. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    PubMed Central

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  9. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  10. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  11. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  12. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  13. 'Finish your soup': counterproductive effects of pressuring children to eat on intake and affect.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Amy T; Fiorito, Laura M; Francis, Lori A; Birch, Leann L

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined whether pressuring preschoolers to eat would affect food intake and preferences, using a repeated-measures experimental design. In the experimental condition, children were pressured to eat by a request to finish their food. We collected intake data, heights and weights, child-feeding practices data, and children's comments about the food. Children consumed significantly more food when they were not pressured to eat and they made overwhelmingly fewer negative comments. Children who were pressured to eat at home had lower body mass index percentile scores and were less affected by the pressure in the lab setting than children who were not pressured at home. These data provide experimental evidence supporting previous correlational research indicating that pressure can have negative effects on children's affective responses to and intake of healthy foods. PMID:16626838

  14. Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah; Dunn, Caroline L; Harnack, Lisa J; Levine, Allen S; Pentel, Paul R; Baxter, Judith E; Walsh, Ericka M

    2007-01-01

    Background This study experimentally examined the effects of repeated exposure to different meal portion sizes on energy intake. Methods Nineteen employees of a county medical center were given free box lunches for two months, one month each of 1528 and 767 average kcal. Foods were identical in the two conditions, but differed in portion size. Meals averaged 44% calories from fat. Participants self-reported how much of each lunch was eaten. Unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls were also conducted by phone twice per week during each exposure period. Results Mean energy intake at the lunch meal was 332 kcal/day higher in large lunch than in small lunch periods (p < .001). Mean 24-hour energy intake was 278 kcal/day higher in large versus small lunch periods (p < .001). There was no evidence of compensation over time. Average weight change over the month of large and small lunches was 0.64 ± 1.16 kg and 0.06 ± 1.03 kg, respectively, about what would be expected with the observed differences in energy intake. Conclusion This study suggests that chronic exposure to large portion size meals can result in sustained increases in energy intake and may contribute to body weight increases over time. PMID:17597516

  15. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  16. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002.

    PubMed

    Barba, Corazon V C; Cabrera, Ma Isabel Z

    2008-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), as in the past, led the review and revision of the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Filipinos, a vital and essential tool recognized in the nutrition and health community as the source of information on recommended energy and nutrient intakes for the maintenance of good health. This set of dietary standards is periodically evaluated and updated to keep pace with new knowledge on energy and nutrient requirements and metabolism. The set of updated standards is now called Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENIs), defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrients which, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of good health and well-being of nearly all healthy Filipinos. As in the 1989 edition, intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A, C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pyridoxine, water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) are recommended in this new edition. The desirable proportions of protein, fats, carbohydrates as well as fiber are also provided, in addition to information on recommended intake levels for selenium, magnesium, manganese, fluoride, cobalamin, and vitamin K. These recommendations were derived from a review of current evidences, principally the UN-FAO/WHO's 2002 human vitamin and mineral requirements and the US-Institute of Medicine-Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB)'s series of Dietary Reference Intakes, taking into consideration applicability in and achievability among specific population groups. PMID:18460438

  17. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  18. Energy intake and basal metabolic rate during maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bond, S A; Han, A M; Wootton, S A; Kohler, J A

    1992-02-01

    Energy intakes and basal metabolic rates were determined in 26 children receiving chemotherapy in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or solid tumours and 26 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Body weight and height on the two groups were comparable, although one patient was stunted (height for age) and three others wasted (weight for height). Energy intake in the patients at 7705 kJ/day (1842 kcal) and controls at 7773 kJ/day (1866 kcal)) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the patients at 4873 kJ/day (1172 kcal) and controls 4987 kJ/day (1196 kcal) for the two groups were not significantly different. Although the energy intake:BMR ratio for both groups was 1.59, the range of values for the patient group was large (0.96-2.73) and appeared to be greater than that observed in the control group (1.23-2.46). These results demonstrated that during this period of chemotherapy there was no evidence of raised energy expenditure at rest or reduced energy intake in the patient group. No indication of undernutrition in the patients as a group was evident, although some individuals might require further clinical nutritional assessment. PMID:1543386

  19. Exercise and Energy intake in Overweight, Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2009-01-01

    Exercise expends energy, but without dietary intervention, exercise does not appear to produce substantial weight loss. The present study examined whether overweight, sedentary individuals increase their energy intake after moderate intensity exercise, particularly in the presence of negative mood. A repeated measures design was used where overweight, sedentary individuals (N=65) completed, in counterbalanced order, two conditions: 3 minutes of exercise (Active) and 3 minutes of sedentary activity (Sedentary) during one session. Snack foods were presented 10 minutes after each activity. Mixed-effects regression modeling revealed no significant effect of Active versus Sedentary condition on energy intake. However, moderational analyses revealed that change in negative mood interacted with condition to predict energy intake, such that participants who reported increased negative mood during exercise consumed more calories in the Active compared to the Sedentary condition. That a short bout of exercise resulted in mood deterioration and increased energy intake for some overweight, sedentary individuals is concerning. Further research examining behavioral and physiological mechanisms of mood deterioration and caloric overcompensation following exercise in overweight, sedentary individuals is warranted. PMID:19171314

  20. Energy intake and basal metabolic rate during maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, S A; Han, A M; Wootton, S A; Kohler, J A

    1992-01-01

    Energy intakes and basal metabolic rates were determined in 26 children receiving chemotherapy in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or solid tumours and 26 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Body weight and height on the two groups were comparable, although one patient was stunted (height for age) and three others wasted (weight for height). Energy intake in the patients at 7705 kJ/day (1842 kcal) and controls at 7773 kJ/day (1866 kcal)) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the patients at 4873 kJ/day (1172 kcal) and controls 4987 kJ/day (1196 kcal) for the two groups were not significantly different. Although the energy intake:BMR ratio for both groups was 1.59, the range of values for the patient group was large (0.96-2.73) and appeared to be greater than that observed in the control group (1.23-2.46). These results demonstrated that during this period of chemotherapy there was no evidence of raised energy expenditure at rest or reduced energy intake in the patient group. No indication of undernutrition in the patients as a group was evident, although some individuals might require further clinical nutritional assessment. PMID:1543386

  1. A Retrospective Investigation of Thiamin and Energy Intakes Following an Outbreak of Beriberi in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Thurnham, David I.; Cathcart, Angela E.; Livingstone, Margaret B. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC) but not in the other (NBC). We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi. PMID:22254079

  2. A retrospective investigation of thiamin and energy intakes following an outbreak of beriberi in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Thurnham, David I; Cathcart, Angela E; Livingstone, Margaret B E

    2011-01-01

    In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC) but not in the other (NBC). We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi. PMID:22254079

  3. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat. PMID:27363518

  4. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600

  5. Predictors of Measurement Error in Energy Intake During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Eric; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria; Herring, Amy; He, Ka; Stuebe, Alison; Olshan, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition plays a critical role in maternal and fetal health; however, research on error in the measurement of energy intake during pregnancy is limited. The authors analyzed data on 998 women living in central North Carolina with singleton pregnancies during 2001–2005. Second-trimester diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Estimated energy requirements were calculated using Institute of Medicine prediction equations, with adjustment for energy costs during the second trimester. Implausible values for daily energy intake were determined using confidence limits of agreement for energy intake/estimated energy requirements. Prevalences of low energy reporting (LER) and high energy reporting (HER) were 32.8% and 12.9%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, pregravid body mass index was related to both LER and HER; LER was higher in both overweight (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.02; P = 0.031) and obese (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval: 2.33, 4.65; P < 0.001) women than in normal-weight counterparts. Other predictors of LER included marriage and higher levels of physical activity. HER was higher among subjects who were underweight, African-American, and less educated and subjects who had higher depressive symptom scores. LER and HER are prevalent during pregnancy. Identifying their predictors may improve data collection and analytic methods for reducing systematic bias in the study of diet and reproductive outcomes. PMID:21273398

  6. Energy intake and the circadian rhythm of core body temperature in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Blache, D; Fuller, A

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that different levels of energy intake would alter the circadian rhythm of core body temperature (Tc) in ovariectomized sheep. We measured arterial blood temperature every 5 min while ten sheep were offered a maintenance diet, 70% of maintenance requirements, or 150% of maintenance requirements, for 12 days, and later fasted for 2 days. The rhythmicity of Tc was analyzed for its dominant period and then a least-squares cosine wave was fitted to the data that generated a mesor, amplitude, and acrophase for the rhythm. When energy intake was less than maintenance requirements we observed a significant decrease in the mesor and minimum, and a significant increase in the amplitude and goodness of fit, of the body temperature rhythm. Fasting also resulted in a decrease in the maximum of the body temperature rhythm. Feeding the sheep to excess did not affect the mesor or maximum of the rhythm, but did result in a decrease in the goodness of fit of the rhythm in those sheep that consumed more energy than when they were on the maintenance diet, indicating that circadian rhythmicity was decreased when energy intake increased. Our data indicate that modulation of the circadian rhythm of body temperature, characterized by inactive-phase hypothermia, occurs when energy intake is reduced. The response may be an adaptation to energy imbalance in large mammals. PMID:24303185

  7. Failure of differences in prepubertal dietary intake to affect ovarian development in pubertal beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing replacement heifers on lower energy diets to a lighter body weight at first breeding can reduce input costs but may impede follicular development and onset of puberty. The objective was to determine whether lower dietary intake prepubertally impedes ovarian development in purebred or cros...

  8. Post-meal perceivable satiety and subsequent energy intake with intake of partially hydrolysed guar gum.

    PubMed

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Hayakawa, Mariko; Minami, Tadayasu; Ishihara, Noriyuki; Kapoor, Mahendra Parkash; Ohkubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Wakabayashi, Kazuo

    2015-05-14

    Partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fibre, has been shown to provide many health benefits. Previous studies had suggested that the combination of PHGG with protein provided a significant satiation effect on visual analogue scales (VAS). What was lacking was only the effect of administration of small doses of PHGG on post-meal satiation and subsequent energy intake. The objectives of the present investigations were to find the subjective perception of post-meal satiety with acute and long term administration of small amounts of PHGG alone with food, its effects on subsequent energy intake and the comparative effects among different types of soluble fibres. The following three separate studies were conducted: in study 1, healthy subjects (n 12) consumed PHGG along with breakfast, lunch and an evening snack; in study 2, healthy subjects (n 24) consumed 2 g of PHGG or dextrin along with yogurt as breakfast for 2 weeks; in study 3, healthy subjects (n 6) took 6 g each of either PHGG or indigestible dextrin or inulin along with lunch. In all the studies, various satiety parameters were measured on VAS before and after consumption of PHGG. The addition of PHGG showed significant (P < 0.05) acute (studies 1 and 3) and long-term (studies 1 and 2) satiety effects compared to the control and/or an equal amount of carbohydrate or other types of soluble fibre. Study 2 also indicated that the prolonged consumption of PHGG may significantly (P < 0.05) reduce energy intake from whole-day snacking. PHGG could be an ideal natural soluble fibre for delivering acute and long term satiety effects for comfortable appetite control. PMID:25851425

  9. Limits to sustained energy intake. XVIII. Energy intake and reproductive output during lactation in Swiss mice raising small litters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Song, De-Guang; Su, Zhen-Cheng; Wei, Wen-Bo; Liu, Xian-Bin; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    Limits to sustained energy intake (SusEI) during lactation in Swiss mice have been suggested to reflect the secretory capacity of the mammary glands. However, an alternative explanation is that milk production and food intake are regulated to match the limited growth capacity of the offspring. In the present study, female Swiss mice were experimentally manipulated in two ways - litter sizes were adjusted to be between 1 and 9 pups and mice were exposed to either warm (21°C) or cold (5°C) conditions from day 10 of lactation. Energy intake, number of pups and litter mass, milk energy output (MEO), thermogenesis, mass of the mammary glands and brown adipose tissue cytochrome c oxidase activity of the mothers were measured. At 21 and 5°C, pup mass at weaning was almost independent of litter size. Positive correlations were observed between the number of pups, litter mass, asymptotic food intake and MEO. These data were consistent with the suggestion that in small litters, pup requirements may be the major factor limiting milk production. Pups raised at 5°C had significantly lower body masses than those raised at 21°C. This was despite the fact that milk production and energy intake at the same litter sizes were both substantially higher in females raising pups at 5°C. This suggests that pup growth capacity is lower in the cold, perhaps due to pups allocating ingested energy to fuel thermogenesis. Differences in observed levels of milk production under different conditions may then reflect a complex interplay between factors limiting maternal performance (peripheral limitation and heat dissipation: generally better when it is cooler) and factors influencing maximum pup growth (litter size and temperature: generally better when it is hotter), and may together result in an optimal temperature favouring reproduction. PMID:23720804

  10. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  11. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged. PMID:22958525

  12. Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913 ± 567 kcal/d) than females (1514 ± 458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8 ± 6.4%, Female: 73.9 ± 6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9 ± 6.1%, Female: 18.5 ± 5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6 ± 2.1%, Female: 10.9 ± 5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

  13. Factors that Affect Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake in Rural, Southern College Students in the US.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Chau, Tak Yan; Rutledge, Julie M; Erickson, Dawn; Lim, Yunsook

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate factors that affect sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in rural, southern college students in the US. The majority of the participants were male (58 %) and Caucasian (63 %). The average total SSB consumption was 79.4 fl oz/day (2.35 L/d). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total SSB intake greater than 57.4 fl oz/day (1.8 L/d) versus less than 57.4 fl oz/day showed that factors associated with greater odds for high SSB intake were age greater than 20 years old (odds ratio [OR] = 3.551, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.385 - 9.104, p = 0.008) and being African American (OR = 3.477, 95 % CI = 1.291 - 9.363, p = 0.013). Results of binary logistic regression analyses of total bottled water intake greater than 39.4 fl oz/day (median) versus less than 39.4 fl oz/day showed that consuming alcohol was significantly related to an increased probability of drinking more than 39.4 fl oz (1.17 L/d) of bottled water per day (median; OR = 2.914, 95 % CI = 1.223 - 6.943, p = 0.016). Culturally sensitive strategies are needed to raise awareness for making healthy beverage choices when dining on campus to effectively reduce college student's SSB consumption. PMID:26780272

  14. Energy intake estimation from counts of chews and swallows

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan M.; Higgins, Janine A.; Schuckers, Stephanie C.; Bellisle, France; Pan, Zhaoxing; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Current, validated methods for dietary assessment rely on self-report, which tends to be inaccurate, time-consuming, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the suitability of estimating energy intake using individually-calibrated models based on Counts of Chews and Swallows (CCS models). In a laboratory setting, subjects consumed three identical meals (training meals) and a fourth meal with different content (validation meal). Energy intake was estimated by four different methods: weighed food records (gold standard), diet diaries, photographic food records, and CCS models. Counts of chews and swallows were measured using wearable sensors and video analysis. Results for the training meals demonstrated that CCS models presented the lowest reporting bias and a lower error as compared to diet diaries. For the validation meal, CCS models showed reporting errors that were not different from the diary or the photographic method. The increase in error for the validation meal may be attributed to differences in the physical properties of foods consumed during training and validation meals. However, this may be potentially compensated for by including correction factors into the models. This study suggests that estimation of energy intake from CCS may offer a promising alternative to overcome limitations of self-report. PMID:25447016

  15. Energy density, energy intake regulation and body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is one of the major health crises of our time. The majority of adult Americans are now either overweight or obese, and recent research indicates that obesity is approaching smoking as the major cause of disability and premature death. National improvements in dietary intake, and in particu...

  16. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation. PMID:25495101

  17. Association of usual self-reported dietary intake with ecological momentary measures of affective and physical feeling states in children ☆

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Huh, Jimi; Schembre, Susan M.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between dietary intake and affective and physical feeling states in children. Purpose The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to examine how usual dietary intake is cross-sectionally associated with both average affective and physical feeling state ratings and rating variability in children. Methods Children (N = 110, mean age = 11.0 ± 1.2 years, 52.5% male, 30.1% Hispanic/Latino) completed EMA measures of affective and physical feeling states 3–7 times per day for a full or partial day (weekday evenings and weekend days and evenings) over a 4-day period. Usual intake of pre-selected dietary components was measured prior to the EMA measurement period using the Block Kids Food Screener. Statistical analyses included mixed models and mixed-effects location scale models. Results Greater usual fiber intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average positive affect (PA) ratings, lower variability of NA ratings, and higher variability of physical fatigue ratings. Lower usual glycemic load of diet was cross-sectionally associated with lower variability of NA ratings. Lower usual added sugar intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average physical energy ratings and lower variability of NA ratings. Conclusions Although temporal precedence was not established by these findings, they indicate that characteristics of children’s usual dietary intake are cross-sectionally associated with both the average and variability of affective and physical feeling states. EMA offers a promising avenue through which to explore the associations between affective states and diet and has the potential to provide insight into nuances of this relationship. PMID:26032196

  18. Reported energy intake by weight status, day and estimated energy requirement among adults: NHANES 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To describe energy intake reporting by gender, weight status, and interview sequence and to compare reported intakes to the Estimated Energy Requirement at different levels of physical activity. Methods: Energy intake was self-reported by 24-hour recall on two occasions (day 1 and day 2)...

  19. Ghrelin stimulates milk intake by affecting adult type feeding behaviour in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Piao, H; Hosoda, H; Kangawa, K; Murata, T; Narita, K; Higuchi, T

    2008-03-01

    The influence of ghrelin on feeding behaviour during infancy is unknown. To determine whether ghrelin influences milk intake in rat pups, newborn rats received a single i.p. injection of either rat ghrelin (100 microg/kg) or rabbit anti-ghrelin immunoglobulin G (100 microg/kg) every 5 days from postpartum day 5 to day 30 (P5-P30). Milk intake was then assessed by body weight gain following a 2-h suckling period. Ghrelin significantly increased weight gain relative to vehicle-injected controls in P20, P25 and P30 pups, but not in younger animals. Similarly, after 8 h of milk restriction, anti-ghrelin injections significantly decreased weight gain in P25 and P30, but not in younger pups. Interestingly, however, ghrelin did increase independent feeding in P10 and P15 pups using a paradigm in which pups consumed milk from a milk-soaked paper towel. We therefore conclude that ghrelin stimulates milk intake at an early postnatal stage, primarily by affecting adult-type feeding behaviour. PMID:18194428

  20. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  1. DIETARY ENERGY INTAKE IS ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES RISK MARKERS IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Donin, Angela S; Nightingale, Claire M; Owen, Christopher G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Jebb, Susan A; Ambrosini, Gina L; Stephen, Alison M; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Energy intake, energy density and nutrient intakes are implicated in type 2 diabetes risk in adults, but little is known about their influence on emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. We examined these associations in a multi-ethnic population of children. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional study of 2017 children predominantly of white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean origin aged 9-10 years who had a detailed 24 hour dietary recall, measurements of body composition and provided a fasting blood sample for measurements of plasma glucose, HbA1c and serum insulin; HOMA insulin resistance was also derived. Results Energy intake was positively associated with insulin resistance. After the removal of 176 participants with implausible energy intakes (unlikely to be representative of habitual intake), energy intake was more strongly associated with insulin resistance, and was also associated with glucose and fat mass index. Energy density was also positively associated with insulin resistance and fat mass index. However, in mutually adjusted analyses, the associations for energy intake remained while those for energy density became non-significant. Individual nutrient intakes showed no associations with type 2 diabetes risk markers. Conclusions Higher total energy intake was strongly associated with high levels of insulin resistance and may help to explain emerging type 2 diabetes risk in childhood. Studies are needed to establish whether reducing energy intake produces sustained favourable changes in insulin resistance and circulating glucose levels. PMID:23939542

  2. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  3. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  4. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food intake measures. The aim of this study was to investigate associations of five CLOCK single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) with food-intake and to explore the p...

  5. Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake. Laboratory and field studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. However characteristics of foods that constitute variety are not known. The effects of varying food characteristics to reduce food variety on laboratory and usual dinner intake was ...

  6. How Does Energy Intake Influence the Levels of Certain Steroids?

    PubMed

    Rácz, Beáta; Dušková, Michaela; Jandíková, Hana; Hill, Martin; Vondra, Karel; Stárka, Luboslav

    2015-01-01

    The influence of steroid hormones on food intake is well described. However, there are only a few studies on the effect of food intake on steroid levels. The study involved eight non-smoker women (average age 29.48±2.99 years; average BMI 21.3±1.3 kg/m2); they did not use any kind of medication affecting steroidogenesis. We analysed the influence of four various stimuli on the levels of steroid hormones and melatonin. During their follicular phase of menstrual cycle, each woman had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a standard breakfast and psyllium (a non-caloric fibre). Cortisol declined during each test, which is a physiological decline in the morning hours. In all tests (except of the application of the non-caloric fibre, psyllium), however, this decline was modified. After the standard breakfast there was an increase in cortisol at 40th minute. The OGTT and IVGTT tests led to a plateau in cortisol levels. Testosterone levels and those of other steroid hormones showed no relationships to tested stimulations. Oral and intravenous glucose have influenced physiological decline of melatonin levels. During the IVGTT test, melatonin levels started to increase at 20th minute, reaching a maximum at 40th minute. The OGTT test led to a delayed increase in melatonin levels, compared to IVGTT. Despite the fact that we performed the tests in the morning hours, when steroid hormone levels physiologically start to change due to their diurnal rhythm, we still found that food intake influences some of the hormone levels. PMID:26654802

  7. Oral processing effort, appetite and acute energy intake in lean and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D; Considine, Robert V

    2013-08-15

    Chewing reportedly contributes to satiation and satiety signals. Attempts to document and quantify this have led to small and inconsistent effects. The present trial manipulated oral processing effort though required chewing of gums of different hardness and measured appetitive sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, GI transit time, and concentrations of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide. Sixty adults classified by sex and BMI (15 each of lean females, obese females, lean males and obese males) were tested in a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial with three arms. They chewed nothing, soft gum or hard gum for 15 min while sipping grape juice (10% of individual energy needs) containing acetaminophen and lactulose on one day each separated by 7 days. Electromyographic recordings and self-reports were obtained during and after chewing to quantify oral processing effort. Blood was sampled through an indwelling catheter and appetite ratings were obtained at baseline and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min after chewing initiation. Breath samples were collected at 10 min intervals for the first 2h and at 30 min intervals for the next 2h. No effects of chewing were observed for appetitive sensations or gut peptide concentrations. Energy intake tended to decline in lean and increase in obese participants so that daily energy intake differed significantly between the two groups when chewing either gum, while no difference was observed on the non-chewing day. Serum glucose and insulin were significantly lower at selected time points 90-240 min after chewing compared to baseline and the non-chewing day. These data indicate chewing effort does not affect appetitive sensations or gut peptide secretion, but may exert a small differential effect on acute energy intake in lean and obese individuals and lead to greater post-prandial declines of serum glucose and insulin. The efficacy of gum chewing as a substitute for eating for weight

  8. Energy intake over 2 days is unaffected by acute sprint interval exercise despite increased appetite and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Olver, T Dylan; Abbott, Kolten C; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio over 2 days. Eight men (25 ± 3 years, 79.6 ± 9.7 kg, body fat 13% ± 6%; mean ± SD) completed 2 experimental treatments: SIE and recovery (SIEx) and nonexercise control. Each 34-h treatment consisted of 2 consecutive 10-h test days. Between 0800-1800 h, participants remained in the laboratory for 8 breath-by-breath gas collections, 3 buffet-type meals, 14 appetite ratings, and 4 blood samples for appetite-related peptides. Treatment comparisons were made using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA or t tests. An immediate, albeit short-lived (<1 h), postexercise suppression of appetite and increase in peptide YY (PYY) were observed (P < 0.001). However, overall hunger and motivation to eat were greater during SIEx (P < 0.02) without affecting energy intake. Total 34-h oxygen consumption was greater during SIEx (P = 0.04), elicited by the 1491-kJ (22%) greater energy expenditure over the first 24 h (P = 0.01). Despite its effects on oxygen consumption, appetite, and PYY, acute SIE did not affect energy intake. Consequently, if these dietary responses to SIE are sustained with regular SIT, augmentations in oxygen consumption and/or a substrate shift toward increased fat use postexercise are most likely responsible for the observed body fat loss with this type of exercise training. PMID:25494974

  9. Short photoperiod increases energy intake, metabolic thermogenesis and organ mass in silky starlings Sturnus sericeus

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Jia-Qi; WANG, Jia-Jia; WU, Xu-Jian; ZHENG, Wei-Hong; LIU, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues play important roles in the regulation of an animal’s physiology and behavior. One such cue, photoperiod, plays an important role in the seasonal acclimatization of birds. It has been demonstrated that an animal’s body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and energy intake, are all affected by photoperiod. The present study was designed to examine photoperiod induced changes in the body mass, metabolism and metabolic organs of the silky starling, Sturnus sericeus. Captive silky starlings increased their body mass and BMR during four weeks of acclimation to a short photoperiod. Birds acclimated to a short photoperiod also increased the mass of certain organs (liver, gizzard and small intestine), and both gross energy intake (GEI) and digestible energy intake (DEI), relative to those acclimated to a long photoperiod. Furthermore, BMR was positively correlated with body mass, liver mass, GEI and DEI. These results suggest that silky starlings increase metabolic thermogenesis when exposed to a short photoperiod by increasing their body and metabolic organ mass, and their GEI and DEI. These findings support the hypothesis that bird species from temperate climates typically display high phenotypic flexibility in thermogenic capacity. PMID:27029864

  10. Short photoperiod increases energy intake, metabolic thermogenesis and organ mass in silky starlings Sturnus sericeus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Qi; Wang, Jia-Jia; Wu, Xu-Jian; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Liu, Jin-Song

    2016-03-18

    Environmental cues play important roles in the regulation of an animal's physiology and behavior. One such cue, photoperiod, plays an important role in the seasonal acclimatization of birds. It has been demonstrated that an animal's body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and energy intake, are all affected by photoperiod. The present study was designed to examine photoperiod induced changes in the body mass, metabolism and metabolic organs of the silky starling, Sturnus sericeus. Captive silky starlings increased their body mass and BMR during four weeks of acclimation to a short photoperiod. Birds acclimated to a short photoperiod also increased the mass of certain organs (liver, gizzard and small intestine), and both gross energy intake (GEI) and digestible energy intake (DEI), relative to those acclimated to a long photoperiod. Furthermore, BMR was positively correlated with body mass, liver mass, GEI and DEI. These results suggest that silky starlings increase metabolic thermogenesis when exposed to a short photoperiod by increasing their body and metabolic organ mass, and their GEI and DEI. These findings support the hypothesis that bird species from temperate climates typically display high phenotypic flexibility in thermogenic capacity. PMID:27029864

  11. Energy intake, oxidative stress and antioxidant in mice during lactation

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Guo-Xiao; LIN, Jiang-Tao; ZHENG, Wei-Hong; CAO, Jing; ZHAO, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction is the highest energy demand period for small mammals, during which both energy intake and expenditure are increased to cope with elevated energy requirements of offspring growth and somatic protection. Oxidative stress life history theory proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced in direct proportion to metabolic rate, resulting in oxidative stress and damage to macromolecules. In the present study, several markers of oxidative stress and antioxidants activities were examined in brain, liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle and small intestine in non-lactating (Non-Lac) and lactating (Lac) KM mice. Uncoupling protein (ucps) gene expression was examined in brain, liver and muscle. During peak lactation, gross energy intake was 254% higher in Lac mice than in Non-Lac mice. Levels of H2O2 of Lac mice were 17.7% higher in brain (P<0.05), but 21.1% (P<0.01) and 14.5% (P<0.05) lower in liver and small intestine than that of Non-Lac mice. Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels of Lac mice were significantly higher in brain, but lower in liver, kidneys, muscle and small intestine than that of Non-Lac mice. Activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) was significantly decreased in brain and liver in the Lac group compared with that in the Non-Lac group. Total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity of Lac mice was significantly higher in muscle, but lower in kidneys than Non-Lac mice. Ucp4 and ucp5 gene expression of brain was 394% and 577% higher in Lac mice than in Non-Lac mice. These findings suggest that KM mice show tissue-dependent changes in both oxidative stress and antioxidants. Activities of antioxidants may be regulated physiologically in response to the elevated ROS production in several tissues during peak lactation. Regulations of brain ucp4 and ucp5 gene expression may be involved in the prevention of oxidative damage to the tissue. PMID:25855228

  12. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. PMID:26763471

  13. Carotenoid intake does not affect immune-stimulated oxidative burst in greenfinches.

    PubMed

    Sild, Elin; Sepp, Tuul; Männiste, Marju; Hõrak, Peeter

    2011-10-15

    Carotenoid-based integument colouration is extremely widespread in the animal kingdom. It has been hypothesized that carotenoid colouration is used for communicating the health status of the bearers because carotenoids are efficient immunomodulators or antioxidants. However, the latter argument has been recently debated and the mechanisms by which carotenoids modulate immunity or oxidative balance are poorly known. We performed an experiment on wild-caught captive greenfinches, passerine birds with carotenoid-based plumage colouration, in order to test whether dietary carotenoid supplementation affects immune-stimulated oxidative burst of phagocytes in the whole blood and humoral immune response to a novel antigen, Brucella abortus (BA). Additionally, we tested whether immune stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects blood carotenoid levels. We thus tested the effects of carotenoids on the oxidative burst of phagocytes under neutral conditions and during in vivo immune challenge. LPS injection depleted plasma carotenoids, indicating involvement of these phytochemicals in the immune response. However, we did not find any evidence that manipulation of carotenoid intake had modulated anti-BA antibody production, LPS-stimulated oxidative burst of phagocytes, or basal levels of circulating reactive oxygen species. This indicates that carotenoid intake does not affect endogenous production of reactive oxygen species by immune cells. This finding is consistent with the view that carotenoids are unlikely to provide a direct link between oxidative stress and colouration. However, it remains to be tested whether the oxidative burst of phagocytes induced in our experiment actually inflicts oxidative damage and whether carotenoids play a role in the attenuation of such potential damages. PMID:21957110

  14. Association of Energy Intake With the Lack of in-Person Review of Household Dietary Records: Analysis of Japan National Health and Nutrition Surveys From 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Okuda, Nagako; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Nishi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background National surveys have demonstrated a long-term decrease in mean energy intake in Japan, despite the absence of a decrease in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. We aimed to examine whether total energy intake of survey respondents is associated with completion of an in-person review of dietary records and whether it affects the trend in mean energy intake. Methods We pooled data from individuals aged 20–89 years from the National Nutrition Surveys of 1997–2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Surveys of 2003–2011. We conducted a linear mixed-effects regression to estimate the association between total energy intake and the lack of an in-person review of semi-weighed household dietary records with interviewers. As some respondents did not have their dietary data confirmed, we used regression coefficients to correct their total energy intake. Results Compared with respondents completing an in-person review, total energy intake was significantly inversely associated with respondents not completing a review across all sex and age groups (P < 0.001). After correction of total energy intake for those not completing a review, mean energy intake in each survey year significantly increased by 2.1%–3.9% in men and 1.3%–2.6% in women (P < 0.001), but the decreasing trend in mean energy intake was sustained. Conclusions Total energy intake may be underestimated without an in-person review of dietary records. Further efforts to facilitate completion of a review may improve accuracy of these data. However, the increasing proportion of respondents missing an in-person review had little impact on the decreasing mean caloric intake. PMID:26548354

  15. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  16. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Diane L.; Schumacher, Leah M.; Schaumberg, Katherine; Piers, Amani D.; Gaspar, Monika E.; Lowe, Michael R.; Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Behavioural weight control programmes recommend adherence to daily energy intake goals, yet also allow for flexibility in intake across days. Evidence is lacking as to whether intake consistency is important for weight control. The current study explored the relation between day-to-day intake consistency and weight loss in the context of behavioural weight loss treatment and examined the relationship between variability in intake and several factors known to be associated with weight control success. Participants (N = 283) enrolled in a 12-month behavioural weight loss programme completed 24-h recalls of dietary intake and psychological measures. At the end of treatment, low intake variability and greater weight loss were associated, but variability was not predictive of weight loss independent of mean intake in continuous analyses. Interestingly, participants who met the programme goal of ≥10% weight loss had less intake variability compared to those who lost <10%, although groups did not differ significantly on mean intake. Results suggest that daily intake consistency may facilitate successful weight loss for some. Additionally, autonomous motivation for weight management and cognitive dietary restraint were inversely related to end-of-treatment intake variability. Additional research is needed to examine whether recommendations to limit intake variability during behavioural weight loss treatment improve long-term weight control. PMID:27020845

  17. Energy intake highs and lows: how much does consistency matter in weight control?

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Diane L; Schumacher, Leah M; Schaumberg, Katherine; Piers, Amani D; Gaspar, Monika E; Lowe, Michael R; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioural weight control programmes recommend adherence to daily energy intake goals, yet also allow for flexibility in intake across days. Evidence is lacking as to whether intake consistency is important for weight control. The current study explored the relation between day-to-day intake consistency and weight loss in the context of behavioural weight loss treatment and examined the relationship between variability in intake and several factors known to be associated with weight control success. Participants (N =  283) enrolled in a 12-month behavioural weight loss programme completed 24-h recalls of dietary intake and psychological measures. At the end of treatment, low intake variability and greater weight loss were associated, but variability was not predictive of weight loss independent of mean intake in continuous analyses. Interestingly, participants who met the programme goal of ≥10% weight loss had less intake variability compared to those who lost <10%, although groups did not differ significantly on mean intake. Results suggest that daily intake consistency may facilitate successful weight loss for some. Additionally, autonomous motivation for weight management and cognitive dietary restraint were inversely related to end-of-treatment intake variability. Additional research is needed to examine whether recommendations to limit intake variability during behavioural weight loss treatment improve long-term weight control. PMID:27020845

  18. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  19. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance. PMID:9063765

  20. Leptin regulates energy intake but fails to facilitate hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus).

    PubMed

    Xing, Xin; Tang, Gang-Bin; Sun, Ming-Yue; Yu, Chao; Song, Shi-Yi; Liu, Xin-Yu; Yang, Ming; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Body fat storage before hibernation affects the timing of immergence in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Leptin is an adipose signal and plays vital role in energy homeostasis mainly by action in brain. To test the hypothesis that leptin plays a role in facilitating the process of hibernation, squirrels were administrated with recombinant murine leptin (1μg/day) through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection for 12 days during fattening. From day 7 to 12, animals were moved into a cold room (5±1°C) with constant darkness which functioned as hibernaculum. Energy intake, body mass and core body temperature (Tb) were continuously monitored throughout the course of experiment. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured under both warm and cold conditions. At the end of leptin administration, we measured the serum concentration of hormones related to energy regulation, mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Our results showed that during leptin administration, the cumulative food intake and increase of body mass were suppressed while Tb and RMR were unaltered. The proportion of torpid squirrels was not different between two groups. At the end of leptin administration, the expressions of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein were suppressed. There were no differences in UCP1 mRNA expression or protein content in BAT between groups. Our data suggest that leptin can affect energy intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, but is not involved in the initiation of hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels. PMID:27033037

  1. Portion Size Variably Affects Food Intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old Children in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4- to 6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children. PMID:23702260

  2. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake--A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Chapman, Ian; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Soenen, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness) and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years). We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%-20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m²) than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m²) adults (standardized mean difference: -0.77 (95% confidence interval -0.90 to -0.64)). Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD): -17 (-22 to -13) mm) to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: -14 (-19 to -9) mm) lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm)) greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake. PMID:26751475

  3. Intake of energy and nutrients; harmonization of Food Composition Databases.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Victoria, Emilio; Martinez de Victoria, Ignacio; Martinez-Burgos, M Alba

    2015-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) provide detailed information about the nutritional composition of foods. The conversion of food consumption into nutrient intake need a Food composition database (FCDB) which lists the mean nutritional values for a given food portion. The limitations of FCDBs are sometimes little known by the users. Multicentre studies have raised several methodology challenges which allow to standardize nutritional assessments in different populations and geographical areas for food composition and nutrient intake. Differences between FCDBs include those attributed to technical matters, such as description of foods, calculation of energy and definition of nutrients, analytical methods, and principles for recipe calculation. Such differences need to be identified and eliminated before comparing data from different studies, especially when dietary data is related to a health outcome. There are ongoing efforts since 1984 to standardize FCDBs over the world (INFOODS, EPIC, EuroFIR, etc.). Food composition data can be gathered from different sources like private company analysis, universities, government laboratories and food industry. They can also be borrowed from scientific literature or even from the food labelling. There are different proposals to evaluate the quality of food composition data. For the development of a FCDB it is fundamental document in the most detailed way, each of the data values of the different components and nutrients of a food. The objective of AECOSAN (Agencia Española de Consumo Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición) and BEDCA (Base de Datos Española de Composición de Alimentos) association was the development and support of a reference FCDB in Spain according to the standards to be defined in Europe. BEDCA is currently the only FCDB developed in Spain with compiled and documented data following EuroFIR standards. PMID:25719784

  4. FTO polymorphisms moderate the association of food reinforcement with energy intake.

    PubMed

    Scheid, Jennifer L; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-10

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251kbp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9-7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  5. FTO Polymorphisms Moderate the Association of Food Reinforcement with Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Scheid, Jennifer L.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles S.; Allison, David B.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement (RRVfood) is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity, and prospectively related to weight gain. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is related to elevated body mass index and increased energy intake. The primary purpose of the current study was to determine whether any of 68 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or a FTO risk score moderate the association between food reinforcement and energy or macronutrient intake. Energy and macronutrient intake was measured using a laboratory ad libitum snack food consumption task in 237 adults of varying BMI. Controlling for BMI, the relative reinforcing value of reading (RRVreading) and proportion of African ancestry, RRVfood predicted 14.2% of the variance in energy intake, as well as predicted carbohydrate, fat, protein and sugar intake. In individual analyses, six FTO SNPs (rs12921970, rs9936768, rs12446047, rs7199716, rs8049933 and rs11076022, spanning approximately 251K bp) moderated the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake to predict an additional 4.9 - 7.4% of variance in energy intake. We created an FTO risk score based on 5 FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs3751812, rs1421085, and rs1121980) that are related to BMI in multiple studies. The FTO risk score did not increase variance accounted for beyond individual FTO SNPs. Rs12921970 and rs12446047 served as moderators of the relationship between RRVfood and carbohydrate, fat, protein, and sugar intake. This study shows for the first time that the relationship between RRVfood and energy intake is moderated by FTO SNPs. Research is needed to understand how these processes interact to predict energy and macronutrient intake. PMID:24768648

  6. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 2...

  7. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

    PubMed Central

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  8. Evaluation of drinks contribution to energy intake in summer and winter.

    PubMed

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-05-01

    All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. PMID:25988765

  9. Characteristics of under- and over-reporters of energy intake among young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Okubo, Hitomi

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on factors associated with misreporting of energy intake is limited, particularly in non-Western populations. We examined the characteristics of under- and over-reporters of energy intake in young Japanese women. Subjects were 3,956 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-20 y (mean body mass index: 20.9 kg/m(2)). Energy intake was assessed using a comprehensive self-administered diet history questionnaire. Estimated energy requirement was calculated based on self-reported information on age, body height and weight, and physical activity with the use of an equation from the US Dietary Reference Intakes. Under-, acceptable, and over-reporters of energy intake were identified based on the ratio of energy intake to estimated energy requirement, according to whether the individual's ratio was below, within, or above the 95% confidence limits of the expected ratio of 1.0 (<0.70, 0.70-1.30, and >1.30, respectively). Risk of being an under- or over-reporter of energy intake compared to an acceptable reporter was analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The percentage of under-, acceptable, and over-reporters of energy intake was 18.4, 73.1, and 8.4%, respectively. Under-reporting was associated with overweight or obesity, perception that one's own weight was too heavy or light, lower dietary consciousness, active lifestyle, living without family, and living in a city (compared with a metropolitan area). Over-reporting was associated with sedentary lifestyle only. This study of lean young Japanese women showed that energy intake misreporting, particularly under-reporting, was common and differential among populations. Particularly, perceived weight status was associated with under-reporting of energy intake, independent of actual weight status. PMID:23132309

  10. Pelage insulation, litter size, and ambient temperature impact maternal energy intake and offspring development during lactation

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Matthew J.; Tuthill, Christiana; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Zucker, Irving

    2010-01-01

    Energy balance during lactation critically influences survival and growth of a mother’s offspring, and hence, her reproductive success. Most experiments have investigated the influence of a single factor (e.g., ambient temperature [Ta] or litter size) on the energetics of lactation. Here, we determined the impact of multiple interventions, including increased conductive heat loss consequent to dorsal fur removal, cold exposure (Ta of 5°C versus 23°C), and differential lactational load from litters of different sizes (2 or 4 pups), on maternal energy balance and offspring development of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Lower Ta, fur removal, and larger litters were associated with increased maternal food consumption. Females exposed to multiple challenges (e.g., both fur loss and lower Ta) ate substantially more food than those exposed to a single challenge, with no apparent ceiling to elevated food intake (increases up to 538%). Thus, energy intake of dams under these conditions does not appear to be limited by feeding behavior or the size of the digestive tract. Housing at 5°C attenuated pup weight gain and increased pup mortality to more than 5 times that of litters housed at 23°C. Increases in the dam’s conductive heat loss induced by fur removal did not affect pup weight gain or survival, suggesting that effects of low Ta on pup weight gain and survival reflect limitations in the pups’ ability to ingest or incorporate energy. PMID:20184907

  11. Modeling energy intake by adding homeostatic feedback and drug intervention.

    PubMed

    Gennemark, Peter; Hjorth, Stephan; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2015-02-01

    Energy intake (EI) is a pivotal biomarker used in quantification approaches to metabolic disease processes such as obesity, diabetes, and growth disorders. Eating behavior is however under both short-term and long-term control. This control system manifests itself as tolerance and rebound phenomena in EI, when challenged by drug treatment or diet restriction. The paper describes a model with the capability to capture physiological counter-regulatory feedback actions triggered by energy imbalances. This feedback is general as it handles tolerance to both increases and decreases in EI, and works in both acute and chronic settings. A drug mechanism function inhibits (or stimulates) EI. The deviation of EI relative to a reference level (set-point) serves as input to a non-linear appetite control signal which in turn impacts EI in parallel to the drug intervention. Three examples demonstrate the potential usefulness of the model in both acute and chronic dosing situations. The model shifts the predicted concentration-response relationship rightwardly at lower concentrations, in contrast to models that do not handle functional adaptation. A fourth example further shows that the model may qualitatively explain differences in rate and extent of adaptation in observed EI and its concomitants in both rodents and humans. PMID:25388764

  12. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  13. Removing energy from a beverage influences later food intake more than the same energy addition.

    PubMed

    McCrickerd, K; Salleh, N B; Forde, C G

    2016-10-01

    Designing reduced-calorie foods and beverages without compromising their satiating effect could benefit weight management, assuming that consumers do not compensate for the missing calories at other meals. Though research has demonstrated that compensation for overfeeding is relatively limited, the extent to which energy reductions trigger adjustments in later food intake is less clear. The current study tested satiety responses (characterised by changes in appetite and later food intake) to both a covert 200 kcal reduction and an addition of maltodextrin to a soymilk test beverage. Twenty-nine healthy male participants were recruited to consume three sensory-matched soymilk beverages across four non-consecutive study days: a medium energy control (ME: 300 kcal) and a lower energy (LE: 100 kcal) and higher energy (HE: 500 kcal) version. The ME control was consumed twice to assess individual consistency in responses to this beverage. Participants were unaware of the energy differences across the soymilks. Lunch intake 60 min later increased in response to the LE soymilk, but was unchanged after consuming the HE version. These adjustments accounted for 40% of the energy removed from the soymilk and 13% of the energy added in. Rated appetite was relatively unaffected by the soymilk energy content. No further adjustments were noted for the rest of the day. These data suggest that adult men tested were more sensitive to calorie dilution than calorie addition to a familiar beverage. PMID:27356202

  14. Economics of food intake in mice: energy yield of the reinforcer.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Neil E; Giddings, Ashley M; Minervini, Vanessa; Robertson, Kimberly L

    2014-09-01

    One of the Zeitgeists of the field for the study of ingestive behavior is that organisms are endowed with internal self-regulatory mechanisms that ensure optimal nutrition. However, the alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity challenges us to reconsider the extent to which internal regulatory mechanisms affect food intake, especially in a free market economy. Cued by the pioneering work of George Collier and his students, we have been examining food intake (demand) in mice when the effort or price of food is manipulated. We present two new experiments in mice that investigate the effect of energy yield per unit of food earned on working for food. The first experiment shows that when the nominal energy yield of each food pellet is halved by cellulose dilution, mice show relatively inelastic calorie-related demand despite the fact the cellulose diluted diet is unpalatable. The second experiment shows that the size of the pellet reinforcer does not have a major effect on food demand except in the extreme condition of small reward and high unit price. New analyses of distributions of responding are presented which suggest that mice work for "target" numbers of food rewards with only a small influence of price or energy gain. PMID:24768647

  15. Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Children and Adolescents from 1999-2000 through 2009-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Technical Information Service NCHS Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Children and Adolescents From 1999– ... Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Did the average energy intake for children and adolescents in the United ...

  16. Sustained sleep fragmentation affects brain temperature, food intake and glucose tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Baud, Maxime O; Magistretti, Pierre J; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Sleep fragmentation is present in numerous sleep pathologies and constitutes a major feature of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. A prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity has been shown to be associated to obstructive sleep apnea. While sleep fragmentation has been shown to impact sleep homeostasis, its specific effects on metabolic variables are only beginning to emerge. In this context, it is important to develop realistic animal models that would account for chronic metabolic effects of sleep fragmentation. We developed a 14-day model of instrumental sleep fragmentation in mice, and show an impact on both brain-specific and general metabolism. We first report that sleep fragmentation increases food intake without affecting body weight. This imbalance was accompanied by the inability to adequately decrease brain temperature during fragmented sleep. In addition, we report that sleep-fragmented mice develop glucose intolerance. We also observe that sleep fragmentation slightly increases the circadian peak level of glucocorticoids, a factor that may be involved in the observed metabolic effects. Our results confirm that poor-quality sleep with sustained sleep fragmentation has similar effects on general metabolism as actual sleep loss. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that sleep fragmentation is an aggravating factor for the development of metabolic dysfunctions that may be relevant for sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:22734931

  17. Toxic metal interactions affect the bioaccumulation and dietary intake of macro- and micro-nutrients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Sardar; Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Aamir, Muhammad; Qamar, Zahir; Ur Rehman, Zahir; Perveen, Sajida

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and Cd-Pb mix) on bioaccumulation of different nutrients. Three plant species including potato, tomato and lettuce were grown in pots containing soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb mix at four different levels. The edible portions of each plant were analysed for Cd, Pb and different macro- and micro-nutrients including protein, vitamin C, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Results indicated significant variations in selected elemental concentrations in all the three plants grown in different treatments. The projected daily dietary intake values of selected metals were significant (P < 0.001) for Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg but not significant for protein, vitamin C, N and P. The elemental contribution to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was significant for Mn. Similarly, Fe and Mg also showed substantial contribution to RDA, while Ca, N, P, K, protein and vitamin C showed the minimal contribution for different age groups. This study suggests that vegetables cultivated on Cd and Pb contaminated soil may significantly affect their quality, and the consumption of such vegetables may result in substantial negative effects on nutritional composition of the consumer body. Long term and continuous use of contaminated vegetables may result in malnutrition. PMID:26714294

  18. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  19. BACLOFEN, RACLOPRIDE, AND NALTREXONE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECT INTAKE OF FAT/SUCROSE MIXTURES UNDER LIMITED ACCESS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, KJ; Wojnicki, FHW; Corwin, RLW

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABAB agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918

  20. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  1. Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

  2. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation. PMID:21779093

  3. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  4. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment. PMID:26137793

  5. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  6. Urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium as an index of absorption is not affected by lactose intake in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Brink, E J; van Beresteijn, E C; Dekker, P R; Beynen, A C

    1993-05-01

    The effect of lactose on the urinary excretion of Mg and Ca, as an index of absorption, was studied in a double-blind, crossover study during three 1-week periods. Twenty-four healthy, lactose-tolerant, adult volunteers maintained their habitual diets with the exception that all lactose-containing dairy products in the diet were replaced by 600 g/d of three specially prepared dairy products. These products were based on either lactose-enriched cow's milk or lactose-enriched, lactase (EC 3.2.1.23)-treated cow's milk, with or without added Mg, and were given in turn during 1 week. Lactose intake was increased by 127 mmol/d (46 g/d) while taking the lactose-enriched products. While taking the Mg-enriched products, Mg intake was increased by 2.8 mmol/d (69 mg/d) which was equivalent to 17% of the habitual Mg intake. Apart from the lactose and Mg intake, nutrient intake was comparable during the three dietary periods. Urinary excretions of Mg and Ca were used as indicators for their absorption. Mg supplementation significantly increased urinary Mg excretion by 0.97 mmol/d (equivalent to an increase of 18%, P < 0.001), indicating that urinary Mg excretion is a valid indicator for intestinal Mg absorption. Hydrolysis of lactose did not affect urinary excretion of Mg and Ca, which implies that lactose intake does not affect the absorption of Mg and Ca in healthy adults. PMID:8329360

  7. Naltrexone treatment produces dose-related effects on food and water intake but daily alcohol consumption is not affected.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Jorge; Barrios De Tomasi, Eliana

    2008-08-01

    There is evidence that naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, affects alcohol and food consumption. Though food intake is inherently involved when naltrexone effects on alcohol consumption have been studied, the differential effect of this opioid antagonist on both food and alcohol intake has not yet been reported. The present study analyzed the effect of a single daily dose of naltrexone on alcohol, food and water intake when these substances were available on a continuous basis. Wistar male rats were treated with s.c. injections of either naltrexone (2 or 10 mg/kg/day/rat) or a saline solution, 0.2 ml/day/rat for 7 days. This period was followed by a lapse of 7 days with no treatment (PT period), and this sequence of naltrexone or saline treatment followed by a period without treatment was repeated four times. Neither 2 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg of naltrexone affected alcohol consumption, though the higher dose of naltrexone (10 mg/kg) increased food intake with respect to both the PT periods and the saline group and decreased water consumption with respect to the corresponding PT periods. Naltrexone at 2 mg/kg produced a decrease in food intake but only with respect to the PT periods. These results suggest that the effects of a single dose of naltrexone on alcohol consumption may not be evident when 24-h access to alcohol is assessed; however, naltrexone may produce different dose-related effects on food and water intake, suggesting that they may be mediated by distinct opioid system mechanisms. PMID:18681987

  8. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure is the primary etiology for excess weight gain. Increased energy expenditure via exercise and energy restriction via diet are commonly used approaches to induce weight loss. Such behavioral interventions, however, have generally resulted in a smaller than expected weight loss, which in part has been attributed to compensatory adaptations in other components contributing to energy balance. Current research points to a loose coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, and evidence for long-term adaptations has been inconsistent. The lack of conclusive evidence on compensatory adaptations in response to alterations in energy balance can be attributed to differences in intervention type and study population. Physical activity (PA) levels may be reduced in response to aerobic exercise but not in response to resistance exercise. Furthermore, athletic and lean adults have been shown to increase their energy intake in response to exercise, whereas no such response was observed in obese adults. There is also evidence that caloric restriction is associated with a decline in PA. Generally, humans seem to be better equipped to defend against weight loss than avoid weight gain, but results also show a large individual variability. Therefore, individual differences rather than group means should be explored to identify specific characteristics of "compensators" and "noncompensators." This review emphasizes the need for more research with simultaneous measurements of all major components contributing to energy balance to enhance the understanding of the regulation of energy balance, which is crucial to address the current obesity epidemic. PMID:26374181

  9. Food characteristics, long-term habituation and energy intake: Laboratory and field studies

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Fletcher, Kelly D.; O’Neill, Jessica; Roemmich, James N.; Raynor, Hollie; Bouton, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Greater food variety is related to increased energy intake, and one approach to reduce food intake is to reduce food variety. The effects of varying the variety of foods at the dinner meal to reduce energy intake was assessed in laboratory and field experiments. Experiment 1 randomly assigned 31 overweight children to one of three conditions that provided one laboratory meal per day over a week. Conditions were the SAME macaroni and cheese, SIMILAR types of macaroni and cheese, or a VARIETY of high-energy-dense foods. On days 1 and 5 all children consumed the same macaroni and cheese meal. Results showed significant differences in energy consumed between SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY from day 1 to 5, with SAME and SIMILAR decreasing and VARIETY increasing energy intake. Trials to habituation, a potential mechanism for the variety effect, showed the same pattern of between group differences as energy intake. Experiment 2 randomly assigned 30 overweight children to conditions that provided the SAME, SIMILAR or VARIETY of high-energy-dense entrees along with a variety of low-energy-dense dinner entrees to eat in their homes for four weeks. Results showed significant between group differences in energy intake across weeks, with significant decreases over weeks for the SAME and SIMILAR versus VARIETY groups. The pattern of results across the experiments shows the same pattern of reduction in energy intake if children eat the same or similar characteristics of foods (types of macaroni and cheese), which may provide ideas about how to develop dietary variety prescriptions that can reduce intake and be tested in clinical trials. PMID:23085682

  10. [Epidemiologic aspects of energy drink intake in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Zastrozhin, M S; Drozhzhina, N A

    2015-01-01

    Article examines the impact of 'energy" drinks that have become so popular in recent decades on people. As a research tool a short structured questionnaire was used. It included questions about whether the respondent used "energy" drinks and, if yes, how often; whether he/she had an experience of using it with alcohol; if one is informed about the affect of substances that are included in the drink on the organism; reason of using; the reason of debut consumption; primary feeling during and after consumption; primary feeling after taking a large dose of "energy" drink. Each respondent also pointed out sex and noted whether he/she wanted to learn more about "energy" drinks and effects of their use on the organism. Within 3 years of study 1377 people (682 men and 695 women) aged 12 to 42 were surveyed. The results showed that 89.0% of respondents consumed energy drinks in some to some degree, and from these 7.4% used it constantly (at least 1 can a day). 24,0% of respondents had an experience of taking "energy" drinks with alcohol. With that, the number of men who used "energy" drinks with alcohol, prevails over the same number of women: 60.3% (n = 199) and 39.7% (n = 131), respectively (p = 0.003). Relationship between age of respondents and features of using as well as effects of "energy drinks" was also statistically proven. The elder the group is the less is the number of responders who drinks energetics constantly (Rs = -0.88, p < 0.001), who knows about the affect of caffeine and other substances on the organism (Rs = -0.93, p < 0.001), who drinks energetics forced by desire to get new feelings (Rs = -0.78, p < 0.001), exams (Rs = -0.73, p < 0.001), who feels fatigue (Rs = -0.79, p < 0.001), and get headache (Rs = -0.8, p < 0.001), the more is the number of responders who noticed that the primal feeling after energetics drinking was rising of working efficiency (Rs = 0.76, p < 0.001) and excessive motional activity (Rs = 0.59, p = 0.01). Basing on the data

  11. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    PubMed

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking. PMID:8660033

  12. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    PubMed

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort. PMID:16157416

  13. Energy and nutrient intakes of young children in the UK: findings from the Gemini twin cohort.

    PubMed

    Syrad, H; Llewellyn, C H; van Jaarsveld, C H M; Johnson, L; Jebb, S A; Wardle, J

    2016-05-28

    Data on the diets of young children in the UK are limited, despite growing evidence of the importance of early diet for long-term health. We used the largest contemporary dietary data set to describe the intake of 21-month-old children in the UK. Parents of 2336 children aged 21 months from the UK Gemini twin cohort completed 3-d diet diaries in 2008/2009. Family background information was obtained from questionnaires completed 8 months after birth. Mean total daily intakes of energy, macronutrients (g and %E) and micronutrients from food and beverages, including and excluding supplements, were derived. Comparisons with UK dietary reference values (DRV) were made using t tests and general linear regression models, respectively. Daily energy intake (kJ), protein (g) and most micronutrients exceeded DRV, except for vitamin D and Fe, where 96 or 84 % and 70 or 6 % of children did not achieve the reference nutrient intake or lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI), respectively, even with supplementation. These findings reflect similar observations in the smaller sample of children aged 18-36 months in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. At a population level, young children in the UK are exceeding recommended daily intakes of energy and protein, potentially increasing their risk of obesity. The majority of children are not meeting the LRNI for vitamin D, largely reflecting inadequate use of the supplements recommended at this age. Parents may need more guidance on how to achieve healthy energy and nutrient intakes for young children. PMID:27093345

  14. Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming123

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. Objective: Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake − expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. Design: Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured. Results: Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P < 0.001) was higher, and the energy surplus (P = 0.038) was lower, in MC than in television or VG groups. All conditions produced a mean (±SD) energy surplus as follows: 638 ± 408 kcal in television, 655 ± 533 kcal in VG, and 376 ± 487 kcal in MC groups. The OR for consuming ≥500 kcal in the television compared with the MC group was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.4). Secondary analyses, in which the 2 sedentary conditions were collapsed, showed an intake that was 178 kcal (95% CI: 8, 349 kcal) lower in the MC condition than in the sedentary groups (television and VG). Conclusion: MCs may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen time because of a lower energy surplus, but the playing of these games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795. PMID:22760571

  15. Growth rates and energy intake of hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bell, K M; Rutherfurd, S M; Morton, R H

    2012-04-01

    Growth rate is an important factor in neonatal survival. The aim of this study was to determine growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs in South Africa fed a prescribed energy intake, calculated for growth in the domestic cat. Growth was then compared with previously published data from hand-reared cubs in North America and the relationship between growth and energy intake explored. Daily body weight (BW) gain, feed and energy intake data was collected from 18 hand-reared cheetah cubs up to 120 days of age. The average pre-weaning growth rate was 32 g/day, which is lower than reported in mother-reared cubs and hand-reared cubs in North American facilities. However, post-weaning growth increased to an average of 55 g/day. Growth was approximately linear prior to weaning, but over the entire age range it exhibited a sigmoidal shape with an asymptotic plateau averaging 57 kg. Energy intake associated with pre-weaning growth was 481 kJ ME/kg BW(0.75). Regression analysis described the relationship between metabolic BW, metabolisable energy (ME) intake, and hence daily weight gain. This relationship may be useful in predicting energy intake required to achieve growth rates in hand-reared cheetah cubs similar to those observed for their mother-reared counterparts. PMID:21429043

  16. Acutely Decreased Thermoregulatory Energy Expenditure or Decreased Activity Energy Expenditure Both Acutely Reduce Food Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Thaler, Joshua P.; Meek, Thomas H.; Tylee, Tracy; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wisse, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1) increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2) exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21°C to 28°C) rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40±1%) and dark cycle energy expenditure (15±3%) at normal ambient temperature (21°C). Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65±7%), thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14±2% at 21°C; 21±4% at 28°C), while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9±0.1 g) in mice housed at 28°C, but during the light cycle (0.3±0.1 g) in mice housed at 21°C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R2 = 0.51, p<0.01). We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure. PMID:22936977

  17. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting

  18. Episodic future thinking reduces delay discounting and energy intake in children.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Said, Michele; Stanton, Christina M; Epstein, Leonard H

    2015-08-01

    Discounting of larger future rewards in favor of smaller immediate rewards is known as delay discounting. High delay discounting or a bias towards immediate gratification impedes self-regulation and is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors. Children in general show greater delay discounting than adults. Obese children in particular, have greater difficulty delaying gratification for edible rewards. Episodic future thinking (EFT) which is mental self-projection to pre-experience future events reduces delay discounting and reduces energy intake in overweight/obese adults. However, these EFT effects have not been examined in children. We evaluated the effects of EFT versus control episodic recent thinking (ERT) on delay discounting and ad libitum energy intake while thinking about episodic cues in 42 overweight/obese 9 to 14year olds. Results showed that EFT led to less delay discounting and lowered energy intake, and EFT had the greatest effect on reducing energy intake in children with a higher desire to restrict food intake. This suggests that EFT may be useful in pediatric obesity treatment programs to help children regulate energy intake. PMID:25863227

  19. The Effect of Breakfast Type on Total Daily Energy Intake and Body Mass Index Among Thai School Children.

    PubMed

    Purttiponthanee, Sasiumphai; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Senaprom, Sayamon; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    The study investigated the association between breakfast types consumed, daily energy intake, and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ). Cross-sectional data from 1258 children aged 7 to 12.9 years were analyzed for breakfast type, nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight or obesity. Analysis of covariance was used to compare energy and nutrient intakes, BAZ, and proportion of overweight/obese children between breakfast groups. Only 19% of children had adequate energy intake from breakfast. Those consuming snacks had a significantly lower BAZ (Z = -0.73), with 5% of them being overweight/obese. Those consuming beverages and desserts had the lowest total daily energy intake (1314 kcal) and lowest protein intake (8.4 g). The results suggest that breakfast type is associated with daily energy intake and BAZ. Most breakfasts are not adequate. School-based nutrition education programs involving families, teachers, and health professionals can contribute to improve this situation. PMID:27183975

  20. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Valero, Teresa; del Pozo, Susana; Rodriguez, Paula; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. PMID:26076230

  1. Revision of dietary reference intakes for energy in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for energy aim to balance energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support adequate growth in children. DRIs were derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method; however, the dat...

  2. Effects of portion size and energy density on young children's intake at a meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large portions of energy-dense foods are one feature of obesity-promoting dietary environments. Entrée portion size has been shown to influence energy intake at meals by young children. The role of energy density (ED) in children’s response to portion size, however, is unknown. We aimed to test th...

  3. Energy intake, growth rate and body composition of young Labrador Retrievers and Miniature Schnauzers fed different dietary levels of vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Schweigert, Florian J; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-06-28

    Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). PMID:24666690

  4. Gonadal Transcriptome Alterations in Response to Dietary Energy Intake: Sensing the Reproductive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Pearson, Michele; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Wood, William; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess), as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF), affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR) dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF) or a high fat-high glucose (HFG) diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment. PMID:19127293

  5. Manipulating fat content of familiar foods at test-meals does not affect intake and liking of these foods among children☆

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Annemarie; van Belle, Christopher; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated effects of manipulating fat content of familiar foods at two test-meals in 74, 4–6-year-old children. Liking, energy intake, and weight-based food intake were assessed for a meal consisting of macaroni and cheese, pudding, chocolate milk and regular milk in high-fat and low-fat versions. Liking ratings and consumption by weight did not differ between versions, but energy intake was 59% greater with the high-fat version. We conclude that manipulating fat content had little effect on liking and weight-based food intake, but markedly influenced overall energy intake, and thus might provide a means of lowering children’s energy consumption. PMID:21801772

  6. Effects of dietary source and intake of energy on immune competence and the response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to evaluate how dietary energy intake and source affect immune competence and response to an infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV) challenge in cattle. Forty-eight crossbred beef steers were stratified by body weight within 2 periods and randomized to 1 of 3 dietary treatmen...

  7. Variety influences habituation of motivated behavior for food and energy intake in children123

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Robinson, Jodie L; Temple, Jennifer L; Roemmich, James N; Marusewski, Angela L; Nadbrzuch, Rachel L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that variety reduces the rate of habituation, or a general reduction in the rate of responding, for low-energy-density (LED) and high-energy-density (HED) foods. Objective: We assessed whether the effects of variety on habituation of motivation to eat are different in overweight and lean children. Design: Overweight and lean children (n = 84) were randomly assigned to groups that varied as to whether they received their favorite or a variety of LED or HED foods. Results: Habituation was slower for overweight than for nonoverweight children (P = 0.008), for a variety of foods than for the same foods (P < 0.001), and for LED than for HED foods (P < 0.001). Energy intake was greater for overweight than for nonoverweight children provided with variety (P = 0.004) and was greater for overweight or nonoverweight children provided with the same food (P < 0.001). A variety of HED foods increased energy intake more than did the same HED foods (P < 0.001); this increase was greater than energy intake with the same or a variety of LED foods (P < 0.001). Children who sensitized, or showed an increase in responding before habituating, showed slower habituation (P < 0.001) and consumed more energy (P = 0.039) than did children who did not sensitize. Conclusions: Habituation is influenced by variety of foods, and overweight children increase energy intake more with variety than do leaner children. Research is needed to evaluate mechanisms of how variety influences the motivation to eat and energy intake, and how the variety effect can be used to influence intake across multiple eating occasions in children. PMID:19176724

  8. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H.; Yde, Christian C.; Clausen, Morten R.; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate, butyrate, propionate, malonate, cholesterol and glycerol tended to be affected. Overall, even though these effects were not accompanied by a higher weight loss, the present metabolomics data reveal that a high dairy intake is associated with endogenous metabolic effects and effects on gut microbial activity that potentially impact body weight regulation and health. Moreover, ASCA has a great potential for exploring the effect of intervention factors and identifying altered metabolites in a multi-factorial metabolomic study. PMID:26907339

  9. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots ( P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  10. Beverage consumption habits “24/7” among British adults: association with total water intake and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). Methods We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Results Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was <1 g/kcal. Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks

  11. Effect of screening out implausible energy intake reports on relationships between diet and BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: We present an updated method for identifying physiologically implausible dietary reports by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) with predicted energy requirements (pER), and we examine the impact of excluding these reports. Research Methods and Procedures: Adult data from the Continu...

  12. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite. PMID:26619790

  13. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Green, Benjamin P.; James, Lewis J.; Stevenson, Emma J.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H2O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H2O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: −2.28, −0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H2O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H2O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  14. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Green, Benjamin P; James, Lewis J; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H₂O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H₂O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: -2.28, -0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H₂O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H₂O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  15. Bottle and sippy cup use is associated with diet and energy intake in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Avraham, Sivan; Hyden, Christel J; Fletcher, Jason; Bonuck, Karen A

    2015-10-01

    The second year of life incorporates a continued shift from a liquid- to solid-based diet. Little is known about the prevalence and dietary impact of bottle and sippy cup use. This paper describes associations between percent of energy consumed via drinking containers (bottles and sippy cups combined) and dietary outcomes, between 1 and 2 years of age. This observational study recruited n = 299 low-income, nutrition programme clients from the Bronx, NY, whose 12 month olds consumed ≥ 2 non-water bottles per day. The main exposure variable was percent of energy intake via drinking containers (PEDC), dichotomized at the median into low-percent-energy-from-drinking-containers (LOW-C) and high-percent-energy-from-drinking-containers (HIGH-C) groups, assessed quarterly, for 1 year. We report 24-hour dietary recall nutrient and food serving data by LOW-C vs. HIGH-C. We employed linear mixed models to study associations between PEDC and nutrient intake. PEDC decreased from 52% to 33% between 1 and 2 years of age in both groups. The LOW-C group had higher intake of energy, dietary fibre, iron and sodium, grains, protein-rich foods and sweets. Conversely, LOW-C group had lower intake of Vitamin D and calcium vs. the HIGH-C group. PEDC was inversely associated with total energy intake in a model controlling for baseline age, baseline-weight-for-length and gender (β = -5.8, P = 0.029, 95% confidence interval (-10.96, -0.6). Lower bottle and sippy cup use had significant, albeit mixed association with diet quality in the second year of life, and was associated with higher energy intake. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to determine the appropriate use of those feeding methods. PMID:24784143

  16. Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption. PMID:21569807

  17. Reduced energy intake: the secret to a long and healthy life?

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Golden, Erin; Egan, Josephine M; Mattson, Mark P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2007-09-01

    Reduced energy intake, or caloric restriction (CR), is known to extend life-span and to retard age-related health decline in a myriad of species, including nematode worms, flies, fish, mice and rats. The exact mechanism whereby CR exerts its life-extending and health-extending effects is unclear. CR however has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce oxidative stress and alter neuroendocrine responses and central nervous system (CNS) function in animals. In this review article we provide a comprehensive overview of the effects of CR on animal physiology and we discuss some of the potential molecular mechanisms and pathways whereby reduced energy intake can increase health-span and life-span. A better understanding of how energy intake can influence the aging process could lead to new strategies and therapeutics to reduce age-related decline and increase health-span. PMID:18985162

  18. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Marc A; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day(-1) (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg(-1) BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day(-1) (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg(-1) BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day(-1) (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg(-1) BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of -1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (-2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (-2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  19. Assessment of Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure of Male Adolescent Academy-Level Soccer Players during a Competitive Week

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059

  20. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  1. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  2. Does calcium intake affect cardiovascular risk factors and/or events?

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intervention is an important approach in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Over the last decade, some studies have suggested that a calcium-rich diet could help to control body weight, with anti-obesity effects. The potential mechanism underlying the impact of calcium on body fat has been investigated, but it is not fully understood. Recent evidence has also suggested that a calcium-rich diet could have beneficial effects on other cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and inflammatory states. In a series of studies, it was observed that a high intake of milk and/or dairy products (the main sources of dietary calcium) is associated with a reduction in the relative risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a few studies suggest that supplemental calcium (mainly calcium carbonate or citrate) may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This review will discuss the available evidence regarding the relationship between calcium intake (dietary and supplemental) and different cardiovascular risk factors and/or events. PMID:22892932

  3. "Healthy," "diet," or "hedonic". How nutrition claims affect food-related perceptions and intake?

    PubMed

    Gravel, Karine; Doucet, Éric; Herman, C Peter; Pomerleau, Sonia; Bourlaud, Anne-Sophie; Provencher, Véronique

    2012-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutrition claims on food perceptions and intake among adult men and women, during ad libitum snacks. In a three (healthy vs. diet vs. hedonic) by two (normal-weight vs. overweight/obese) by two (unrestrained vs. restrained eaters) factorial design, 164 men and 188 women were invited to taste and rate oatmeal-raisin cookies. Despite the fact that the cookies were the same in all conditions, they were perceived as being healthier in the "healthy" condition than in the "diet" and "hedonic" conditions. The caloric content was estimated as higher by participants in the "hedonic" than in the "healthy" condition, by women than by men, and by restrained than by unrestrained eaters. Although measured ad libitum cookie intake did not differ as a function of experimental condition, overweight restrained men ate more than did women from each BMI and restraint category. Conversely, overweight restrained women ate less than did men from each BMI and restraint category. In conclusion, our manipulations of healthiness and "fatteningness" of food were effective in changing perceptions, but were not in changing behavior. PMID:22963737

  4. Should Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Technologists Estimate Dietary Calcium Intake at the Time of DXA?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Malachi J; McKenna, Mary Clare S; van der Kamp, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health. Calcium is obtained from dietary sources and supplementation. Knowing the daily dietary calcium intake is helpful in deciding on the need for supplementation. Dietary calcium intake can be estimated quickly and accurately using an approach recommended by the National Osteoporosis Foundation. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of estimating dietary calcium intake by a technologist at the time of attendance for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. We conducted a retrospective survey of results on estimated dietary calcium intake in adults attending our DXA unit over 2 years (n=5569). We assessed intake with reference to the specifications of the Institute of Medicine according to sex and age. The average intake was 736 mg daily: Young adults had higher intakes than older adults (p<0.001), and men had higher intakes than women (p=0.017). According to Institute of Medicine's specification, we estimate that nearly 45% of Irish women need supplemental intake of 500 mg daily but <4% need supplemental intake of 1000 mg daily. Younger adults are apt to have intakes within, or higher than, the requirement. Having DXA technologists estimate dietary calcium intake at the time of DXA scanning may provide helpful information to the referring clinicians about the need for supplementation. PMID:25934029

  5. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMI<25 kg/m2) and seventy-one obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were given three meals per d under ad libitum conditions. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental labelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label. PMID:26439975

  6. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual. PMID:25585294

  7. The nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of MOW clients and the need for further targeted strategies to enhance intakes.

    PubMed

    Walton, Karen; Charlton, Karen E; Manning, Fiona; McMahon, Anne T; Galea, Sarah; Evans, Kaitlyn

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of literature about the nutritional status and energy and protein intakes of Meals on Wheels (MOW) clients. The current study aimed to determine the nutritional status and the adequacy of energy and protein intakes of MOW clients. Forty-two clients were recruited from two MOW services in the Illawarra region of Australia for assessment of their nutritional status, using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA(®)). Estimated energy and protein intakes for a MOW day were compared to a non-MOW day and average daily energy and protein intakes were assessed against estimated daily requirements. A single dietitian performed all assessments and home based interviews to explore the client's perception of the service. Mean daily energy intake (7593 (±2012) kJ) was not significantly different to estimated requirements (7720 (±975) kJ) (P = 0.480), while mean daily protein intake was higher (78.7 (±23.4) g) than calculated requirements (68.4 (±10.8) g; P = 0.009). However 16 clients were identified as at risk of malnutrition and 2 were malnourished; consuming 2072 kJ (P = 0.000) less energy and 20.4 g less protein (P = 0.004) per day compared to well-nourished clients. MOW clients are at risk of being poorly nourished and meals delivered by the service provide an important contribution to overall intakes. These findings support the need for regular nutrition screening and dietary monitoring in this high risk group, to identify those for whom additional strategies may be indicated. PMID:26297468

  8. Effects of palatability and learned satiety on energy density influences on breakfast intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Yeomans, Martin R; Weinberg, Laura; James, Sarah

    2005-11-15

    The present report explored firstly how palatability modified the effects of energy density (ED) on short-term food intake and changes in rated appetite within a single test meal, and secondly how repeated consumption altered these relationships. Experiment 1 contrasted disguised high (HED) and low (LED) versions of a food presented in bland and palatable forms. Mass consumed varied as an interaction of palatability and ED, with subjects eating least of the bland/HED version, suggesting some un-learned satiating effects. No such compensation for ED was seen in the palatable/HED condition, and overall energy intake increased with ED. Palatability had the expected stimulatory effect on appetite, but rated hunger decreased more rapidly as a function of energy consumed in the HED conditions. Experiment 2 introduced novel distinctive flavours to examine whether repeated experience of palatable HED and LED versions resulted in learned satiety. Participants ate the same mass of LED and HED versions on first exposure, but after two training days with each food, where they consumed a fixed amount, they subsequently ate a greater mass of the LED version, consistent with learned satiety. Increased intake was accompanied by a slower rate of decline in hunger in the LED condition. Despite these changes, energy intake remained higher with the HED version. Liking for the LED version was greater than the HED version at the end, possibly due to mild aversive qualities of eating a fixed portion of the HED food during training. Together these data suggest that energy density is the major determinant of short-term energy intake in the absence of orosensory cues predictive of energy differences, but that learning of flavour-energy associations can, to some extent, allow short-term energy consumption to be regulated. PMID:16165170

  9. Influence of oral health condition on swallowing and oral intake level for patients affected by chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Mituuti, Cláudia T; Bianco, Vinicius C; Bentim, Cláudia G; de Andrade, Eduardo C; Rubo, José H; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the literature, the occurrence of dysphagia is high in cases of stroke, and its severity can be enhanced by loss of teeth and the use of poorly fitting prostheses. Objective To verify that the status of oral health influences the level of oral intake and the degree of swallowing dysfunction in elderly patients with stroke in chronic phase. Methods Thirty elderly individuals affected by stroke in chronic phase participated. All subjects underwent assessment of their oral condition, with classification from the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) and nasoendoscopic swallowing assessment to classify the degree of dysphagia. The statistical analysis examined a heterogeneous group (HG, n=30) and two groups designated by the affected body part, right (RHG, n=8) and left (LHG, n=11), excluding totally dentate or edentulous individuals without rehabilitation with more than one episode of stroke. Results There was a negative correlation between the need for replacement prostheses and the FOIS scale for the HG (P=0.02) and RHG (P=0.01). Differences in FOIS between types of prostheses of the upper dental arch in the LHG (P=0.01) and lower dental arch in the RHG (P=0.04). A negative correlation was found between the number of teeth present and the degree of dysfunction in swallowing liquid in the LHG (P=0.05). There were differences in the performance in swallowing solids between individuals without prosthesis and those with partial prosthesis in the inferior dental arch (P=0.04) for the HG. Conclusion The need for replacement prostheses, type of prostheses, and the number of teeth of elderly patients poststroke in chronic phase showed an association with the level of oral intake and the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia. PMID:25565784

  10. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  11. The 24-h Energy Intake of Obese Adolescents Is Spontaneously Reduced after Intensive Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Calorimetric Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Montaurier, Christophe; Boirie, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise can modify subsequent energy intake and appetite and may thus be of particular interest in terms of obesity treatment. However, it is still unclear whether an intensive bout of exercise can affect the energy consumption of obese children and adolescents. Objective To compare the impact of high vs. moderate intensity exercises on subsequent 24-h energy intake, macronutrient preferences, appetite sensations, energy expenditure and balance in obese adolescent. Design This randomized cross-over trial involves 15 obese adolescent boys who were asked to randomly complete three 24-h sessions in a metabolic chamber, each separated by at least 7 days: (1) sedentary (SED); (2) Low-Intensity Exercise (LIE) (40% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max); (3) High-Intensity Exercise (HIE) (75%VO2max). Results Despite unchanged appetite sensations, 24-h total energy intake following HIE was 6–11% lower compared to LIE and SED (p<0.05), whereas no differences appeared between SED and LIE. Energy intake at lunch was 9.4% and 8.4% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.05). At dinner time, it was 20.5% and 19.7% lower after HIE compared to SED and LIE, respectively (p<0.01). 24-h energy expenditure was not significantly altered. Thus, the 24-h energy balance was significantly reduced during HIE compared to SED and LIE (p<0.01), whereas those of SED and LIE did not differ. Conclusions In obese adolescent boys, HIE has a beneficial impact on 24-h energy balance, mainly due to the spontaneous decrease in energy intake during lunch and dinner following the exercise bout. Prescribing high-intensity exercises to promote weight loss may therefore provide effective results without affecting appetite sensations and, as a result, food frustrations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01036360 PMID:22272251

  12. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Schweitzer, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003–2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey’s reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth “mixed dishes” group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%–20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%–25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  13. Contribution of Food Groups to Energy and Nutrient Intakes in Five Developed Countries.

    PubMed

    Auestad, Nancy; Hurley, Judith S; Fulgoni, Victor L; Schweitzer, Cindy M

    2015-06-01

    Economic growth in developing countries and globalization of the food sector is leading to increasingly similar food consumption patterns worldwide. The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in the contributions of main food groups to energy and nutrient intakes in five developed countries across three continents. We obtained summary reports of national food consumption survey data from Australia, France, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States. Survey years spanned 2003-2012; sample size ranged from 1444 to 17,386. To mitigate heterogeneity of food groups across countries, we recategorized each survey's reported food groups and subgroups into eight main food groups and, for three countries, a ninth "mixed dishes" group. We determined the percent contribution of each food group to mean daily intakes of energy, saturated fat, sodium, fiber, and ten vitamins and minerals that are commonly under-consumed. Differences in findings from surveys utilizing a foods-as-consumed versus a disaggregated or ingredients approach to food group composition and contributions from the milk and milk products group, a source of several under-consumed nutrients, were explored. Patterns of food group contributions to energy and nutrient intakes were generally similar across countries. Some differences were attributable to the analytical approach used by the surveys. For the meat/protein, milk and milk products, vegetables, and fruit groups, percent contributions to key nutrient intakes exceeded percent contributions to energy intake. The mixed dishes group provided 10%-20% of total daily energy and a similar 10%-25% of the daily intake of several nutrients. This descriptive study contributes to an understanding of food group consumption patterns in developed countries. PMID:26061017

  14. Both encouraging feeding style and high energy density may increase energy intakes from fermented millet gruels eaten by infants and toddlers in Ouagadougou.

    PubMed

    Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Traoré, Tahirou; Soma, Adama; Kaboré, Claire; Trèche, Serge

    2016-04-01

    Traditional fermented millet gruel is frequently eaten by children in Burkina Faso as a complementary food or for breakfast. The effects of gruel energy density and feeding style on intakes (amounts and energy) were assessed in children in Ouagadougou. Twenty-three young children (11 infants and 12 toddlers) were given two meals of gruel per day for two periods of 11 consecutive days, first, the traditional fermented gruel (TFG), and second, an improved high energy density fermented gruel (IFG). On the first 10 days of each period, the children were fed as usual, while on the 11th day, the mothers were asked to use encouraging feeding. Intakes of TFG and IFG were also measured once a day for nine days in 25 preschoolers (2-5 years-old). After adjustment for the subject effect, IFG intakes did not significantly differ from TFG intakes in the groups of infants and toddlers, meaning there was a significant increase in energy intakes, which almost doubled. Encouraging feeding increased TFG intakes in both age groups, but IFG intakes only increased in toddlers, whose energy intake tripled compared to that from TFG with the usual feeding style. In preschoolers, mean IFG intakes were lower than TFG intakes and there were no increase in mean energy intakes. Improving fermented gruel and training the mothers to encourage their young children during feeding are two possible strategies to improve food intakes, and hence to better satisfy the children's nutritional needs. PMID:26796028

  15. Impact of Energy Intake and Expenditure on Neuronal Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Stranahan, Alexis M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    The Roman poet Horace was among the first to recognize that when “clogged with yesterday's excess, the body drags the mind down with it.” Although considerable attention has been paid in neuroscience to the enhancement of neuronal function by wheel running and caloric restriction, far less is known about the other side of this issue. What are the consequences of unhealthy habits to central nervous system function? Prolonged exposure to excessive caloric intake impairs neuronal function, and also contributes to obesity and other risk factors for diabetes. Diabetes, a disease characterized by reduced sensitivity to glucose and insulin, is also associated with deficits in brain structure and function. In contrast, enhancement of somatic metabolism by wheel running or caloric restriction improves central neuroplasticity. Generalizing across studies reveals a relationship between global metabolic efficiency and neuroplasticity in the hippocampus, a brain region that is essential for learning and memory. The specific principles upheld by these findings are suggestive of a continuum, with global metabolic alterations fluctuating in concert with neuroplasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:18543119

  16. Delay discounting moderates the effect of food reinforcement on energy intake among non-obese women☆

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Brandi Y.; Dearing, Kelly K.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical approaches to food intake hypothesize that eating represents a balance between reward-driven motivation to eat versus inhibitory executive function processes, however this hypothesis remains to be tested. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the motivation to eat, operationalized by the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of food, and inhibitory processes, assessed by delay discounting (DD), interact to influence energy intake in an ad libitum eating task. Female subjects (n = 24) completed a DD of money procedure, RRV task, and an ad libitum eating task in counterbalanced sessions. RRV of food predicted total energy intake, however the effect of the RRV of food on energy intake was moderated by DD. Women higher in DD and RRV of food consumed greater total energy, whereas women higher in RRV of food but lower in DD consumed less total energy. Our findings support the hypothesis that reinforcing value and executive function mediated processes interactively influence food consumption. PMID:20678532

  17. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P < 0.05). The LD group consumed 1.3 kg/d (DM) more diet compared with HD group in the last 24 h before calving. The milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P < 0.05). The changes in BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P < 0.05). The energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum. PMID:24976969

  18. Evaluation of an Innovative Method for Calculating Energy Intake of Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Cox Sullivan, Sheila; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-component method for capturing nutrient intake, which used observation, photography, and an innovative computer program. To assess reliability and accuracy, multiple responsible employees (REs) independently conducted nutrient intake assessments on simulated meals; each RE's results relating to energy intake were compared to those from the other REs and to those obtained by pre- and post-meal weighing of the food items. System efficiency was assessed by having REs perform independent assessments on the same set of simulated meals using either the new or traditional hospital method for which the REs had to document each food item served and then find the items in a computer database-steps that were automated in the new method. Interrater reliability for energy intake estimated on clinic wards was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.975, 95% CI 0.958 to 0.992) and there was a high level of agreement between the REs' estimates and the true values determined by food weighing; per the method of Bland and Altman the mean difference between the two types of estimates was 0.3 kcal (95% CI, -8.1 to 8.7 kcal) with limits of agreement of -79.5 kcal to 80.1 kcal. Compared to the traditional method, energy intake assessments could be completed using the multi-component method in less than a third of the time. These results indicate the multi-component method is an accurate, reliable, and efficient method of obtaining energy intake assessments for hospitalized patients. PMID:27618096

  19. The effects of sleep restriction and altered sleep timing on energy intake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jessica; Doucet, Éric; Brunet, Jean-François; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Chaumont, Isabelle; Langlois, Émilie; Maitland, Riley; Riopel, Alexandre; Forest, Geneviève

    2016-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that sleep restriction increases energy intake (EI) and may alter energy expenditure (EE). However, it is unknown whether the timing of a sleep restriction period impacts EI and EE the following day. Hence, we examined the effects of sleep restriction with an advanced wake-time or delayed bedtime on next day EI and EE. Twelve men and 6 women (age: 23±4years, body fat: 18.8±10.1%) participated in 3 randomized crossover sessions: control (habitual bed- and wake-times), 50% sleep restriction with an advanced wake-time and 50% sleep restriction with a delayed bedtime. Outcome variables included sleep architecture (polysomnography), EI (food menu), total EE and activity times (accelerometry). Carbohydrate intake was greater on day 2 in the delayed bedtime vs. control session (1386±513 vs. 1579±571kcal; P=0.03). Relative moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) time was greater in the delayed bedtime session vs. control and advanced wake-time sessions on day 1 (26.6±19.9 vs. 16.1±10.6 and 17.5±11.8%; P=0.01), whereas vigorous-intensity PA time was greater following advanced wake-time vs. delayed bedtime on day 1 (2.7±3.0 vs. 1.3±2.4%; P=0.004). Greater stage 1 sleep (β=110kcal, 95% CI for β=42 to 177kcal; P=0.004), and a trend for lower REM sleep (β=-20kcal, 95% CI for β=-41 to 2kcal; P=0.07), durations were associated with greater EI between sleep restriction sessions. These findings suggest that the timing of a sleep restriction period impacts energy balance parameters. Additional studies are needed to corroborate these findings, given the increasing prevalence of shift workers and incidences of sleep disorders and voluntary sleep restriction. PMID:27260515

  20. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; O'Sullivan, Jamie; Parslow, David; Javaid, Mahmood; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.; Kos, Katarina; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The majority of adults in the UK and US are overweight or obese due to multiple factors including excess energy intake. Training people to inhibit simple motor responses (key presses) to high-energy density food pictures reduces intake in laboratory studies. We examined whether online response inhibition training reduced real-world food consumption and weight in a community sample of adults who were predominantly overweight or obese (N = 83). Participants were allocated in a randomised, double-blind design to receive four 10-min sessions of either active or control go/no-go training in which either high-energy density snack foods (active) or non-food stimuli (control) were associated with no-go signals. Participants' weight, energy intake (calculated from 24-h food diaries), daily snacking frequency and subjective food evaluations were measured for one week pre- and post-intervention. Participants also provided self-reported weight and monthly snacking frequency at pre-intervention screening, and one month and six months after completing the study. Participants in the active relative to control condition showed significant weight loss, reductions in daily energy intake and a reduction in rated liking of high-energy density (no-go) foods from the pre-to post-intervention week. There were no changes in self-reported daily snacking frequency. At longer-term follow-up, the active group showed significant reductions in self-reported weight at six months, whilst both groups reported significantly less snacking at one- and six-months. Excellent rates of adherence (97%) and positive feedback about the training suggest that this intervention is acceptable and has the potential to improve public health by reducing energy intake and overweight. PMID:26122756

  1. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species. PMID:26154509

  2. Consequences of complex environments: Temperature and energy intake interact to influence growth and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Jodrey, Alicia D; Luoma, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    The field of comparative physiology has a rich history of elegantly examining the effects of individual environmental factors on performance traits linked to fitness (e.g., thermal performance curves for locomotion). However, animals live in complex environments wherein multiple environmental factors co-vary. Thus, we investigated the independent and interactive effects of temperature and energy intake on the growth and metabolic rate of juvenile corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the context of shifts in complex environments. Unlike previous studies that imposed constant or fluctuating temperature regimes, we manipulated the availability of preferred thermal microclimates (control vs. relatively warm regimes) for eight weeks and allowed snakes to behaviorally thermoregulate among microclimates. By also controlling for energy intake, we demonstrate an interactive effect of temperature and energy on growth-relevant temperature shifts had no effect on snakes' growth when energy intake was low and a positive effect on growth when energy intake was high. Thus, acclimation to relatively warm thermal options can result in increased rates of growth when food is abundant in a taxon in which body size confers fitness advantages. Temperature and energy also interactively influenced metabolic rate-snakes in the warmer temperature regime exhibited reduced metabolic rate (O2 consumption rate at 25 °C and 30 °C) if they had relatively high energy intake. Although we advocate for continued investigation into the effects of complex environments on other traits, our results indicate that warming may actually benefit important life history traits in some taxa and that metabolic shifts may underlie thermal acclimation. PMID:25899738

  3. Urinary sugars (sucrose and fructose) associations with self-reported sugars intake: the influence of plausibility of reported energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as biomarkers of sugars intake, the latter which are thought to be underreported in dietary assessment. We examined associations of urinary sugars with reported sugars intake in adults recruited for a study on diet and chronic disease risk. Methods: Healthy, no...

  4. Dairy Intakes at Age 10 Years Do Not Adversely Affect Risk of Excess Adiposity at 13 Years123

    PubMed Central

    Bigornia, Sherman J.; LaValley, Michael P.; Moore, Lynn L.; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  5. Dairy intakes at age 10 years do not adversely affect risk of excess adiposity at 13 years.

    PubMed

    Bigornia, Sherman J; LaValley, Michael P; Moore, Lynn L; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R; Newby, P K

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m² (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  6. Short-term appetite and energy intake following imposed exercise in 9- to 10-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melanie S; Dodd, Caroline J; Welsman, Joanne R; Armstrong, Neil

    2004-10-01

    Short-term effects of different intensities of exercise-induced energy expenditure on energy intake and hunger were compared in 19 girls (10.0 +/- 0.6 years) in three conditions: sedentary, low-intensity exercise and high-intensity exercise. The exercise conditions involved cycling at 50 and 75% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively, but were designed to evoke approximately 1.50 MJ of total expenditure, as estimated from continuously monitored heart rate. A maintenance breakfast of controlled energy intake was provided and ad libitum energy intake was measured at lunch and dinner. Differences in energy intake relative to expenditure, between 09:30 and 17:00, were calculated by subtracting energy expenditure from energy intake (energy difference). Hunger, fullness and prospective consumption were rated before and after meals and exercise sessions. Lunch energy intake was significantly less after low-intensity exercise than after high-intensity exercise. Energy expenditure was greater in the exercise conditions than when sedentary and the energy difference was more positive in the sedentary condition than in each of the exercise conditions. At mid-afternoon, rated prospective consumption was less after the high-intensity exercise. The imposition of energy expenditure through exercise of either low or high intensity resulted in no detectable increase in energy intake in the short term. PMID:15458799

  7. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Markwald, Rachel R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Smith, Mark R.; Higgins, Janine; Perreault, Leigh; Eckel, Robert H.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with obesity, yet little is known about how repeated nights of insufficient sleep influence energy expenditure and balance. We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. We found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by ∼5%; however, energy intake—especially at night after dinner—was in excess of energy needed to maintain energy balance. Insufficient sleep led to 0.82 ± 0.47 kg (±SD) weight gain despite changes in hunger and satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and peptide YY, which signaled excess energy stores. Insufficient sleep delayed circadian melatonin phase and also led to an earlier circadian phase of wake time. Sex differences showed women, not men, maintained weight during adequate sleep, whereas insufficient sleep reduced dietary restraint and led to weight gain in women. Our findings suggest that increased food intake during insufficient sleep is a physiological adaptation to provide energy needed to sustain additional wakefulness; yet when food is easily accessible, intake surpasses that needed. We also found that transitioning from an insufficient to adequate/recovery sleep schedule decreased energy intake, especially of fats and carbohydrates, and led to −0.03 ± 0.50 kg weight loss. These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. Importantly, they demonstrate physiological and behavioral mechanisms by which insufficient sleep may contribute to overweight and obesity. PMID:23479616

  8. Fecal thyroid hormones allow for the noninvasive monitoring of energy intake in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schaebs, Franka S; Wolf, Tanja E; Behringer, Verena; Deschner, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Measuring energetic condition of wild animals is of major importance in ecological research, as it is profoundly linked to fitness. However, noninvasive monitoring of energetic condition in wild-living animals is methodologically challenging. Measuring urinary C-peptide levels is a suitable method to noninvasively assess energy balance in wild-living animals. As collecting urine is not always feasible in the wild, it is essential to establish alternative biomarkers for other sample types to assess energy balance. Thyroid hormones (TH) are potential candidates as they are involved in the regulation of metabolic processes. During periods of low energy intake, serum TH levels are reduced, leading to a decrease in metabolic activity. To investigate whether fecal TH can serve as a biomarker for energy balance, we validated a total T3 ELISA to measure immunoreactive T3 (iT3) in fecal samples of yellow-breasted capuchins. We restricted caloric intake of seven males, assessed daily group caloric intake and determined daily individual fecal iT3 levels. Analytical validation of the assay showed that fecal iT3 levels can be reliably measured; however, proper storage conditions must be implemented and possible degradation to be accounted for. IT3 levels were significantly higher on days with high group caloric intake. However, individual iT3 levels varied substantially, resulting in an overlap across individuals between conditions. Our results indicate that fecal iT3 levels can serve as a useful biomarker to detect changes in energy intake of yellow-breasted capuchins. Overall, measuring fecal iT3 levels may present a suitable method for monitoring energy balance when urine collection is impossible. PMID:27460343

  9. Effects of Metformin on Energy Intake and Satiety in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Mopelola A.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Kozlosky, Merel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Calis, Karim A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Metformin’s ability to promote weight loss is believed to be at least partly attributable to decreased energy consumption. There are few data regarding the effects of metformin on energy intake in children. We therefore investigated metformin’s effects on appetite and energy intake in obese hyperinsulinemic children. Materials and Methods We conducted a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of metformin 1000mg BID on body weight and energy balance in 100 obese hyperinsulinemic children aged 6–12y. Subjects ate ad libitum from standardized food arrays on two separate occasions before, and then again after, 6 months of study medication. The first test meal was consumed after an overnight fast. The second was preceded by a pre-meal load. For each test meal, energy intake was recorded, and subjects completed scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat. Results Data from the meal studies at baseline and after treatment with study medication were available for 84 children (45 metformin-treated and 39 placebo-treated). Compared with placebo, metformin treatment elicited significant reductions from baseline in adjusted mean energy intake after the pre-meal load (metformin: −104.7±83.8 kcal vs. placebo: +144.2±96.9 kcal; p=0.034) independent of changes in body composition. Metformin also significantly decreased ratings of hunger (−1.5±5.6 vs. +18.6±6.3; p=0.013) and increased ratings of fullness (+10.1±6.2 vs. −12.8±7.0; p=0.01) following the pre-meal load. Conclusions These data suggest that decreased perceived hunger resulting in diminished food intake are among the mechanisms by which metformin treatment reduces body weight in overweight, hyperinsulinemic children. PMID:25483291

  10. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Caloric Intake and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Calvin, Andrew D.; Carter, Rickey E.; Adachi, Taro; G. Macedo, Paula; Albuquerque, Felipe N.; van der Walt, Christelle; Bukartyk, Jan; Davison, Diane E.; Levine, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of sleep restriction on caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Methods: We conducted a randomized study of usual sleep vs a sleep restriction of two-thirds of normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcomes were caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Results: Caloric intake in the sleep-restricted group increased by +559 kcal/d (SD, 706 kcal/d, P = .006) and decreased in the control group by −118 kcal/d (SD, 386 kcal/d, P = .51) for a net change of +677 kcal/d (95% CI, 148-1,206 kcal/d; P = .014). Sleep restriction was not associated with changes in activity energy expenditure (P = .62). No change was seen in levels of leptin (P = .27) or ghrelin (P = .21). Conclusions: Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in caloric consumption with no change in activity energy expenditure or leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Increased caloric intake without any accompanying increase in energy expenditure may contribute to obesity in people who are exposed to long-term sleep restriction. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01334788; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23392199

  11. "Split Them!" Smaller Item Sizes of Cookies Lead to a Decrease in Energy Intake in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the influence of altering the size of snack food (ie, small vs large cookies) on short-term energy intake. Methods: First- and sixth-graders (n = 77) participated in a between-subjects experimental design. All participants were offered the same gram weight of cookies during an afternoon tea at their school. For half of the…

  12. Metabolizable energy intake effects on carcass quality of steers finished in southern Chile during summer time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan, USA) to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on beef carcass quality during the summer ti...

  13. Effect of forage energy intake and supplementation on marbling deposition in growing beef cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is the primary carbon source for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular fat, whereas, acetate is primarily utilized by subcutaneous fat. Our objective was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of fermentation on marbling deposition by stocker cattle grazing dormant native ra...

  14. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  15. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  16. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-11-01

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and /sup 15/N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of /sup 15/N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of /sup 15/N in bacteria, NH/sub 3/N, and non-HN/sub 3/N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen.

  17. L1 literacy affects L2 pronunciation intake and text vocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Martin

    2005-04-01

    For both deaf and hearing learners, L1 acquisition calls on auditive, gestural and visual modes in progressive processes over longer stages imposed in strictly anatomical and social order from the earliest pre-lexical phase [Jusczyk (1993), Kuhl & Meltzoff (1996)] to ultimate literacy. By contrast, L2 learning will call on accelerating procedures but with restricted input, arbitrated by L1 literacy as can be traced in the English of French-speaking learners, whether observed in spontaneous speech or in text vocalization modes. An inventory of their predictable omissions, intrusions and substitutions at suprasegmental and syllabic levels, many of which they can actually hear while unable to vocalize in real-time, suggests that a photogenic segmentation of continuous speech into alphabetical units has eclipsed the indispensable earlier phonogenic module, filtering L2 intake and output. This competing mode analysis hypothesizes a critical effect on L2 pronunciation of L1 graphemic procedures acquired usually before puberty, informing data for any Critical Period Hypothesis or amounts of L1 activation influencing L2 accent [Flege (1997, 1998)] or any psychoacoustic French deafness with regard to English stress-timing [Dupoux (1997)]. A metaphonic model [Howell & Dean (1991)] adapted for French learners may remedially distance L1 from L2 vocalization procedures.

  18. Dietary sodium intake deleteriously affects blood pressure in a normotensive population.

    PubMed

    Chateau-Degat, M L; Ferland, A; Déry, S; Dewailly, E

    2012-04-01

    Western dietary pattern, and particularly high dietary sodium intake (DSI), is recognized for its detrimental impact on blood pressure (BP). This paper examined the association of DSI with BP in Nunavik Inuit (Québec), a population known to have an optimal BP on average. In a population-based study, we recruited 421 normotensive participants aged 18-74 years from 14 coastal villages, situated north of the 55th parallel. BP, biochemistry and anthropometry were obtained. DSI was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall. Mean (s.e.) DSI was higher in men than in women (2358 (101) vs. 1702 (100) mg/d, P<0.0001). Similar gender difference was found in systolic BP (118 (0.7) vs. 111 (0.6) mm Hg; P<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, we found a positive association between BP and DSI (all P<0.05). In a normotensive population, BP shows a linear relationship with DSI. Our results emphasize the potent deleterious impact of DSI on BP. PMID:22333870

  19. Effects of high and low glycemic load meals on energy intake, satiety and hunger in obese Hispanic American youth

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nazrat M.; Klein, Catherine J.; Palmer, Matilde G.; McCarter, Robert; He, Jianping; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Ludwig, David S.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Some short-term pediatric studies have suggested beneficial effects of low glycemic load (LGL) meals on feelings of hunger and on energy intake. No systematic studies of the effects of LGL diets have been conducted in obese US Hispanic children even though Hispanic children have a particularly high prevalence of obesity and thus stand to benefit from successful interventions. Objective To examine the effects of LGL and high-GL (HGL) meals on appetitive responses and ad libitum energy intake of obese Hispanic youth. Methods 88 obese Hispanic youth ages 7-15y were randomly assigned to consume meals designed to be either LGL (n=45) or HGL (n=43). Following the morning test meal, subjects serially reported hunger, fullness, and satiety using a visual analog scale and provided samples for analysis of serum insulin and plasma glucose. Participants were then fed another test meal and given a snack platter from which to eat ad libitum. Energy, macronutrients, and glycemic load (GL) of consumed foods were calculated for each meal. Results Subjects in the HGL group had significantly higher insulin (p=0.0005) and glucose (p=0.0001) responses to the breakfast meal compared to the LGL group. However, there were no significant between-group differences in the total energy consumed from the snack platter (1303 vs. 1368 kcal, p=0.5), or in the subjective feelings of hunger (p=0.3), fullness (p=0.5) or satiety (p=0.3) between the two groups. Conclusions Our study provides no evidence that, for obese Hispanic youth, changing the GL of the diet affects short-term hunger, fullness, satiety, or energy intake. PMID:21309658

  20. Energy Density, Energy Intake, and Body Weight Regulation in Adults12345

    PubMed Central

    Karl, J. Philip; Roberts, Susan B.

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary energy density (ED) in the regulation of energy intake (EI) is controversial. Methodologically, there is also debate about whether beverages should be included in dietary ED calculations. To address these issues, studies examining the effects of ED on EI or body weight in nonelderly adults were reviewed. Different approaches to calculating dietary ED do not appear to alter the direction of reported relations between ED and body weight. Evidence that lowering dietary ED reduces EI in short-term studies is convincing, but there are currently insufficient data to determine long-term effectiveness for weight loss. The review also identified key barriers to progress in understanding the role of ED in energy regulation, in particular the absence of a standard definition of ED, and the lack of data from multiple long-term clinical trials examining the effectiveness of low-ED diet recommendations for preventing both primary weight gain and weight regain in nonobese individuals. Long-term clinical trials designed to examine the impact of dietary ED on energy regulation, and including multiple ED calculation methods within the same study, are still needed to determine the importance of ED in the regulation of EI and body weight. PMID:25398750

  1. Daily energy intake of broiler chickens is altered by proximate nutrient content and form of the diet.

    PubMed

    Latshaw, J D

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was designed to test the ability of broiler chickens to equalize daily energy intake when proximate components of the diet were changed. A factorial arrangement was used to test effects of protein, fat, and fiber content in the diet. The simplest diet contained only corn and soybean meal to provide energy and protein. Protein contents were calculated to be 16.4, 18.2, and 20.0%, with added protein from a combination of corn gluten meal, fish meal, and peanut meal. Hydrolyzed fat was added at 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% of the diets. A combination of alfalfa meal, oats, and wheat middlings was used to increase the fiber of the corn soy diet by approximately 2 and 4%. The 36 combinations were fed as mash. In addition, 8 of the diets were fed as pellets. All diets were fed for 12 d from the time broilers reached approximately 1.2 kg. A total excreta collection was used to determine ME, and carcass analysis provided fat and energy content. When fed mash, only sex had a significant effect on grams of feed eaten per day. Sex and dietary fat content affected gain per day. Sex, fat, and fiber altered the kcal of ME eaten per day. Broilers fed 5% added fat ate approximately 10% more energy per day than those fed no added fat, and broilers fed 4% added fiber ate approximately 20% less ME than those fed no added fiber. A comparison of results from mash and pellets showed that only sex and form affected gain per day, feed per day, and kilocalories of ME eaten per day. For the mash and pellets, protein, fat, fiber, and several interactions affected the ME per gram; however, the ME per gram was similar for pellets and mash. The results suggest that the diet composition and form have a significant effect on the energy intake of broiler chickens. PMID:18079455

  2. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Litwak, Sara A.; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J.; Pappas, Evan G.; Wali, Jibran A.; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E.; Gurzov, Esteban N.

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14–17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  3. p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA) deficiency affects food intake but does not impact on body weight or glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Litwak, Sara A; Loh, Kim; Stanley, William J; Pappas, Evan G; Wali, Jibran A; Selck, Claudia; Strasser, Andreas; Thomas, Helen E; Gurzov, Esteban N

    2016-01-01

    BCL-2 proteins have been implicated in the control of glucose homeostasis and metabolism in different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the role of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, p53-upregulated-modulator-of-apoptosis (PUMA), in metabolic changes mediated by diet-induced obesity, using PUMA deficient mice. At 10 weeks of age, knockout and wild type mice either continued consuming a low fat chow diet (6% fat), or were fed with a high fat diet (23% fat) for 14-17 weeks. We measured body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance, insulin response in peripheral tissues, energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio in vivo. All these parameters were indistinguishable between wild type and knockout mice on chow diet and were modified equally by diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, we observed decreased food intake and ambulatory capacity of PUMA knockout mice on high fat diet. This was associated with increased adipocyte size and fasted leptin concentration in the blood. Our findings suggest that although PUMA is dispensable for glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice, it can affect leptin levels and food intake during obesity. PMID:27033313

  4. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Donato, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  5. Pro198Leu polymorphism affects the selenium status and GPx activity in response to Brazil nut intake.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Bárbara R; Busse, Alexandre L; Hare, Dominic J; Cominetti, Cristiane; Horst, Maria A; McColl, Gawain; Magaldi, Regina M; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2016-02-01

    Selenoproteins play important roles in antioxidant mechanisms, and are thus hypothesised to have some involvement in the pathology of certain types of dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both thought to involve impaired biological activity of certain selenoproteins. Previously, supplementation with a selenium-rich Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) has shown potential in reducing cognitive decline in MCI patients, and could prove to be a safe and effective nutritional approach early in the disease process to slow decline. Here, we have conducted a pilot study that examined the effects of a range of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) and selenoprotein P (SEPP) in response to selenium supplementation via dietary Brazil nuts, including selenium status, oxidative stress parameters and GPX1 and SEPP gene expression. Our data suggest that GPX1 Pro198Leu rs1050450 genotypes may differentially affect the selenium status and GPx activity. Moreover, rs7579 and rs3877899 SNPs in SEPP gene, as well as GPX1 rs1050450 genotypes can influence the expression of GPX1 and SEPP mRNA in response to Brazil nuts intake. This small study gives cause for larger investigations into the role of these SNPs in both the selenium status and response to selenium dietary intake, especially in chronic degenerative conditions like MCI and AD. PMID:26661784

  6. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  7. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Barbara J.; Roe, Liane S.; Halverson, Kitti H.; Meengs, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    In three cross-over experiments, we examined the effect on energy intake of changing the size of the plate used at a meal. On separate days, adults were served the same lunch menu but were given a different-sized plate. In the first study, 45 participants used each of three plate sizes (17, 22, or 26 cm) and served the main course from a large dish. In the second study, 30 participants received an equal amount of food presented on each of the two larger plates. In the third study, 44 participants used each of the three plates and selected from a buffet of five foods matched for energy density. Results showed that plate size had no significant effect on energy intake. The mean differences in intake using the smallest and largest plates in the three studies were 21±13 g, 11±13 g, and 4±18 g, respectively, equivalent to < 142 kJ (34 kcal) and not significantly different from zero. Participants in the third study made significantly more trips to the buffet when they were given the smallest plate. These findings show that using a smaller plate did not lead to a reduction in food intake at meals eaten in the laboratory. PMID:17540474

  8. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J; Roe, Liane S; Halverson, Kitti H; Meengs, Jennifer S

    2007-11-01

    In three cross-over experiments, we examined the effect on energy intake of changing the size of the plate used at a meal. On separate days, adults were served the same lunch menu but were given a different-sized plate. In the first study, 45 participants used each of three plate sizes (17, 22, or 26 cm) and served the main course from a large dish. In the second study, 30 participants received an equal amount of food presented on each of the two larger plates. In the third study, 44 participants used each of the three plates and selected from a buffet of five foods matched for energy density. Results showed that plate size had no significant effect on energy intake. The mean differences in intake using the smallest and largest plates in the three studies were 21+/-13 g, 11+/-13 g, and 4+/-18 g, respectively, equivalent to <142 kJ (34 kcal) and not significantly different from zero. Participants in the third study made significantly more trips to the buffet when they were given the smallest plate. These findings show that using a smaller plate did not lead to a reduction in food intake at meals eaten in the laboratory. PMID:17540474

  9. A New Mobile Phone-Based Tool for Assessing Energy and Certain Food Intakes in Young Children: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Hanna; Bonn, Stephanie E; Bergström, Anna; Bälter, Katarina; Bälter, Olle; Delisle, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Obesity may be established already at pre-school age. Further research in this area requires accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing the intake of energy and foods. Traditional methods have limited accuracy, and place large demands on the study participants and researchers. Mobile phones offer possibilities for methodological advancements in this area since they are readily available, enable instant digitalization of collected data, and also contain a camera to photograph pre- and post-meal food items. We have recently developed a new tool for assessing energy and food intake in children using mobile phones called the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH). Objective The main aims of our study are to (1) compare energy intake by means of TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using a criterion method, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and (2) to compare intakes of fruits and berries, vegetables, juice, and sweetened beverages assessed by means of TECH with intakes obtained using a Web-based food frequency questionnaire (KidMeal-Q) in 3 year olds. Methods In this study, 30 Swedish 3 year olds were included. Energy intake using TECH was compared to TEE measured using the DLW method. Intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, as well as sweetened beverages were assessed using TECH and compared to the corresponding intakes assessed using KidMeal-Q. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, Spearman rank order correlations, and the Bland-Altman procedure were applied. Results The mean energy intake, assessed by TECH, was 5400 kJ/24h (SD 1500). This value was not significantly different (P=.23) from TEE (5070 kJ/24h, SD 600). However, the limits of agreement (2 standard deviations) in the Bland-Altman plot for energy intake estimated using TECH compared to TEE were wide (2990 kJ/24h), and TECH overestimated high and underestimated low energy intakes. The Bland-Altman plots for

  10. Does diet-beverage intake affect dietary consumption patterns? Results from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Tate, Deborah F; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is understood about the effect of increased consumption of low-calorie sweeteners in diet beverages on dietary patterns and energy intake. Objective: We investigated whether energy intakes and dietary patterns were different in subjects who were randomly assigned to substitute caloric beverages with either water or diet beverages (DBs). Design: Participants from the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday randomized clinical trial (a 6-mo, 3-arm study) were included in the analysis [water groups: n = 106 (94% women); DB group: n = 104 (82% women)]. For energy, macronutrient, and food and beverage intakes, we investigated the main effects of time, treatment, and the treatment-by-time interaction by using mixed models. Results: Overall, the macronutrient composition changed in both groups without significant differences between groups over time. Both groups reduced absolute intakes of total daily energy, carbohydrates, fat, protein, saturated fat, total sugar, added sugar, and other carbohydrates. The DB group decreased energy from all beverages more than the water group did only at month 3 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Although the water group had a greater reduction in grain intake at month 3 and a greater increase in fruit and vegetable intake at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05), the DB group had a greater reduction in dessert intake than the water group did at month 6 (P-group-by-time < 0.05). Conclusions: Participants in both intervention groups showed positive changes in energy intakes and dietary patterns. The DB group showed decreases in most caloric beverages and specifically reduced more desserts than the water group did. Our study does not provide evidence to suggest that a short-term consumption of DBs, compared with water, increases preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01017783. PMID:23364015

  11. Counting calories: partitioning energy intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Flegal, K M; Larkin, F A; Metzner, H L; Thompson, F E; Guire, K E

    1988-10-01

    Differences in energy estimates between a food frequency questionnaire and a multi-day dietary record can be partitioned into distinct components due to differences in reported frequency of consumption and in reported serving size, and to differences in nutrient composition between the questionnaire standards and the foods reported on the records. The effect of each component on the relative validity of the questionnaire can be assessed by examining its contribution to the differences between the two methods in estimated group intake and in the relative ranking of individual respondents. This methodology was used for the 1984-1985 University of Michigan Food Frequency Study, in which the estimated energy intake from a quantitative food frequency questionnaire was compared with that from 16 days of food records collected over the course of a year from 228 white and black men and women aged 24-51 years. For all race-sex subgroups, mean energy intake estimated from the questionnaire was significantly greater than mean intake estimated from the record. Within race-sex subgroups, the correlations between estimates from the two methods were low, and agreement in classification by tertiles was poor. The differences in group mean energy intake between the methods were due to the effects of discrepancies in both serving size and frequency of consumption. However, the low correlations and poor agreement in classification for individual respondents were due principally to the effect of discrepancies in frequency. These results suggest that improving the accuracy of frequency estimation is a key element in increasing the relative validity of food frequency questionnaires used for epidemiologic research. PMID:3421241

  12. Underreporting of Dietary Energy Intake in Five Populations of the African Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic underreporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among individuals of African ancestry (n=324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index scale, a United Nations statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24-hour recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labeled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values to identify underreporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all countries. The South African cohort displayed the greatest mean % under-reporting: −52.1% ([self-report - expenditure/expenditure]×100) compared to −22.5%, −17.9%, −25.0%, and −18.5%, for, Ghana, Jamaica, Seychelles and the United States cohorts, respectively. Body mass index was the most consistent predictor of underreporting compared to other factors. We conclude that there is substantial under-reporting in populations across the whole range of the human development index and that this systematic error increases according to an individual’s body mass index. PMID:25585294

  13. Management factors affecting mortality, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P S; Fahey, A G; Manzanilla, E G; O'Doherty, J V; de Blas, C; Gasa, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of animal management and farm facilities on total feed intake (TFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality rate (MORT) of grower-finishing pigs. In total, 310 batches from 244 grower-finishing farms, consisting of 454 855 Pietrain sired pigs in six Spanish pig companies were used. Data collection consisted of a survey on management practices (season of placement, split-sex by pens, number of pig origins, water source in the farm, initial or final BW) and facilities (floor, feeder, ventilation or number of animals placed) during 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that batches of pigs placed between January and March had higher TFI (P=0.006), FCR (P=0.005) and MORT (P=0.03) than those placed between July and September. Moreover, batches of pigs placed between April and June had lower MORT (P=0.003) than those placed between January and March. Batches which had split-sex pens had lower TFI (P=0.001) and better FCR (P<0.001) than those with mixed-sex in pens; pigs fed with a single-space feeder with incorporated drinker also had the lowest TFI (P<0.001) and best FCR (P<0.001) in comparison to single and multi-space feeders without a drinker. Pigs placed in pens with <50% slatted floors presented an improvement in FCR (P<0.05) than pens with 50% or more slatted floors. Batches filled with pigs from multiple origins had higher MORT (P<0.001) than those from a single origin. Pigs housed in barns that performed manual ventilation control presented higher MORT (P<0.001) in comparison to automatic ventilation. The regression analysis also indicated that pigs which entered to grower-finisher facilities with higher initial BW had lower MORT (P<0.05) and finally pigs which were sent to slaughterhouse with a higher final BW presented higher TFI (P<0.001). The variables selected for each dependent variable explained 61.9%, 24.8% and 20.4% of the total variability for TFI, FCR and MORT, respectively. This study indicates that

  14. Intranasal Insulin Suppresses Food Intake via Enhancement of Brain Energy Levels in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Friedrich, Alexia; Rezmer, Magdalena; Melchert, Uwe H.; G. Scholand-Engler, Harald; Hallschmid, Manfred; Oltmanns, Kerstin M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral insulin exerts anorexic effects in humans and animals. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not clear. Because insulin physiologically facilitates glucose uptake by most tissues of the body and thereby fosters intracellular energy supply, we hypothesized that intranasal insulin reduces food consumption via enhancement of the neuroenergetic level. In a double-blind, placebo–controlled, within-subject comparison, 15 healthy men (BMI 22.2 ± 0.37 kg/m2) aged 22–28 years were intranasally administered insulin (40 IU) or placebo after an overnight fast. Cerebral energy metabolism was assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At 100 min after spray administration, participants consumed ad libitum from a test buffet. Our data show that intranasal insulin increases brain energy (i.e., adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine levels). Cerebral energy content correlates inversely with subsequent calorie intake in the control condition. Moreover, the neuroenergetic rise upon insulin administration correlates with the consecutive reduction in free-choice calorie consumption. Brain energy levels may therefore constitute a predictive value for food intake. Given that the brain synchronizes food intake behavior in dependence of its current energetic status, a future challenge in obesity treatment may be to therapeutically influence cerebral energy homeostasis. Intranasal insulin, after optimizing its application schema, seems a promising option in this regard. PMID:22586589

  15. Effects of learning and food form on energy intake and appetitive responses

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joshua B.; Mattes, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-yielding beverages reportedly contribute to positive energy balance uniquely. They are highly consumed and evoke weaker satiety signaling and dietary energy compensation than solid foods of the same energy content. This study measured the contribution of learning to appetitive sensations and adjustments of energy intake for preloads varying in energy content and food form in lean and obese adults. One-hundred seven participants received four preload trials before and after a dietary intervention in this randomized cross-over trial with the stipulation that lean and obese individuals were evenly assigned to each intervention. The study entailed monitoring appetitive sensations and daily energy intake after consumption of low and high energy beverage and solid food loads on weekly visit days. Preload testing was conducted at baseline, followed by daily ingestion of one load for 14 days and then retesting responses to the four treatments. Lean individuals compensated precisely for the high energy beverage and solid loads from the onset of the study, whereas the obese did not alter eating patterns after consuming the higher energy beverage load. The learning intervention did not have an effect on the responses to the preloads, as responses in both lean and obese participants did not differ from baseline values. Responses to personality and eating behavior questionnaires revealed differences between the lean and obese groups and weakly, but significantly, predicted challenge meal and total daily energy intake. These data suggest that lean and obese individuals respond to energy in beverage form differently, and this is not altered by purposeful daily exposure to loads varying in physical form and energy content for two weeks. PMID:24955495

  16. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  17. Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day

    PubMed Central

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Forde, Ciarán G.; Cheng, Yuejiao; Xu, Haohuan; Martin, Nathalie; de Graaf, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21±2 kg/m2, age: 24±2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results Hard foods led to a ∼13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P<0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P<0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P = 0.16). Conclusions Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake. PMID:24695412

  18. Energy intake and appetite-related hormones following acute aerobic and resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Balaguera-Cortes, Liliana; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that resistance and aerobic exercise have differing effects on perceived hunger and circulating levels of appetite-related hormones. However, the effect of resistance and aerobic exercise on actual energy intake has never been compared. This study investigated the effect of an acute bout of resistance exercise, compared with aerobic exercise, on subsequent energy intake and appetite-regulating hormones. Ten active men completed 3 trials in a counterbalanced design: 45 min of resistance exercise (RES; free and machine weights), aerobic exercise (AER; running), or a resting control trial (CON). Following exercise or CON, participants had access to a buffet-style array of breakfast foods and drinks to consume ad libitum. Plasma concentrations of a range of appetite-regulating hormones were measured throughout each trial. Despite significantly higher energy expenditure with AER compared with RES (p < 0.05), there was no difference in total energy intake from the postexercise meal between trials (p = 0.779). Pancreatic polypeptide was significantly higher prior to the meal after both RES and AER compared with CON. In contrast, active ghrelin was lower following RES compared with both CON and AER (p ≤ 0.05), while insulin was higher following RES compared with CON (p = 0.013). In summary, the differential response of appetite-regulating hormones to AER and RES does not appear to influence energy intake in the postexercise meal. However, given the greater energy expenditure associated with AER compared with RES, AER modes of exercise may be preferable for achieving short-term negative energy balance. PMID:22111518

  19. Major food sources contributing to energy intake--a nationwide survey of Brazilians aged 10 years and older.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Araújo, Marina Campos; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2015-05-28

    Identification of major sources of energy in the diet helps to implement dietary recommendations to reduce obesity. To determine the food sources of energy consumed by Brazilians, we used the traditional method of ranking energy contribution of selected food groups and also compared days with and without consumption of specific food groups. Analysis was based on two non-consecutive days of dietary record from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted among 34,003 Brazilians (aged 10 years or more), taking into account the complex design of the survey. Comparison of days with and without consumption gave more consistent results, with sweets and cookies as the most important contributors to energy intake, increasing 992 kJ/d (95% CI 883, 1096) for those days when consumption of cakes, cookies and desserts was reported compared to days without their consumption. Savoury snacks, cheese and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) also increase energy intake by about 600 kJ. The only group associated with decreased energy intake was vegetable (-155 kJ; 95% CI -272, -37). Consumption of beans, milk and fruits increased the energy intake by about 210 kJ. In total, the mean energy intake of the group was 8000 kJ. Except for the consumption of vegetables, all of the other ten food groups analysed were associated with increased energy intake. Sweets and cookies may increase the energy intake by 12% and SSB by 7%, indicating that these two groups are major targets for improving healthy eating by reducing energy intake; whereas vegetable intake is associated with the reduction of energy content of the diet. PMID:25864784

  20. Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ciampolini, Mario; Brenna, J Thomas; Giannellini, Valerio; Bini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously “on request”). Objective We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled (automatic) and demanded meals (administered after evaluation) in 24 mother–toddler (21 months old at entry) pairs with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea presenting at a clinic. We tested the same hypothesis in a subset of 14 toddlers by measuring the resting (sleeping) metabolic rate 4 hours after lunch, as well as the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in 10 toddlers. Methods We trained mothers to recognize meal demands (as in the previous investigation) and to provide food in response, but required no blood glucose measurements before meals. Energy intake was assessed by a 10-day food diary, resting metabolic rate (RMR) by respiratory analyses (indirect calorimetry) in 14 toddlers, and TEE by doubly labeled water in 10 toddlers. Their blood parameters, anthropometry, and number of days with diarrhea were assessed before training and 50 days after training. Results RMR decreased from 58.6 ± 7.8 to 49.0 ± 9.1 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001) and TEE decreased from 80.1 ± 6.9 to 67.8 ± 10.0 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001). Energy intake decreased from 85.7 ± 15.3 to 70.3 ± 15.8 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001). The height Z-score increased significantly, while weight growth was normal. Toddlers entering the study over the median RMR decreased their RMR significantly more than those below the median RMR (P < 0.01). Conclusion Scheduled meal suspension induces meal demand frequency to increase. Demanded meals are associated

  1. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance

  2. Influencing and modifying children's energy intake: the role of portion size and energy density.

    PubMed

    Pourshahidi, L Kirsty; Kerr, Maeve A; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2014-08-01

    Childhood obesity is of concern worldwide. The portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) of food are two major determinants of children's energy intake (EI). Trends towards increasing PS are most apparent and best documented in the USA, where PS of numerous food products have increased in the marketplace over the past three decades, particularly high-energy dense foods. Analyses of population-level dietary surveys have confirmed this trend in children for both in- and out-of-home eating, and a plethora of observational evidence positively associates PS, ED and adiposity in children. A limited number of intervention studies provide clear evidence that children, even as young as 2 years, respond acutely to increasing PS, with some studies also demonstrating the additive effects of increased ED in promoting excessive EI. However, most of the evidence is based on children aged 3-6 years and there is a paucity of data in older children and adolescents. It is unclear whether decreasing PS can have the opposite effect on children's EI but recent acute studies have demonstrated that the incorporation of lower energy dense foods, such as fruit and vegetables, into children's meals down-regulates EI. Although a direct causal link between PS and obesity remains to be established, the regular consumption of larger PS of energy dense foods do favour obesity-promoting eating behaviours in children. Further research is required to establish the most feasible and effective interventions and policies to counteract the deleterious impact of PS and ED on children's EI. PMID:24886909

  3. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C. K.; Correa, J. B.; Han, H.; Allen, H. R.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C. M.; Gunturk, B. K.; Bray, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1’s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over six days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, energy intake estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n=24) or Customized Prompts (n=16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating energy intake when Standard (mean±SD = −895±770 kcal/day, p<.0001), but not Customized Prompts (−270±748 kcal/day, p=.22) were used. Error (energy intake from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM’s ability to accurately estimate energy intake in free-living adults (N=50) over six days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living energy intake (−152±694 kcal/day, p=0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake. PMID:22134199

  4. Effects of PYY3-36 and GLP-1 on energy intake, energy expenditure, and appetite in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Pedersen, Sue D; Arentoft, Johanne L; Ritz, Christian; Schwartz, Thue W; Holst, Jens Juul; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the effects of GLP-1 and PYY3-36, separately and in combination, on energy intake, energy expenditure, appetite sensations, glucose and fat metabolism, ghrelin, and vital signs in healthy overweight men. Twenty-five healthy male subjects participated in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, four-arm crossover study (BMI 29 ± 3 kg/m(2), age 33 ± 9 yr). On separate days they received a 150-min intravenous infusion of 1) 0.8 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) PYY3-36, 2) 1.0 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) GLP-1, 3) GLP-1 + PYY3-36, or 4) placebo. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed during the final 30 min. Measurements of appetite sensations, energy expenditure and fat oxidation, vital signs, and blood variables were collected throughout the infusion period. No effect on energy intake was found after monoinfusions of PYY3-36 (-4.2 ± 4.8%, P = 0.8) or GLP-1 (-3.0 ± 4.5%, P = 0.9). However, the coinfusion reduced energy intake compared with placebo (-30.4 ± 6.5%, P < 0.0001) and more than the sum of the monoinfusions (P < 0.001), demonstrating a synergistic effect. Coinfusion slightly increased sensation of nausea (P < 0.05), but this effect could not explain the effect on energy intake. A decrease in plasma ghrelin was found after all treatments compared with placebo (all P < 0.05); however, infusions of GLP-1 + PYY3-36 resulted in an additional decrease compared with the monoinfusions (both P < 0.01). We conclude that coinfusion of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 exerted a synergistic effect on energy intake. The satiating effect of the meal was enhanced by GLP-1 and PYY3-36 in combination compared with placebo. Coinfusion was accompanied by slightly increased nausea and a decrease in plasma ghrelin, but neither of these factors could explain the reduction in energy intake. PMID:24735885

  5. Effect of differential gastric evacuation and multispecies prey items on estimates of daily energy intake in juvenile Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, A.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The caloric density of stomach contents in juvenile chinook salmon,Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was not affected by gastric evacuation, suggesting a constant caloric density of stomach contents during evacuation. Differences in the caloric density of prey consumed did affect caloric density of stomach contents over a 24-h period. Consumption of the amphipodCorophium sp. was associated with reduced caloric densities of stomach contents. During periods whenCorophium contributed more than 4% of the stomach contents, average caloric density declined from 5.56 to 5.33 kcal g−1. Despite this difference, estimates of daily energy intake of juvenile chinook salmon were only 3%, greater when developed from the mean caloric density of stomach contents excludingCorophium.

  6. Milk consumption following exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate-vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V̇O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V̇O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  7. Milk Consumption Following Exercise Reduces Subsequent Energy Intake in Female Recreational Exercisers

    PubMed Central

    Rumbold, Penny; Shaw, Emily; James, Lewis; Stevenson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skimmed milk as a recovery drink following moderate–vigorous cycling exercise on subsequent appetite and energy intake in healthy, female recreational exercisers. Utilising a randomised cross-over design, nine female recreational exercisers (19.7 ± 1.3 years) completed a V˙O2peak test followed by two main exercise trials. The main trials were conducted following a standardised breakfast. Following 30 min of moderate-vigorous exercise (65% V˙O2peak), either 600 mL of skimmed milk or 600 mL of orange drink (475 mL orange juice from concentrate, 125 mL water), which were isoenergetic (0.88 MJ), were ingested, followed 60 min later with an ad libitum pasta meal. Absolute energy intake was reduced 25.2% ± 16.6% after consuming milk compared to the orange drink (2.39 ± 0.70 vs. 3.20 ± 0.84 MJ, respectively; p = 0.001). Relative energy intake (in relation to the energy content of the recovery drinks and energy expenditure) was significantly lower after milk consumption compared to the orange drink (1.49 ± 0.72 vs. 2.33 ± 0.90 MJ, respectively; p = 0.005). There were no differences in AUC (× 1 h) subjective appetite parameters (hunger, fullness and desire to eat) between trials. The consumption of skimmed milk following 30 min of moderate-vigorous cycling exercise reduces subsequent energy intake in female recreational exercisers. PMID:25569624

  8. The influence of weekday eating patterns on energy intake and BMI among female elementary school personnel.

    PubMed

    Hartline-Grafton, Heather L; Rose, Donald; Johnson, Carolyn C; Rice, Janet C; Webber, Larry S

    2010-04-01

    Many health practitioners recommend eating small, frequent meals for weight loss, yet the relationship of eating patterns, such as eating occasion frequency (EOF), to energy intake and body weight is controversial. Broad-based efforts to promote worksite wellness programs increase the importance of this issue, as many work environments inherently restrict eating patterns. The eating patterns of school personnel are understudied, but are of particular interest, not only because they have limited eating opportunities during the day but also because their diet and weight outcomes are likely to influence behaviors of a much larger population. We examined relationships between weekday EOF and energy intake and BMI among female elementary school personnel in 22 schools in a suburban county of southeastern Louisiana. Two 24-h dietary recalls were administered to randomly-selected employees (n = 329) on nonconsecutive days by registered dietitians. Measured heights and weights were used to calculate BMI (weight/height(2)). On average, employees consumed 2.2 of their total 5.9 meals and snacks during the school day, accounting for 37% of daily energy. In multiple regression models controlling for demographic and health variables, EOF as well as separate counts of meal and snack frequency were each positively and significantly associated with energy intake. However, neither the number of meals, snacks, nor overall EOF was associated with BMI. The proportion of energy consumed during the school day and the positive association of weekday EOF with energy intake suggest an important role for worksite wellness programs that target the dietary improvement of elementary school personnel. PMID:19696760

  9. Activity Related Energy Expenditure, Appetite and Energy Intake: Potential Implications for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, D.M.; Martin, C.K.; Ravussin, E.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate relationships between activity related energy expenditure (AREE), appetite ratings and energy intake (EI) in a sample of 40 male (26.4 years; BMI 23.5 kg/m2) and 42 female (26.9 years; BMI 22.4 kg/m2) participants. AREE was expressed as the residual value of the regression between total daily EE (by doubly labeled water) and resting EE (by indirect calorimetry). EI was measured using an ad libitum buffet meal and visual analogue scales measured subjective appetite ratings before and after the meal. AREE was divided into low, middle and high sex-specific tertiles. General linear models were used to investigate differences in appetite ratings and EI across AREE tertiles. Before the meal, males in the high AREE tertile had significantly lower desire to eat and lower prospective food consumption and higher feelings of fullness compared to those in the low tertile. Males in the middle tertile had significantly higher satiety quotients after the meal and lower EI compared to the other tertiles. No significant differences across tertiles were found in females. Sex differences in relationships between AREE, appetite ratings and EI may lead to differing patterns of EI and subsequent weight maintenance. PMID:23523668

  10. Limits to sustained energy intake. XXIII. Does heat dissipation capacity limit the energy budget of lactating bank voles?

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Edyta T; Król, Elżbieta; Chrzascik, Katarzyna M; Rudolf, Agata M; Speakman, John R; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors limiting sustained metabolic rate (SusMR) is a central issue in ecological physiology. According to the heat dissipation limit (HDL) theory, the SusMR at peak lactation is constrained by the maternal capacity to dissipate body heat. To test that theory, we shaved lactating bank voles (Myodes glareolus) to experimentally elevate their capacity for heat dissipation. The voles were sampled from lines selected for high aerobic exercise metabolism (A; characterized also by increased basal metabolic rate) and unselected control lines (C). Fur removal significantly increased the peak-lactation food intake (mass-adjusted least square means ± s.e.; shaved: 16.3 ± 0.3 g day(-1), unshaved: 14.4 ± 0.2 g day(-1); P<0.0001), average daily metabolic rate (shaved: 109 ± 2 kJ day(-1), unshaved: 97 ± 2 kJ day(-1); P<0.0001) and metabolisable energy intake (shaved: 215 ± 4 kJ day(-1), unshaved: 185 ± 4 kJ day(-1); P<0.0001), as well as the milk energy output (shaved: 104 ± 4 kJ day(-1); unshaved: 93 ± 4 kJ day(-1); P=0.021) and litter growth rate (shaved: 9.4 ± 0.7 g 4 days(-1), unshaved: 7.7 ± 0.7 g 4 days(-1); P=0.028). Thus, fur removal increased both the total energy budget and reproductive output at the most demanding period of lactation, which supports the HDL theory. However, digestive efficiency was lower in shaved voles (76.0 ± 0.3%) than in unshaved ones (78.5 ± 0.2%; P<0.0001), which may indicate that a limit imposed by the capacity of the alimentary system was also approached. Shaving similarly affected the metabolic and reproductive traits in voles from the A and C lines. Thus, the experimental evolution model did not reveal a difference in the limiting mechanism between animals with inherently different metabolic rates. PMID:26747907

  11. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P

    2014-09-01

    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (<60 d in milk). The inclusion of milk yield as a predictor variable improved the accuracy of predicting energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. PMID:24997658

  12. Quantity of dietary protein intake, but not pattern of intake, affects net protein balance primarily through differences in protein synthesis in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Schutzler, Scott; Schrader, Amy; Spencer, Horace; Kortebein, Patrick; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Ferrando, Arny A.

    2014-01-01

    To examine whole body protein turnover and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) following ingestions of protein in mixed meals at two doses of protein and two intake patterns, 20 healthy older adult subjects (52–75 yr) participated in one of four groups in a randomized clinical trial: a level of protein intake of 0.8 g (1RDA) or 1.5 g·kg−1·day−1 (∼2RDA) with uneven (U: 15/20/65%) or even distribution (E: 33/33/33%) patterns of intake for breakfast, lunch, and dinner over the day (1RDA-U, 1RDA-E, 2RDA-U, or 2RDA-E). Subjects were studied with primed continuous infusions of l-[2H5]phenylalanine and l-[2H2]tyrosine on day 4 following 3 days of diet habituation. Whole body protein kinetics [protein synthesis (PS), breakdown, and net balance (NB)] were expressed as changes from the fasted to the fed states. Positive NB was achieved at both protein levels, but NB was greater in 2RDA vs. 1RDA (94.8 ± 6.0 vs. 58.9 ± 4.9 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0001), without effects of distribution on NB. The greater NB was due to the higher PS with 2RDA vs. 1RDA (15.4 ± 4.8 vs. −18.0 ± 8.4 g protein/750 min; P = 0.0018). Consistent with PS, MPS was greater with 2RDA vs. 1RDA, regardless of distribution patterns. In conclusion, whole body net protein balance was greater with protein intake above recommended dietary allowance (0.8 g protein·kg−1·day−1) in the context of mixed meals, without demonstrated effects of protein intake pattern, primarily through higher rates of protein synthesis at whole body and muscle levels. PMID:25352437

  13. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    PubMed

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p < .05), while male diners eating in mixed-sex company ate more in groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration. PMID:25903236

  14. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  15. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491

  16. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  17. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344

  18. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population. PMID:26193314

  19. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B) = 4.8; β = 0.42). After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10) still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02). Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population. PMID:26193314

  20. Factors affecting human heterocyclic amine intake and the metabolism of PhIP.

    PubMed

    Knize, Mark G; Kulp, Kristen S; Salmon, Cynthia P; Keating, Garrett A; Felton, James S

    2002-09-30

    We are working to understand possible human health effects from exposure to heterocyclic amines that are formed in meat during cooking. Laboratory-cooked beef, pork, and chicken are capable of producing tens of nanograms of MeIQx, IFP, and PhIP per gram of meat and smaller amounts of other heteroyclic amines. Well-done restaurant-cooked beef, pork, and chicken may contain PhIP and IFP at concentrations as high as tens of nanograms per gram and MeIQx at levels up to 3 ng/g. Although well-done chicken breast prepared in the laboratory may contain large amounts of PhIP, a survey of flame-grilled meat samples cooked in private homes showed PhIP levels in beef steak and chicken breast are not significantly different (P=0.36). The extremely high PhIP levels reported in some studies of grilled chicken are not seen in home-cooked samples.Many studies suggest individuals may have varying susceptibility to carcinogens and that diet may influence metabolism, thus affecting cancer susceptibility. To understand the human metabolism of PhIP, we examined urinary metabolites of PhIP in volunteers following a single well-done meat exposure. Using solid-phase extraction and LC/MS/MS, we quantified four major PhIP metabolites in human urine. In addition to investigating individual variation, we examined the interaction of PhIP with a potentially chemopreventive food. In a preliminary study of the effect of broccoli on PhIP metabolism, we fed chicken to six volunteers before and after eating steamed broccoli daily for 3 days. Preliminary results suggest that broccoli, which contains isothiocyanates shown to induce Phases I and II metabolism in vitro, may affect both the rate of metabolite excretion and the metabolic products of a dietary carcinogen. This newly developed methodology will allow us to assess prevention strategies that reduce the possible risks associated with PhIP exposure. PMID:12351155

  1. Having it all: historical energy intakes do not generate the anticipated trade-offs in fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S.L; Grune, T; Bell, L.M; Murray, S.J; Souter, D.M; Erwin, S.S; Yearsley, J.M; Gordon, I.J; Illius, A.W; Kyriazakis, I; Speakman, J.R

    2006-01-01

    An axiom of life-history theory, and fundamental to our understanding of ageing, is that animals must trade-off their allocation of resources since energy and nutrients are limited. Therefore, animals cannot ‘have it all’—combine high rates of fecundity with extended lifespans. The idea of life-history trade-offs was recently challenged by the discovery that ageing may be governed by a small subset of molecular processes independent of fitness. We tested the ‘trade-off’ and ‘having it all’ theories by examining the fecundities of C57BL/6J mice placed onto four different dietary treatments that generated caloric intakes from −21 to +8.6% of controls. We predicted body fat would be deposited in relation to caloric intake. Excessive body fat is known to cause co-morbidities that shorten lifespan, while caloric restriction enhances somatic protection and increases longevity. The trade-off model predicts that increased fat would be tolerated because reproductive gain offsets shortened longevity, while animals on a restricted intake would sacrifice reproduction for lifespan extension. The responses of body fat to treatments followed our expectations, however, there was a negative relationship between reproductive performance (fecundity, litter mass) and historical intake/body fat. Our dietary restricted animals had lower protein oxidative damage and appeared able to combine life-history traits in a manner contrary to traditional expectations by having increased fecundity with the potential to have extended lifespans. PMID:16777725

  2. [Melanocortin receptor involvement in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Si-Wen; Peng, Jian; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu

    2002-03-01

    The melanocortin receptors are members of the super-family of G-protein coupled receptors. To date, five melanocortin receptor genes (MC1R-MC5R) have been cloned and characterized. These receptors differ in their tissue distributions and physiological roles. This review focuses on the roles of MC3R and MC4R in regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. PMID:16118149

  3. Review of the effects of dilution of dietary energy with olestra on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J

    2012-03-20

    The non-absorbable substitute for dietary triacylglycerol, olestra, has been marketed in the United States for fifteen years. Olestra is comprised of sucrose with six to eight of its hydroxyl groups forming ester links with long-chain fatty acids. Because olestra is not hydrolyzed by fat-splitting enzymes in the small intestine, it is not absorbed from the small intestine into blood and tissues, and therefore provides no energy that can be utilized by the body. The hedonic properties of olestra with a specific fatty acid composition are similar to those of a triacylglycerol with the same fatty acid composition. Its use by consumers has been restricted by federal regulation to the commercial preparation of savory snack food items, principally as a frying medium for potato chips. An important question about the substitution of olestra for absorbable fat in the diet is whether the consumer will sense that a smaller amount of energy has been ingested. If it is sensed, thereby providing no satiation, then consuming additional energy in later meals will compensate for the removal of absorbable energy from the diet. If it is not sensed at all, then there is no compensation, and the person reduces caloric intake. This review first summarizes studies with olestra that have focused on its effect on the physiology of appetite. In general these studies have demonstrated that olestra does not influence signals of satiation including cholecystokinin and stomach emptying. The review then discusses studies of food consumption in experimental animals in which olestra was substituted for fat in the diet. Rodents have been repeatedly observed to compensate completely for the substitution of olestra for normal fat by eating more total diet. Most studies of the effect of olestra on human satiation have found incomplete or no compensation through additional energy consumption when olestra was substituted for dietary fat. In two clinical studies, however, complete compensation was

  4. Increase in energy intake leads to a decrease in obestatin in restricting-type of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Uehara, M; Yasuhara, D; Nakahara, T; Harada, T; Koyama, K-I; Ushikai, M; Asakawa, A; Inui, A

    2011-10-01

    Restricting-type of anorexia nervosa (AN-R) is a serious disorder affecting adolescents and young adults, and decreases quality of life over long period. Successful weight restoration is an important prognostic factor for disease outcome; however, the underlying mechanism of refeeding-resistance, a core psychopathology relevant to 'ambivalent' eating behaviors, remains unclear in this disorder. Obestatin plays an important role in the regulation of growth hormone release, appetite, and energy metabolism. However, the progress of these patients and changes in the levels of obestatin during treatment were not reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in obestatin levels when energy intake increases in AN-R patients. As a result, obestatin was higher in AN-R patients than in control subjects as well as acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin. An increase in the intake calorie has decreased obestatin as well as des-acyl ghrelin. These findings indicate that the obestatin is an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of AN-R, similarly to acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin. In the future, the research on the clinical application of the ghrelin peptide family and the receptor will be expected to progress. PMID:21667437

  5. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Miller, M M; Baer, L A; Moran, M M; Steele, M K; Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment. PMID:12361774

  6. Eating Behavior Dimensions: Associations With Energy Intake And Body Weight: A Review

    PubMed Central

    French, Simone A.; Epstein, Leonard H; Jeffery, Robert W.; Blundell, John E.; Wardle, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to spark integrative thinking in the area of eating behaviors by critically examining research on exemplary constructs in this area. The eating behaviors food responsiveness, enjoyment of eating, satiety responsiveness, eating in the absence of hunger, reinforcing value of food, eating disinhibition and impulsivity/self-control are reviewed in relation to energy intake, body mass index and weight gain over time. Each of these constructs has been developed independently, and little research has explored the extent to which they overlap or whether they differentially predict food choices, energy intake and weight gain in the naturalistic environment. Most available data show positive cross-sectional associations with body mass index, but fewer studies report associations with energy intake or food choices. Little prospective data are available to link measures of eating behaviors with weight gain. Disinhibition has the largest and most consistent body of empirical data that link it prospectively with weight gain. An overarching conceptual model to integrate the conceptual and empirical research base for the role of eating behavior dimensions in the field of obesity research would highlight potential patterns of interaction between individual differences in eating behaviors, specific aspects of the individual’s food environment and individual variation in state levels of hunger and satiety. PMID:22796186

  7. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  8. Associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2016-06-01

    To investigate associations between eating frequency and energy intake, energy density, diet quality and body weight status in adults from the USA, combined data from the 2009-2010 and 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used in this study. The first 24-h dietary recall data from eligible participants (4017 men and 3774 women) were used to calculate eating frequency, as well as energy intake, energy density and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), as a measure of diet quality. BMI and waist circumference were obtained from the NHANES body measures data. Adjusting for confounding socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors, a higher eating frequency was significantly associated with higher energy intake in both men and women (both P<0·001). A higher eating frequency was also significantly associated with lower energy density in both men and women, regardless of whether beverage or water intake was included in the calculation of energy density (all P<0·01). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between eating frequency and the HEI-2010 total score in both men and women (both P<0·001). Eating frequency was inversely associated with BMI in women (P=0·003), as well as waist circumference in both men (P=0·032) and women (P=0·010). Results from the present study suggested that adults with a higher eating frequency in the USA had a healthier diet with lower energy density and better diet quality, and eating frequency was inversely associated with body weight status. PMID:27109636

  9. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    PubMed Central

    Wijlens, Anne G. M.; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. PMID:26821045

  10. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men.

    PubMed

    Wijlens, Anne G M; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-02-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m²) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100 kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. PMID:26821045

  11. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. PMID:22612955

  12. Instant Oatmeal Increases Satiety and Reduces Energy Intake Compared to a Ready-to-Eat Oat-Based Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Candida J.; Johnson, William D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Bordenave, Nicolas; van Klinken, B. Jan Willem; O'Shea, Marianne; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat and help adherence to calorie restriction. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 oat-based breakfast cereals on appetite, satiety, and food intake. Methods: Forty-eight healthy individuals, 18 years of age or older, were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric servings of either oatmeal or an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) in random order at least a week apart. Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. Lunch was served 4 hours after breakfast. The physicochemical properties of oat soluble fiber (β-glucan) were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Food intake and β-glucan properties were analyzed using t tests. Results: Oatmeal increased fullness (p = 0.001) and reduced hunger (p = 0.005), desire to eat (p = 0.001), and prospective intake (p = 0.006) more than the RTEC. Energy intake at lunch was lower after eating oatmeal compared to the RTEC (p = 0.012). Oatmeal had higher viscosity (p = 0.03), β-glucan content, molecular weight (p < 0.001), and radius of gyration (p < 0.001) than the RTEC. Conclusions: Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces energy intake compared to the RTEC. The physicochemical properties of β-glucan and sufficient hydration of oats are important factors affecting satiety and subsequent energy intake. PMID:26273900

  13. Brain-Specific Inactivation of the Crhr1 Gene Inhibits Post-Dependent and Stress-Induced Alcohol Intake, but Does Not Affect Relapse-Like Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity might be involved as well. Here we examined the role of CRHR1 in various drinking conditions in relation to HPA and extra-HPA sites, and studied relapse-like drinking behavior in the alcohol deprivation model (ADE). To dissect CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling on a molecular level, a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1NestinCre) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1 antagonists in the ADE model. Stress-induced augmentation of alcohol intake was lower in Crhr1NestinCre mice as compared with control animals. Crhr1NestinCre mice were also resistant to escalation of alcohol intake in the post-dependent state. Contrarily, global Crhr1 knockouts showed enhanced stress-induced alcohol consumption and a more pronounced escalation of intake in the post-dependent state than their control littermates. Basal intake and deprivation-induced intake were unaltered in both knockout models when compared with their respective controls. In line with these findings, CRHR1 antagonists did not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load. PMID:22113086

  14. Effects of synbiotic supplementation on lactating mothers' energy intake and BMI, and infants' growth.

    PubMed

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive daily supplement of synbiotic (n = 40) or a placebo (n = 40) for 30 days. Information on dietary intake was collected and anthropometric measurements were taken using standard calibrated instruments. Data analysis was carried out using nutritionist IV, SPSS and Epi Info software. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a slight increase in mean energy intake while, in the placebo group, maternal energy intake decreased significantly (p < 0.023). Although maternal weight and BMI increased slightly in the supplemented group, these two parameters decreased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Also, infants' weight gain in the synbiotic group was significantly higher than the placebo group after the intervention (p < 0.044). Synbiotics may prevent weight loss in lactating mothers and result in weight gain in infants. Further experiments are required to study these effects in undernourished lactating mothers and their infants. PMID:23480276

  15. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children’s Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods

    PubMed Central

    Gevers, Dorus W. M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Nanne K.; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting. PMID:26024296

  16. Dietary galacto-oligosaccharides and calcium: effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight and satiety-related, gastrointestinal hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Joost; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Calame, Wim; Schonewille, Arjan J; Ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M

    2013-04-14

    Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are carbohydrates that are fermented by colonic microbiota. The present study examined effects of a 3-week dietary enrichment with 6 % (w/w) GOS on parameters of energy balance in forty-three male Wistar rats. GOS was tested with two doses of calcium phosphate (30 and 100 mmol/kg), known to differently affect colonic fermentation. After 17 d, isoenergetic test meals were presented and plasma responses of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were measured. On day 21 (study termination) epididymal fat pads and caecum were weighed. Additionally, gastrointestinal mucosal samples and proximal colonic contents were analysed for gene expression (ghrelin, proglucagon and PYY) and fermentation metabolites (SCFA and lactate), respectively. GOS reduced energy intake most prominently during the first week, without provoking compensatory overeating later on (average intake reduction: 14 %). The GOS-fed rats showed increased caecal and reduced fat-pad weight and increased gene expression of the satiety-related peptides, PYY (1.7-fold) and proglucagon (3.5-fold). Pre-meal baseline and post-meal plasma levels of PYY, but not of ghrelin or GLP-1, were higher in GOS-fed rats than in control rats. Ca enrichment resulted in higher energy intake (average 4.5 %). GOS diets increased lactic acid levels and slightly reduced butyric acid in proximal colonic contents. Ca abolished the GOS-related elevation of lactic acid, while increasing propionic acid levels, but did not inhibit GOS-related effects on energy intake, fat-pad weight or gene expression. These results indicate that dietary GOS stimulate a number of physiological mechanisms that can reduce energy intake, regardless of the calcium phosphate content of the diet. PMID:22850280

  17. Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran

    2011-01-01

    The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R2 = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R2 = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R2 = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R2 = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R2 = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients. PMID:21556230

  18. Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Relation to Energy and Nutrient Intake at Full-Service Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drinking plain water, such as tap or bottled water, provides hydration and satiety without adding calories. We examined plain water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in relation to energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants. Methods: Data came from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, comprising a nationally-representative sample of 2900 adults who reported full-service restaurant consumption in 24-h dietary recalls. Linear regressions were performed to examine the differences in daily energy and nutrient intake at full-service restaurants by plain water and SSB consumption status, adjusting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Results: Over 18% of U.S. adults had full-service restaurant consumption on any given day. Among full-service restaurant consumers, 16.7% consumed SSBs, 2.6% consumed plain water but no SSBs, and the remaining 80.7% consumed neither beverage at the restaurant. Compared to onsite SSB consumption, plain water but no SSB consumption was associated with reduced daily total energy intake at full-service restaurants by 443.4 kcal, added sugar intake by 58.2 g, saturated fat intake by 4.4 g, and sodium intake by 616.8 mg, respectively. Conclusion: Replacing SSBs with plain water consumption could be an effective strategy to balance energy/nutrient intake and prevent overconsumption at full-service restaurant setting. PMID:27153083

  19. Reciprocal Compensation to Changes in Dietary Intake and Energy Expenditure within the Concept of Energy Balance123

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure is the primary etiology for excess weight gain. Increased energy expenditure via exercise and energy restriction via diet are commonly used approaches to induce weight loss. Such behavioral interventions, however, have generally resulted in a smaller than expected weight loss, which in part has been attributed to compensatory adaptations in other components contributing to energy balance. Current research points to a loose coupling between energy intake and energy expenditure on a daily basis, and evidence for long-term adaptations has been inconsistent. The lack of conclusive evidence on compensatory adaptations in response to alterations in energy balance can be attributed to differences in intervention type and study population. Physical activity (PA) levels may be reduced in response to aerobic exercise but not in response to resistance exercise. Furthermore, athletic and lean adults have been shown to increase their energy intake in response to exercise, whereas no such response was observed in obese adults. There is also evidence that caloric restriction is associated with a decline in PA. Generally, humans seem to be better equipped to defend against weight loss than avoid weight gain, but results also show a large individual variability. Therefore, individual differences rather than group means should be explored to identify specific characteristics of “compensators” and “noncompensators.” This review emphasizes the need for more research with simultaneous measurements of all major components contributing to energy balance to enhance the understanding of the regulation of energy balance, which is crucial to address the current obesity epidemic. PMID:26374181

  20. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P < 0.05). In summary, despite having slower gastric emptying, elderly men exhibited blunted protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men. PMID:26290103

  1. The contribution of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components by current, former, and never smokers in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though beverage intake patterns have been shown to differ by smoking status, it is unknown whether the contributions of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components also differ. The objective of this study was to compare beverage intakes and contributions of energy and MyPlate components by...

  2. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  3. Field use of D sub 2 sup 18 O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    SciTech Connect

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A. )

    1989-11-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 {plus minus} 260 vs. 3,230 {plus minus} 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 {plus minus} 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 {plus minus} 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions.

  4. Intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients in the Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Chang, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ien-Lan; Kao, Mei-Ding; Lin, Yi-Chin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine dietary intake levels and major food sources of energy and nutrients for the Taiwanese elderly in order to relate nutrient intakes to food choices and to provide suggestions for dietary improvement. The data were derived from the 24-hour recalls from 1,911 subjects (955 males and 956 females) aged 65 and above, who participated in the Elderly NAHSIT carried out from 1999 to 2000. The differences in food consumption patterns between the elderly and younger adults (aged 19 to 64) were also evaluated by comparison with data obtained from NAHSIT 1993-1996. The results revealed that cereals/roots, meat, other protein-rich foods and fats/oils contributed most to daily energy intake. The energy contributions from fats/oils, poultry, meat, other protein-rich foods, refreshments/snacks, alcoholic beverages, and miscellaneous food groups were lower in elderly diets compared with those of younger adults. Meat and cereals/roots were the major food sources of protein. The main carbohydrate-contributing food group was cereals/roots, while primary lipid sources were meat and fats/oils for the elderly. The food groups with a high contribution to vitamin intake were the following: vegetables for vitamin A; meat and cereals/roots for vitamin B1; dairy products, vegetables, cereals/roots and meat for vitamin B2; cereals/roots, seafood and meat for niacin; meat, vegetables and cereals/roots for vitamin B6; plant oils for vitamin E; and vegetables and fruit for vitamin C. The highest ranked food sources for minerals are listed as follows: dairy products, vegetables and seafood for calcium; dairy products and cereals/roots for phosphorous; vegetables and meat for iron; and vegetables, cereals/ roots, other protein-rich foods and seafood for magnesium. The elderly were found to consume more salt, dairy products and vegetables, but less poultry and meat than their younger counterparts. In summary, differences in consumption patterns between the

  5. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people. PMID:26190646

  6. Impact of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Drougard, Anne; Fournel, Audren; Valet, Philippe; Knauf, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamus is a key area involved in the control of metabolism and food intake via the integrations of numerous signals (hormones, neurotransmitters, metabolites) from various origins. These factors modify hypothalamic neurons activity and generate adequate molecular and behavioral responses to control energy balance. In this complex integrative system, a new concept has been developed in recent years, that includes reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a critical player in energy balance. ROS are known to act in many signaling pathways in different peripheral organs, but also in hypothalamus where they regulate food intake and metabolism by acting on different types of neurons, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP)/neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. Hypothalamic ROS release is under the influence of different factors such as pancreatic and gut hormones, adipokines (leptin, apelin,…), neurotransmitters and nutrients (glucose, lipids,…). The sources of ROS production are multiple including NADPH oxidase, but also the mitochondria which is considered as the main ROS producer in the brain. ROS are considered as signaling molecules, but conversely impairment of this neuronal signaling ROS pathway contributes to alterations of autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine function, leading to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review we focus our attention on factors that are able to modulate hypothalamic ROS release in order to control food intake and energy metabolism, and whose deregulations could participate to the development of pathological conditions. This novel insight reveals an original mechanism in the hypothalamus that controls energy balance and identify hypothalamic ROS signaling as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:25759638

  7. Sodium and water intake are not affected by GABAC receptor activation in the lateral parabrachial nucleus of sodium-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Domingos-Souza, Gean; Meschiari, Cesar Arruda; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Callera, João Carlos; Antunes-Rodrigues, José

    2016-07-01

    The activation of GABAergic receptors, GABAA and GABAB, in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) increases water and sodium intake in satiated and fluid-depleted rats. The present study investigated the presence of the GABAC receptor in the LPBN, its involvement in water and sodium intake, and its effects on cardiovascular parameters during the acute fluid depletion induced by furosemide combined with captopril (Furo/Cap). One group of male Wistar rats (290-300g) with bilateral stainless steel LPBN cannulas was used to test the effects of a GABAC receptor agonist and antagonist on the fluid intake and cardiovascular parameters. We investigated the effects of bilateral LPBN injections of trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (TACA) on the intake of water and 0.3M NaCl induced by acute fluid depletion (subcutaneous injection of Furo/Cap). c-Fos expression increased (P<0.05), suggesting LPBN neuronal activation. The injection of different doses of TACA (0.5, 2.0 and 160 nmol) in the LPBN did not change the sodium or water intake in Furo/Cap-treated rats (P>0.05). Treatment with the GABAC receptor antagonist (Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]prop-2-enoic acid sulfate (ZAPA, 10nmol) or with ZAPA (10nmol) plus TACA (160nmol) did not change the sodium or water intake compared with that for vehicle (saline) (P>0.05). Bilateral injections of the GABAC agonist in the LPBN of Furo/Cap-treated rats did not affect the mean arterial pressure (MAP) or heart rate (HR). The GABAC receptor expression in the LPBN was confirmed by the presence of a 50kDa band. Although LPBN neurons might express GABAC receptors, their activation produced no change in water and sodium intake or in the cardiovascular parameters in the acute fluid depletion rats. Therefore, the GABAC receptors in the LPBN might not interfere with fluid and blood pressure regulation. PMID:26970564

  8. Control of Food Intake and Energy Expenditure by Nos1 Neurons of the Paraventricular Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Amy K.; Pei, Hongjuan; Burnett, Korri H.; Myers, Martin G.; Rhodes, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) contains a heterogeneous cluster of Sim1-expressing cell types that comprise a major autonomic output nucleus and play critical roles in the control of food intake and energy homeostasis. The roles of specific PVH neuronal subtypes in energy balance have yet to be defined, however. The PVH contains nitric oxide synthase-1 (Nos1)-expressing (Nos1PVH) neurons of unknown function; these represent a subset of the larger population of Sim1-expressing PVH (Sim1PVH) neurons. To determine the role of Nos1PVH neurons in energy balance, we used Cre-dependent viral vectors to both map their efferent projections and test their functional output in mice. Here we show that Nos1PVH neurons project to hindbrain and spinal cord regions important for food intake and energy expenditure control. Moreover, pharmacogenetic activation of Nos1PVH neurons suppresses feeding to a similar extent as Sim1PVH neurons, and increases energy expenditure and activity. Furthermore, we found that oxytocin-expressing PVH neurons (OXTPVH) are a subset of Nos1PVH neurons. OXTPVH cells project to preganglionic, sympathetic neurons in the thoracic spinal cord and increase energy expenditure upon activation, though not to the same extent as Nos1PVH neurons; their activation fails to alter feeding, however. Thus, Nos1PVH neurons promote negative energy balance through changes in feeding and energy expenditure, whereas OXTPVH neurons regulate energy expenditure alone, suggesting a crucial role for non-OXT Nos1PVH neurons in feeding regulation. PMID:25392498

  9. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  10. Complementary food: international comparison on protein and energy requirement/intakes.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello

    2006-01-01

    The possible role of early dietary habits as the origin of later consequences on health has raised questions on the optimal macronutrient intakes of the growing infant. Infants and toddlers in developed countries usually show a high dietary protein: energy ratio during the complementary feeding period, averaging 2.5-3, because of the protein density of solid weaning foods and the low percentage of mothers still breastfeeding beyond the first 6 months of life. In conditions of very high protein intakes, those in the higher classes of consumption seem to carry a higher risk of becoming obese later on. Over the limit of 14% energy from proteins in the 8- to 24- month period, some mechanisms may begin to operate leading young children towards an early adiposity rebound and overweight development. On the other hand, in many developing countries the only available weaning foods are cereals, with a low protein: energy ratio value. When the protein concentration of weaning foods falls below the limits of human milk (that is, from 1 g/100 kcal to lower levels), the infants' dietary requirements cannot be met. In planning interventions, the coverage of infants' dietary needs through all the various world regions should be considered together with the opportunity not to exceed higher limits. PMID:16902332

  11. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Rebecca E.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J.; Foley, David G.; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance. PMID:26601248

  12. Direct quantification of energy intake in an apex marine predator suggests physiology is a key driver of migrations.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Rebecca E; Hazen, Elliott L; Walli, Andreas; Farwell, Charles; Bograd, Steven J; Foley, David G; Castleton, Michael; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) are highly migratory apex marine predators that inhabit a broad thermal niche. The energy needed for migration must be garnered by foraging, but measuring energy intake in the marine environment is challenging. We quantified the energy intake of Pacific bluefin tuna in the California Current using a laboratory-validated model, the first such measurement in a wild marine predator. Mean daily energy intake was highest off the coast of Baja California, Mexico in summer (mean ± SD, 1034 ± 669 kcal), followed by autumn when Pacific bluefin achieve their northernmost range in waters off northern California (944 ± 579 kcal). Movements were not always consistent with maximizing energy intake: the Pacific bluefin move out of energy rich waters both in late summer and winter, coincident with rising and falling water temperatures, respectively. We hypothesize that temperature-related physiological constraints drive migration and that Pacific bluefin tuna optimize energy intake within a range of optimal aerobic performance. PMID:26601248

  13. Effects of nutritional supplementation on the appetite and energy intake responses to IV cholecystokinin in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tai, Kamilia; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Horowitz, Michael; Wishart, Judith M; Chapman, Ian M

    2010-12-01

    Human aging is associated with a reduction in appetite and food intake. Increased activity of the satiety hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), may be partly responsible. This study aimed to determine whether an increase in fat and energy intake modifies the suppressive effects of CCK-8 on appetite and energy intake. Fourteen healthy older adults completed three separate dietary periods, a 14-day and a 7-day normal diet (ND; 8272 ± 480 kJ/day; 35% fat), and a 14-day high-fat diet (HFD; 11,642 ± 414 kJ/day; 43% fat), in randomised order. Immediately following each diet, subjects received, in single-blinded fashion, a 30-min intravenous infusion of either CCK-8 (1.5 ng/kg/min) (ND-CCK, HFD-CCK) or 0.9% saline (ND-SAL), the latter following only ND. Plasma CCK concentrations, appetite responses and energy intake at a buffet meal were determined. Energy intake at the buffet meal was higher on the ND-SAL study day (3349 ± 224 kJ), when compared with either ND-CCK (3023 ± 317 kJ) or HFD-CCK (2905 ± 316 kJ). The suppression of energy intake by CCK-8 infusion did not differ between the two diets. We conclude that suppression of energy intake by exogenous CCK-8 does not appear to be attenuated by incorporation of supplemental high-energy, high-fat drinks in the diet of healthy older adults. PMID:20800632

  14. Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals123

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Roberts, Amy L; Chen, Jinya; Kelleman, Michael; O'Keeffe, Majella; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Jones, Peter JH

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests a relation between short sleep duration and obesity. Objective: We assessed energy balance during periods of short and habitual sleep in normal-weight men and women. Design: Fifteen men and 15 women aged 30–49 y with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 22–26, who regularly slept 7–9 h/night, were recruited to participate in this crossover inpatient study. All participants were studied under short (4 h/night) and habitual (9 h/night) sleep conditions, in random order, for 5 nights each. Food intake was measured on day 5, and energy expenditure was measured with the doubly labeled water method over each period. Results: Participants consumed more energy on day 5 during short sleep (2813.6 ± 593.0 kcal) than during habitual sleep (2517.7 ± 593.0 kcal; P = 0.023). This effect was mostly due to increased consumption of fat (20.7 ± 37.4 g; P = 0.01), notably saturated fat (8.7 ± 20.4 g; P = 0.038), during short sleep. Resting metabolic rate (short sleep: 1455.4 ± 129.0 kcal/d; habitual sleep: 1486.5 ± 129.5 kcal/d; P = 0.136) and total energy expenditure (short sleep: 2589.2 ± 526.5 kcal/d; habitual sleep: 2611.1 ± 529.0 kcal/d; P = 0.832) did not differ significantly between sleep phases. Conclusions: Our data show that a reduction in sleep increases energy and fat intakes, which may explain the associations observed between sleep and obesity. If sustained, as observed, and not compensated by increased energy expenditure, the dietary intakes of individuals undergoing short sleep predispose to obesity. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00935402. PMID:21715510

  15. Impact of energy intake, physical activity, and population-wide weight loss on cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality in Cuba, 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Franco, Manuel; Orduñez, Pedro; Caballero, Benjamín; Tapia Granados, José A; Lazo, Mariana; Bernal, José Luís; Guallar, Eliseo; Cooper, Richard S

    2007-12-15

    Cuba's economic crisis of 1989-2000 resulted in reduced energy intake, increased physical activity, and sustained population-wide weight loss. The authors evaluated the possible association of these factors with mortality trends. Data on per capita daily energy intake, physical activity, weight loss, and smoking were systematically retrieved from national and local surveys. National vital statistics from 1980-2005 were used to assess trends in mortality from diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and all causes. The crisis reduced per capita daily energy intake from 2,899 calories to 1,863 calories. During the crisis period, the proportion of physically active adults increased from 30% to 67%, and a 1.5-unit shift in the body mass index distribution was observed, along with a change in the distribution of body mass index categories. The prevalence of obesity declined from 14% to 7%, the prevalence of overweight increased 1%, and the prevalence of normal weight increased 4%. During 1997-2002, there were declines in deaths attributed to diabetes (51%), coronary heart disease (35%), stroke (20%), and all causes (18%). An outbreak of neuropathy and a modest increase in the all-cause death rate among the elderly were also observed. These results suggest that population-wide measures designed to reduce energy stores, without affecting nutritional sufficiency, may lead to declines in diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality. PMID:17881386

  16. Fast-Food and Full-service Restaurant Consumption among Children and Adolescents: Impact on Energy, Beverage and Nutrient Intake

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Nguyen, Binh T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on total energy intake, dietary indicators and beverage consumption. Design Individual-level fixed effects estimation based on two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Nationally representative data from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants Children aged 2 to 11 (N=4717) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 (N=4699) Main Outcome Measures Daily total energy intake in kilocalories, intakes of grams of sugar, fat, saturated fat and protein and milligrams of sodium and total grams of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), regular soda and milk consumed. Results Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 126 kcal and 160 kcal for children and 310 kcal and 267 kcal for adolescents and higher intakes of regular soda (+74g and +88g for children and +163g and +107g for adolescents) and SSBs generally. Fast-food consumption increased intakes of total fat (+7–8g), saturated fat (+2–5g) and sugar (+6–16g) for both age groups and sodium (+396mg) and protein (+8g) for adolescents. Full-service restaurant consumption was associated with increases in all nutrients examined. Additional key findings were 1) adverse impacts on diet were larger for lower-income children and adolescents; and, 2) among adolescents, increased soda intake was twice as large when fast food was consumed away from home than at home. Conclusions Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption is associated with higher net total energy intake and poorer diet quality. PMID:23128151

  17. Beverage consumption, appetite, and energy intake: what did you expect?123

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Considine, Robert V

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beverage consumption is implicated in the overweight/obesity epidemic through the weaker energy compensation response it elicits compared with solid food forms. However, plausible mechanisms are not documented. Objective: This study assessed the cognitive and sensory contributions of differential postingestive responses to energy- and macronutrient-matched liquid (in beverage form) and solid food forms and identifies physiologic processes that may account for them. Design: Fifty-two healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 24.7 ± 5.5 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 26.3 ± 6.3] completed this randomized, 4-arm crossover study. Participants consumed oral liquid and solid preloads that they perceived, through cognitive manipulation, to be liquid or solid in their stomach (ie, oral liquid/perceived gastric liquid, oral liquid/perceived gastric solid, oral solid/perceived gastric liquid, or oral solid/perceived gastric solid). However, all preloads were designed to present a liquid gastric challenge. Appetite, gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, and selected endocrine responses were monitored for the following 4 h; total energy intake was also recorded. Results: Oral-liquid and perceived gastric-liquid preloads elicited greater postprandial hunger and lower fullness sensations, more rapid gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, attenuated insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 release, and lower ghrelin suppression than did responses after oral-solid and perceived gastric-solid treatments (all P < 0.05). Faster gastric-emptying times were significantly associated with greater energy intake after consumption of perceived gastric-liquid preloads (P < 0.05). Energy intake was greater on days when perceived gastric-liquid preloads were consumed than when perceived gastric solids were consumed (2311 ± 95 compared with 1897 ± 72 kcal, P = 0.007). Conclusions: These data document sensory and cognitive effects of food form on ingestive behavior and identify physical and

  18. Measuring the neighborhood environment: associations with young girls' energy intake and expenditure in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neighborhood environments affect children's health outcomes. Observational methods used to assess neighborhoods can be categorized as indirect, intermediate, or direct. Direct methods, involving in-person audits of the neighborhoods conducted by trained observers, are recognized as an accurate representation of current neighborhood conditions. The authors investigated the associations of various neighborhood characteristics with young girls' diet and physical activity. Methods This study is based on a subset of participants in the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment and Transitions (CYGNET). In-person street audits were conducted within 215 girls' residential neighborhoods using a modified St. Louis Audit Tool. From the street audit data, exploratory factor analysis revealed five neighborhood scales: "mixed residential and commercial," "food and retail," "recreation," "walkability," and "physical disorder." A Neighborhood Deprivation Index was also derived from census data. The authors investigated if the five neighborhood scales and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index were associated with quartiles of total energy intake and expenditure (metabolic equivalent (MET) hours/week) at baseline, and whether any of these associations were modified by race/ethnicity. Results After adjustment for demographic characteristics, there was an inverse association between prevalence of "food and retail" destinations and total energy intake (for a one quartile increase, OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.74, 0.96). Positive associations were also observed between the "recreation" and "walkability" scales with physical activity among Hispanic/Latina girls (for a one quartile increase in MET, OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.31, 2.88 for recreation; OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.11, 2.63 for walkability). Among African-American girls, there was an inverse association between "physical disorder" and physical activity (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12, 0.80). Conclusions These results suggest that

  19. Prominent pancreatic endocrinopathy and altered control of food intake disrupt energy homeostasis in prion diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, J.D.; Berardinelli, J.G.; Rocke, T.E.; Bessen, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can induce endocrinopathies. The basis of altered endocrine function in prion diseases is not well understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal relationship between energy homeostasis and prion infection in hamsters inoculated with either the 139H strain of scrapie agent, which induces preclinical weight gain, or the HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), which induces clinical weight loss. Temporal changes in body weight, feed, and water intake were measured as well as both non-fasted and fasted concentrations of serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, ??-ketones, and leptin. In 139H scrapie-infected hamsters, polydipsia, hyperphagia, non-fasted hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia, and fasted hyperleptinemia were found at preclinical stages and are consistent with an anabolic syndrome that has similarities to type II diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome X. In HY TME-infected hamsters, hypodipsia, hypersecretion of glucagon (in both non-fasted and fasted states), increased fasted ??-ketones, fasted hypoglycemia, and suppressed non-fasted leptin concentrations were found while feed intake was normal. These findings suggest a severe catabolic syndrome in HY TME infection mediated by chronic increases in glucagon secretion. In both models, alterations of pancreatic endocrine function were not associated with PrPSc deposition in the pancreas. The results indicate that prominent endocrinopathy underlies alterations in body weight, pancreatic endocrine function, and intake of food. The prion-induced alterations of energy homeostasis in 139H scrapie- or HY TME-infected hamsters could occur within areas of the hypothalamus that control food satiety and/or within autonomic centers that provide neural outflow to the pancreas. ?? 2008 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  1. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  2. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  3. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  4. New Strategy to Reduce Hypertriglyceridemia During Parenteral Nutrition While Maintaining Energy Intake.

    PubMed

    Mateu-de Antonio, Javier; Florit-Sureda, Marta

    2014-09-11

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a frequent metabolic complication associated with fat administration in parenteral nutrition (PN). No clear guidelines have been published on how to proceed once hypertriglyceridemia has been detected. A new strategy could be to substitute the initial fat emulsion with another emulsion with faster clearance. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness in reducing triglyceridemia values, maintaining the caloric intake, and improving nutrition parameters in patients who had moderate hypertriglyceridemia during PN when an olive oil-based fat emulsion (OOFE) was substituted with a multiple-source oil fat emulsion (MOFE). We also assessed the safety of this substitution in hepatic and glycemic profiles. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective, observational study that included 38 adult patients to whom OOFE in PN was substituted with MOFE when moderate hypertriglyceridemia (≥250-400 mg/dL) was detected. Results: Triglyceridemia values decreased in 36 (94.7%) patients. The mean reduction was 71 (88-22) mg/dL. Fat load was slightly reduced after substitution (-0.14 [-0.23 to 0] g/kg/d; P < .001), but total caloric intake increased from 22.5 (19.7-25.1) to 23.1 (19.8-26.8) kcal/kg/d (P = .053). After substitution, nutrition parameters improved, liver parameters remained unchanged, and insulin requirements increased. Conclusion: The substitution of OOFE with MOFE in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia during PN resulted in a reduction in triglyceridemia values of about 70 mg/dL. That allowed maintaining the caloric intake and improved nutrition parameters without affecting the hepatic profile. For some patients, insulin requirements increased moderately. (JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx). PMID:25214551

  5. Under-reporting of Energy Intake from 24-hour Dietary Recalls in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Seunghee; Kwon, Sung-Ok; Lee, Soon-Young; Lee, Jiyoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Suh, Hee-Jae; Moon, Hyun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic degenerative diseases are closely related to daily eating habits, nutritional status, and, in particular, energy intake. In clarifying these relationships it is very important for dietary surveys to report accurate information about energy intake. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of the under-reporting of energy intake and its related characteristics based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in the years 2007–2009. Methods The present study analyzed dietary intake data from 15,133 adults aged ≥19 years using 24-hour dietary recalls. Basal metabolic rates were calculated from the age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield and under-reporting was defined as an energy intake <0.9, represented by the ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate. Results Under-reporters (URs) accounted for 14.4% of men and 23.0% of women and the under-reporting rate was higher in the age group 30–49 years for both men and women. The results from an analysis of the age-specific socioeconomic characteristics of participants classified as URs showed that under-reporting was high in women living alone and in women with only elementary school education or no education. The results from an analysis of the health-specific characteristics of URs showed that a large proportion of URs had poor self-rated health or were obese, or both, compared with non-URs. The proportion of participants who consumed less than the estimated average requirements for nutrients was significantly higher in URs compared with non-URs. Conclusion The under-reporting of energy intake was associated with age, gender, education level, income level, household status (single-person or multi-person), self-rated health, physical activity, and obesity. PMID:24955317

  6. BMI Affects the Relationship between Long Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Stroke Risk: a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pengfei; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Wu, Yu; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhiguo; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and stroke risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through May 2015. Log relative risks (RRs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain pooled RRs. Fourteen prospective cohort studies including 514,483 individuals and 9,065 strokes were included. The pooled RR of overall stroke risk for long chain n-3 PUFA intake was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-0.95]. Stratification analysis showed that higher long chain n-3 PUFAs intake was associated with reduced fatal stroke risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.97), reduced stroke risk for BMI < 24 (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98) and reduced stroke risk for females (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92), but was not associated with stroke risk for either BMI ≥ 24 or men. This meta-analysis reveals that higher long chain n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with BMI and sex as key factors influencing this risk. Individuals should be encouraged to manage their body weight while increasing their intake of long chain n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26369699

  7. BMI Affects the Relationship between Long Chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and Stroke Risk: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pengfei; Huang, Wen; Bai, Shunjie; Wu, Yu; Yu, Jia; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Qi, Zhiguo; Shao, Weihua; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and stroke risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through May 2015. Log relative risks (RRs) of the highest versus the lowest for cohort studies were weighed by the inverse variance method to obtain pooled RRs. Fourteen prospective cohort studies including 514,483 individuals and 9,065 strokes were included. The pooled RR of overall stroke risk for long chain n-3 PUFA intake was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79–0.95]. Stratification analysis showed that higher long chain n-3 PUFAs intake was associated with reduced fatal stroke risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73–0.97), reduced stroke risk for BMI < 24 (RR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75–0.98) and reduced stroke risk for females (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71–0.92), but was not associated with stroke risk for either BMI ≥ 24 or men. This meta-analysis reveals that higher long chain n-3 PUFA intake is inversely associated with risk of stroke morbidity and mortality with BMI and sex as key factors influencing this risk. Individuals should be encouraged to manage their body weight while increasing their intake of long chain n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26369699

  8. Control of appetite and energy intake by SCFA: what are the potential underlying mechanisms?

    PubMed

    Chambers, Edward S; Morrison, Douglas J; Frost, Gary

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the role of dietary fibre in obesity management. Much of this interest stems from animal and human studies which suggest that an increased intake of fermentable fibre can suppress appetite and improve weight management. A growing number of reports have demonstrated that the principal products of colonic fermentation of dietary fibre, SCFA, contribute to energy homeostasis via effects on multiple cellular metabolic pathways and receptor-mediated mechanisms. In particular, over the past decade it has been identified that a widespread receptor system exists for SCFA. These G-protein-coupled receptors, free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) 2 and FFAR3 are expressed in numerous tissue sites, including the gut epithelium and adipose tissue. Investigations using FFAR2- or FFAR3-deficient animal models suggest that SCFA-mediated stimulation of these receptors enhances the release of the anorectic hormones peptide tyrosine tyrosine and glucagon-like peptide-1 from colonic L cells and leptin from adipocytes. In addition, the SCFA acetate has recently been shown to have a direct role in central appetite regulation. Furthermore, the SCFA propionate is a known precursor for hepatic glucose production, which has been reported to suppress feeding behaviour in ruminant studies through the stimulation of hepatic vagal afferents. The present review therefore proposes that an elevated colonic production of SCFA could stimulate numerous hormonal and neural signals at different organ and tissue sites that would cumulatively suppress short-term appetite and energy intake. PMID:25497601

  9. Comparison of Methods to Account for Implausible Reporting of Energy Intake in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Jinnie J.; Sampson, Laura; Cho, Eunyoung; Hughes, Michael D.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the American Journal of Epidemiology by Mendez et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(4):448–458), the use of alternative approaches to the exclusion of implausible energy intakes led to significantly different cross-sectional associations between diet and body mass index (BMI), whereas the use of a simpler recommended criteria (<500 and >3,500 kcal/day) yielded no meaningful change. However, these findings might have been due to exclusions made based on weight, a primary determinant of BMI. Using data from 52,110 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1990), we reproduced the cross-sectional findings of Mendez et al. and compared the results from the recommended method with those from 2 weight-dependent alternative methods (the Goldberg method and predicted total energy expenditure method). The same 3 exclusion criteria were then used to examine dietary variables prospectively in relation to change in BMI, which is not a direct function of attained weight. We found similar associations using the 3 methods. In a separate cross-sectional analysis using biomarkers of dietary factors, we found similar correlations for intakes of fatty acids (n = 439) and carotenoids and retinol (n = 1,293) using the 3 methods for exclusions. These results do not support the general conclusion that use of exclusion criteria based on the alternative methods might confer an advantage over the recommended exclusion method. PMID:25656533

  10. Placement of a take-out container during meal influences energy intake.

    PubMed

    Bates, Kate J; Byker Shanks, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that increased portion sizes are contributing to the rising rates of obesity. However, studies that focus on environmental cues to promote portion control are relatively limited. Thus, a randomized study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting to determine if the presence of a take-out container, given at the start of a meal, would prompt experimental group participants to decrease the portion of food consumed and reduce energy intake. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and analysis of covariance. Results showed that placing a take-out container with the test meal led to a significant difference in energy intake (p=0.000) when compared to the control group. Participants (n=25) who were given a take-out container with their test meal consumed an average of 90 kcal less than participants (n=25) who were not given the condition. These findings suggest that a to-go container may be utilized as an effective environmental cue for guiding consumers to control serving size when faced with over-sized portions at restaurants or other food outlets. PMID:26448436

  11. Increased Physical Activity Not Decreased Energy Intake Is Associated with Inpatient Medical Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Janine; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of data regarding changes in dietary intake and physical activity over time that lead to inpatient medical treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). Without such data, more effective nutritional therapies for patients cannot be devised. This study was undertaken to describe changes in diet and physical activity that precede inpatient medical hospitalization for AN in female adolescents. This data can be used to understand factors contributing to medical instability in AN, and may advance rodent models of AN to investigate novel weight restoration strategies. It was hypothesized that hospitalization for AN would be associated with progressive energy restriction and increased physical activity over time. 20 females, 11–19 years (14.3±1.8 years), with restricting type AN, completed retrospective, self-report questionnaires to assess dietary intake and physical activity over the 6 month period prior to inpatient admission (food frequency questionnaire, Pediatric physical activity recall) and 1 week prior (24 hour food recall, modifiable activity questionnaire). Physical activity increased acutely prior to inpatient admission without any change in energy or macronutrient intake. However, there were significant changes in reported micronutrient intake causing inadequate intake of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, and pantothenic acid at 1 week versus high, potentially harmful, intake of Vitamin A over 6 months prior to admission. Subject report of significantly increased physical activity, not decreased energy intake, were associated with medical hospitalization for AN. Physical activity and Vitamin A and D intake should be carefully monitored following initial AN diagnosis, as markers of disease progression as to potentially minimize the risk of medical instability. PMID:23637854

  12. Metabolic adaptation to decreases in energy intake due to changes in the energy cost of low energy expenditure regimen.

    PubMed

    Garby, L

    1990-01-01

    (1) The energy content in food is used in the human body for three main purposes. The first is to maintain the dissipative structures. Most of the structures of the body are of this kind, i.e. they represent stationary non-equilibrium states, or (generalized) stationary potentials, and are inherently unstable. The second is to maintain a body temperature independent of and usually higher than that of the surroundings. The third is to provide energy for performance of external work. The functional structure of the system providing these results consists of a large number of coupled processes (chemical reactions and translocations), in series and in parallel, whose general nature is well understood but whose quantitative extents are mainly unknown. The coupled processes are driven by the spontaneous reaction of the main substrates with oxygen. Energy flows through the system and is converted to heat (and external work) with simultaneous creation of stationary generalized potentials. For each potential there is an associated flow of energy and the relation between the two is an expression of the efficiency with which the potential is maintained. The processes giving rise to the potentials are likely to be controlled with respect to the efficiency with which the potentials are maintained. The control is partly provided through feedback from the potentials themselves: the potentials are regulated. In this way, the system can respond in a non-linear fashion to perturbations in the energy intake (or energy expenditure): the potentials are maintained at constant, or nearly constant, values. The concept of metabolic adaptation implies that control of the efficiency by feedback from the potentials is an important element in the overall regulation of the potentials, including that of the body temperature. (2) The concept of metabolic adaptation can be framed in such a way that it becomes operational. Quantities such as maintained potentials and efficiency can be revealed in

  13. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to energy reduction diet), and the energy and fat reduction diet resulted in lower weight over time (P<0.0001, treatment effect). Total cholesterol and cholesterol:HDL decreased after 3 mo in both groups (Pintake can assist individuals to maintain weight. PMID:19234056

  14. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Pereira, Rosangela A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. Subjects/Methods Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 6am-10am; Lunch, 12pm-3pm; Dinner, 6pm-9pm); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percent consuming, number of daily snacks, and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/d, kcal/snack, and % of daily energy from snacks). Results 74% of Brazilians (≥10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/d. 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥3 snacks/d). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample, but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared to non-snackers (1548 kcal/d), light (1-2 snacks/d) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/d, respectively). By time of day, the largest percent of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (3:01-5:59 pm, 47.7%). Sweetened Coffee & Tea, Sweets & Desserts, Fruit, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB), and high-calorie Salgados (Fried/baked dough with Meat/Cheese/Vegetable) were the top 5 most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for SSB’s. Conclusions Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars (SoFAS). The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration. PMID:23486510

  15. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70-0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants' energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76-228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  16. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Qiao; Zhang, Yun-Quan; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Li, Rui; Chen, Guo-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF) is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs) in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040). Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017). We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability. PMID:27322302

  17. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed Central

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

  18. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  19. How clustering dark energy affects matter perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, A.; Basilakos, S.; Pace, F.

    2015-09-01

    The rate of structure formation in the Universe is different in homogeneous and clustered dark energy models. The degree of dark energy clustering depends on the magnitude of its effective sound speed c2_eff and for c2_eff=0 dark energy clusters in a similar fashion to dark matter while for c2_eff=1 it stays (approximately) homogeneous. In this paper we consider two distinct equations of state for the dark energy component, wd = const and w_d=w_0+w_1(z/1+z) with c2_eff as a free parameter and we try to constrain the dark energy effective sound speed using current available data including Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background shift parameter (Planck and WMAP), Hubble parameter, big bang nucleosynthesis and the growth rate of structures fσ8(z). At first we derive the most general form of the equations governing dark matter and dark energy clustering under the assumption that c2_eff=const. Finally, performing an overall likelihood analysis we find that the likelihood function peaks at c2_eff=0; however, the dark energy sound speed is degenerate with respect to the cosmological parameters, namely Ωm and wd.

  20. A QTL on Chromosome 18q influences energy intake and expenditure in Hispanic children: the VIVA LA FAMILIA study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic contribution to dysregulation of energy intake and/or energy expenditure contributing to common obesities in children is poorly understood. A genome scan was performed to identify chromosomal regions contributing to obesity-related traits in Hispanic children participating in the VIVA LA...

  1. Predictors of sustained reduction in energy and fat intake in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Nichola J.; Ma, Yong; Delahanty, Linda M.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Franks, Paul W.; Saudek, Christopher; Brown-Friday, Janet; Isonaga, Mae; Kriska, Andrea M.; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle intervention studies examine long-term sustainability of dietary changes. Objective To describe sustainability of dietary changes over 9 years in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) among participants receiving the intensive lifestyle (ILS) intervention. Design 1079 participants were enrolled in the ILS arm of DPP; 910 continued participation in DPPOS. Fat and caloric intake derived from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at baseline and post-randomization years 1 and 9 were examined. Parsimonious models determined if baseline characteristics and ILS session participation predicted sustainability. Results Self-reported caloric intake was reduced from a median of 1876 kcal/d [inter-quartile range (IQR) 1452-2549] at baseline to 1520 kcal/d (IQR 1192 -1986) at year 1, and 1560 kcal/d (IQR 1223 -2026) at year 9. Dietary fat was reduced from a median of 70.4 grams (IQR 49.3-102.5) to 45 grams (IQR 32.2-63.8) at year 1 and increased to 61.0 grams (IQR 44.6-82.7) at year 9. Percent calories from fat was reduced from a median of 34.4% (IQR 29.6-38.5) to 27.1% (IQR 23.1-31.5) at year 1 but increased to 35.3% (IQR 29.7-40.2) at year 9. Lower baseline energy intake and year 1 dietary reduction predicted lower caloric and fat gram intake at year 9. Higher leisure physical activity predicted lower fat gram intake but not caloric intake. Conclusions Intensive lifestyle intervention can result in reductions in total energy intake for up to 9 years. Initial success in achieving reductions in fat and caloric intake and success in attaining activity goals appear to predict long-term success at maintaining changes. PMID:24144073

  2. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation had no effect on body weight but reduced energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Harden, Charlotte J; Dible, Victoria A; Russell, Jean M; Garaiova, Iveta; Plummer, Sue F; Barker, Margo E; Corfe, Bernard M

    2014-01-01

    Longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have greater appetite-suppressing effects than shorter-chain, monosaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Because fish oils are predominantly composed of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid and may assist in the treatment of obesity comorbidities, their effect on body weight and body mass index is of interest. We hypothesized that daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil would reduce energy intake and body weight in overweight and obese women compared with supplementation with oleic acid (OA) rich oil. A double-blinded, randomized, parallel intervention was conducted. Body mass index (in kilograms per meter squared), body weight (in kilograms), body fat (in percent), and lean tissue (in kilograms) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after intervention with DHA or OA. Diet diaries were also completed at these time points for estimation of energy and macronutrient intake. Subjects reported significantly lower energy (P = .020), carbohydrate (g) (P = .037), and fat (g) (P = .045) intake after DHA compared with OA. Body mass or composition was not affected by treatment, although a fall in body weight in the DHA group approached statistical significance (P = .089). Daily ingestion of DHA over a 12-week period may reduce energy intake in overweight and obese females, but longer-term and adequately powered studies using subjects of both sexes are needed. Other factors that should be considered include the following: the choice of control, the body mass index category of subjects, and ways of improving the compliancy and accuracy of dietary assessment. PMID:24418242

  3. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control. PMID:26037633

  4. Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) Consumption Positively Affects Total Daily Nutrient Intakes in Hispanic Children and Adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the impact of breakfast meal pattern on nutrient intake status of Hispanic children and adolescents (N=3220), we compared breakfast skippers (S), RTEC, and other breakfast consumers using 24-hour recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our data ind...

  5. College Students' Dietary Practices Affect Lutein/Zeaxanthin Intake: A Two-Generation, Ethnic and Gender Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osaseri, Uyi E.; Kwok, Shiu Y.; Kwok, Wendy; Tam, Chick F.

    2008-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are important anti-oxidant nutrients obtained only from foods that are essential for good eye health. The purpose of this study was to assess food choices rich in lutein/zeaxanthin and compare the amount of lutein/zeaxanthin intake amongst college students and their live-in parents. Three-day dietary records from 95…

  6. Body composition and energy intake - skeletal muscle mass is the strongest predictor of food intake in obese adolescents: The HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Phillips, Penny; Doucette, Steve; Goldfield, Gary

    2016-06-01

    There has been renewed interest in examining the relationship between specific components of energy expenditure and the overall influence on energy intake (EI). The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine the strongest metabolic and anthropometric predictors of EI. It was hypothesized that resting metabolic rate (RMR) and skeletal muscle mass would be the strongest predictors of EI in a sample of overweight and obese adolescents. 304 post-pubertal adolescents (91 boys, 213 girls) aged 16.1 (±1.4) years with body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex OR at or above the 85th percentile plus an additional diabetes risk factor were measured for body weight, RMR (kcal/day) by indirect calorimetry, body composition by magnetic resonance imaging (fat free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass, fat mass (FM), and percentage body fat), and EI (kcal/day) using 3 day food records. Body weight, RMR, FFM, skeletal muscle mass, and FM were all significantly correlated with EI (p < 0.005). After adjusting the model for age, sex, height, and physical activity, only FFM (β = 21.9, p = 0.007) and skeletal muscle mass (β = 25.8, p = 0.02) remained as significant predictors of EI. FFM and skeletal muscle mass also predicted dietary protein and fat intake (p < 0.05), but not carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, with skeletal muscle mass being the best predictor of EI, our results support the hypothesis that the magnitude of the body's lean tissue is related to absolute levels of EI in a sample of inactive adolescents with obesity. PMID:27111402

  7. The effects of restricted energy and fluid intake on simulated amateur boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Dyson, R; Hale, T; Hamilton, M; Kelly, J; Wellington, P

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the effects of serial reductions in energy and fluid intake on two simulated boxing performances separated by 2 days recovery. Eight amateur boxers (age: 23.6 +/- 3.2 years; height 175 +/- 5 cm; body mass [BM] 73.3 +/- 8.3 kg [Mean +/- SD]) performed two simulated boxing bouts (BB) under normal (N-trial) and restricted (R-trial) diets in a counterbalanced design over 5 days. The trials were separated by a 9-day period of normal dietary behavior (X-trial). BM was recorded on days 1, 3, and 5 of each trial. Simulated bouts of three, 3-min rounds with 1-min recovery were completed on days 3 (BB1) and 5 (BB2) of each 5-day trial. Punching force (N) was recorded from 8 sets of 7 punches by a purpose-built boxing ergometer. Heart rate (fC) was monitored continuously (PE3000 Polar Sports Tester, Kempele, Finland), and blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BG) were determined 4-min post-performance (2300 StaPlus, YSI, Ohio). Energy and fluid intakes were significantly lower in the R-trial (p < .05). Body mass was maintained during the N-trial but fell 3% (p < .05) during the R-trial. There were no significant differences in end-of-bout fC or post-bout BG, but BLa was higher in the N- than the R-trial (p < .05). R-trial punching forces were 3.2% and 4.6% lower, respectively, compared to the corresponding N-trial bouts, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that energy and fluid restrictions in weight-governed sports do not always lead to a significant decrease in performance, but because of the small sample size and big variations in individual performances, these findings should be interpreted with care. PMID:11426438

  8. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities. PMID:24879885

  9. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  10. Limits to sustained energy intake XXV: milk energy output and thermogenesis in Swiss mice lactating at thermoneutrality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Li, Li; Yang, Deng-Bao; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies at 21 °C and 5 °C suggest that in Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI) and reproductive performance are constrained by the mammary capacity to produce milk. We aimed to establish if this constraint also applied at higher ambient temperature (30 °C). Female Swiss mice lactating at 30 °C had lower asymptotic food intake and weaned lighter litters than those at 21 °C. Resting metabolic rate, daily energy expenditure, milk energy output and suckling time were all lower at 30 °C. In a second experiment we gave mice at 30 °C either 6 or 9 pups to raise. Female performance was independent of litter size, indicating that it is probably not controlled by pup demands. In a third experiment we exposed only the mother, or only the offspring to the elevated temperature. In this case the performance of the mother was only reduced when she was exposed, and not when her pups were exposed, showing that the high temperature directly constrains female performance. These data suggest that at 30 °C SusEI and reproductive performance are likely constrained by the capacity of females to dissipate body heat, and not indirectly via pup demands. Constraints seem to change with ambient temperature in this strain of mouse. PMID:27554919

  11. Limits to sustained energy intake XXV: milk energy output and thermogenesis in Swiss mice lactating at thermoneutrality.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Li, Li; Yang, Deng-Bao; Chi, Qing-Sheng; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies at 21 °C and 5 °C suggest that in Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI) and reproductive performance are constrained by the mammary capacity to produce milk. We aimed to establish if this constraint also applied at higher ambient temperature (30 °C). Female Swiss mice lactating at 30 °C had lower asymptotic food intake and weaned lighter litters than those at 21 °C. Resting metabolic rate, daily energy expenditure, milk energy output and suckling time were all lower at 30 °C. In a second experiment we gave mice at 30 °C either 6 or 9 pups to raise. Female performance was independent of litter size, indicating that it is probably not controlled by pup demands. In a third experiment we exposed only the mother, or only the offspring to the elevated temperature. In this case the performance of the mother was only reduced when she was exposed, and not when her pups were exposed, showing that the high temperature directly constrains female performance. These data suggest that at 30 °C SusEI and reproductive performance are likely constrained by the capacity of females to dissipate body heat, and not indirectly via pup demands. Constraints seem to change with ambient temperature in this strain of mouse. PMID:27554919

  12. Effects of Excess Energy Intake on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiuqing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy intake correlates with the development of metabolic disorders. However, different energy-dense foods have different effects on metabolism. To compare the effects of a high-fat diet, a high-fructose diet and a combination high-fat/high-fructose diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, male C57BL/6 mice were fed with one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow; standard diet and access to fructose water; a high fat diet; and a high fat diet with fructose water. After 3 months of feeding, the high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups showed significantly increased body weights, accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; however, the high-fructose group was not different from the control group. All three energy-dense groups showed significantly higher visceral fat weights, total cholesterol concentrations, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with the control group. Assays of basal metabolism showed that the respiratory quotient of the high-fat, the high-fructose, and the high-fat/high-fructose groups decreased compared with the control group. The present study confirmed the deleterious effect of high energy diets on body weight and metabolism, but suggested that the energy efficiency of the high-fructose diet was much lower than that of the high-fat diet. In addition, fructose supplementation did not worsen the detrimental effects of high-fat feeding alone on metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26745179

  13. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Ortega, Rosa M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inadequate hydration is a public health issue that imposes a significant economic burden. In Spain, data of total water intake (TWI) are scarce. There is a clear need for a national study that quantifies water and beverage intakes and explores associations between the types of beverages and energy intakes. Methods: The Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance Study ANIBES is a national survey of diet and nutrition conducted among a representative sample of 2285 healthy participants aged 9–75 years in Spain. Food and beverage intakes were assessed in a food diary over three days. Day and time of beverage consumption were also recorded. Results: On average, TWI was 1.7 L (SE 21.2) for men and 1.6 L (SE 18.9) for women. More than 75% of participants had inadequate TWI, according to European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommendations. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1810 kcal/day (SE 11.1), of which 12% was provided by beverages. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by milk. The contribution of alcoholic drinks to the EI was near 3%. For caloric soft drinks, a relatively low contribution to the EI was obtained, only 2%. Of eight different types of beverages, the variety score was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.39) and EI (r = 0.23), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that well-conducted surveys such as the ANIBES study have the potential to yield rich contextual value data that can emphasize the need to undertake appropriate health and nutrition policies to increase the total water intake at the population level promoting a healthy Mediterranean hydration pattern. PMID:27104564

  14. Acute Effects of Energy Deficit Induced by Moderate-Intensity Exercise or Energy-Intake Restriction on Postprandial Lipemia in Healthy Girls.

    PubMed

    Thackray, Alice Emily; Barrett, Laura Ann; Tolfrey, Keith

    2015-05-01

    Eleven healthy girls (mean ± SD: age 12.1 ± 0.6 years) completed three 2-day conditions in a counterbalanced, crossover design. On day 1, participants either walked at 60 (2)% peak oxygen uptake (energy deficit 1.55[0.20] MJ), restricted food energy intake (energy deficit 1.51[0.25] MJ) or rested. On day 2, capillary blood samples were taken at predetermined intervals throughout the 6.5 hr postprandial period before, and following, the ingestion of standardized breakfast and lunch meals. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations (TAG) was 29% and 13% lower than rest control in moderate-intensity exercise (effect size [ES] = 1.39, p = .01) and energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.57, p = .02) respectively; moderate-intensity exercise was 19% lower than energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.82, p = .06). The moderate-intensity exercise total area under the TAG versus time curve was 21% and 13% lower than rest control (ES = 0.71, p = .004) and energy-intake restriction (ES = 0.39, p = .06) respectively; energy-intake restriction was marginally lower than rest control (-10%; ES = 0.32, p = .12). An exercise-induced energy deficit elicited a greater reduction in fasting plasma TAG with a trend for a larger attenuation in postprandial plasma TAG than an isoenergetic diet-induced energy deficit in healthy girls. PMID:25389209

  15. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; O'Connor, Teresia M.; Power, Thomas G.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hazen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22545206

  16. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence. PMID:26742058

  17. Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake.

    PubMed

    King, James A; Wasse, Lucy K; Stensel, David J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the acute influence of exercise on eating behaviour in an ecologically valid setting whereby healthy active males were permitted complete ad libitum access to food. Ten healthy males completed two, 8h trials (exercise and control) in a randomised-crossover design. In the exercise trials participants consumed a breakfast snack and then rested for 1h before undertaking a 60 min run (72% of VO(2)max) on a treadmill. Participants then rested in the laboratory for 6h during which time they were permitted complete ad libitum access to a buffet meal. The timing of meals, energy/macronutrient intake and eating frequency were assessed. Identical procedures were completed in the control trial except no exercise was performed. Exercise increased the length of time (35 min) before participants voluntarily requested to eat afterwards. Despite this, energy intake at the first meal consumed, or at subsequent eating episodes, was not influenced by exercise (total trial energy intake: control 7426 kJ, exercise 7418 kJ). Neither was there any difference in macronutrient intake or meal frequency between trials. These results confirm that food intake remains unaffected by exercise in the immediate hours after but suggest that exercise may invoke a delay before food is desired. PMID:23137828

  18. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence. PMID:26742058

  19. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-01-01

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  20. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cifelli, Christopher J.; Houchins, Jenny A.; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2016-01-01

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2–18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  1. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vavra Ambrozova, Jarmila; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI), PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI), n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI) and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI), expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI) for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations. PMID:26057750

  2. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Orsavova, Jana; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Vicha, Robert; Mlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs) of fourteen vegetable oils--safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil--were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC). Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%-20.0%), oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%-71.1%) and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%-79%), respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%-695.7% E(RDI)), PUFAs (10.6%-786.8% E(RDI)), n-3 FAs (4.4%-117.1% E(RDI)) and n-6 FAs (1.8%-959.2% E(RDI)), expressed in % E(RDI) of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (E(RDI)) for total fat (E(RDI)--37.7 kJ/g). The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% E(RDI)) for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman's correlations. PMID:26057750

  3. Energy balance, macronutrient intake, and hydration status during a 1,230 km ultra-endurance bike marathon.

    PubMed

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Athletes competing in ultra-endurance events are advised to meet energy requirements, to supply appropriate amounts of carbohydrates (CHO), and to be adequately hydrated before and during exercise. In practice, these recommendations may not be followed because of satiety, gastrointestinal discomfort, and fatigue. The purpose of the study was to assess energy balance, macronutrient intake and hydration status before and during a 1,230-km bike marathon. A group of 14 well-trained participants (VO2max: 63.2 ± 3.3 ml/kg/min) completed the marathon after 42:47 hr. Ad libitum food and fluid intake were monitored throughout the event. Energy expenditure (EE) was derived from power output and urine and blood markers were collected before the start, after 310, 618, and 921 km, after the finish, and 12 hr after the finish. Energy intake (EI; 19,749 ± 4,502 kcal) was lower than EE (25,303 ± 2,436 kcal) in 12 of 14 athletes. EI and CHO intake (average: 57.1 ± 17.7 g/hr) decreased significantly after km 618 (p < .05). Participants ingested on average 392 ± 85 ml/hr of fluid, but fluid intake decreased after km 618 (p < .05). Hydration appeared suboptimal before the start (urine specific gravity: 1.022 ± 0.010 g/ml) but did not change significantly throughout the event. The results show that participants failed to maintain in energy balance and that CHO and fluid intake dropped below recommended values during the second half of the bike marathon. Individual strategies to overcome satiety and fatigue may be necessary to improve eating and drinking behavior during prolonged ultra-endurance exercise. PMID:24668685

  4. Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Bonacic, Kruno; Campoverde, Cindy; Gómez-Arbonés, Javier; Gisbert, Enric; Estevez, Alicia; Morais, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    Little is known how dietary lipids affect food intake during larval development of fish, especially with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition. In fact, very little work has been done on appetite regulation and food intake in fish larvae in general, due to biological and technical difficulties associated with this type of studies. A new method using fluorescent microspheres as markers was developed in this study to evaluate food intake and prey selectivity of Senegalese sole larvae and post-larvae. Food intake was quantified in fish fed Artemia metanauplii enriched with oils differing in FA profile: cod liver oil (CLO), linseed oil (LSO), soybean oil (SBO) or olive oil (OO). The fish did not preferentially ingest a specific diet when presented with a choice. However, pre-metamorphic larvae from the CLO treatment ingested more metanauplii per g body weight, while differences in post-larvae were not significant. These findings were developed further by analyzing mRNA levels of a range of putative anorexigenic (pyya, pyyb, glp1, cckl, cart1a, cart1b, cart2a, cart4, pomca, pomcb, crf) and orexigenic (gal, npy, agrp2) genes, to identify those which are significantly affected by feeding and/or dietary FA composition. The variety of expression patterns observed highlighted the complexity of appetite regulatory mechanisms. In general, fish fed the CLO diet tended to show gene expression patterns most dissimilar to the remaining treatments. Expression in pre-metamorphic larvae was generally less in accordance with the putative function of the genes than in post-larvae, which could suggest a yet underdeveloped regulatory system. PMID:26851305

  5. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  6. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself. PMID:25973686

  7. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, < 0.001). Furthermore, the magnitude of BW gain response to increased energy intake was greater ( < 0.001) for sows compared with gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( < 0.004) compared with those fed low energy, but no evidence for differences was found in gilts. This can be explained by an increased probability ( = 0.002) of stillborns in sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g

  8. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Melin, A; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Møller, S S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Sjödin, A

    2016-09-01

    Low or reduced energy availability (LEA) is linked to functional hypothalamic oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (FHA), which is frequently reported in weight-sensitive sports. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating disorders (n = 11), menstrual dysfunction other than FHA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) were excluded. Remaining subjects (n = 25) were characterized by EA [optimal: ≥ 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day (n = 11), LEA: < 45 kcal (188 kJ)/kg FFM/day (n = 14)] and reproductive function [eumenorrhea (EUM; n = 10), FHA (n = 15)]. There was no difference in EA between FHA and EUM subjects. However, FHA and LEA subjects shared the same dietary characteristics of lower energy density (ED) [(P = 0.012; P = 0.020), respectively], and fat content [(P = 0.047; P = 0.027), respectively]. Furthermore, FHA subjects had a lower intake of carbohydrate-rich foods (P = 0.019), higher fiber content (P < 0.001), and drive for thinness score (P = 0.003). Conclusively, low ED together with high fiber content may constitute targets for dietary intervention in order to prevent and treat LEA and FHA in female athletes. PMID:26148242

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US adults: NHANES 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2015-10-28

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under-reporting and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 19 693 US adults ≥20 years of age. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted using the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters of EI were identified by two methods based on the 95 % confidence limits: (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI to BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI to estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under-reporter or over-reporter compared with an acceptable reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters were 25·1, 73·5 and 1·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR, and 25·7, 71·8 and 2·5 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with female sex, older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites), lower education, lower family poverty income ratio and overweight and obesity. Over-reporting was associated with male sex, younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, current smoking (compared with never smoking) and underweight. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 28 794). In conclusion, we found that misreporting of EI, particularly under-reporting, remains prevalent and differential in US adults. PMID:26299892

  10. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  11. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  12. Exercise of low energy expenditure along with mild energy intake restriction acutely reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolaemia in young women.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Maria; Christodoulou, Nektarios; Aggelopoulou, Niki; Magkos, Faidon; Skenderi, Katerina P; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2009-02-01

    A single bout of prolonged, moderate-intensity endurance exercise lowers fasting and postprandial TAG concentrations the next day. However, the TAG-lowering effect of exercise is dose-dependent and does not manifest after light exercise of low energy cost ( < 2 MJ). We aimed to investigate whether superimposing mild energy intake restriction to such exercise, in order to augment total energy deficit, potentiates the hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect. Eight healthy, sedentary, premenopausal women (age 27.1 (sem 1.3) years; BMI 21.8 (sem 0.9) kg/m2) performed two oral fat tolerance tests in the morning on two different occasions: once after a single bout of light exercise (100 min at 30 % of peak oxygen consumption; net energy expenditure 1.04 (sem 0.01) MJ) coupled with mild energy intake restriction (1.39 (sem 0.22) MJ) on the preceding day, and once after resting coupled with isoenergetic feeding on the preceding day (control). Fasting plasma TAG, TAG in the TAG-rich lipoproteins (TRL-TAG) and serum insulin concentrations were 18, 34 and 30 % lower, respectively, after exercise plus diet compared with the control trial (P < 0.05). Postprandial concentrations of plasma TAG and TRL-TAG were 19 and 27 % lower after exercise plus diet compared with the control condition (P < 0.01), whereas postprandial insulin concentrations were not different. It is concluded that a combination of light exercise along with mild hypoenergetic diet may be a practical and feasible intervention to attenuate fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolaemia, especially for people who cannot exercise for prolonged periods of time at moderate-to-high intensities, such as many sedentary individuals. PMID:18570693

  13. Modeling the Effect of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption with Water on Energy Intake, HBI Score, and Obesity Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Kiyah J; Poti, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contribute to excessive weight gain through added energy intake. Replacing SSB with water is one strategy that has shown promise in helping lower excessive energy intake. Using nationally representative data from US adults (n = 19,718) from NHANES 2007-2012 we examine the impact of replacing SSB with water on Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) scores and obesity prevalence. Replacing an 8-ounce serving of SSB with water lowered the percent of energy from beverages from 17% to 11% (among those consuming 1 serving SSB/day). Reductions in the percent energy from beverages were observed across all SSB consumption groups (1-2 servings/day and >2 servings/day). Among adults there was a 9% to 21% improvement in HBI score when one serving of water replaced one serving of SSB. Using previously published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of measured weight loss we also predicted a reduction in the prevalence of obesity (observed: 35.2%; predicted 33.5%-34.9%, p < 0.05) and increase in the prevalence of normal weight (observed: 29.7%; high weight loss: 31.3%, p < 0.05). Our findings provide further epidemiologic evidence that water in the place of SSB can be used as a strategy to limit energy intake and help individuals meet beverage intake recommendations. PMID:27367719

  14. Modeling the Effect of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption with Water on Energy Intake, HBI Score, and Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Poti, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) contribute to excessive weight gain through added energy intake. Replacing SSB with water is one strategy that has shown promise in helping lower excessive energy intake. Using nationally representative data from US adults (n = 19,718) from NHANES 2007–2012 we examine the impact of replacing SSB with water on Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) scores and obesity prevalence. Replacing an 8-ounce serving of SSB with water lowered the percent of energy from beverages from 17% to 11% (among those consuming 1 serving SSB/day). Reductions in the percent energy from beverages were observed across all SSB consumption groups (1–2 servings/day and >2 servings/day). Among adults there was a 9% to 21% improvement in HBI score when one serving of water replaced one serving of SSB. Using previously published randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of measured weight loss we also predicted a reduction in the prevalence of obesity (observed: 35.2%; predicted 33.5%–34.9%, p < 0.05) and increase in the prevalence of normal weight (observed: 29.7%; high weight loss: 31.3%, p < 0.05). Our findings provide further epidemiologic evidence that water in the place of SSB can be used as a strategy to limit energy intake and help individuals meet beverage intake recommendations. PMID:27367719

  15. Effect of energy drink intake before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fares, Maiadah N.; Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Majeed, Farrukh; Badar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of energy drink consumption before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females. Methods: This single blind placebo controlled experimental study was carried out at the Physiology Department, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to May 2012, on 32 healthy female students, in a crossover design. They were given either a standardized energy drink or the placebo 45 minutes before the exercise. Time to exhaustion and the stages of Bruce protocol achieved were noted. Heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and blood lactate were recorded before and after the exercise. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated by formula. Paired sample t-test was used for statistics. Results: The mean age was 19.93±0.8 years, mean height 156.40±3.83 cm, and the mean weight 51.73±3.65 kg. Time to exhaustion in the placebo group was 11.67±1.51 minutes and 11.41±1.56 in the energy drink group (p<0.157). The VO2max in the placebo group was 34.06±6.62, while it was 32.89±6.83 in the energy drink group (p<0.154). There were no significant differences between the placebo and the energy drinks groups in regards to heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate levels, before or after the exercise. However, there were significant differences before, immediately, and 30 minutes post exercise for all parameters between each group. Conclusion: The effects of energy drinks intake on physical performance during the exercise in our small sample does not significantly differ from placebo. PMID:25935179

  16. The effect of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene on food intake, body composition, and carcass energy levels in virgin female BALB/c mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Keith, Robert E.; Strahan, Susan; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of diet, exercise, and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a mammary-tumor carcinogen, on food intake, energy consumption, body weight, and body composition in virgin female BALB/c mice are investigated. Diet, exercise, and DMBA all had pronounced effects on energy consumption, which in turn affected body composition. These treatments may influence manifestations of breast cancer via their effects on body composition.

  17. Timing of moderate-to-vigorous exercise and its impact on subsequent energy intake in young males.

    PubMed

    Albert, Marie-Helene; Drapeau, Vicky; Mathieu, Marie-Eve

    2015-11-01

    Exercise can suppress appetite and energy intake but the impact of the timing of exercise remains unknown. Knowing that orexigenic hormone levels decrease during exercise but rapidly increase afterward, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether energy intake is increasingly reduced when exercise immediately precedes a meal compared to when a delay occurs between the exercise and the meal. Non-obese boys (15-20 years old; N=12) were individually evaluated while performing two randomly assigned experimental visits: 1) a 30-min exercise session of moderate-to-vigorous intensity followed immediately by an ad libitum buffet at 12 PM and 2), an identical session followed by a 135-min waiting period and an ad libitum buffet-type meal at 12 PM. In both conditions, a snack in the afternoon and a second ad libitum buffet-type meal at 5 PM were served. Findings showed that hunger ratings were similar under both conditions. The exercise session immediately prior to the meal compared with the condition with a >2h delay led to reduction of 11% and 23% in overall and lipid energy intakes at lunch, respectively (P-values>0.05). No significant differences were found in the energy intakes from the afternoon snack and dinner. Apart from lipids at lunch, the proportions of energy from the various macronutrients at each meal were similar. This study reveals that being physically active before a meal plays a role in acute energy intake reduction when a shorter delay is present between exercise and a meal. In addition, the absence of compensation over several hours is noteworthy. PMID:26325014

  18. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...

  19. Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature and average daily gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average Daily Gain (ADG) and Tympanic Temperature (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...

  20. Effects of stage of lactation and level of feed intake on energy utilization by Alpine dairy goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six lactating Alpine does were used to determine effects of stage of lactation and level of feed intake on energy utilization. Twelve does were assigned to measurement periods in early, mid-, and late lactation (wk 5, 13, and 27, respectively). For six does of each group, after ad libitum c...

  1. Metabolizable energy intake effects on tympanic temperature and ADG of steers finished in southern Chile during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were used to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on ADG and tympanic temperature (TT) during the summer time in southern Chile. Steers were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a C...

  2. Energy intake from foods and beverages consumed between meals by adolescents ages 12–18 years: NHANES, 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to describe meal patterns of adolescents ages 12–18 years (n = 5,811), and energy intake from snacks/drinks consumed between meals. NHANES, 1999–2004, Day 1, 24-h recall data were classified by food group, meal type, and time of day. Snacks/drinks were consumed by 90% of ad...

  3. Approaches for quantifying energy intake and % calorie restriction (CR) during CR interventions in humans: the multicenter CALERIE study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a component of most weight-loss interventions and a potential strategy to slow aging. Accurate determination of energy intake and %CR is critical when interpreting the results of CR interventions; this is best achieved using the doubly labeled water method to quantify tot...

  4. Parental influences on children's self-regulation of energy intake: Insights from developmental literature on emotion regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to childre...

  5. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Increases Respiratory Quotient and Energy Expenditure during Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Malin; Fändriks, Lars; Olbers, Torsten; Bueter, Marco; Sjöström, Lars; Lönroth, Hans; Wallenius, Ville; Stenlöf, Kaj; le Roux, Carel W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The mechanisms determining long-term weight maintenance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) remain unclear. Cross sectional studies have suggested that enhanced energy expenditure (EE) may play a significant role and the aim of this study was to reveal the impact of RYGB on each major component constituting total EE. Design Six obese female subjects, without other co-morbidities, were assessed before and at 10 days, 3 and 20 months after RYGB. Indirect calorimetry in a metabolic chamber was used to assess 24h EE at each study visit. Other measurements included body composition by DEXA, gut hormone profiles and physical activity (PA) using high sensitivity accelerometers. Results Median Body Mass Index decreased from 41.1 (range 39.1-44.8) at baseline to 28 kg/m2 (range 22.3-30.3) after 20 months (p<0.05). Lean tissue decreased from 55.9 (range 47.5-59.3) to 49.5 (range 41.1-54.9) kg and adipose tissue from 61 (range 56-64.6) to 27 (range 12-34.3) kg (both p<0.05). PA over 24h did not change after surgery whereas 24h EE and basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased. EE after a standard meal increased after surgery when adjusted for total tissue (p<0.05). After an initial drop, RQ (respiratory quotient) had increased at 20 months, both as measured during 24h and after food intake (p<0.05). Conclusion RYGB surgery up-regulates RQ and EE after food intake resulting in an increased contribution to total EE over 24h when corrected for total tissue. PMID:26098889

  6. Oligoclonal antibody targeting ghrelin increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake in fasted mice

    PubMed Central

    Zakhari, Joseph S.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Zhou, Bin; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Janda, Kim D.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin, an enteric peptide hormone linked to the pathophysiology of obesity has been a therapeutic target of great interest over the past decade. Many research efforts have focused on the antagonism of ghrelin’s endogenous receptor GHSR1a, which is found along ascending vagal afferent fibers, as well as in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Additionally, peptidic inhibitors against ghrelin O-acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for the paracrine activation of ghrelin, have recently been studied. Our research has taken an alternative immunological approach, studying both active and passive vaccination as a means to sequester ghrelin in the periphery, with the original discovery in rat of decreased feed efficiency and adiposity, as well as increased metabolic activity. Using our previous hapten designs as a stepping-stone, three monoclonal antibodies (JG2, JG3, and JG4) were procured against ghrelin and tested in vivo. While mAb JG4 had the highest affinity for ghrelin, it failed to attenuate the orexigenic effects of food deprivation on energy metabolism or food intake in mice. However, animals that were administered a combination of JG3:JG4, (termed a doublet), or JG2:JG3:JG4, (termed a triplet), demonstrated higher heat dispersion and rate of respiration (higher CO2 emission and O2 consumption) during a 24-hr fast refeed. Mice administered the triplet cocktail of JG2:JG3:JG4 also demonstrated decreased food intake upon refeeding as compared to control animals. Recently, Lu and colleagues reported that a passive approach using a single, high affinity N-terminally directed monoclonal antibody did not abrogate the effects of endogenous ghrelin. Our current report corroborates this finding, yet, refutes that a monoclonal antibody approach cannot be efficacious. Rather, we find that a multiple monoclonal antibody (oligoclonal) approach can reproduce the underlying logic to previously reported efficacies using active vaccinations. PMID:22149064

  7. Short-term overeating results in incomplete energy intake compensation regardless of energy density or macronutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    Apolzan, John W.; Bray, George A.; Hamilton, Marc T.; Zderic, Theodore W.; Han, Hongmei; Champagne, Catherine M.; Shepard, Desti; Martin, Corby K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of overeating (140% of energy requirements) a high-fat low-energy density diet (HF/LED, 1.05kcal/g), high-fat high-energy density diet (HF/HED, 1.60kcal/g), and high-carbohydrate (HC) LED (1.05kcal/g) for 2-days on subsequent 4-day energy intake (EI), activity levels, appetite, and mood. Design and Methods Using a randomized cross-over design, energy expenditure and EI were standardized during overeating. Results In 20 adults with a mean±SD BMI of 30.7±4.6kg/m2, EI was not suppressed until the second day after overeating and accounted for ~30% of the excess EI. Reductions in EI did not differ among the 3 diets or across days. Overeating had no effect on subsequent energy expenditure but steps/day decreased after the HC/LED and HF/HED. Sleep time was increased after the HF/HED compared to both LEDs. After overeating a HF/HED vs. HF/LED, carbohydrate cravings, hunger, prospective food consumption, and sadness increased and satisfaction, relaxation, and tranquility decreased. Conclusions Diet type, time, or their interaction had no impact on compensation over 4 days. No adaptive thermogenesis was observed. The HF/HED vs. HF/LED had detrimental effects on food cravings, appetite, and mood. These results suggest short-term overeating is associated with incomplete compensation. PMID:23913807

  8. Effect of additional zinc, delivered in a fortified food or liquid supplement, on energy intake, appetite and body composition of Young Peruvian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exact mechanism whereby zinc influences growth is unknown, although it has been postulated that zinc may stimulate appetite and energy intake or enhance lean mass accrual directly. We compared energy intake, reported appetite, and body composition of 6-8 mo old Peruvian children with initial len...

  9. Increased physical activity has a greater effect than reduced energy intake on lifestyle modification-induced increases in testosterone.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity results in reduced serum testosterone levels, which causes many disorders in men. Lifestyle modifications (increased physical activity and calorie restriction) can increase serum testosterone levels. However, it is unknown whether increased physical activity or calorie restriction during lifestyle modifications has a greater effects on serum testosterone levels. Forty-one overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and calorie restriction). We measured serum testosterone levels, the number of steps, and the total energy intake. We divided participants into two groups based on the median change in the number of steps (high or low physical activities) or that in calorie restriction (high or low calorie restrictions). After the program, serum testosterone levels were significantly increased. Serum testosterone levels in the high physical activity group were significantly higher than those in the low activity group. This effect was not observed between the groups based on calorie restriction levels. We found a significant positive correlation between the changes in serum testosterone levels and the number of steps. Our results suggested that an increase in physical activity greatly affected the increased serum testosterone levels in overweight and obese men during lifestyle modification. PMID:26798202

  10. High Intake of Energy and Fat in Southwest Chinese Women with PCOS: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Liangzhi; Zhou, Lingling; Tang, Liulin; Zhuang, Jing; Guo, Wenqi; Hu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinological disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Obesity contributes to the increased prevalence and severity of PCOS. Whether the intakes of major nutrients are higher in Chinese PCOS patients is still unknown. Objectives To study the intakes of total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Methods 1854 women were included in the cross-sectional study. A population-based case-control study was conducted. The dietary habits and nutrients intake status of 169 PCOS patients and 338 age-matched controls were investigated by the method of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results The actual intake of total energy (P = 0.01) and fat (P = 0.01) were higher, but carbohydrate was lower (P = 0.01) in PCOS patients as compared with the controls. The energy percentage supplied by protein (12.33%±2.27% vs. 19.26%±5.91%, P<0.001) and carbohydrate (48.72%±6.41% vs. 68.31%±8.37%, P<0.001) were lower in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients than those of control, however, the energy percentage supplied by fat was higher (38.95%±5.71% vs. 12.42%±5.13%, P<0.001) in PCOS. Conclusions Limit the intake of total energy and fat shall be recommended to the Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Women with PCOS in Southwest China shall consult with the nutritionist for improving the dietary structure. PMID:25993656

  11. Energy intake and macronutrient selection in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) challenged with fat dilution and fat deprivation using encapsulated diets.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; Seco-Rovira, V; Hernández, M D; Madrid, J A; De Costa, J; Mendiola, P

    2008-02-27

    Sharpsnout seabream fed pure macronutrient capsules were challenged to fat dilution and fat deprivation in order to investigate the effects of fat level on energy intake regulation and macronutrient selection by fish, as they lack oropharyngeal chemosensory information from the diet. During the control phase, the fish were fed three individually encapsulated macronutrients, from which they composed a diet containing 67.36% protein (P), 19.08% carbohydrates (CH) and 13.57% fat (F), in terms of macronutrient weight intake percentage. During the second phase of the experiment, a lipid content reduction in F capsules from 55.0% to 13.4% did not significantly modify this selection pattern, energy ingestion or the number of capsules ingested of each macronutrient. During the third phase, in which they were subjected to fat deprivation, starting on almost the first day, the fish increased their total energy intake and total ingested number of capsules. These results reveal that fish are capable of distinguishing and selecting each of the three macronutrients contained in gelatine capsules, and that fish selection of a balanced diet from pure macronutrients is remarkably stable. Fish are capable of sustaining their macronutrient selection pattern and energy intake with very low amounts of fat in their diets (Phase 2). A certain instability in the initial P, CH and energy intake was only observed when fat was totally deprived (Phase 3), which resulted in higher values than those observed in Phase 1. In order to examine any possible effects of diet encapsulation, digestibility assays were performed in a second experiment. The fish were divided into two experimental groups and fed the same complete commercial diet, the only difference being the way it was presented to each group (pelleted or encapsulated). No statistical differences between the experimental groups were found with regards to both apparent digestibility coefficients and fish growth. PMID:17997462

  12. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Osowski, Christine Persson; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Barbieri, Heléne Enghardt; Becker, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    Background In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6) and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7). The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Conclusions The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met. PMID:26522664

  13. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  14. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant. PMID:25875447

  15. Effects of short photoperiod on energy intake, thermogenesis, and reproduction in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhao, Zhijun; Vasilieva, Nina; Khrushchova, Anastasia; Wang, Dehua

    2015-03-01

    Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii) are the least known species in the genus Phodopus with respect to ecology and physiology, and deserve scientific attention, particularly because of their small body size. Here, the responses of energy metabolism and reproductive function to short photoperiods in desert hamsters were investigated. Male and female desert hamsters were acclimated to either long day (LD) (L:D 16:8 h) or short day (SD) photoperiods (L:D 8:16 h) for three months, and then the females were transferred back to an LD photoperiod for a further five months, while at the end of the SD acclimation the males were killed and measurements were taken for serum leptin as well as molecular markers for thermogenesis. We found that like the other two species from the genus Phodopus, the desert hamsters under SD decreased body mass, increased adaptive thermogenesis as indicated by elevated mitochondrial protein content and uncoupling protein-1 content in brown adipose tissue, and suppressed reproduction compared to those under LD. However, different from the other two species, desert hamsters did not show any differences in energy intake or serum leptin concentration between LD and SD. These data suggest that different species from the same genus respond in different ways to the environmental signals, and the desert adapted species are not as sensitive to change in photoperiod as the other two species. PMID:25311843

  16. Energy supplementation and herbage allowance effects on daily intake in lactating mares.

    PubMed

    Collas, C; Dumont, B; Delagarde, R; Martin-Rosset, W; Fleurance, G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about how to manage grazing horses, including the thresholds under which energy supplementation is required. Here we investigated the effects of daily herbage allowance (DHA) and energy supplementation (ES) on daily herbage intake in lactating mares of light breeds grazing high-quality regrowth during summer. Three contrasting DHA, low (LOW), medium (MED), and high (HIGH), that is, 35.0, 52.5, and 70.0 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1), respectively, were obtained by adjusting pasture strip width. Eighteen Anglo-Arab and French Saddle lactating mares were either supplemented with 2.6 kg DM barley/d (SUP group; n= 9) or left nonsupplemented (NSUP group; n = 9) throughout the experiment. For 3 successive 2-wk periods, 3 groups of SUP mares (n = 3) and 3 groups of NSUP mares (n = 3) grazed each DHA according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) was similar between treatments (26.6 cm), but postgrazing SSH differed significantly between each DHA (2.9, 4.4, and 5.7 cm for LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively; P < 0.001). Herbage DMI (HDMI) increased linearly from 18.5 to 23.4 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) with increasing DHA (i.e., 0.13 kg DM eaten/kg DM of herbage offered; P < 0.001) independently of ES and with no significant ES × DHA interaction. This increase in HDMI resulted from an increase in grazing time between LOW (961 min/d) and MED and HIGH (1,021 min/d; P < 0.01) and from an increase in intake rate between LOW and MED (11.8 g DM/min) and HIGH (13.6 g DM/min; P < 0.01). Total digestible DMI (TDDMI) and NE intake (NEI) increased linearly from 12.3 to 15.2 g DM∙kg BW∙(-1)d(-1) and from 136.6 to 165.8 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d (-1)with increasing DHA (P < 0.001), respectively. Total digestible DMI and NEI were significantly lower for NSUP than for SUP mares: 12.5 vs. 14.9 g DM∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.01) and 134.6 vs. 166.5 kJ∙kg BW(-1)∙d(-1) (P < 0.001), respectively. Whereas SUP mares always met their energy requirements

  17. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  18. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    PubMed

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI<5th, >5th to <25th, >25th to <75th percentile) and randomised. The intervention group received 120 ml oral sip-feed supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still <50 % for the sample of patients in the intervention group. The present study suggests this method is acceptable to patients and staff and improves total energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases. PMID:12908904

  19. Social modeling of eating: a review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice.

    PubMed

    Cruwys, Tegan; Bevelander, Kirsten E; Hermans, Roel C J

    2015-03-01

    A major determinant of human eating behavior is social modeling, whereby people use others' eating as a guide for what and how much to eat. We review the experimental studies that have independently manipulated the eating behavior of a social referent (either through a live confederate or remotely) and measured either food choice or intake. Sixty-nine eligible experiments (with over 5800 participants) were identified that were published between 1974 and 2014. Speaking to the robustness of the modeling phenomenon, 64 of these studies have found a statistically significant modeling effect, despite substantial diversity in methodology, food type, social context and participant demographics. In reviewing the key findings from these studies, we conclude that there is limited evidence for a moderating effect of hunger, personality, age, weight or the presence of others (i.e., where the confederate is live vs. remote). There is inconclusive evidence for whether sex, attention, impulsivity and eating goals moderate modeling, and for whether modeling of food choice is as strong as modeling of food intake. Effects with substantial evidence were: modeling is increased when individuals desire to affiliate with the model, or perceive themselves to be similar to the model; modeling is attenuated (but still significant) for healthy-snack foods and meals such as breakfast and lunch, and modeling is at least partially mediated through behavioral mimicry, which occurs without conscious awareness. We discuss evidence suggesting that modeling is motivated by goals of both affiliation and uncertainty-reduction, and outline how these might be theoretically integrated. Finally, we argue for the importance of taking modeling beyond the laboratory and bringing it to bear on the important societal challenges of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:25174571

  20. Agavins from Agave angustifolia and Agave potatorum affect food intake, body weight gain and satiety-related hormones (GLP-1 and ghrelin) in mice.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Patricia Araceli; López, Mercedes G

    2014-12-01

    Agavins act as a fermentable dietary fiber and have attracted attention due to their potential for reducing the risk of disease. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of supplementation using 10% agavins with a short-degree of polymerization (SDP) from Agave angustifolia Haw. (AASDP) or Agave potatorum Zucc. (APSDP) along with chicory fructans (RSE) as a reference for 5 weeks, on the energy intake, body weight gain, satiety-related hormones from the gut and blood (GLP-1 and ghrelin), blood glucose and lipids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from the gut of ad libitum-fed mice. We evaluated the energy intake daily and weight gain every week. At the end of the experiment, portal vein blood samples as well as intestinal segments and the stomach were collected to measure glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin using RIA and ELISA kits, respectively. Colon SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The energy intake, body weight gain, and triglycerides were lower in the fructan-fed mice than in the STD-fed mice. The AASDP, APSDP, and RSE diets increased the serum levels of GLP-1 (40, 93, and 16%, respectively vs. STD) (P ≤ 0.05), whereas ghrelin was decreased (16, 38, and 42%, respectively) (P ≤ 0.05). Butyric acid increased significantly in the APSDP-fed mice (26.59 mmol g(-1), P ≤ 0.001) compared with that in the AASDP- and RSE-fed mice. We concluded that AASDP and APSDP are able to promote the secretion of the peptides involved in appetite regulation, which might help to control obesity and its associated metabolic disorder. PMID:25367106

  1. Local food environments are associated with girls’ energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Design Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Setting Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004–2006. Subjects Girls aged 6–8 years (n 1010). Results Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P < 0·001). Girls’ daily energy, SSB and snack foods/ sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets >1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets >3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Conclusions Girls’ frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets. PMID:24821228

  2. Semi-physical Identification and State Estimation of Energy Intake for Interventions to Manage Gestational Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Penghong; Rivera, Daniel E.; Downs, Danielle S.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (i.e., weight gain during pregnancy) is a significant public health concern, and has been the recent focus of novel, control systems-based interventions. This paper develops a control-oriented dynamical systems model based on a first-principles energy balance model from the literature, which is evaluated against participant data from a study targeted to obese and overweight pregnant women. The results indicate significant under-reporting of energy intake among the participant population. A series of approaches based on system identification and state estimation are developed in the paper to better understand and characterize the extent of under-reporting; these range from back-calculating energy intake from a closed-form of the energy balance model, to a constrained semi-physical identification approach that estimates the extent of systematic under-reporting in the presence of noise and possibly missing data. Additionally, we describe an adaptive algorithm based on Kalman filtering to estimate energy intake in real-time. The approaches are illustrated with data from both simulated and actual intervention participants. PMID:27570366

  3. Sex differences in the effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on energy intake in young adults.

    PubMed

    Pérusse-Lachance, Emilie; Brassard, Patrice; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Drapeau, Vicky; Teasdale, Normand; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a decrease in EI relative to EE compared to the control condition that was more pronounced in men than women. However, women tended to increase their energy intake after the MW condition compared to the control one whereas an opposite trend was observed in men. None of the appetite sensation markers differed significantly between both sexes. In conclusion, men and women have specific food intake patterns when submitted to cognitive and physical stimuli. PMID:24967260

  4. Sex Differences in the Effects of Mental Work and Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity on Energy Intake in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Vicky; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a decrease in EI relative to EE compared to the control condition that was more pronounced in men than women. However, women tended to increase their energy intake after the MW condition compared to the control one whereas an opposite trend was observed in men. None of the appetite sensation markers differed significantly between both sexes. In conclusion, men and women have specific food intake patterns when submitted to cognitive and physical stimuli. PMID:24967260

  5. Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Graham, James L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Bales, Karen L.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.; Havel, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that oxytocin (OT) is effective in reducing body weight (BW) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rodents, studies of the effects of OT in humans and rhesus monkeys have primarily focused on noningestive behaviors. The goal of this study was to translate findings in DIO rodents to a preclinical translational model of DIO. We tested the hypothesis that increased OT signaling would reduce BW in DIO rhesus monkeys by inhibiting food intake and increasing energy expenditure (EE). Male DIO rhesus monkeys from the California National Primate Research Center were adapted to a 12-h fast and maintained on chow and a daily 15% fructose-sweetened beverage. Monkeys received 2× daily subcutaneous vehicle injections over 1 wk. We subsequently identified doses of OT (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) that reduced food intake and BW in the absence of nausea or diarrhea. Chronic administration of OT for 4 wk (0.2 mg/kg for 2 wk; 0.4 mg/kg for 2 wk) reduced BW relative to vehicle by 3.3 ± 0.4% (≈0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Moreover, the low dose of OT suppressed 12-h chow intake by 26 ± 7% (P < 0.05). The higher dose of OT reduced 12-h chow intake by 27 ± 5% (P < 0.05) and 8-h fructose-sweetened beverage intake by 18 ± 8% (P < 0.05). OT increased EE during the dark cycle by 14 ± 3% (P < 0.05) and was associated with elevations of free fatty acids and glycerol and reductions in triglycerides suggesting increased lipolysis. Together, these data suggest that OT reduces BW in DIO rhesus monkeys through decreased food intake as well as increased EE and lipolysis. PMID:25540103

  6. Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ system elevates food consumption by both increasing energy intake and reducing aversive responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Grace, Martha K; Fard, Shahrzad Shirazi; Le Grevès, Madeleine; Klockars, Anica; Massi, Maurizio; Schiöth, Helgi B; Levine, Allen S

    2010-08-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor ligand, increases feeding when injected centrally. Initial data suggest that N/OFQ blocks the development of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The current project further characterized the involvement of N/OFQ in the regulation of hunger vs. aversive responses in rats by employing behavioral, immunohistochemical, and real-time PCR methodology. We determined that the same low dose of the NOP antagonist [Nphe(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) delivered via the lateral ventricle diminishes both N/OFQ- and deprivation-induced feeding. This anorexigenic effect did not stem from aversive consequences, as the antagonist did not cause the development of a CTA. When [Nphe(1)]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) was administered with LiCl, it moderately delayed extinction of the LiCl-induced CTA. Injection of LiCl + antagonist compared with LiCl alone generated an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala. The antagonist alone elevated Fos immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and central nucleus of the amygdala. Hypothalamic NOP mRNA levels were decreased during energy intake restriction induced by aversion, as well as in non-CTA rats food-restricted to match CTA-reduced consumption. Brain stem NOP was upregulated only in aversion. Prepro-N/OFQ mRNA showed a trend toward upregulation in restricted rats (P = 0.068). We conclude that the N/OFQ system promotes feeding by affecting the need to replenish lacking calories and by reducing aversive responsiveness. It may belong to mechanisms that shift a balance between the drive to ingest energy and avoidance of potentially tainted food. PMID:20427724

  7. The relationship between dietary intake, exercise, energy balance and the space craft environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2000-01-01

    Space flight is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle, principally from muscles with anti-gravity functions. Examination of data across different missions can permit a distinction to be made between true microgravity responses and what are mission-specific responses. Protein metabolism has been investigated on six missions, four short-term [Shuttle missions Space Life Sciences 1 (1991, SLSI), Space Life Sciences 2 (1993, SLS2), Deutsche-2 (1993, D2) and the Life and Microgravity Sciences (1996, LMS)] and two long-term missions (Skylab 1993 and NASA/MIR, 1996-1998). Measurements made include dietary intake (six missions), nitrogen balance (four missions), whole-body protein kinetics with [15N]glycine as the tracer (four missions) and cortisol excretion (three missions). Also available for comparison are bed rest studies with and without exercise. The purpose of this paper is to see what can be learnt about the muscle loss problem by comparing metabolic results across the six missions for which data are available and against bed rest. The analysis suggests that there is a linkage between the inability to maintain energy balance and exercise, and the connection is the decreased efficiency of removal of the metabolic by-products of exercise (heat, CO2) during space flight.

  8. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  9. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  10. Raised FGF-21 and Triglycerides Accompany Increased Energy Intake Driven by Protein Leverage in Lean, Healthy Individuals: A Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gosby, Alison K.; Lau, Namson S.; Tam, Charmaine S.; Iglesias, Miguel A.; Morrison, Christopher D.; Caterson, Ian D.; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    A dominant appetite for protein drives increased energy intake in humans when the proportion of protein in the diet is reduced down to approximately 10% of total energy. Compensatory feeding for protein is apparent over a 1–2 d period but the mechanisms driving this regulation are not fully understood. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) has been identified as a candidate protein signal as levels increase in the circulation when dietary protein is low. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to assess whether changes in percent dietary protein over a 4 d ad libitum experimental period in lean, healthy participants influenced energy intake, metabolic health, circulating FGF-21 and appetite regulating hormones including ghrelin, glucagon like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin. Twenty-two lean, healthy participants were fed ad libitum diets containing 10, 15 and 25% protein, over three, 4 d controlled, in-house experimental periods. Reduced dietary protein intake from 25% to 10% over a period of 4 d was associated with 14% increased energy intake (p = 0.02) as previously reported, and a 6-fold increase in fasting circulating plasma FGF-21 levels (p<0.0001), a 1.5-fold increase in serum triglycerides (p<0.0001), and a 0.9-fold decrease in serum total cholesterol (p = 0.02). Serum HDL cholesterol was reduced with a reduction in dietary protein from 15% to 10% (p = 0.01) over 4 d but not from 25% to 10% (p = 0.1) and the change from baseline was not different between diets. Plasma fasting insulin levels following the 4 d study period were significantly lower following the 25% ad libitum study period compared to the 15% protein period (p = 0.014) but not the 10% protein period (p = 0.2). Variability in interstitial glucose during each study period increased with a decrease in dietary protein from 25% to 15% and 10% (p = 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin were unchanged. Increases in energy intake, plasma FGF-21

  11. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  12. Study on the necessary survey days for energy intake in school children assessed by 7 day survey.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Tanaka, Nobuko; Eguchi, Yoko; Kuno, Kazue; Wakikawa, Noriko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Fukinbara, Mina; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the longer the period of a nutrition survey, the more reliable the results. However, a long survey can impose a burden on subjects and cause the results to become inaccurate. For adults, a 3 non-consecutive day survey is usually recommended; however, for school children, at least in Japan, it has not been determined whether this is necessary. In this study we conducted a survey of 7 days and tried to find the minimum number of days necessary to determine the energy intake. The subjects were about 300 children aged from 6 to 7, 10 to 11 and 13 to 14 years old in a city in the western part of Japan. The weighing method was used for the school lunch and other meals were surveyed by 24-recalling method. For the 6-7 year-old school children, guardians were asked to keep dietary records. The final number of subjects who were able to complete the 7-day survey was 139. Energy intakes for each weekday were not statistically different (p>0.05) and those for each weekend did not differ (p>0.05). Average energy intakes on weekdays were higher than those on weekend days in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children. The average intakes of energy in 10-11 and 13-14 year-old children were lower than Japanese estimated energy requirements (EER). However, body weight of more than 90% of subjects was within the normal range. The results suggest that a survey of one weekday is reliable for all weekdays and that of one week-end day is reliable for any weekend day and also indicate the necessity of further studies of EER in rapidly growing children. PMID:22449999

  13. Diet quality is lower and energy intake greater on weekends than weekdays: A one-year longitudinal study of midlife women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To test differences in dietary intake by individual day and on weekends (Friday, Saturday, Sunday) compared to weekdays using energy and macronutrient intake, food groupings and Healthy Eating Index-2010 diet quality scores. Methods: Longitudinal design; 52 women ages 40-60 y completed o...

  14. Alterations in energy balance from an exercise intervention with ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Renaud, Anne; Zurbuchen, Stefanie; Tschopp, Céline; Lehmann, Jan; Malatesta, Davide; Ruch, Nicole; Schutz, Yves; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Better understanding is needed regarding the effects of exercise alone, without any imposed dietary regimens, as a single tool for body-weight regulation. Thus, we evaluated the effects of an 8-week increase in activity energy expenditure (AEE) on ad libitum energy intake (EI), body mass and composition in healthy participants with baseline physical activity levels (PAL) in line with international recommendations. Forty-six male adults (BMI = 19·7-29·3 kg/m(2)) participated in an intervention group, and ten (BMI = 21·0-28·4 kg/m(2)) in a control group. Anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory fitness, EI, AEE and exercise intensity were recorded at baseline and during the 1st, 5th and 8th intervention weeks, and movement was recorded throughout. Body composition was measured at the beginning and at the end of the study, and resting energy expenditure was measured after the study. The intervention group increased PAL from 1·74 (se 0·03) to 1·93 (se 0·03) (P < 0·0001) and cardiorespiratory fitness from 41·4 (se 0·9) to 45·7 (se 1·1) ml O2/kg per min (P = 0·001) while decreasing body mass (-1·36 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·001) through adipose tissue mass loss (ATM) (-1·61 (se 0·2) kg; P = 0·0001) compared with baseline. The control group did not show any significant changes in activity, body mass or ATM. EI was unchanged in both groups. The results indicate that in normal-weight and overweight men, increasing PAL from 1·7 to 1·9 while keeping EI ad libitum over an 8-week period produces a prolonged negative energy balance. Replication using a longer period (and/or more intense increase in PAL) is needed to investigate if and at what body composition the increase in AEE is met by an equivalent increase in EI. PMID:27066256

  15. Nutrition and dopamine: An intake of tyrosine in royal jelly can affect the brain levels of dopamine in male honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Precursors of neuroactive substances can be obtained from dietary sources, which can affect the resulting production of such substances in the brain. In social species, an intake of the precursor in food could be controlled by social interactions. To test the effects of dietary tyrosine on the brain dopamine levels in social insect colonies, male and worker honeybees were fed tyrosine or royal jelly under experimental conditions and the brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite were then measured. The results showed that the levels of dopamine and its metabolite in the brains of 4- and 8-day-old workers and 8-day-old males were significantly higher in tyrosine-fed bees than in control bees, but the levels in 4-day-old males were not. The brain levels of dopamine and its metabolite in 4- and 8-day-old males and workers were significantly higher in royal jelly-fed bees than in control bees, except for one group of 4-day-old workers. Food exchanges with workers were observed in males during 1-3 days, but self-feedings were also during 5-7 days. These results suggest that the brain levels of dopamine in males can be controlled by an intake of tyrosine in food via exchanging food with nestmates and by self-feeding. PMID:26868722

  16. Oral intake of γ-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks.

    PubMed

    Yoto, A; Murao, S; Motoki, M; Yokoyama, Y; Horie, N; Takeshima, K; Masuda, K; Kim, M; Yokogoshi, H

    2012-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a kind of amino acid contained in green tea leaves and other foods. Several reports have shown that GABA might affect brain protein synthesis, improve many brain functions such as memory and study capability, lower the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, and may also have a relaxation effect in humans. However, the evidence for its mood-improving function is still not sufficient. In this study, we investigated how the oral intake of GABA influences human adults psychologically and physiologically under a condition of mental stress. Sixty-three adults (28 males, 35 females) participated in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-designed study over two experiment days. Capsules containing 100 mg of GABA or dextrin as a placebo were used as test samples. The results showed that EEG activities including alpha band and beta band brain waves decreased depending on the mental stress task loads, and the condition of 30 min after GABA intake diminished this decrease compared with the placebo condition. That is to say, GABA might have alleviated the stress induced by the mental tasks. This effect also corresponded with the results of the POMS scores. PMID:22203366

  17. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax™) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax™) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0–30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30–180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0–30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30–180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Results Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax™ enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy

  18. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  19. Energy intake for maintenance in a mammal with a low basal metabolism, the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2012-10-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are among those mammals for which a particularly low metabolism has been reported. In order to verify presumably low requirements for energy, we used eight anteaters (two males, six females; aged 1-14 years; body mass between 46 and 64 kg) in a total of 64 individual trials, in which a variety of intake levels was achieved on various diets. Digestible energy (DE) intake was quantified by measuring food intake and faecal excretion and analysing representative samples for gross energy, and animals were weighed regularly. Maintenance DE requirements were calculated by regression analysis for the DE intake that corresponded to zero weight change. Differences between individuals were significant. Older anteaters (n = 3 animals aged 12-15 years in 29 trials) had lower relative requirements than younger ones (n = 5 animals aged 1-7 years in 35 trials); thus, giant anteaters resemble other mammals in which similar age-specific differences in energy requirements are known. However, estimated maintenance requirements were 347 kJ DE/kg(0.75)/day in the anteaters, which is low compared to the 460-580 kJ DE/kg(0.75)/day maintenance requirements of domestic dogs. The lack of knowledge that metabolic requirements are below the mammalian average could make species particularly susceptible to overfeeding, if amounts considered adequate for average mammals were provided. Non-scientific reports on comparatively fast growth rates and high body masses in captive giant anteaters as compared to free-ranging animals suggest that body mass development and feeding regimes in captivity should be further assessed. PMID:21895783

  20. Daytime pattern of post-exercise protein intake affects whole-body protein turnover in resistance-trained males

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8), 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7), or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8) after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exercise (4x10 repetitions at 80% maximal strength). Whole-body protein turnover (Q), synthesis (S), breakdown (B), and net balance (NB) were measured throughout 12h of recovery by a bolus ingestion of [15N]glycine with urinary [15N]ammonia enrichment as the collected end-product. Results PULSE Q rates were greater than BOLUS (~19%, P<0.05) with a trend towards being greater than INT (~9%, P=0.08). Rates of S were 32% and 19% greater and rates of B were 51% and 57% greater for PULSE as compared to INT and BOLUS, respectively (P<0.05), with no difference between INT and BOLUS. There were no statistical differences in NB between groups (P=0.23); however, magnitude-based inferential statistics revealed likely small (mean effect±90%CI; 0.59±0.87) and moderate (0.80±0.91) increases in NB for PULSE and INT compared to BOLUS and possible small increase (0.42±1.00) for INT vs. PULSE. Conclusion We conclude that the pattern of ingested protein, and not only the total daily amount, can impact whole-body protein metabolism. Individuals aiming to maximize NB would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g) at regular intervals (~3h) throughout the day. PMID:23067428

  1. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Susan E.; Sample, Camille H.; Davidson, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared to diets high in energy, fat and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared to those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a “Westernized” diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively-bred Crl:OP[CD] rats, and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (DIO rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared to glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a “Westernized” diet and already prone to

  2. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Sample, Camille H; Davidson, Terry L

    2013-04-01

    The use of high-intensity sweeteners has been proposed as a method to combat increasing rates of overweight and obesity in the human population. However, previous work with male rats suggests that consumption of such sweeteners might contribute to, rather than ameliorate, weight gain. The goals of the present experiments were to assess whether intake of high-intensity sweeteners is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain in female rats; to evaluate whether this effect depends on composition of the maintenance diet (i.e., standard chow compared with diets high in energy, fat, and sugar [HE diets]); and to determine whether the phenotype of the rats with regard to propensity to gain weight on HE diets affects the consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners. The data demonstrated that female rats fed a low-fat, standard laboratory chow diet did not gain extra weight when fed yogurt dietary supplements sweetened with saccharin compared with those fed glucose-sweetened dietary supplements. However, female rats maintained on a "Westernized" diet high in fat and sugar (HE diet) showed significant increases in energy intake, weight gain, and adiposity when given saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened yogurt supplements. These differences were most pronounced in female rats known to be prone to obesity prior to the introduction of the yogurt diets. Both selectively bred Crl:OP[CD] rats and outbred Sprague-Dawley rats fed an HE diet showing high levels of weight gain (diet-induced obese [DIO] rats) had increased weight gain in response to consuming saccharin-sweetened compared with glucose-sweetened supplements. However, in male rats fed an HE diet, saccharin-sweetened supplements produced extra weight gain regardless of obesity phenotype. These results suggest that the most negative consequences of consuming high-intensity sweeteners may occur in those most likely to use them for weight control, females consuming a "Westernized" diet

  3. Shifts in the recent distribution of energy intake among U.S. children aged 2-18 years reflect potential abatement of earlier declining trends.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Michelle A; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Miles, Donna R; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-08-01

    Recent national surveys suggest that child obesity in the United States may have reached a plateau, but corresponding trends in energy intake have not been examined in depth. This article evaluates medium-term trends in children's reported energy intake by using 4 waves of national dietary surveillance from 2003-2004 to 2009-2010. The analysis uses up to 2 24-h dietary recalls, incorporating methods that address challenges in estimating usual intake, accounting for intraindividual variance and covariates such as the presence of atypical consumption days. Quantile regression was used to assess disparities in intake among sociodemographic subgroups at extremes of the distribution as well as at the median, and the potential influence of misreporting was evaluated. Results indicated that after an initial decline in intakes across all age groups through 2007-2008, there were significant increases of ∼90 kcal/d at the median among adolescents in 2009-2010, whereas intakes in younger children remained steady. Among adolescent boys, the recent increase was larger at the 90th percentile than at the median. Intake trends did not vary by race/ethnic group, among whom intakes were similar at the upper end of the distribution. Misreporting did not influence trends over time, but intakes were lower in younger children and higher in older children after excluding misreporters. Overall, findings suggest that declines in children's energy intake from 2003-2004 through 2007-2008 were consistent with the obesity plateau observed in most age and gender subgroups through 2009-2010. However, there is evidence of increased intakes among adolescents in 2009-2010, which may threaten the earlier abatement in overweight in this older age group. PMID:24919689

  4. Limits to sustained energy intake XXIV: impact of suckling behaviour on the body temperatures of lactating female mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamo, Y.; Bernard, A.; Troup, C.; Munro, F.; Derrer, K.; Jeannesson, N.; Campbell, A.; Gray, H.; Miller, J.; Dixon, J.; Mitchell, S. E.; Hambly, C.; Vaanholt, L. M.; Speakman, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential causes of high body temperature (Tb) during lactation in mice as a putative limit on energy intake. In particular we explored whether or not offspring contributed to heat retention in mothers while suckling. Tb and physical activity were monitored in 26 female MF1 mice using intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. In addition, maternal behaviour was scored each minute for 8 h d−1 throughout lactation. Mothers that raised larger litters tended to have higher Tb while nursing inside nests (P < 0.05), suggesting that nursing offspring may have influenced heat retention. However, Tb during nursing was not higher than that recorded during other behaviours. In addition, the highest Tb during the observation period was not measured during nursing behaviour. Finally, there was no indication that mothers discontinued suckling because of a progressive rise in their Tb while suckling. Tb throughout lactation was correlated with daily increases in energy intake. Chronic hyperthermia during lactation was not caused by increased heat retention due to surrounding offspring. Other factors, like metabolic heat produced as a by-product of milk production or energy intake may be more important factors. Heat dissipation limits are probably not a phenomenon restricted to lactation. PMID:27157478

  5. Limits to sustained energy intake XXIV: impact of suckling behaviour on the body temperatures of lactating female mice.

    PubMed

    Gamo, Y; Bernard, A; Troup, C; Munro, F; Derrer, K; Jeannesson, N; Campbell, A; Gray, H; Miller, J; Dixon, J; Mitchell, S E; Hambly, C; Vaanholt, L M; Speakman, J R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential causes of high body temperature (Tb) during lactation in mice as a putative limit on energy intake. In particular we explored whether or not offspring contributed to heat retention in mothers while suckling. Tb and physical activity were monitored in 26 female MF1 mice using intraperitoneally implanted transmitters. In addition, maternal behaviour was scored each minute for 8 h d(-1) throughout lactation. Mothers that raised larger litters tended to have higher Tb while nursing inside nests (P < 0.05), suggesting that nursing offspring may have influenced heat retention. However, Tb during nursing was not higher than that recorded during other behaviours. In addition, the highest Tb during the observation period was not measured during nursing behaviour. Finally, there was no indication that mothers discontinued suckling because of a progressive rise in their Tb while suckling. Tb throughout lactation was correlated with daily increases in energy intake. Chronic hyperthermia during lactation was not caused by increased heat retention due to surrounding offspring. Other factors, like metabolic heat produced as a by-product of milk production or energy intake may be more important factors. Heat dissipation limits are probably not a phenomenon restricted to lactation. PMID:27157478

  6. Changes in energy intake and triiodothyronine (T sub 3 ) kinetics with extended arctic winter operations (EAO)

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalski, K.; Reed, L.; Lopez, A.; Smith, D.; Williams, S.; D'Alesandro, M.; Homer, L. )

    1991-03-11

    Hypocaloric feeding decreases serum total T{sub 3} (TT{sub 3}) and production (PR) while brief cold exposure increases PR and metabolic clearance rate (MCR). The authors studied 9 men of a Navy special forces team before in Virginia and again after 2 mo extended arctic operations (EAO) in Alaska. Body weight declined in 8 of the men. This weight loss was directly correlated with a fall in skin fold thickness (r = 0.75, p < 0.008). Predicted energy intake required to maintain weight was increased + 1,886 kcal/d over predeployment conditions. There was a decrease in serum TT{sub 3} (15%), free R{sub 3} (FT{sub 3}), total thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and FT{sub 4} without a change in thyroxine binding globulin or thyrotropin. Total volume of distribution (TVd) increased by 3.76 {plus minus} 0.74 L/m{sup 2} and MCR by 13.3 {plus minus} 5.3 L/(d {center dot} m{sup 2}), while the PR showed an uncertain trend to increase by 9.84 {plus minus} 9.51 nmol/(d {center dot} m{sup 2}). Relative calorie deficits and absolute decreases in body weight with the EAO are associated with a fall in serum TT{sub 3} and FT{sub 3} that cannot be accounted for by a fall in PR. The decreases in serum T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} are, however, more closely related to an increase in MCR and TVd. The authors propose that activity and/or exposure to cold interact to modify the customary decrease in serum TT{sub 3} and PR observed with underfeeding.

  7. [Trends in energy and nutrient intake by adolescents in public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 2003-2008].

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Thais Meirelles de; Veiga, Gloria Valeria da; Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosângela Alves

    2016-01-01

    The study analyzed variations in energy and nutrient intake by adolescents enrolled in public schools, examined in two school-based cross-sectional surveys, in 2003 and 2008. Food consumption was assessed with three food records. Weight was classified according to World Health Organization criteria. A total of 433 adolescents were studied in 2003 and 510 in 2008. Prevalence of excess weight was 17% in 2003 and 22% in 2008 (p > 0.05). There was a reduction in the intake of saturated fats and vitamin A in boys. Girls showed an increase in the intake of energy, carbohydrates, and calcium and a reduction in protein and iron. Both boys and girls reduced their intake of vitamin E and lipids and increased their sodium. Adolescents with excess weight showed an increase in calcium intake and a decrease in saturated fat and vitamin A. The nutritional quality of the adolescents' diet declined over the course of the five years. PMID:27580230

  8. Intake of High-intensity Sweeteners alters the Ability of Sweet Taste to Signal Caloric Consequences: Implications for the Learned Control of Energy and Body Weight Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Terry L.; Martin, Ashley A.; Clark, Kiely; Swithers, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from both human epidemiological and experimental studies with animals suggest that intake of non-caloric sweeteners may promote, rather than protect against, weight gain and other disturbances of energy regulation. However, without a viable mechanism to explain how consumption of non-caloric sweeteners can increase energy intake and body weight, the persuasiveness of such results has been limited. Using a rat model, the present research showed that intake of non-caloric sweeteners reduces the effectiveness of learned associations between sweet tastes and postingestive caloric outcomes (Experiment 1) and that interfering with this association may impair the ability of rats to regulate their intake of sweet, but not nonsweet, high-fat and high-calorie food (Experiment 2). The results support the hypothesis that consuming noncaloric sweeteners may promote excessive intake and body weight gain by weakening a predictive relationship between sweet taste and the caloric consequences of eating. PMID:21424985

  9. Food insecurity and perceived stress but not HIV infection are independently associated with lower energy intakes among lactating Ghanaian women.

    PubMed

    Addo, Adolphina A; Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna A; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Harding, Kimberly B

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive women living in low-income communities may have difficulty meeting the increased energy requirements that are associated with both lactation and HIV infection. Data on household food security and maternal socio-demographic characteristics, perceived stress, anthropometry, reported illness, dietary intakes and preferences, and exposure to nutrition education were collected from 70 lactating women [16 seropositive (HP), 27 seronegative (HN), and 27 who refused to be tested and had unknown HIV status (HU)]. Diet was assessed with three 24-h recalls (one market day, one weekend day, and one non-market weekday). Data were collected at 8.4 (SD = 4.7) months postpartum. Most women (74.3%) reported being in good health at the time of study. Three-day mean energy intakes did not differ by HIV status [HP: 12,000 kJ (SD = 3600), HN: 12,600 kJ (SD = 5100), and HU: 12,300 kJ (SD = 4800); P = 0.94]. Protein, fat, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc intakes also did not differ by group (P > 0.10). There was a higher proportion of women with high stress levels in food insecure households compared with food secure households (55.6% vs. 26.5%; P = 0.01). Energy intake was independently negatively associated with food insecurity [high: 11,300 kJ (SD = 3500) vs. low: 13,400 kJ (SD = 5400), respectively; P = 0.050] and stress [high: 10,800 kJ (SD = 2800) vs. low: 13,400 kJ (SD = 5300), P = 0.021]. These results suggest the need to integrate multi-dimensional interventions that address economic and mental health constraints which may limit some women's ability to meet their dietary needs. PMID:21143587

  10. Increased energy intake and a shift towards high-fat, non-staple high-carbohydrate foods amongst China’s older adults, 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Kelsey; Smith, Lindsey P.; Batis, Carolina; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined trends from 1991–2009 in total energy intake and food group intake, and examine whether shifts varied by age or generation. Design Longitudinal time series (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009) Setting Nine provinces in China Participants Older Chinese aged ≥60 years (n=5,068) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991–2009 Methods Using three 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory collected over three consecutive days, the top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991–2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. The top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991–2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. Linear regression was used to examine changes in mean calorie intake of food groups between 1991 and 2009, adjusting for age, sex, and region. In addition, we examined changes in the mean kcal per capita intake to examine shifts by age group and generation. Results Mean total energy intake increased significantly among older Chinese adults from 1379 total kilocalories in 1991 to 1463 kilocalories in 2009 (p< 0.001). Most food groups showed a significant increase in intake from 1991 to 2009, with plant oil, wheat buns, and wheat noodles showing the greatest increase. At the same age, more recent generations had more energy intake than earlier generations. An aging effect was observed, with energy intake decreasing with age, although more recent generations showed a smaller decrease in energy intake with aging. Conclusion Older Chinese adults in recent generations show an increase in total calorie intake compared to older Chinese of earlier generations, paired with a less significant decrease in calorie intake as they age. Increased consumption of high-fat, non-staple high-carbohydrate foods such as plant oil and wheat

  11. Association of food form with self-reported 24-h energy intake and meal patterns in US adults: NHANES 2003–2008123

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I; Mattes, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory studies suggest that food form (beverages compared with solid foods) evokes behavioral and physiologic responses that modify short-term appetite and food intake. Beverage energy may be less satiating and poorly compensated, which leads to higher energy intake. Objective: We examined associations between 24-h energy consumed in beverages and a variety of meal and dietary attributes to quantify the contribution of beverage consumption to the energy content of diets in free-living individuals consuming their self-selected diets. Design: We used dietary recall data for adults (n = 13,704) in NHANES 2003–2008 to examine the multiple covariate-adjusted associations between 24-h energy from beverages and nonbeverages and associations between beverage intake, eating behaviors, and the energy density of beverage and nonbeverage foods. Results: In the highest tertile of 24-h beverage energy intake, beverages provided >30% of energy. Total 24-h energy and nonbeverage energy consumption and energy density (kcal/g) of both beverage and nonbeverage foods increased with increasing energy from beverages (P < 0.0001). With increasing 24-h beverage energy consumption, the reported frequency of all, snack, and beverage-only ingestive episodes and length of the ingestive period increased, whereas the percentage of energy from main meals decreased (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Higher 24-h beverage energy intake was related to higher energy intake from nonbeverage foods, quality of food selections, and distribution of 24-h energy into main meal and snack episodes. Moderation of beverage-only ingestive episodes and curtailing the length of the ingestion period may hold potential to lower uncompensated beverage energy consumption in the US population. PMID:23097271

  12. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and product quality of progeny from Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Murdoch, G K; Crews, D H; Davis, L C; Doumit, M E; Price, W J; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

    2012-12-01

    Energy expenditure is a physiological process that may be closely associated with residual feed intake (RFI). The maintenance energy (ME(M)) EPD was developed by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) and is used as an indicator of energy expenditure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the following relationships using progeny of Red Angus (RA) sires divergent for ME(M) EPD: 1) postweaning RFI and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE), 2) postweaning RFI and end-product quality, and 3) postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. A total of 12 RA sires divergent for ME(M) EPD were chosen using the RAAA-generated ME(M) EPD values and were partitioned into 2 groups: high ME(M) EPD (≥4 Mcal/mo) and low ME(M) EPD (<4 Mcal/mo), based on the breed average of 4 Mcal/mo. Commercial crossbred cows were inseminated to produce 3 cohorts of progeny, which were tested for postweaning RFI (cohorts 1, 2, and 3) and finishing phase FE (cohorts 1 and 3). Results indicate that postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE of steer progeny tended to be positively correlated (r = 0.38; P = 0.06) in cohort 1 and were positively correlated (r = 0.50; P = 0.001) in cohort 3. In addition, postweaning RFI was not phenotypically correlated (P > 0.05) with any carcass traits or end-product quality measurements. Sire ME(M) EPD was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with carcass traits in cohort 1 (HCW, LM area, KPH, fat thickness, and yield grade) and cohort 2 (KPH and fat thickness). Since variation in measured LM area was not explained by the genetic potential of rib eye area EPD, and therefore, the observed correlation between sire ME(M) EPD and measured LM area may suggest an association between ME(M) EPD and LM area. A correlation (r = 0.24; P = 0.02) was observed between postweaning RFI and ultrasound intramuscular fat percentage in cohort 2 but was not detected in cohorts 1 or 3. In addition, no phenotypic relationship was observed (P > 0.05) between progeny postweaning

  13. The Acute-Phase Protein Orosomucoid Regulates Food Intake and Energy Homeostasis via Leptin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Yang, Yili; Qin, Zhen; Cai, Jinya; Guo, Xiuming; Tang, Yun; Wan, Jingjing; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The acute-phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) exhibits a variety of activities in vitro and in vivo, notably modulation of immunity and transportation of drugs. We found in this study that mice lacking ORM1 displayed aberrant energy homeostasis characterized by increased body weight and fat mass. Further investigation found that ORM, predominantly ORM1, is significantly elevated in sera, liver, and adipose tissues from the mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and db/db mice that develop obesity spontaneously due to mutation in the leptin receptor (LepR). Intravenous or intraperitoneal administration of exogenous ORM decreased food intake in C57BL/6, HFD, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which was absent in db/db mice and was significantly reduced in mice with arcuate nucleus (ARC) LepR knockdown, whereas enforced expression of ORM1 in ARC significantly decreased food intake, body weight, and serum insulin level. Furthermore, we found that ORM is able to bind directly to LepR and activate the receptor-mediated JAK2-STAT3 signaling in hypothalamus tissue and GT1-7 cells, which was derived from hypothalamic tumor. These data indicated that ORM could function through LepR to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis in response to nutrition status. Modulating the expression of ORM is a novel strategy for the management of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27207522

  14. Contributions of upper gut hormones and motility to the energy intake-suppressant effects of intraduodenal nutrients in healthy, lean men - a pooled-data analysis.

    PubMed

    Schober, Gudrun; Lange, Kylie; Steinert, Robert E; Hutchison, Amy T; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Landrock, Maria F; Horowitz, Michael; Seimon, Radhika V; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-09-01

    We have previously identified pyloric pressures and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations as independent determinants of energy intake following administration of intraduodenal lipid and intravenous CCK. We evaluated in healthy men whether these parameters also determine energy intake in response to intraduodenal protein, and whether, across the nutrients, any predominant gastrointestinal (GI) factors exist, or many factors make small contributions. Data from nine published studies, in which antropyloroduodenal pressures, GI hormones, and GI /appetite perceptions were measured during intraduodenal lipid or protein infusions, were pooled. In all studies energy intake was quantified immediately after the infusions. Specific variables for inclusion in a mixed-effects multivariable model for determination of independent predictors of energy intake were chosen following assessment for collinearity, and within-subject correlations between energy intake and these variables were determined using bivariate analyses adjusted for repeated measures. In models based on all studies, or lipid studies, there were significant effects for amplitude of antral pressure waves, premeal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and time-to-peak GLP-1 concentrations, GLP-1 AUC and bloating scores (P < 0.05), and trends for basal pyloric pressure (BPP), amplitude of duodenal pressure waves, peak CCK concentrations, and hunger and nausea scores (0.05 < P ≤ 0.094), to be independent determinants of subsequent energy intake. In the model including the protein studies, only BPP was identified as an independent determinant of energy intake (P < 0.05). No single parameter was identified across all models, and effects of the variables identified were relatively small. Taken together, while GI mechanisms contribute to the regulation of acute energy intake by lipid and protein, their contribution to the latter is much less. Moreover, the effects are likely to reflect small, cumulative

  15. CONCEPTUAL BASIS FOR MULTI-ROUTE INTAKE DOSE MODELING USING AN ENERGY EXPENDITURE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides the conceptual basis for a modeling logic that is currently being developed in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA) for use in intake dose assessments involving substances that can enter the body...

  16. Lorcaserin, A 5-HT2C Receptor Agonist, Reduces Body Weight by Decreasing Energy Intake without Influencing Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.; Zhang, Jinkun; Sanchez, Matilde; Anderson, Christen M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2C receptor agonist, reduces body weight. It is unclear whether weight loss is due to reduced energy intake (EI) or also to enhanced energy expenditure (EE). Objective: This study tested the effect of lorcaserin on EI and EE. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 57 (39 women) overweight and obese (body mass index, 27–45 kg/m2) adults were randomized to placebo (n = 28) or 10 mg twice daily lorcaserin (n = 29) for 56 d. Weight maintenance was imposed during d 1–7. Beginning on d 8, participants followed a diet and exercise plan targeting a 600 kcal/d deficit. Outcomes: At baseline and after 7 and 56 d of treatment, we measured body weight, body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry), blood pressure, heart rate, EI at lunch and dinner, subjective appetite ratings, and 24-h EE and 24-h-respiratory quotient (RQ), measured by indirect calorimetry in a respiratory chamber. Results: After 7 d of weight maintenance, EI was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced with lorcaserin but not placebo (mean ± sem for lorcaserin, −286 ± 86 kcal; placebo, −147 ± 89 kcal). After 56 d, lorcaserin resulted in significantly larger reductions in body weight (lorcaserin, −3.8 ± 0.4 kg; placebo, −2.2 ± 0.5 kg; P < 0.01), EI (lorcaserin, −470 ± 87 kcal; placebo, −205 ± 91 kcal; P < .05), and appetite ratings than in placebo. Changes in 24-h EE and 24-h RQ did not differ between groups, even after 24-h EE was adjusted for body weight and composition. Compared with placebo, lorcaserin had no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate after 56 d. Conclusions: Lorcaserin reduces body weight through reduced EI, not altered EE or RQ. PMID:21190985

  17. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  18. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    PubMed Central

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G.; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L.; Mercer Moss, Felix J.; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. PMID:27213451

  19. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    PubMed

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight. PMID:27213451

  20. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Schinckel, A. P.; Einstein, M. E.; Jungst, S.; Matthews, J. O.; Booher, C.; Dreadin, T.; Fralick, C.; Wilson, E.; Boyd, R. D.

    2012-01-01

    A trial was conducted to: i) evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii) evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii) to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts), two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen) recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI), ME (MEI) and NE (NEI) intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d) were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively). Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001) than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001) for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d). However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49) or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13), thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377) and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113) was less (p<0.001) for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150), therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  1. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2016-07-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow ( Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  2. Dietary lipid and gross energy affect protein utilization in the rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benli; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Xie, Shouqi; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to detect the optimal dietary protein and energy, as well as the effects of protein to energy ratio on growth, for the rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), which are critical to nutrition standardization for model fish. Twenty-four diets were formulated to contain three gross energy (10, 12.5, 15 kJ/g), four protein (20%, 25%, 30%, 35%), and two lipid levels (3%, 6%). The results showed that optimal dietary E/P was 41.7-50 kJ/g for maximum growth in juvenile rare minnows at 6% dietary crude lipid. At 3% dietary lipid, specific growth rate (SGR) increased markedly when E/P decreased from 62.5 kJ/g to 35.7 kJ/g and gross energy was 12.5 kJ/g, and from 75 kJ/g to 42.9 kJ/g when gross energy was 15.0 kJ/g. The optimal gross energy was estimated at 12.5 kJ/g and excess energy decreased food intake and growth. Dietary lipid exhibited an apparent protein-sparing effect. Optimal protein decreased from 35% to 25%-30% with an increase in dietary lipid from 3% to 6% without adversely effecting growth. Dietary lipid level affects the optimal dietary E/P ratio. In conclusion, recommended dietary protein and energy for rare minnow are 20%-35% and 10-12.5 kJ/g, respectively.

  3. Intake of Blueberry Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum Affects the Gut Microbiota of L-NAME Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahrén, Irini Lazou; Prykhodko, Olena; Olsson, Crister; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics can be used as means to regulate the microbiota to exert preventative or beneficial effects to the host. However, not much is known about the effect of the gut microbiota on hypertension which is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease and also a symptom of the metabolic syndrome. The NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced hypertensive rats were used in order to test the effect of a synbiotic dietary supplement of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL19 either together with fermented blueberry or with three phenolic compounds synthesized during fermentation. The experimental diets did not lower the blood pressure after 4 weeks. However, the fermented blueberries together with live L. plantarum showed protective effect on liver cells indicated by suppressed increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) levels. The diversity of the caecal microbiota was neither affected by L-NAME nor the experimental diets. However, inhibition of the nitric oxide synthesis by L-NAME exerted a selection pressure that led to a shift in the bacterial composition. The mixture of fermented blueberries with the bacterial strain altered the caecal microbiota in different direction compared to L-NAME, while the three phenolic compounds together with the bacteria eliminated the selection pressure from the L-NAME. PMID:23690854

  4. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices

    PubMed Central

    Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266

  5. Effect of bolus fluid intake on energy expenditure values as determined by the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, D.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW, 2H(2)18O) method is a highly accurate method for measuring energy expenditure (EE). A possible source of error is bolus fluid intake before body water sampling. If there is bolus fluid intake immediately before body water sampling, the saliva may reflect the ingested water disproportionately, because the ingested water may not have had time to mix fully with the body water pool. To ascertain the magnitude of this problem, EE was measured over a 5-day period by the DLW method. Six subjects were dosed with 2H2(18)O. After the reference salivas for the two-point determination were obtained, subjects drank water (700-1,000 ml), and serial saliva samples were collected for the next 3 h. Expressing the postbolus saliva enrichments as a percentage of the prebolus value, we found 1) a minimum in the saliva isotopic enrichments were reached at approximately 30 min with the minimum for 2H (95.48 +/- 0.43%) being significantly lower than the minimum for 18O (97.55 +/- 0.44, P less than 0.05) and 2) EE values calculated using the postbolus isotopic enrichments are appreciably higher (19.9 +/- 7.5%) than the prebolus reference values. In conclusion, it is not advisable to collect saliva samples for DLW measurements within approximately 1 h of bolus fluid intake.

  6. Decreased fat mass in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist-deficient mice: impact on adipogenesis, food intake, and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Somm, Emmanuel; Henrichot, Elvire; Pernin, Agnès; Juge-Aubry, Cristiana E; Muzzin, Patrick; Dayer, Jean-Michel; Nicklin, Martin J H; Meier, Christoph A

    2005-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is a regulator of inflammation but is also implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. Because the soluble IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is markedly increased in the serum of obese patients and is overexpressed in white adipose tissue in obesity, we studied the metabolic consequences of genetic IL-1Ra ablation in mice. We have shown that IL-1Ra-/- mice have a lean phenotype due to decreased fat mass, related to a defect in adipogenesis and increased energy expenditure. The adipocytes were smaller in these animals, and the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis was reduced. Energy expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry was elevated, and weight loss in response to a 24-h fast was increased in IL-1Ra-/- animals compared with wild-type mice. Lipid oxidation of IL-1Ra-/- mice was higher during the light period, reflecting their reduction in diurnal food intake. Interestingly, IL-1Ra-/- and IL-1Ra+/- mice presented an attenuation in high-fat diet-induced caloric hyperphagia, indicating a better adaptation to hypercaloric alimentation, which is in line with the role of IL-1Ra as a mediator of leptin resistance. Taken together, we show that IL-1Ra is an important regulator of adipogenesis, food intake, and energy expenditure. PMID:16306368

  7. High dietary intake of sodium selenite does not affect gene mutation frequency in rat colon and liver.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Uthus, Eric O; Ross, Sharon A; Davis, Cindy D

    2009-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) is protective against dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced preneoplastic colon cancer lesions, and protection against DNA damage has been hypothesized to be one mechanism for the anticancer effect of Se. The present study was designed to determine whether dietary selenite affects somatic mutation frequency in vivo. We used the Big Blue transgenic model to evaluate the in vivo mutation frequency of the cII gene in rats fed either a Se-deficient (0 microg Se/g diet) or Se-supplemented diet (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet; n = 3 rats/diet in experiment 1 and n = 5 rats/group in experiment 2) and injected with DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). There were no significant differences in body weight between the Se-deficient and Se-supplemented (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet) rats, but the activities of liver glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase and concentration of liver Se were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in Se-deficient rats compared to rats supplemented with Se. We found no effect of dietary Se on liver 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Gene mutation frequency was significantly lower in liver (p < 0.001) than that of colon regardless of dietary Se. However, there were no differences in gene mutation frequency in DNA from colon mucosa or liver from rats fed the Se-deficient diet compared to those fed the Se-supplemented (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet) diet. Although gene mutations have been implicated in the etiology of cancer, our data suggest that decreasing gene mutation is not likely a key mechanism through which dietary selenite exerts its anticancer action against DMH-induced preneoplastic colon cancer lesions in a Big Blue transgenic rat model. PMID:19263001

  8. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  9. Comparison of energy intake in toddlers assessed by food frequency questionnaire and total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L; Truby, Helen; Morgan, Philip J; Wright, Ian M R; Davies, Peter S W; Callister, Robin

    2013-03-01

    The ability of parents to accurately report energy intake in toddlers has rarely been validated using the gold-standard doubly labeled water (DLW) method to assess total energy expenditure (TEE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of toddler energy intake (EI), estimated using the Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by parent report compared with a weighed food record (WFR) and TEE measured by DLW. Twelve toddlers had TEE assessed over 10 days using DLW. Usual energy intake was estimated by the primary caregiver, using standard toddler portions in ACAES-FFQ and a 4-day WFR and daily EI (in kilocalories) derived using national nutrient databases. Accuracy of reporting was calculated from absolute (EI-TEE) and percentage (EI/TEE×100) differences between EI and TEE and Pearson correlations and limits of agreement from Bland-Altman plots. Toddlers (n=12, 7 boys) had a mean age of 3.2±0.5 years, body mass index 16.2±0.9 kg, body mass index z score 0.1±0.8, EI from ACAES-FFQ 1,183±281kcal/day, and WFR 1,179±278 kcal/day and DLW TEE 1,251±149 kcal/day. The mean difference and limits of agreement (±2 standard deviations) compared with DLW was -68 (-623, 488) kcal/day for the FFQ and for the WFR -72 (-499, 354) kcal/day. Although both a semiquantitative FFQ and WFR can adequately estimate toddler energy intake at the group level in this population, toddler-specific portion size estimates should be assigned to foods listed in the FFQ. Choice of method is likely to depend on practical issues, including cost and burden. PMID:23317500

  10. The PRO GREENS intervention in Finnish schoolchildren - the degree of implementation affects both mediators and the intake of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Reetta; Määttä, Suvi; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Te Velde, Saskia; Lien, Nanna; Thorsdottir, Inga; Yngve, Agneta; Roos, Eva

    2014-10-14

    Little is known about the mediating effects of the determinants of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in school-based interventions that promote FV intake, and few studies have examined the impact of the degree of implementation on the effects of an intervention. The present study examined whether the degree of implementation of an intervention had an effect on children's fruit or vegetable intake and determined possible mediators of this effect. The study is part of the European PRO GREENS intervention study which aimed to develop effective strategies to promote consumption of fruit and vegetables in schoolchildren across Europe. Data from 727 Finnish children aged 11 years were used. The baseline study was conducted in spring 2009 and the follow-up study 12 months later. The intervention was conducted during the school year 2009-2010. The effects were examined using multilevel mediation analyses. A high degree of implementation of the intervention had an effect on children's fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and liking mediated the association between a high degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and bringing fruits to school as a snack mediated the association between a low degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Overall, the model accounted for 34 % of the variance in the change in fruit intake frequency. Knowledge of recommendations acted as a mediator between the degree of implementation of the intervention and the change in vegetable intake frequency. In conclusion, the degree of implementation had an effect on fruit intake, and thus in future intervention studies the actual degree of implementation of interventions should be assessed when considering the effects of interventions. PMID:25106046

  11. Validation of a Pre-Coded Food Diary Used among 60–80 Year Old Men: Comparison of Self-Reported Energy Intake with Objectively Recorded Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Tonje H.; Andersen, Lene F.; Paulsen, Gøran; Hetlelid, Ken J.; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Ådnanes, Svanhild; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Salvesen, Svein; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate energy intake (EI) estimated from a pre-coded food diary (PFD) against energy expenditure (EE) measured with a valid physical activity monitor (SenseWear Pro3 Armband) and to evaluate whether misreporting was associated with overweight/obesity in a group of elderly men. Methods Forty-seven healthy Norwegian men, 60–80 years old, completed the study. As this study was part of a larger intervention study, cross-sectional data were collected at both baseline and post-test. Participants recorded their food intake for four consecutive days using food diaries and wore SenseWear Pro3 Armband (SWA) during the same period. Only participants with complete data sets at both baseline and post-test were included in the study. Results The group average EI was 17% lower at baseline and 18% lower at post-test compared to measured EE. Mean difference from Bland-Altman plot for EI and EE was −1.5 MJ/day (±1.96 SD: −7.0, 4.0 MJ/day) at baseline and −1.6 MJ/day (−6.6, 3.4 MJ/day) at post-test. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.54, p = 0.018) at baseline and 0.34 (0.06, 0.57, p = 0.009) at post-test. Higher values of underreporting was shown among overweight/obese compared to normal weight participants at both baseline and post-test (p≤ 0.001), respectively. Conclusions The results indicate that the PFD could be a useful tool for estimating energy intake in normal weight elderly men. On the other hand, the PFD seems to be less suitable for estimating energy intake in overweight/obese elderly men. PMID:25019949

  12. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters1

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, D. M.; Jones, D. R.; Abdo, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Shepherd, T. A.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  13. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  14. Photo-assisted recall increases estimates of energy and macronutrient intake in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Herrmann, Stephen D; Lee, Jaehoon; Sullivan, Debra K; Rondon, Mary F; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2013-12-01

    Diet assessment of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities is challenging because of their limited cognitive abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and outcomes of combining photos with 24-hour dietary recalls for the assessment of energy and macronutrient intakes in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Participants used an iPad 2 tablet computer (Apple) to take photos of all food and beverages consumed before a standard, multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall. After the standard 24-hour diet recall, the photos were reviewed with the participant for clarification details (eg, portion size) and differences were recorded. The standard 24-hour recall and photo-assisted recall were entered separately into the Nutrition Data System for Research for computerized dietary analysis. Sixty-four eating occasions were entered from 23 participants (48% female; mean age 26.4±9.7 years). Participants captured photos for 66.5%±30.4% of all recorded eating occasions. Greater energy intake per eating occasion was reported with the photo-assisted recalls than the standard recalls (625.6±85.7 kcal vs 497.2±86.6 kcal; P=0.002) and a greater intake of grams of fat (P=0.006), protein (P=0.029), and carbohydrates (P=0.003). Photo-assisted 24-hour recalls provided a significant increase in total calories and macronutrient content compared with a standard 24-hour recall and may be a feasible method to enhance dietary assessment in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:24095784

  15. Effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake in healthy Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Seiichiro; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kohashi, Chieko; Kakumoto, Keiji; Kohda, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    White rice is a dominant grain-based food in Japan, but excess intake of polished rice may cause obesity. Barley is a grain-based food, similar to white rice, but it has the potential to control appetite and reduce energy intake. We investigated the effect of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley on appetite and energy intake. The study was conducted as a randomized crossover design with twenty-one healthy Japanese women [mean ± standard deviation body mass index (BMI) 23.3 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)]. Subjects consumed a breakfast of cooked white rice with high β-glucan barley (BAR) or white rice (WR), followed by an ad libitum lunch and dinner. Energy intake was measured at the lunch and the dinner using plate waste. Subjects' perception scores on hunger, fullness, satiety, and prospective food consumption were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, lunch and dinner. BAR significantly reduced the VAS scores of hunger and prospective food consumption, and increased fullness before lunch compared to WR (P = 0.032, 0.019 and 0.038, respectively). Energy intake at lunch and the cumulative energy intake (lunch + dinner) subsequent to BAR consumption were significantly lower than WR (P = 0.035 and 0.021, respectively). BAR was able to modulate appetite and reduce energy intake. The combination of white rice with high β-glucan barley could play a beneficial role in preventing and treating obesity and other obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:25139426

  16. How does fortification affect the distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 intake at the school lunch for fifth-grade children?

    PubMed

    Nozue, Miho; Jun, Kyungyul; Ishihara, Yoko; Taketa, Yasuko; Naruse, Akiko; Nagai, Narumi; Yoshita, Katsushi; Ishida, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the usual intake distribution of calcium and vitamin B(1) of fifth-grade children based on a 3-d dietary survey and to assess nutrient intake using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs 2010). A cross-sectional study was undertaken from October 2007 to February 2008 in schools located in Tokyo and Okayama, Japan. A total of 94 fifth-grade children attending 5 elementary schools participated in the study. The weighed plate waste method and observation were used to collect data on the school lunches and dietary records by children, accompanied by photographs used to collect data on meals at home. The study lasted 3 d, 2 non-consecutive days with school lunches and 1 d without. The estimated proportion of subjects below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for calcium intake with milk in the school lunch decreased by 40% compared to the calcium intake without milk in the school lunch. Vitamin B1 intake from less than 0.45 mg/1,000 kcal fortified rice was estimated to be 0%. The intake distribution of calcium has increased by 150 mg by taking milk and the intake distribution of vitamin B1 has increased 0.20 mg by taking fortified rice in the school lunch. Calcium and vitamin B1 intake in the school lunch has changed the distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 intake upward, and decreased the number of estimated subjects that were below EAR. However, the distribution was not shifted across the board and the shape of the distribution has changed. PMID:23535536

  17. Reduced Sleep Acutely Influences Sedentary Behavior and Mood But Not Total Energy Intake in Normal-Weight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Romney, Lora; Larson, Michael J; Clark, Tyler; Tucker, Larry A; Bailey, Bruce W; LeCheminant, James D

    2016-01-01

    Using a crossover design, 22 normal-weight and 22 obese women completed two free-living sleep conditions: (a) Normal Sleep: night of ~8 hr time in bed; and (b) Reduced Sleep: night of < 5 hr time in bed). Outcome measures were energy intake, physical activity and sedentary time, and mood. Sleep time was 7.7 ± 0.3 and 4.8 ± 0.2 hrs during the Normal Sleep and Reduced Sleep conditions, respectively (F = 1791.94; p < 0.0001). Energy intake did not differ between groups or as a function of sleep condition (F = 2.46; p = 0.1244). Sedentary time was ~ 30 min higher after the Reduced Sleep condition (F = 4.98; p = 0.0318); other physical activity outcomes were not different by condition (p > 0.05). Total mood score, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion were worse after Reduced Sleep (p < 0.05). Reducing sleep acutely and negatively influenced sedentary time and mood in normal-weight and obese women. PMID:26485109

  18. Curcumin Intake Affects miRNA Signature in Murine Melanoma with mmu-miR-205-5p Most Significantly Altered

    PubMed Central

    Rudzitis-Auth, Jeannette; Laschke, Matthias W.; Leidinger, Petra; Menger, Michael D.; Meese, Eckart; Mahlknecht, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with estimated 48,000 deaths per year worldwide. The polyphenol curcumin derived from the plant Curcuma longa is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerogenic properties. Accordingly, dietary intake of this compound may be suitable for melanoma prevention. However, how this compound affects basic cellular mechanisms in developing melanoma still remains elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the impact of oral curcumin administration on the miRNA signature of engrafting melanoma. For this purpose, the effects of a 4% curcumin diet were tested on melanoma, which were established by injection of murine B78H1 cells in the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Curcumin diet or standard chow (control) was administered two weeks prior to injection of tumor cells until termination of the experiment. High throughput chip-based array analysis was deployed to detect alterations in the miRNA signature of the tumors. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced the growth of the flank tumors. Furthermore the miRNA expression signature in tumors was substantially altered by curcumin intake with mmu-miR-205-5p over 100 times higher expressed when compared to controls. The expression levels of identified key miRNAs in the tumor samples were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A comparable expression pattern of these miRNAs was also detected in other curcumin-treated melanoma cell lines under in vitro conditions. Putative targets of curcumin-induced up-regulated miRNAs were enriched in ‘o-glycan biosynthesis’, ‘endoplasmatic reticulum protein processing’ and different cancer-related pathways. Western Blot analyses revealed that of these targets anti-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were significantly down-regulated in curcumin-treated tumors. These findings demonstrate a profound alteration of the mi

  19. Curcumin intake affects miRNA signature in murine melanoma with mmu-miR-205-5p most significantly altered.

    PubMed

    Dahmke, Indra N; Backes, Christina; Rudzitis-Auth, Jeannette; Laschke, Matthias W; Leidinger, Petra; Menger, Michael D; Meese, Eckart; Mahlknecht, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with estimated 48,000 deaths per year worldwide. The polyphenol curcumin derived from the plant Curcuma longa is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerogenic properties. Accordingly, dietary intake of this compound may be suitable for melanoma prevention. However, how this compound affects basic cellular mechanisms in developing melanoma still remains elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the impact of oral curcumin administration on the miRNA signature of engrafting melanoma. For this purpose, the effects of a 4% curcumin diet were tested on melanoma, which were established by injection of murine B78H1 cells in the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Curcumin diet or standard chow (control) was administered two weeks prior to injection of tumor cells until termination of the experiment. High throughput chip-based array analysis was deployed to detect alterations in the miRNA signature of the tumors. Curcumin treatment significantly reduced the growth of the flank tumors. Furthermore the miRNA expression signature in tumors was substantially altered by curcumin intake with mmu-miR-205-5p over 100 times higher expressed when compared to controls. The expression levels of identified key miRNAs in the tumor samples were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A comparable expression pattern of these miRNAs was also detected in other curcumin-treated melanoma cell lines under in vitro conditions. Putative targets of curcumin-induced up-regulated miRNAs were enriched in 'o-glycan biosynthesis', 'endoplasmatic reticulum protein processing' and different cancer-related pathways. Western Blot analyses revealed that of these targets anti-apoptotic B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were significantly down-regulated in curcumin-treated tumors. These findings demonstrate a profound alteration of the mi

  20. Effects of food form and timing of ingestion on appetite and energy intake in lean and obese young adults

    PubMed Central

    RD, Mattes; WW, Campbell

    2009-01-01

    Objective Overweight and obesity have been attributed to increased eating frequency and the size of eating events. This study explored the influence of the timing of eating events and food form on appetite and daily energy intake. Design Cross-over, clinical intervention where participants consumed 300 kcal loads of a solid (apple), semi-solid (apple sauce) and beverage (apple juice) at a meal or 2 hours later (snack). Subjects Twenty normal weight (body mass index - BMI=22.6±1.8kg/m2) and 20 obese (BMI=32.3±1.5kg/m2) adults. There were 10 males and 10 females within each BMI group. Measurements On 6 occasions, participants reported to the laboratory at their customary midday meal time. Appetite questionnaires and motor skills tests were completed upon arrival and at 30min intervals for the 2 hours participants were in the laboratory and at 30min intervals for 4 hours after leaving the laboratory. Diet recalls were collected the next day. Data were collected between January of 2006 and June of 2007. Results Whether consumed with a meal or alone as a snack, the beverage elicited the weakest appetitive response, the solid food form elicited the strongest appetitive response and the semi-solid response was intermediate. The appetite shift was greatest for the solid food when consumed as a snack. The interval between test food consumption and the first spontaneous eating event >100 kcal was shortest for the beverage. No significant treatment effects were observed for test day energy intake or between lean and obese individuals. Conclusion Based on the appetitive findings, consumption of an energy-yielding beverage either with a meal or as a snack poses a greater risk for promoting positive energy than macronutrient-matched semi-solid or solid foods consumed at these times. PMID:19248858

  1. Influence of zinc on growth and development and on energy intakes of children with chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether zinc acetate supplementation (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/ka/child) in Children with End Stage Renal Disease, improved energy intakes and, in turn, growth and development. Height, weight, mid-arm circumference, triceps fatfold, hand wrist radiographs, and Tanner Staging measurements were taken at the beginning of the study, prior to zinc supplementation, and at the end of the study period. Clinical analyses for serum sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and CO/sub 2/ were routinely completed monthly. Simultaneously, plasma zinc and copper and erythrocyte zinc and 3 day food diaries were completed. Mean growth velocity in males was 4.07 +/- 2.02 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 2.98 +/- 2.33 cm/yr (supplemented) and in females, 3.88 +/- 0.73 cm/yr (non-supplemented), 3.28 +/- 2.10 cm/yr (supplemented). There were no significant differences between the supplemented and non-zinc supplemented males or females in growth velocity. Bone maturation as determined through hand wrist radiographs, improved in 4 of 6 zinc supplemented subjects. Before zinc supplementation, 50%, 92%, and 42% of the subjects met 67% of their RDA for age and sex for energy, protein, and zinc, respectively. After zinc acetate supplementation, the percentage of subjects meeting 67% of the RDA for energy, protein, and dietary zinc were 67%, 100%, and 67%, respectively. There was a trend toward increased dietary energy, protein, and zinc intake with zinc acetate supplementation.

  2. Explaining the Positive Relationship Between Fourth-Grade Children's Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected,…

  3. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  4. Short communication: milk output in llamas (Lama glama) in relation to energy intake and water turnover measured by an isotope dilution technique.

    PubMed

    Riek, A; Klinkert, A; Gerken, M; Hummel, J; Moors, E; Südekum, K-H

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that llamas have become increasingly popular as companion and farm animals in both Europe and North America, scientific knowledge on their nutrient requirements is scarce. Compared with other livestock species, relatively little is known especially about the nutrient and energy requirements for lactating llamas. Therefore, we aimed to measure milk output in llama dams using an isotope dilution technique and relate it to energy intakes at different stages of lactation. We also validated the dilution technique by measuring total water turnover (TWT) directly and comparing it with values estimated by the isotope dilution technique. Our study involved 5 lactating llama dams and their suckling young. Milk output and TWT were measured at 4 stages of lactation (wk 3, 10, 18, and 26 postpartum). The method involved the application of the stable hydrogen isotope deuterium ((2)H) to the lactating dam. Drinking water intake and TWT decreased significantly with lactation stage, whether estimated by the isotope dilution technique or calculated from drinking water and water ingested from feeds. In contrast, lactation stage had no effect on dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, or the milk water fraction (i.e., the ratio between milk water excreted and TWT). The ratios between TWT measured and TWT estimated (by isotope dilution) did not differ with lactation stage and were close to 100% in all measurement weeks, indicating that the D(2)O dilution technique estimated TWT with high accuracy and only small variations. Calculating the required ME intakes for lactation from milk output data and gross energy content of milk revealed that, with increasing lactation stage, ME requirements per day for lactation decreased but remained constant per kilogram of milk output. Total measured ME intakes at different stages of lactation were similar to calculated ME intakes from published recommendation models for llamas. PMID:23332845

  5. Quantification of training load, energy intake, and physiological adaptations during a rugby preseason: a case study from an elite European rugby union squad.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce P; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-02-01

    Rugby Union (RU) is a high-speed collision sport consisting of an intermittent activity profile. Given the extreme physical demands of the sport, significant emphasis is placed on players possessing high lean body mass while minimizing body fat. Anecdotally, the most significant changes in body composition are observed during the preseason; however, there are no objective data on the physiological demands and energy intake during this time. We therefore monitored 45 elite European RU players over the 10-week preseason period by assessing training load using Global Positioning System and session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) while also assessing changes in anthropometry and physical performance. For forwards and backs, respectively, mean weekly distance covered was 9,774 m (1,404) and 11,585 m (1,810) with a total mean weekly sRPE of 3,398 (335) arbitrary units and 2,944 (410) arbitrary units. Mean daily energy intake was 14.8 MJ (1.9) and 13.3 MJ (1.9), carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.3 (0.7) and 4.14 (0.4) g·kg body mass, protein intake was 2.52 (0.3) and 2.59 (0.6) g·kg body mass, and fat intake was 1.0 (0.3) and 0.95 (0.3) g·kg body mass for forwards and backs, respectively. Markers of physical performance (1 repetition maximum strength, speed, and repeated sprint tests) and anthropometry (body fat and estimated lean mass) improved in all players. Interestingly, all players self-selected a "low" CHO "high" protein diet. Based on physiological improvements the training load and energy intake seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if such energy intakes would also be suitable for match day performance. PMID:25029003

  6. Mechanisms affecting kinetic energies of laser-ablated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.R. |; Leboeuf, J.N.; Wood, R.F.; Geohegan, D.B.; Donato, J.M.; Liu, C.L.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Laser materials processing techniques are expected to have a dramatic impact on materials science and engineering in the near future and beyond. One of the main laser materials processing techniques is Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for thin film growth. While experimentalists search for optimal approaches for thin film growth with pulsed laser deposition (PLD), a systematic effort in theory and modeling of various processes during PLD is needed. The quality of film deposited depends critically on the range and profile of the kinetic energy and density of the ablated plume. While it is to the advantage of pulsed laser deposition to have high kinetic energy, plumes that are too energetic causes film damage. A dynamic source effect was found to accelerate the plume expansion velocity much higher than that from a conventional free expansion model. A self-similar theory and a hydrodynamic model are developed to study this effect, which may help to explain experimentally observed high front expansion velocity. Background gas can also affect the kinetic energies. High background gas may cause the ablated materials to go backward. Experimentally observed plume splitting is also discussed.

  7. Oxytocin Reduces Reward-Driven Food Intake in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Volker; Finlayson, Graham; Lehnert, Hendrik; Heitmann, Birte; Heinrichs, Markus; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Experiments in animals suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin acts as an anorexigenic signal in the central nervous control of food intake. In humans, however, research has almost exclusively focused on the involvement of oxytocin in the regulation of social behavior. We investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on ingestion and metabolic function in healthy men. Food intake in the fasted state was examined 45 min after neuropeptide administration, followed by the assessment of olfaction and reward-driven snack intake in the absence of hunger. Energy expenditure was registered by indirect calorimetry, and blood was repeatedly sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Oxytocin markedly reduced snack consumption, restraining, in particular, the intake of chocolate cookies by 25%. Oxytocin, moreover, attenuated basal and postprandial levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol and curbed the meal-related rise in plasma glucose. Energy expenditure and hunger-driven food intake as well as olfactory function were not affected. Our results indicate that oxytocin, beyond its role in social bonding, regulates nonhomeostatic, reward-related energy intake, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and the glucoregulatory response to food intake in humans. These effects can be assumed to converge with the psychosocial function of oxytocin and imply possible applications in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:23835346

  8. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycemic load (GL) is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL) and high-GL (HGL) breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P < 0.03). However, no significant difference was observed between LGL and HGL intervention groups in the amount of food and energy consumed during lunch. Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children. PMID:21070678

  9. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  10. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake. PMID:20351697

  11. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045. PMID:24768895

  12. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Garlapow, Megan E.; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T.; Peterson, Kara R.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Food intake is an essential animal activity, regulated by neural circuits that motivate food localization, evaluate nutritional content and acceptance or rejection responses through the gustatory system, and regulate neuroendocrine feedback loops that maintain energy homeostasis. Excess food consumption in people is associated with obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in food consumption. To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions and genetic background can be controlled precisely. We quantified variation in food intake among 182 inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We found significant genetic variation in the mean and within-line environmental variance of food consumption and observed sexual dimorphism and genetic variation in sexual dimorphism for both food intake traits (mean and variance). We performed genome wide association (GWA) analyses for mean food intake and environmental variance of food intake (using the coefficient of environmental variation, CVE, as the metric for environmental variance) and identified molecular polymorphisms associated with both traits. Validation experiments using RNAi-knockdown confirmed 24 of 31 (77%) candidate genes affecting food intake and/or variance of food intake, and a test cross between selected DGRP lines confirmed a SNP affecting mean food intake identified in the GWA analysis. The majority of the validated candidate genes were novel with respect to feeding behavior, and many had mammalian orthologs implicated in metabolic diseases. PMID:26375667

  13. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Garlapow, Megan E; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T; Peterson, Kara R; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    Food intake is an essential animal activity, regulated by neural circuits that motivate food localization, evaluate nutritional content and acceptance or rejection responses through the gustatory system, and regulate neuroendocrine feedback loops that maintain energy homeostasis. Excess food consumption in people is associated with obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in food consumption. To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions and genetic background can be controlled precisely. We quantified variation in food intake among 182 inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We found significant genetic variation in the mean and within-line environmental variance of food consumption and observed sexual dimorphism and genetic variation in sexual dimorphism for both food intake traits (mean and variance). We performed genome wide association (GWA) analyses for mean food intake and environmental variance of food intake (using the coefficient of environmental variation, CVE, as the metric for environmental variance) and identified molecular polymorphisms associated with both traits. Validation experiments using RNAi-knockdown confirmed 24 of 31 (77%) candidate genes affecting food intake and/or variance of food intake, and a test cross between selected DGRP lines confirmed a SNP affecting mean food intake identified in the GWA analysis. The majority of the validated candidate genes were novel with respect to feeding behavior, and many had mammalian orthologs implicated in metabolic diseases. PMID:26375667

  14. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Frances, G; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Noblet, J

    2013-03-01

    Castrated males from 2 lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance, whereas the RFI- line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7 d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, fat, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used, and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.10). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI+ than in the RFI- line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation to an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P < 0.001). There was no line effect on nutrient and energy digestibility. Total HP tended to be greater in R