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Sample records for affect food consumption

  1. Food consumption as affect modulation in borderline personality.

    PubMed

    Ambwani, Suman; Morey, Leslie C

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined relationships among negative affect, borderline personality features, and eating behavior through the experimental manipulation of mood. Undergraduate women (N = 307) completed a baseline mood assessment, viewed a 39-minute sad film either with or without concurrent food presentation, then completed a second mood assessment and questionnaires assessing personality and eating attitudes/behaviors. Women reporting more borderline personality features exhibited greater negative affect across time and were more reactive to the sad film. Food presentation appeared to have a small ameliorative effect on sadness and general negative affect. However, quantity of food consumption was associated with improvements in mood only for women reporting higher levels of borderline personality features. These data suggest that women with borderline personality characteristics may be at elevated risk for developing problems with binge eating, because consuming larger quantities of food appeared to have a tempering effect on their negative mood and feelings of sadness.

  2. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption... information on how to evaluate the safety of flood-affected food crops for human consumption. DATES:...

  3. Socio-cultural and economic factors affecting food consumption patterns in the Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O

    1993-04-01

    Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.

  4. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    PubMed

    Schartel, Tyler E; Schauber, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  5. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey

    PubMed Central

    Schartel, Tyler E.; Schauber, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly <15 m from the control (empty) feeder. Feeders with highly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds <10 m of the feeder. Our findings highlight the contingent but predictable effects of locally abundant food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference. PMID:26978659

  6. Eww she sneezed! Contamination context affects children’s food preferences and consumption

    PubMed Central

    DeJesus, Jasmine M.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2015-01-01

    Does contextual information about disgust influence children’s food consumption and subjective experience of taste? Three- to 8-year-old children (N = 60) were presented with two identical foods, yet children were led to believe that one food had been contaminated by sneezing and licking, while the other was clean. When given the opportunity to eat the foods, 5- to 8-year-old children consumed more clean food and rated the clean food’s taste more positively; younger children did not distinguish between the foods. The relation between contamination and subjective taste held even among children who ate both foods and had direct evidence that they were identical. These data indicate that children’s consumption behavior and food preferences are influenced by information external to foods themselves. PMID:25558024

  7. The temporal dynamics of ambivalence: changes in positive and negative affect in relation to consumption of an "emotionally charged" food.

    PubMed

    Hormes, Julia M; Rozin, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Ambivalence is thought to impact consumption of food, alcohol and drugs, possibly via influences on craving, with cravers often being simultaneously drawn toward and repelled from ingestion. So far, little is known about the temporal dynamics of ambivalence, especially as it varies in relationship to consumption. Participants (n=482, 56.8% female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule prior to, immediately and 30 min after the opportunity to eat a bar of chocolate. Affective ambivalence was calculated based on the relative strengths of and discrepancy between ratings of positive and negative affect. Ambivalence peaked prior to a decision about consumption and subsequently decreased, whether or not the decision was in favor of or against consuming. Decreasing ambivalence was driven by a drop in positive affect over time; positivity decreased more rapidly in those who consumed chocolate. Findings represent a first step in characterizing the dynamics of ambivalence in interactions with a target stimulus.

  8. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  9. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  10. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  11. Factors related to fruit, vegetable and traditional food consumption which may affect health among Alaska Native People in Western Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer S.; Nobmann, Elizabeth D.; Asay, Elvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determine intake of fruits, vegetables and traditional foods (TF), availability of foods, and attitudes towards increasing their consumption. Study design Establish community baseline through a cross-sectional sample of residents who were weighed, measured and interviewed. Village stores were surveyed for food availability, price and quality. Methods Eighty-eight respondents self-identified as the household member primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking were surveyed in 3 Western Alaska Native villages using a food frequency questionnaire, and village stores were evaluated using food environment surveys. Results Overweight (BMI[kg/m2] >25) was present in 68% of participants. Fruit and vegetable intake (3.3 median servings/day) was low in comparison to recommended intakes of 5–9 servings/d. Seventy-two per cent were eating less than 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables combined. Thirty-four per cent of respondents were trying to eat more vegetables; 41% were trying to eat more fruits. The median number of servings of TF was 3.2/d (mean 4.3/d). Seventy-seven per cent of respondents reported that they ate enough TF. Conclusion Recommendations to continue use of TF and increase intake of fruits and vegetables are consistent with local attitudes. Our findings indicate that increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables would be well received. Information from this study provides a basis for nutrition education and food supplement programs that is responsive to the needs and perceptions of the residents. Continued TF intake and increased fruit and vegetable intake have the potential to benefit the health of rural residents. PMID:22456043

  12. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  13. Feeding of potato, tomato and eggplant alkaloids affects food consumption and body and liver weights in mice.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Henika, P R; Mackey, B E

    1996-04-01

    Reduced liver weight was used to evaluate the potential toxicity in mice of four naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids: alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine, alpha-tomatine and solasonine. Increased liver weights was used to evaluate the three corresponding steroidal aglycones: solanidine, tomatidine, and solasodine and the non-alkaloid adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Adult female Swiss-Webster mice were fed diets containing test compound concentrations of 0 (control), 1.2, 2.4 or 4.8 mmol/kg diet for 7, 14 or 28 d. Absolute liver weights (LW) and relative liver weights (liver weight/body weight x 100, %LW/BW) were determined at autopsy. The %LW/BW was lower than that of controls in mice fed the potato glycoalkaloid alpha-chaconine (-10%, P < or = 0.05) for 7 d with the 2.4 mmol/kg diet dose. Under these same conditions, %LW/BW was greater than that of controls in mice fed two aglycones: solanidine (27%, P < or = 0.001) and solasodine (8%, P < or = 0.01). Relative liver weight increases induced by the aglycones were determined under time and dose conditions in which differences in body weight and food consumption were not significant (2.4 mmol/kg diet for 28 d). Under these conditions, the observed %LW/BW increases relative to the controls were as follows: solanidine (32%, P < or = 0.001), solasodine (22%, P < or = 0.001) and DHEA (16%, P < or = 0.001). Solanidine, solasodine and DHEA were equally potent and were more potent than tomatidine. We also observed that the greater %LW/BW in mice fed 2.4 mmol/kg diet solasodine or solanidine for 14 d declined to near control values if they were fed control diets for another 14 d. The increase in relative liver weight induced by solanidine and solasodine is a reversible adaptive response. These findings and the apparent effects of structure on biological activity should serve as a guide for the removal of the most toxic ++compounds from plant foods. The implications of the results for food safety and

  14. Food consumption trends and drivers

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, John

    2010-01-01

    A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment. PMID:20713385

  15. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  16. Lost in Transition? Student Food Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Gram, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Findings from transition studies as well as studies of student food show that the transition from living at home to independent living influences student food consumption and that food consumption might be problematic during this period. Furthermore, both students' enactment of being in transition and the food habits and practices they bring with…

  17. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    PubMed

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers.

  18. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?

    PubMed

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit

    2015-08-01

    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  19. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  20. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective.

  1. Soy food consumption and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mourouti, Niki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in female worldwide and occurs as an interaction of genes and diet. As regards diet numerous studies all over the world have associated the disease with many foods and nutrients including soy and its compounds. Soy food and soy products are rich in phytoestrogens, naturally occurring hormone-like compounds with weak estrogenic effects. Despite inconsistencies in the available data, an inverse association between soy food consumption and breast cancer is likely. However, it seems that this correlation is more obvious in Asian rather than Western populations, where the consumption of soy is already higher. Moreover, the vast majority of studies that demonstrate this inverse association are case-control studies, a fact that should be taken into account. In this review, the current scientific evidence relating breast cancer and soy consumption is reported through a systematic way.

  2. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  3. Organic food consumption by athletes in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Jakubauskienė, Marija; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas

    2015-01-01

    Background With environmental pollution increasing, interest in organic farming and organic foodstuffs has been growing all over the world. Data on organic food consumption by Lithuanian athletes is not yet available. This lack of data determined the aim of this study: to identify the particulars of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. Methods In September–November 2012, we polled 158 of the best-performing athletes of the Olympic sports team through direct interviews. An approved questionnaire was used to identify the specifics of organic foodstuff consumption among athletes. Results The survey results showed that 97% of athletes consume organic foodstuffs, and 80% of athletes highlighted the positive impact of organic food on health. Nevertheless, a slim majority of athletes (51.7%) consume organic foodstuffs seldomly, 2–3 times per week. The range of organic foodstuffs consumed depends on the gender of athletes, and the consumption of some products depends on monthly incomes. Conclusions Survey results confirm the need for the production and expansion of the variety of organic foodstuffs. In the course of the development of the organic food market, it should be beneficial for manufacturers to target high-performance athletes and physically active people. PMID:28352693

  4. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  5. Consumption Simulations Induce Salivation to Food Cues

    PubMed Central

    Aarts, Henk; Vermeent, Stefan; Häfner, Michael; Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Salivation to food cues is typically explained in terms of mere stimulus-response links. However, food cues seem to especially increase salivation when food is attractive, suggesting a more complex psychological process. Adopting a grounded cognition perspective, we suggest that perceiving a food triggers simulations of consuming it, especially when attractive. These simulations then induce salivation, which effectively prepares the body for eating the food. In two experiments, we systematically examined the role of simulations on salivation to food cues. As stimuli, both experiments used an attractive, a neutral, and a sour food, as well as a non-food control object. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to simulate eating every object they would be exposed to. We then exposed them to each object separately. Salivation was assessed by having participants spit their saliva into a cup after one minute of exposure. In Experiment 2, we instructed half of participants to simulate eating each object, and half to merely look at them, while measuring salivation as in Experiment 1. Afterwards, participants rated their simulations and desire to eat for each object separately. As predicted, foods increased salivation compared to the non-food control object, especially when they were attractive or sour (Exp. 1 and 2). Importantly, attractive and sour foods especially increased salivation when instructed to simulate (Exp. 2). These findings suggest that consumption simulations play an important role in inducing salivary responses to food cues. We discuss directions for future research as well as the role of simulations for other appetitive processes. PMID:27820842

  6. A taste of ethical consumption at a slow food festival.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lauren T; Germov, John; Fuller, Sascha; Freij, Maria

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the motives and experiences of attendees at a Slow Food festival to gain an understanding of how people engage with ethical consumer projects. Slow Food is a global social movement aimed at promoting food that is regionally, ethically, and sustainably produced, and convivially consumed. The movement uses culinary tourist events, such as food festivals and farmers' markets, to promote its philosophy and attract new members. There have been no empirical studies of ethical consumption using a Slow Food event as a case study. This study uses an ethnographic approach and a framework of virtue ethics to explore the views of people attending a major Slow Food festival in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in situ with 33 participants (19 consumers and 14 stallholders) to discover their rationales for attending the festival, and their perspectives on ethical consumption. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, resulting in three themes reflecting varying degrees of public virtues (altruistic motivations) and private virtues (personal wellbeing): the quest for virtuous lifestyles through ethical consumption, the importance of co-production, and the challenges of putting ethical consumer projects like Slow Food into daily practice. The findings reveal the manner in which virtue ethics affects foodways and highlights the contingent and challenging nature of practising ethical eating.

  7. [Global trends in food consumption and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Holmboe-Ottesen, G

    2000-01-10

    Obesity and lifestyle diseases increase all over the world, especially in developing countries. One reason is the change in diet. This nutrition transition is characterised by improvement in dietary variation, but also by increase in the content of fat and sugar. The transition seems to start at a lower level of income, compared to what occurred in the Western countries after the Second World War. The reason is that many foods are relatively cheaper, especially fat and sugar. The world market is presently flooded with cheap vegetable fat. Urbanisation leads to over-consumption by increasing market access to fatty and sugary foods, including fast foods. Globalization increases the consumption of sweet soda pops, biscuits and snacks produced by multinational companies. Western supermarkets and fast food franchises also promote these dietary changes (McDonaldization). It has been proposed that the population in developing countries is more vulnerable towards these dietary changes in regard to obesity and chronic diseases, due to undernutrition in early life (the Barker hypothesis). We may therefore expect an unprecedented increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, especially diabetes type 2 in the developing countries. One may question if this increase will be a transient phenomenon, or if we can expect the same pattern as we have seen in the West, namely that the poor become the fat-test segment of the population, with the highest prevalence of chronic diseases.

  8. [An approach to food consumption in an urban environment. The case of west Africa].

    PubMed

    Ag Bendech, M; Gerbouin-Rerolle, P; Chauliac, M; Malvy, D

    1996-01-01

    West Africa has undergone rapid economic and political changes during the last 20 years. After the failure of economic policies implemented since independence, programs for structural adjustment have strongly influenced the economy. Food problems affect each country differently. The Sahel has experienced food shortages and starvation whereas in forested countries the food supply has remained stable. Nevertheless, food policies have not succeeded in contributing to urban and rural development. The rate of urbanization in west Africa is generally low but the rate of urban population growth is particularly high, much more than the growth rates of industry and infrastructure. Although metropolitan areas are affected by poverty, they offer more hope and opportunities than rural areas. Urban markets have expanded and diversified as social differences have also increased and contributed to changes in consumption structure. Urban growth has contributed to the increase of imported food: this is indicated by both the strong dependency and the change of food habits towards western food patterns. Recently however, west African urban dwellers are still preferring local items if they are affordable. When imported products are used, they are integrated within a stable meal plan consisting of a single dish with a base and a sauce, which is typical of African food preparation. Surveys of consumption-budgets are still only available on a national scale. These can provide accurate information about food consumption patterns of families, particularly for significant trends. However, they do not provide information about the dynamics of food consumption, neither for urban areas or the individual. Now a significant proportion of individual food consumption occurs outside of the home, mainly with food provided by street vendors. This new consumption habit is a response to the urban food crisis. Consumption of street-vendor-food comprises one component but this cannot be dissociated from

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  10. Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Annelies; Verbeken, Sandra; Sioen, Isabelle; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Braet, Caroline; Eiben, Gabrielle; Pala, Valeria; Reish, Lucia A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2017-04-01

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating.

  11. [Dynamics and environmental load of food carbon consumption during urbanization: a case study of Xiamen City, China].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen; Cui, Sheng-Hui; Li, Gui-Lin; Ren, Yin; Xu, Li-Lai

    2013-04-01

    With the rapid urbanization, city plays a more and more significant role in the carbon cycle of urban ecosystem. The contribution of household food carbon consumption to urban carbon cycle has become increasingly important, and has been the hot issues of the urban carbon cycle study. We analyzed the dynamics of the food carbon consumption in Xiamen City from 1988 to 2010, evaluated and forecasted the trends of food carbon consumption and its environmental load. The results showed that, from 1988 to 2010, per capita food consumption and per capita food carbon consumption declined by 6% and 25%, respectively. However, due to the rapid growth of population, the total food consumption and total food carbon consumption increased by 116% and 70%, respectively. The rising of total food carbon consumption led to the increasing environmental load of food carbon. The environmental load of food carbon increased from 98 800 t to 166 200 t, particularly there is a dramatic increase of carbon input into soil in recent years. From 2011 to 2024, total food carbon consumption and environmental load will continue to rise and then decline in 2025. Per capita food carbon consumption will decline continuously from 2011. The analysis of household food consumption showed that per household food carbon consumption was affected by household income, food cost and household persons. High food carbon consumption household usually had in average three persons eating at home, spent in average 3 125 yuan x month(-1) on food, the per household food carbon consumption was 1 134.91 kg,and the per capita food carbon consumption was 378.30 kg. Per capita food carbon consumption of high-consumption family was 4.84 times higher than that of low-consumption family.

  12. World food equation: interrelations among development, employment, and food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Mellor, J.W.; Johnston, B.F.

    1984-06-01

    The problem of expanding food supply has been made more complex and more dependent on technological progress by the encroachment of a burgeoning population on a limited land area. Rapid growth in the rural labor force in the low-income developing countries not only increases the problem of providing adequate employment, particularly in the face of diminishing scope for expanding the land area, but also reduces the possibility of solving poverty problems simply by a redistribution of assets and income flows. Section II reviews past trends and current levels of food production, trade, and consumption. Section III discusses a controversial issue: the extent and seriousness of food deprivation. These sections lead to the same conclusion: the choice of development strategy is decisive in determining the level at which the food equation balances. An examination of contrasting development strategies and their implications for food production (Section IV) is followed by an exploration of the emerging consensus on the complex and difficult task of implementing a unimodal pattern of accelerated agricultural development, consistent with a high rate of growth in employment and food consumption. Interacting health-, nutrition-, and family-planning programs are viewed as important claimants of organizational and other resources. The review leads to the conclusion that reduction of malnutrition and related manifestations of poverty requires a set of interacting forces, characterized as a ring, that link nutritional need, generation of effective demand for food on the part of the poor, increased employment, a strategy of development that structures demand towards goods and services that have a high employment content, production of wage goods, and an emphasis on growth in agriculture. 183 references, 4 tables.

  13. 76 FR 11328 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption (21 CFR part 173) to provide for the...

  14. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet.

  15. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    affected by increases in food prices. Conclusions Changes in global food prices will have a greater effect on food consumption in lower income countries and in poorer households within countries. This has important implications for national responses to increases in food prices and for the definition of policies designed to reduce the global burden of undernutrition. PMID:23775799

  16. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    PubMed

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  17. Association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries.

    PubMed

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Guerrero, Luis; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected through the TRUEFOOD pan-European consumer survey (n = 4828) with samples representative for age, gender and region in Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. Importance attached to familiarity with a product is found to be strongly and positively associated with general attitude toward traditional food as well as traditional food consumption. The importance attached to convenience was negatively related to both general attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption, while the importance of weight control negatively influenced the general attitude. Natural content of food was positively associated with the attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption. The importance of price when purchasing food failed to be significantly related with general attitude and traditional food consumption both for the pooled sample as well as within each country except in Spain. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of factors shaping the image and influencing the consumption of traditional foods in Europe. General attitude toward traditional foods, familiarity, and importance of food naturalness emerged as drivers for traditional food consumption. Importance attached to convenience and health acted as direct barriers to traditional food consumption, whereas importance of weight control emerged as an indirect barrier through lowering general attitude toward traditional foods.

  18. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project's primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

  19. Methodology for reconstruction of historical food consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    This report was written to provide the food consumption methodology to be used in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HDER) Project beyond Phase I (which ended in July 1990). In Phase I (Callaway 1992), baseline food consumption estimates (grams per day) for 10 primary food types in the original 10-county study region were derived from the 1977--1978 National Food Consumption Survey (USDA 1983). The baseline estimates were multiplied by the 1945:1977 ratios to produce consumption estimates for 1945. This ratio backcasting method used in Phase I to project consumption estimates from 1977 back to 1945 will be refined using additional USDA data to improve and document the acceptability of the ratios for deriving backcast consumption estimates. The number of food types and population groups will be expanded to provide more disaggregated estimates of food consumption. Food consumption estimates will be developed for 1945, 1951, and 1957. A database of individual diets will be created from which daily diets will be randomly selected for use in the dose model to calculate doses for reference individuals.

  20. Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Orlich, Michael J; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil N; Fraser, Gary E

    2014-11-28

    Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes.

  1. Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Orlich, Michael J.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Singh, Pramil N.; Fraser, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes. PMID:25247790

  2. Food consumption in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today’s industrial food system has created a food supply that is more plentiful and inexpensive than at any time in history. Nearly a fifth of the U.S. workforce is engaged in producing, manufacturing, distributing, preparing, or selling this food. Food is at the nexus of some of the most signific...

  3. A food retail-based intervention on food security and consumption.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Richard C; Gilliland, Jason A; Arku, Godwin

    2013-08-05

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition.

  4. A Food Retail-Based Intervention on Food Security and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Richard C.; Gilliland, Jason A.; Arku, Godwin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition. PMID:23921626

  5. Factors influencing consumption of nutrient rich forest foods in rural Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fungo, Robert; Muyonga, John H; Kabahenda, Margaret; Okia, Clement A; Snook, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies show that a number of forest foods consumed in Cameroon are highly nutritious and rich in health boosting bioactive compounds. This study assessed the knowledge and perceptions towards the nutritional and health promoting properties of forest foods among forest dependent communities. The relationship between knowledge, perceptions and socio-demographic attributes on consumption of forest foods was also determined. A total of 279 females in charge of decision making with respect to food preparation were randomly selected from 12 villages in southern and eastern Cameroon and interviewed using researcher administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors affecting consumption of forest foods. Baillonella toxisperma (98%) and Irvingia gabonesis (81%) were the most known nutrient rich forest foods by the respondents. About 31% of the respondents were aware of the nutritional value and health benefits of forest foods. About 10%-61% of the respondents expressed positive attitudes to questions related with health benefits of specific forest foods. Consumption of forest foods was found to be higher among polygamous families and also positively related to length of stay in the forest area and age of respondent with consumption of forest foods. Education had an inverse relationship with use of forest foods. Knowledge and positive attitude towards the nutritional value of forest foods were also found to positively influence consumption of forest foods. Since knowledge was found to influence attitude and consumption, there is need to invest in awareness campaigns to strengthen the current knowledge levels among the study population. This should positively influence the attitudes and perceptions towards increased consumption of forest foods.

  6. Understanding regulations affecting pet foods.

    PubMed

    Dzanis, David A

    2008-08-01

    In the United States, pet foods are subject to regulation at both the federal and the state levels. The US Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction over all animal feeds (including pet foods, treats, chews, supplements, and ingredients) in interstate commerce, which includes imported products. Many states adopt and enforce at least in part the Association of American Feed Control Officials Model Bill and Model Regulations for Pet Food and Specialty Pet Food. Thus, all pet foods in multi-state distribution are subject to a host of labeling requirements covering aspects such as product names, ingredient lists, nutrient content guarantees, and nutritional adequacy statements. Ingredients must be GRAS (generally recognized as safe) substances, approved food additives, or defined by Association of American Feed Control Officials for their intended use. Pet food labels may not bear claims that are false or misleading or that state or imply use for the treatment or prevention of disease. Pet foods that are found to be adulterated or misbranded may be subject to seizure or other enforcement actions.

  7. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; Van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2011-02-23

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared piglets per litter were exposed to two novel food items in the presence, and the other five per litter in the absence, of the mother in a 7 min test. Maternal presence reduced food neophobia profoundly as reflected in a reduced latency to touching the food, a higher proportion of piglets sampling the two different food items and a higher intake. Latency to touch the food, however, was affected by maternal presence more strongly for barren-reared piglets than for enriched-reared piglets, and in the absence of the sow, consumption of one novel food type and time spent in the feeding area were higher for enriched-reared piglets. Environmental enrichment does have the potential to reduce food neophobia, but the presence of the mother during the encounter with novel food seems more efficient in decreasing food neophobia of piglets.

  8. The influence of negative urgency, attentional bias, and emotional dimensions on palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kendra Davis; Fischer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-05-01

    We tested a theoretical model concerning the role of attentional bias and negative affect in food consumption that offers important advances. We hypothesized that the effects of negative affect manipulations on food consumption vary as a function of trait levels of negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when distressed), and attentional bias and that the roles of emotional arousal and negative emotional valence differ and should be studied separately. 190 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an anger or neutral mood condition. Women in both conditions completed the Food Stroop, in which the presentation of food and neutral words were counterbalanced. After the task, participants were given the opportunity to eat mandarin oranges and/or chocolate candy while the experimenter was out of the room. The type and quantity of food consumed was counted after the participant departed. As hypothesized, the roles of emotional arousal and valence differed and the effect of the induced emotion was moderated by NU. Women high in NU who experienced emotional arousal were more likely to eat candy and consumed more candy than other women. Emotional valence had no effect on candy consumption. Neither increases in emotional arousal or emotional valence influenced attentional bias to food cues. Attentional bias was also unrelated to food consumption. The impact of negative mood inductions on palatable food consumption appears to operate through emotional arousal and not negative emotional valence, and it may operate primarily for women high in NU.

  9. [Food in the contemporary context: consumption, political action and sustainability].

    PubMed

    Portilho, Fátima; Castañeda, Marcelo; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    The interdisciplinary field of reflections on food as politics goes through a process of expansion and overflow to the private sphere, and routine daily food consumption. This process seems to be a reflection of transformations in the global agrifood markets, the wide publicity and awareness of food hazards and the politicization of consumption. To the extent that individuals are to assume responsibility for the environmental and social consequences of their everyday choices, the specificity of political power in contemporary societies goes beyond the institutional level (food security and nutrition, social inequalities in access to food, agricultural policies and regulations advertising of food) to meet the private sphere. This paper shows, initially, some of the recent debates about the process of politicization of consumption and then explores a theoretical reflection on the ethical, political and ideological habits that relate to food consumption, including the locations and ways of acquiring and food preparation, the values of environmental preservation, solidarity with local producers and reflexive caution against food risks. Finally, points to a research agenda capable of capturing the processes of politicization of food and consumer practices in the field of political power.

  10. Ecological Citizenship and Sustainable Consumption: Examining Local Organic Food Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfang, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable consumption is gaining in currency as a new environmental policy objective. This paper presents new research findings from a mixed-method empirical study of a local organic food network to interrogate the theories of both sustainable consumption and ecological citizenship. It describes a mainstream policy model of sustainable…

  11. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  12. [Junk food consumption and child nutrition. Nutritional anthropological analysis].

    PubMed

    Jackson, Portia; Romo, Marcela M; Castillo, Marcela A; Castillo-Durán, Carlos

    2004-10-01

    The increasing consumption of junk food and snacks in Chile in recent years and its association with marketing strategies and prevalent diseases, is reviewed. In the context of world economy, junk food is a global phenomenon. The availability of junk food and snacks at low prices and marketing has triggered an evolution of consumption of foods that require neither the structure nor the preparation of a formal meal. Many studies have suggested that the increase in snack consumption is associated with an increase in obesity, tooth decay and other chronic diseases among children and adolescents. The hypothesis suggests a link between the pattern of snack consumption and an increase increase in the energy density of food consumed, a decrease in satiety, passive over consumption, and an increase in obesity. Between 1977 and 1996, the contribution: of snacks to daily energy intake among children between 2 and 5 years increased by 30% in the United States. In each age group in Chile the frequency of non-transmissible chronic diseases is increasing due primarily to a westernized diet that is high in fat, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar and a sedentary lifestyle. Education about junk food consumption and healthy eating habits in the family, starling since childbirth and public policies about healthy lifestyles should be strengthened.

  13. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    PubMed

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states.

  14. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Handy, Christine; Yanaga, Stephanie; Reiss, Avery; Zona, Nicole; Robinson, Emily; Saxton, Katherine B

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late adolescence on consumption of a palatable, high-fat, high-sugar food in adulthood-under basal conditions, as well following acute stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of variable stress for seven days in late adolescence (PND 45-51). During the stress regimen, stressed animals gained significantly less weight than control animals, but weight in adulthood was unaffected by adolescent stress. Palatable food consumption differed between experimental groups, and the direction of effect depended on context; stressed rats ate significantly more palatable food than controls upon first exposure, but ate less following an acute stressor. Leptin levels and exploratory behaviors did not differ between stressed and non-stressed groups, suggesting that other factors regulate preference for a palatable food. Altered food consumption following adolescent stress suggests that rats remain sensitive to stress during late adolescence, and that adult feeding behavior may be affected by previous adverse experiences. Such programming effects highlight adolescence as a period of plasticity, with the potential to shape long term food consumption patterns and preferences.

  15. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Handy, Christine; Yanaga, Stephanie; Reiss, Avery; Zona, Nicole; Robinson, Emily; Saxton, Katherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late adolescence on consumption of a palatable, high-fat, high-sugar food in adulthood—under basal conditions, as well following acute stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of variable stress for seven days in late adolescence (PND 45–51). During the stress regimen, stressed animals gained significantly less weight than control animals, but weight in adulthood was unaffected by adolescent stress. Palatable food consumption differed between experimental groups, and the direction of effect depended on context; stressed rats ate significantly more palatable food than controls upon first exposure, but ate less following an acute stressor. Leptin levels and exploratory behaviors did not differ between stressed and non-stressed groups, suggesting that other factors regulate preference for a palatable food. Altered food consumption following adolescent stress suggests that rats remain sensitive to stress during late adolescence, and that adult feeding behavior may be affected by previous adverse experiences. Such programming effects highlight adolescence as a period of plasticity, with the potential to shape long term food consumption patterns and preferences. PMID:26872268

  16. Genetic and Genomic Response to Selection for Food Consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Garlapow, Megan E; Everett, Logan J; Zhou, Shanshan; Gearhart, Alexander W; Fay, Kairsten A; Huang, Wen; Morozova, Tatiana V; Arya, Gunjan H; Turlapati, Lavanya; St Armour, Genevieve; Hussain, Yasmeen N; McAdams, Sarah E; Fochler, Sophia; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2017-03-01

    Food consumption is an essential component of animal fitness; however, excessive food intake in humans increases risk for many diseases. The roles of neuroendocrine feedback loops, food sensing modalities, and physiological state in regulating food intake are well understood, but not the genetic basis underlying variation in food consumption. Here, we applied ten generations of artificial selection for high and low food consumption in replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The phenotypic response to selection was highly asymmetric, with significant responses only for increased food consumption and minimal correlated responses in body mass and composition. We assessed the molecular correlates of selection responses by DNA and RNA sequencing of the selection lines. The high and low selection lines had variants with significantly divergent allele frequencies within or near 2081 genes and 3526 differentially expressed genes in one or both sexes. A total of 519 genes were both genetically divergent and differentially expressed between the divergent selection lines. We performed functional analyses of the effects of RNAi suppression of gene expression and induced mutations for 27 of these candidate genes that have human orthologs and the strongest statistical support, and confirmed that 25 (93 %) affected the mean and/or variance of food consumption.

  17. Social ideological influences on reported food consumption and BMI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei C; Worsley, Anthony; Cunningham, Everarda G

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between ideological beliefs, perceptions of the importance of health behaviours, health attitudes, food consumption, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Methods A survey was conducted among shoppers aged between 40 and 70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested with this empirical data (n = 410) for younger (n = 151) and older (n = 259) age groups using structural equation modelling. Results The findings generally support the study hypotheses. For both groups, egalitarianism had a direct and positive influence on perceptions of the importance of health behaviours. Materialism and masculinity impacted negatively on health attitudes, which positively influenced importance of health behaviours. Perceptions of importance of health behaviours impacted positively on the consumption of healthy foods such as vegetables and fruits, but negatively on consumption of unhealthy foods including sweets and fats. However, BMI was significantly influenced by the consumption of unhealthy foods (e.g., sugar and fats) only for the younger age group. Hence, the associations between beliefs, attitudes, consumption behaviours, and BMI outcomes differed between younger and older age populations. Conclusion Social ideological beliefs appear to influence health attitudes and thereafter, the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods and BMI via different pathways. PMID:18412977

  18. [Caffeine in nutrition. Article 1. Consumption with food and regulation].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a review of the literature data on the effect of caffeine contained in a variety of foods on the functions of human, it presents the modern international legal regulatory rules in the consumption of caffeine, and caffeine consumption rules corresponding to the technical regulations of the Customs Union (Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Belaruss). It describes the sources of caffeine in the traditional diet and its consumption, safety evaluation in connection with the acute and chronic caffeine consumption and the value of caffeine as an ingredient in soft drinks tonic.

  19. Estimation of food consumption. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  20. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  1. Prediction of reported consumption of selected fat-containing foods.

    PubMed

    Tuorila, H; Pangborn, R M

    1988-10-01

    A total of 100 American females (mean age = 20.8 years) completed a questionnaire, in which their beliefs, evaluations, liking and consumption (frequency, consumption compared to others, intention to consume) of milk, cheese, ice cream, chocolate and "high-fat foods" were measured. For the design and analysis, the basic frame of reference was the Fishbein-Ajzen model of reasoned action, but the final analyses were carried out with stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition to the components of the Fishbein-Ajzen model, beliefs and evaluations were used as independent variables. On the average, subjects reported liking all the products but not "high-fat foods", and thought that milk and cheese were "good for you" whereas the remaining items were "bad for you". Principal component analysis for beliefs revealed factors related to pleasantness/benefit aspects, to health and weight concern and to the "functionality" of the foods. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, liking was the predominant predictor of reported consumption for all the foods, but various belief factors, particularly those related to concern with weight, also significantly predicted consumption. Social factors played only a minor role. The multiple R's of the predictive functions varied from 0.49 to 0.74. The fact that all four foods studied elicited individual sets of beliefs and belief structures, and that none of them was rated similar to the generic "high-fat foods", emphasizes that consumers attach meaning to integrated food entities rather than to ingredients.

  2. Affect regulation and food intake in bulimia nervosa: emotional responding to food cues after deprivation and subsequent eating.

    PubMed

    Mauler, Birgit I; Hamm, Alfons O; Weike, Almut I; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2006-08-01

    Emotional responding to salient food cues and effects of food deprivation and consumption were investigated in 32 women with bulimia and 32 control women. One half of each group was food deprived before viewing unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and food-related pictures. Then participants could eat from a buffet before viewing a parallel picture set. Women with bulimia showed a substantial potentiation of startle responses during viewing of food cues relative to control women. This startle potentiation was attenuated by food deprivation and augmented by increased food consumption. These data support the affective regulation model suggesting that food cues prompt negative affective states in women with bulimia, who are overwhelmed by fasting. The resulting deprivation increases the incentive value of food cues and may thus trigger binge eating.

  3. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables.

  4. Extraction of food consumption systems by nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for the assessment of food choices.

    PubMed

    Zetlaoui, Mélanie; Feinberg, Max; Verger, Philippe; Clémençon, Stephan

    2011-12-01

    In Western countries where food supply is satisfactory, consumers organize their diets around a large combination of foods. It is the purpose of this article to examine how recent nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) techniques can be applied to food consumption data to understand these combinations. Such data are nonnegative by nature and of high dimension. The NMF model provides a representation of consumption data through latent vectors with nonnegative coefficients, that we call consumption systems (CS), in a small number. As the NMF approach may encourage sparsity of the data representation produced, the resulting CS are easily interpretable. Beyond the illustration of its properties we provide through a simple simulation result, the NMF method is applied to data issued from a French consumption survey. The numerical results thus obtained are displayed and thoroughly discussed. A clustering based on the k-means method is also achieved in the resulting latent consumption space, to recover food consumption patterns easily usable for nutritionists.

  5. Consumer attitudes toward food consumption and purchase in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Asli; Ozdoğan, Yahya; Ozçelik, Ayşe Özfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Ankara Province of Turkey to determine the attitudes of adult consumers toward food consumption and purchasing activities. The data were collected by conducting face-to-face interviews with 700 adults working in ministries (government office) to fill in a questionnaire prepared especially for this purpose. The responses to the questionnaire were evaluated by assigning points for the "food-consumption-and-purchasing attitudes" of each respondent based on their replies. These food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points have been then analyzed in terms of the gender, age, and educational level of the adults involved. The results showed that women, the 30-39 age group, and university graduates have a higher score of food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points than do men, the age group comprising respondents < 30 and ≥ 40 years of age, and those with lower education levels, respectively. A statistically significantly relation was observed between food-consumption-and-purchasing attitude points and age.

  6. The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Long, Michael W; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-02-01

    In light of proposals to improve diets by shifting food prices, it is important to understand how price changes affect demand for various foods. We reviewed 160 studies on the price elasticity of demand for major food categories to assess mean elasticities by food category and variations in estimates by study design. Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7-0.8). As an example, a 10% increase in soft drink prices should reduce consumption by 8% to 10%. Studies estimating price effects on substitutions from unhealthy to healthy food and price responsiveness among at-risk populations are particularly needed.

  7. Salmonella source attribution based on microbial subtyping: does including data on food consumption matter?

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-11-17

    Source attribution based on microbial subtyping is being performed in many countries to ascertain the main reservoirs of human salmonellosis and to assess the impact of food safety interventions. To account for differences in exposure, the amount of food available for consumption within a country is often included in Salmonella source attribution models along with the level of contamination. However, not all foods have an equal probability of serving as vehicles for salmonellas, as some foods are more likely to be consumed raw/undercooked than others, posing a relatively higher risk. Using Salmonella data from the Netherlands in 2001-2004, this study aims at elucidating whether and how the incorporation of food consumption data in two source attribution models - the (modified) Dutch and Hald models - affects their attributions. We also propose the incorporation of an additional parameter to weight the amount of food consumed by its likelihood to be consumed raw/undercooked by the population. Incorporating the amount of food consumed caused a drastic change in the ranking of the top reservoirs in the Dutch model, but not in the Hald model, which proved to be insensitive to additional weightings given that its source-dependent factor can account for both food consumption and the ability for foods to serve as vehicles for salmonellas. Compared to attributions without food consumption, the Dutch model including the amount of food consumed showed an increase in the percentage of cases attributable to pigs and a decrease in that of layers/eggs, which became the second reservoir, after pigs. This was not consistent with established knowledge indicating that layers/eggs, rather than pigs, were the main reservoir of human salmonellosis in that period. By incorporating the additional weight reflecting the likelihood for different foods to be consumed raw/undercooked, the attributions of the Dutch model were effectively adjusted, both in terms of ranking and percent

  8. Influence of nutrition labelling on food portion size consumption.

    PubMed

    McCann, Mary T; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Rennie, Kirsten L; McCaffrey, Tracy A; Welch, Robert W; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition labelling is an important strategic approach for encouraging consumers to make healthier food choices. The availability of highly palatable foods labelled as 'low fat or reduced calorie' may encourage the over-consumption of these products. This study aimed to determine whether the manipulation of nutrition labelling information can influence food portion size consumption. Normal and overweight men (n=24) and women (n=23) were served an identical lunch meal on three separate days, but the information they received prior to consuming the lunch meal was manipulated as follows: "baseline", "high fat/energy" and "low fat/energy". Food and energy intake was significantly increased in the low fat/energy condition compared with both baseline and the high fat/energy condition. An additional 3% (162 kJ) energy was consumed by subjects under the low fat/energy condition compared to baseline. No differences were observed between the baseline and high fat/energy condition. Subjects who consumed most in the low fat/energy condition were found to be mostly men, to have a higher BMI and to be overweight. Low fat/energy information can positively influence food and energy intake, suggesting that foods labelled as 'low fat' or 'low calorie' may be one factor promoting the consumption of large food portions.

  9. Cravings and food consumption in Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ng, Longena; Davis, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing work that examines the role of cravings in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The current study uses a case-control design to establish a relationship between cravings and food exposure, and between cravings and food consumption in individuals diagnosed with BED. Twenty-nine females with BED, 40 obese controls, and 50 normal-weight controls were first presented with a neutral cue and completed a food-craving measure. They were then presented with their favourite snack food and completed the craving measure again, after which they were allowed to consume the food. The BED group had significantly higher scores for pre- and post-craving measures, and consumed more food compared to the controls. There was, however, no significant interaction between group and craving scores. Results also showed a positive correlation between food consumption and cravings scores both before and after food exposure for individuals with BED. The findings suggest that the level of cravings prior to food exposure may be sufficient to predict overeating in BED and that treatment may want to target this as a defining feature that differentiates individuals with BED from those who do not binge eat.

  10. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  11. Understanding and Changing Food Consumption Behavior Among Children: The Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns Model.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Jayne K; Noar, Seth M; Thayer, Linden

    2015-01-01

    Current theoretical models attempting to explain diet-related weight status among children center around three individual-level theories. Alone, these theories fail to explain why children are engaging or not engaging in health-promoting eating behaviors. Our Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model takes a comprehensive approach and was developed specifically to help explain child food consumption behavior and addresses many of the theoretical gaps found in previous models, including integration of the life course trajectory, key influencers, perceived behavioral control, and self-regulation. Comprehensive Child Consumption Patterns model highlights multiple levels of the socioecological model to explain child food consumption, illustrating how negative influence at multiple levels can lead to caloric imbalance and contribute to child overweight and obesity. Recognizing the necessity for multi-level and system-based interventions, this model serves as a template for holistic, integrated interventions to improve child eating behavior, ultimately impacting life course health development.

  12. The Impact of Food Assistance on Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Groot, Wim

    2016-12-15

    Little is known about the outcomes of food assistance targeted to food insecure people living with HIV/AIDS. Using primary data from Zambia, we estimated the impact of food assistance on the dietary diversity and consumption expenditures of households with HIV infected members receiving antiretroviral therapy. Propensity score matching estimates show that food assistance increased dietary diversity by 9.8 points (23%) mainly through the consumption of food items provided in the ration. Food assistance recipients were 20% points more likely to have acceptable food consumption and 15% points less likely to have poor food consumption than non-recipients. Food assistance also increased food consumption expenditures but had no significant impact on food purchases and total consumption expenditures. Overall, our findings demonstrate that food assistance can be an effective instrument for improving diets and enhancing the food security of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  13. Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children.

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Gillespie, Jane; Brown, Victoria; Pontin, Eleanor E; Dovey, Terence M

    2004-04-01

    The impact of television (TV) advertisements (commercials) on children's eating behaviour and health is of critical interest. In a preliminary study we examined lean, over weight and obese children's ability to recognise eight food and eight non-food related adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods were measured after both sessions. Whilst there was no significant difference in the number of non-food adverts recognised between the lean and obese children, the obese children did recognise significantly more of the food adverts. The ability to recognise the food adverts significantly correlated with the amount of food eaten after exposure to them. The overall snack food intake of the obese and overweight children was significantly higher than the lean children in the control (non-food advert) condition. The consumption of all the food offered increased post food advert with the exception of the low-fat savoury snack. These data demonstrate obese children's heightened alertness to food related cues. Moreover, exposure to such cues induce increased food intake in all children. As suggested the relationship between TV viewing and childhood obesity appears not merely a matter of excessive sedentary activity. Exposure to food adverts promotes consumption.

  14. Acidic Food pH Increases Palatability and Consumption and Extends Drosophila Lifespan12

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sonali A; Yamada, Ryuichi; Mak, Christine M; Hunter, Brooke; Obando, Alina Soto; Hoxha, Sany; Ja, William W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila as a model in studies of nutrition, the effects of fundamental food properties, such as pH, on animal health and behavior are not well known. Objectives: We examined the effect of food pH on adult Drosophila lifespan, feeding behavior, and microbiota composition and tested the hypothesis that pH-mediated changes in palatability and total consumption are required for modulating longevity. Methods: We measured the effect of buffered food (pH 5, 7, or 9) on male gustatory responses (proboscis extension), total food intake, and male and female lifespan. The effect of food pH on germfree male lifespan was also assessed. Changes in fly-associated microbial composition as a result of food pH were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Male gustatory responses, total consumption, and male and female longevity were additionally measured in the taste-defective Pox neuro (Poxn) mutant and its transgenic rescue control. Results: An acidic diet increased Drosophila gustatory responses (40–230%) and food intake (5–50%) and extended survival (10–160% longer median lifespan) compared with flies on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Alkaline food pH shifted the composition of fly-associated bacteria and resulted in greater lifespan extension (260% longer median survival) after microbes were eliminated compared with flies on an acidic (50%) or neutral (130%) diet. However, germfree flies lived longer on an acidic diet (5–20% longer median lifespan) compared with those on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Gustatory responses, total consumption, and longevity were unaffected by food pH in Poxn mutant flies. Conclusions: Food pH can directly influence palatability and feeding behavior and affect parameters such as microbial growth to ultimately affect Drosophila lifespan. Fundamental food properties altered by dietary or drug interventions may therefore contribute to changes in animal physiology, metabolism, and

  15. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    PubMed

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  16. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    PubMed Central

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  17. Effect of pregnancy on food consumption and consciousness factors associated with food satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lim, S W; Chun, J K; Cho, W I

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of pregnancy on food consumption, we surveyed the recall of past experience of two groups of women, those who had been pregnant (PY, n=188) and those who never had (PN, n=111), regarding their food consumption and related dietary behaviors. The questionnaire, answered with regard to potato chips, contained 135 objective components expressing sensorial stimuli and 103 subjective consciousness components, including knowledge, education, faith, memory, experience, lifestyle, family values, imagination, and mental state. In the PY group, 86% of the women change in food consumption and preference during pregnancy, and 60% experienced decreased food consumption during emesis gravidarum (EG). The change in food consumption during and after periods of EG was influenced by the number of previous births for the women in the PY group; in women pregnant for a second or third time, the change in food intake was less than during the previous pregnancy. The difference in food satisfaction with regard to potato chips between the PY and PN groups showed that overall food satisfaction could not be explained by a combination of objective sensorial components; the only objective components that were directly related to overall satisfaction were taste and texture. Multidimensional analysis with strength of sensorial stimulus, preference, and overall satisfaction revealed differences in patterns between the PN and PY groups. The effect of the consciousness components on food preference and satisfaction was comparable to that of the sensorial components.

  18. Food choice: the battle between package, taste and consumption situation.

    PubMed

    Gutjar, Swetlana; de Graaf, Cees; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jager, Gerry

    2014-09-01

    The present study compared how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) product properties influence actual food choice in combination with the concept of product appropriateness in a specific consumption context. Food choice of seven test products was measured in three breakfast sessions within a simulated cafeteria setting with subsequent product consumption. Test products were five breakfast drinks and two dessert products considered as inappropriate for breakfast. One hundred and three participants took part in a blind taste session, after which they chose one out of the seven foods to consume for breakfast. In a second session (familiar package session), the same participants based their choice on the package of the seven foods they tasted in the first session. An additional group of 65 participants took part in a third naïve package session, where they chose just on the basis of package without being previously exposed to the foods. Results showed that food choices in the naïve package session were guided by the package that labelled the products as "breakfast product". Food choices in the blind session were strongly correlated (r = 0.8) with the liking of the products. Food choice in the "familiar package session" lay between the blind and naïve package session. It is concluded that food choice in a simulated cafeteria setting is guided by extrinsic (package) as well as intrinsic (sensory) properties and both can act as a cue for product appropriateness given a specific consumption context. Depending on the salience of either intrinsic or extrinsic properties during the choice moment their impact on choice is stronger.

  19. Foods and food constituents that affect the brain and human behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally believed that brain function was usually independent of day-to-day metabolic changes associated with consumption of food. Although it was acknowledged that peripheral metabolic changes associated with hunger or satiety might affect brain function, other effects of foods on the brain were considered unlikely. However, in 1971, Fernstrom and Wurtman discovered that under certain conditions, the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of a meal could affect the concentration of a particular brain neurotransmitter. That neurotransmitter, serotonin, participates in the regulation of a variety of central nervous system (CNS) functions including sleep, pain sensitivity, aggression, and patterns of nutrient selection. The activity of other neurotransmitter systems has also been shown to be, under certain conditions, affected by dietary constituents which are given either as ordinary foods or in purified form. For example, the CNS turnover of two catecholamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and norepinephrine, can be altered by ingestion of their amino acid precursor, tyrosine, when neurons that release these monoamines are firing frequently. Similarly, lecithin, a dietary source of choline, and choline itself have been shown to increase the synthesis of acetylcholine when cholinergic neurons are very active. It is possible that other neurotransmitters could also be affected by precursor availability or other, as yet undiscovered peripheral factors governed by food consumption. The effects of food on neurotransmitters and behavior are discussed.

  20. Television food advertisement exposure and FTO rs9939609 genotype in relation to excess consumption in children

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Emond, Jennifer A.; Lansigan, Reina K.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Exposure to food advertisements may cue overeating among children, especially among those genetically predisposed to respond to food cues. We aimed to assess how television food advertisements affect eating in the absence of hunger among children in a randomized trial. We hypothesized that the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO) rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism would modify the effect of food advertisements. SUBJECTS/METHODS In this randomized experiment, 200 children aged 9–10 years old were served a standardized lunch and then shown a 34-minute television show embedded with either food or toy advertisements. Children were provided with snack food to consume ad libitum while watching the show and we measured caloric intake. Children were genotyped for rs9939609 and analyses were conducted in the overall sample and stratified by genotype. A formal test for interaction of the food ad effect on consumption by rs9939609 was conducted. RESULTS 172 unrelated participants were included in this analysis. Children consumed on average 453 (SD=185) kCals during lunch and 482 (SD=274) kCals during the experimental exposure. Children who viewed food advertisements consumed an average of 48 kCals (95% CI: 10, 85; P=0.01) more of a recently advertised food than those who viewed toy advertisements. There was a statistically significant interaction between genotype and food advertisement condition (P for interaction = 0.02), where the difference in consumption of a recently advertised food related to food advertisement exposure increased linearly with each additional FTO risk allele, even after controlling for BMI percentile. CONCLUSIONS Food advertisement exposure was associated with greater caloric consumption of a recently advertised food, and this effect was modified by an FTO genotype. Future research is needed to understand the neurological mechanism underlying these associations. PMID:27654143

  1. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  2. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  3. Food Consumption and Nutrition Evaluation: The National School Lunch Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this study of food consumption in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) was to: (1) conduct a comprehensive review of literature on plate waste in school foodservice and other institutional foodservice facilities, (2) report the results of a pilot study designed to determine the degree of plate waste in the NSLP and its…

  4. High-risk food consumption and food safety practices in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank; Sargeant, Jan; Ribble, Carl; Wilson, Jeff; Sittler, Nancy

    2009-12-01

    Understanding consumers' high-risk food consumption patterns and food handling in the home is critical in reducing foodborne illness. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of unsafe food practices of individuals in a Canadian-based population, specifically, high-risk food consumption and home food safety practices. During November 2005 to March 2006, a sample of 2,332 randomly selected residents of the Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) participated in a telephone survey of food consumption and food safety. Questions covered consumption of high-risk foods, hand washing practices, safe food handling knowledge, source of food safety education, meat thawing and cooking practices, cross-contamination after raw food preparation, and refrigeration temperatures. Certain high-risk food behaviors were common among respondents and were associated with demographic characteristics. In general, unsafe practices increased with increasing total annual household income level. Males were more likely to report engaging in risky practices than were females. Specific high-risk behaviors of public health concern were reported by elderly individuals (e.g., consuming undercooked eggs), children (e.g., consuming chicken nuggets), and rural residents (e.g., drinking unpasteurized milk). Respondents appeared to know proper food safety practices, but did not put them into practice. Thus, educational programs emphasizing specific practices to improve food safety should be directed to targeted audiences, and they should stress the importance of consumer behavior in the safety of foods prepared at home. Further investigation of consumer perceptions is needed to design such programs to effectively increase the implementation of safe food practices by consumers.

  5. Determinants of specific food consumption in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Núñez-González, Eduardo; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Fika-Hernándo, Mariluz; Fernández-Vallhonrat, Blanca; Bravo-Martínez, José; Martín-Ferrer, Juan M; Chas-Barbeito, Cristina; Bautista-Castaño, Inmmaculada

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of specific functional foods (FF) and some determinants of FF item selection were assessed using a questionnaire administered to 1112 individuals in the Canary Islands (Spain). Food items considered were Milk products: easily digestible milk (or milk low in lactose), milk enriched with vitamins and/or minerals, skimmed milk with soluble fiber, milk with royal jelly, milk with modified fatty acids (omega 3), milk products low in fat, pro-biotic foods (yoghurt and fermented milk) and yoghurt with phytosterols; Cereals: fortified breakfast cereals, wholemeal cereals and energy bars; Drinks: juices and enriched drinks, stimulating drinks and isotonic drinks; DHA-enriched, low cholesterol eggs; Meat products: low salt sausages and cooked low fat ham; Fats: enriched margarine, margarine rich in phytosterols and sunflower oil rich in oleic acid; Condiments: iodated salt. These food items were organized into 7 FF groups (milk products, cereals, fortified drinks, DHA eggs, meat product, fats, condiments). The results indicated that the highest prevalence was fortified drinks (63.6%; 95% CI: 60.7-66.5). Overall FF consumption prevalence was 80.1% (95% CI: 77-83): single FF item consumption being rare. There were significant inter-group relationships, and some group intakes (milk products, cereals and drinks) were related to age but with no overall relationship between consumption and age. The education level was significantly related to the consumption of cereals, drinks, meat products and condiments (χ2 test p = 0.04). Some specific FF item consumption segregated with environment (rural or urban) but with no overall significant relationship between the FF group and environment or gender.

  6. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  7. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  8. Consumption of a calcium and vitamin D-fortified food product does not affect iron status during initial military training: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Stephen R; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lutz, Laura J; Cable, Sonya J; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P

    2016-02-28

    Ca/vitamin D supplementation maintains bone health and decreases stress fracture risk during initial military training (IMT); however, there is evidence that Ca may negatively affect the absorption of other critical micronutrients, particularly Fe. The objective of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether providing 2000 mg/d Ca and 25 µg/d vitamin D in a fortified food product during 9 weeks of military training affects Fe status in young adults. Male (n 98) and female (n 54) volunteers enrolled in US Army basic combat training (BCT) were randomised to receive a snack bar with Ca/vitamin D (n 75) or placebo (snack bar without Ca/vitamin D; n 77) and were instructed to consume 2 snack bars/d between meals throughout the training course. Circulating ionised Ca was higher (P0·05) in markers of Fe status between placebo and Ca/vitamin D groups. Collectively, these data indicate that Ca/vitamin D supplementation through the use of a fortified food product consumed between meals does not affect Fe status during IMT.

  9. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  10. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... amending its regulations on administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption. As required... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250)....

  11. 78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2011... food for human or animal consumption which were established to implement changes to the FD&C Act...

  12. Peer effects, fast food consumption and adolescent weight gain.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Bernard; Yazbeck, Myra

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at opening the black box of peer effects in adolescent weight gain. Using Add Health data on secondary schools in the U.S., we investigate whether these effects partly flow through the eating habits channel. Adolescents are assumed to interact through a friendship social network. We propose a two-equation model. The first equation provides a social interaction model of fast food consumption. To estimate this equation we use a quasi maximum likelihood approach that allows us to control for common environment at the network level and to solve the simultaneity (reflection) problem. Our second equation is a panel dynamic weight production function relating an individual's Body Mass Index z-score (zBMI) to his fast food consumption and his lagged zBMI, and allowing for irregular intervals in the data. Results show that there are positive but small peer effects in fast food consumption among adolescents belonging to a same friendship school network. Based on our preferred specification, the estimated social multiplier is 1.15. Our results also suggest that, in the long run, an extra day of weekly fast food restaurant visits increases zBMI by 4.45% when ignoring peer effects and by 5.11%, when they are taken into account.

  13. Impacts of traditional food consumption advisories: Compliance, changes in diet and loss of confidence in traditional foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Food consumption advisories are often posted when industrial activities are expected to affect the quality and availability of traditional foods used by First Nations. We were recently involved in a project and asked to summarize details regarding the impacts of traditional food consumption advisories with respect to compliance, broader changes in diet and loss of confidence in traditional foods by people. Methods Our review was not conducted as a formal systematic comprehensive review; rather, we focused on primary and grey literature presenting academic, health practitioner and First Nations viewpoints on the topic available from literature databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of KnowledgeSM) as well as the internet search engine Google. Some information came from personal communications. Results Our overview suggests that when communicated effectively and clearly, and when community members are involved in the process, consumption advisories can result in a decrease in contaminant load in people. On the other hand, consumption advisories can lead to cultural loss and have been linked to a certain amount of social, psychological, nutritional, economic and lifestyle disruption. In some cases, communities have decided to ignore consumption advisories opting to continue with traditional lifestyles believing that the benefits of doing so outweigh the risk of following advisories. Conclusions We identified that there are both positive and negative aspects to the issuance of traditional food consumption advisories. A number of variables need to be recognized during the development and implementation of advisories in order to ensure a balance between human health, maintenance of cultures and industrial activity. PMID:21651789

  14. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food.

  15. Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Patricia A.; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W.; Youngberg, Wes; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood. Methods Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002–6. Scores for affect were obtained from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule questionnaire in 2006–7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires. Results Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=−0.066 [95% CI −0.086, −0.046]), soda (β=−0.025 [95% CI −0.037, −0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=−0.046 [95% CI −0.062, −0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=−0.076 [95% CI −0.099, −0.052]), fruit (β=−0.033 [95% CI −0.053, −0.014]) and nuts (β=−0.088 [95% CI −0.116, −0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (P<.001) and fast food frequency (P<.001) such that these foods were associated with negative affect in females only. Conclusions Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in

  16. 77 FR 71695 - Secondary Direct Food Additives Permitted in Food for Human Consumption; Sodium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Food for Human Consumption; Sodium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... regulations to provide for the safe use of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) as an...'' (21 CFR part 173), to provide for the safe use of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) as...

  17. Food consumption and nutritional labeling among immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs.

  18. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that <24 % of smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  19. [Food advertising: advice or merely stimulation of consumption?].

    PubMed

    Marins, Bianca Ramos; de Araújo, Inesita Soares; Jacob, Silvana do Couto

    2011-09-01

    Current advertising messages for food products deserve special attention, since they indicate that the media has played a central role in shaping new eating habits. The food industry, seeking to serve a new customer segment (increasingly preoccupied with health and physical well-being), and with a specific interest in this promising market, has intensified its marketing strategies for stimulating consumption of diet and light food products. This study analyzed 20 food advertisements published from June to October 2006 in Brazilian magazines and newspapers with nationwide circulation. The following elements were analyzed in the advertisements: the advertiser; the audience; the language; and the message. It was seen that the advertising message mainly targeted women, proposing guilt-free consumption, promising a combination of esthetics and health. In order to enhance their product, several advertisements omitted relevant nutritional information while others promoted hazardous combinations with pharmaceutical products, and still others induced the target public to replace regular meals with their product. The results signal the need to broaden the discussion on the strategies for food advertising, as the citizen's right to information and health cannot be subjugated to market values.

  20. [Dental health: relationship between dental caries and food consumption].

    PubMed

    González Sanz, Angel Miguel; González Nieto, Blanca Aurora; González Nieto, Esther

    2013-07-01

    Although the reduction and prevalence of dental caries in many countries has been largely associated with the use of fluorine and improving dental hygiene, eating habits also play a role in the development of caries. Fermentable carbohydrates characteristics of the food, rate of consumption, food protectors, the quality and quantity of saliva indices that determine the remineralization of teeth are factors to be considered. All these elements are analyzed through the sociodemographic, behavioral, physical and biological environment directly or indirectly with diet and caries.

  1. Sechage solaire des aliments (solar food drying and conservation of food for year-round consumption)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    This report is an introduction to food drying as a measure to avoid the loss of agricultural surpluses, and conserve food for year-round consumption. It discusses the basic rules of food drying and gives an overview of various methods and appropriate dryer constructions. It also provides detailed explanations on how to process vegetables, fruits, and meats and gives advice on storage and cooking.

  2. What Happens to Patterns of Food Consumption when Food Prices Change? Evidence from A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Food Price Elasticities Globally.

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, Laura; Green, Rosemary; Turner, Rachel; Dangour, Alan D; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen considerable interest in examining the impact of food prices on food consumption and subsequent health consequences. Fiscal policies targeting the relative price of unhealthy foods are frequently put forward as ways to address the obesity epidemic. Conversely, various food subsidy interventions are used in attempts to reduce levels of under-nutrition. Information on price elasticities is essential for understanding how such changes in food prices affect food consumption. It is crucial to know not only own-price elasticities but also cross-price elasticities, as food substitution patterns may have significant implications for policy recommendations. While own-price elasticities are common in analyses of the impact of food price changes on health, cross-price effects, even though generally acknowledged, are much less frequently included in analyses, especially in the public health literature. This article systematically reviews the global evidence on cross-price elasticities and provides combined estimates for seven food groups in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries alongside previously estimated own-price elasticities. Changes in food prices had the largest own-price effects in low-income countries. Cross-price effects were more varied and depending on country income level were found to be reinforcing, undermining or alleviating own-price effects.

  3. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no in...

  4. Homeostatic responses to palatable food consumption in satiated rats

    PubMed Central

    Hume, Catherine; Jachs, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective Energy intake is regulated by overlapping homeostatic and hedonic systems. Consumption of palatable foods has been implicated in weight gain, but this assumes that homeostatic control systems do not accurately detect this hedonically driven energy intake. This study tested this assumption, hypothesizing that satiated rats would reduce their voluntary food intake and maintain a stable body weight after consuming a palatable food. Methods Lean rats or rats previously exposed to an obesogenic diet were schedule‐fed with fixed or varying amounts of palatable sweetened condensed milk (SCM) daily, and their voluntary energy intake and body weight were monitored. Results During scheduled feeding of SCM, rats voluntarily reduced bland food consumption and maintained a stable body weight. This behavior was also seen in rats with access to an obesogenic diet and was independent of the predictability of SCM access. However, lean rats offered large amounts of SCM showed an increase in total energy intake. To test whether a nutrient deficiency drove this under‐compensatory behavior, SCM was enriched with protein. However, no effect was seen on voluntary energy intake. Conclusions In schedule‐fed rats, compensatory reductions in voluntary energy intake were seen, but under‐compensation was observed if large amounts of SCM were consumed. PMID:27543760

  5. 77 FR 52228 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Vitamin D2 Bakers Yeast AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food...

  6. Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among Arab consumers in Kuwait: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2014-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification.

  7. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  8. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S.; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts. PMID:26196134

  9. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya; Rizov, Marian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habits in drinking and smoking, and the absence of habits in fat and protein consumption. We also found evidence of habit formation for food diversity. Comparing nutritional behavior of younger and older consumers, we find significant differences in the demand for fat and cigarettes. Older consumers seem to be more persistent in their drinking and smoking behavior. Similarly, men show higher habit persistence for alcohol and cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that among individual determinants, especially education, income and employment have statistically significant impacts on consumption behavior. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, economic growth is negatively related to protein consumption, while regional unemployment rate is negatively affecting the demand for protein and food diversity. Finally, Russian consumers react to the price changes of alcohol, cigarettes, fat and protein as suggested by theory. Consumer demand for food diversity responds negatively to price changes of alcohol and cigarettes, but positively to the price of fat.

  10. A Parental Health Education Model of Children's Food Consumption: Influence on Children's Attitudes, Intention, and Consumption of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods.

    PubMed

    Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane

    2017-03-31

    This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.

  11. Changing food knowledge, food choice, and dietary fiber consumption by using tailored messages.

    PubMed

    Brinberg, D; Axelson, M L; Price, S

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the effects of tailored or general nutrition messages on individuals' food knowledge, food consumption, and fiber intake. Past research in the area of food choice has applied the Theory of Reasoned Action or the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify the determinants of choice. Neither theory, however, is structured to allow the researcher to examine a person's attitudes toward a wide range of foods and then to specify which food(s) from among the set of foods to include in a nutrition message. In contrast, the Behavioral Alternatives Model (BAM) allows the researcher to examine attitudes toward behavioral alternatives (i.e. foods) and to identify which foods are most likely to be selected from among a set of foods. We used the BAM to specify the foods to include in a tailored nutrition message. The results indicated that respondents who received a tailored message derived from the BAM had more food-related knowledge and dietary changes in the recommended direction than the respondents who received a general message.

  12. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    PubMed Central

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  13. FoodWiki: Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    An ontology-driven safe food consumption mobile system is considered. Over 3,000 compounds are being added to processed food, with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. According to World Health Organization, governments have lately focused on legislation to reduce such ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods as they may have side effects causing health risks such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, allergens, and obesity. By supervising what and how much to eat as well as what not to eat, we can maximize a patient's life quality through avoidance of unhealthy ingredients. Smart e-health systems with powerful knowledge bases can provide suggestions of appropriate foods to individuals. Next-generation smart knowledgebase systems will not only include traditional syntactic-based search, which limits the utility of the search results, but will also provide semantics for rich searching. In this paper, performance of concept matching of food ingredients is semantic-based, meaning that it runs its own semantic based rule set to infer meaningful results through the proposed Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System (FoodWiki).

  14. FoodWiki: Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    An ontology-driven safe food consumption mobile system is considered. Over 3,000 compounds are being added to processed food, with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. According to World Health Organization, governments have lately focused on legislation to reduce such ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods as they may have side effects causing health risks such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, allergens, and obesity. By supervising what and how much to eat as well as what not to eat, we can maximize a patient's life quality through avoidance of unhealthy ingredients. Smart e-health systems with powerful knowledge bases can provide suggestions of appropriate foods to individuals. Next-generation smart knowledgebase systems will not only include traditional syntactic-based search, which limits the utility of the search results, but will also provide semantics for rich searching. In this paper, performance of concept matching of food ingredients is semantic-based, meaning that it runs its own semantic based rule set to infer meaningful results through the proposed Ontology-Driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System (FoodWiki). PMID:26221624

  15. Ecological footprint and food consumption in Minna, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razack, N. T. A. A.; Ludin, A. N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Cities all over the world are growing and will continue to grow as development is tilted toward development at the expense of the rural area. As a result of this there is need for development of housing that constructed at the urban fringes. There are many tools to measure sustainability of a city and one of them is Ecological Footprint. This paper looked at the Ecological Footprint and food consumption Minna, Nigeria. The paper evaluates the effectiveness of Ecological Footprint in the context of urban development. The survey revealed that food contributed 38.77% of the Ecological Footprint of Minna. This is as a result of the lifestyle of the people. It was concluded that the Ecological Footprint of Minna (1.096gha) is lower than the national bio-capacity (1.24gha), which therefore make city sustainable. Therefore, the people of Minna have to develop a lifestyle that will be sustainable better than the present practice.

  16. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  17. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no longer regards glycine and its... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  18. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  19. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  20. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. Fast-food consumption, diet quality, and neighborhood exposure to fast food: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Jacobs, David R; Franco, Manuel

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined associations among fast-food consumption, diet, and neighborhood fast-food exposure by using 2000-2002 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis data. US participants (n = 5,633; aged 45-84 years) reported usual fast-food consumption (never, <1 time/week, or > or =1 times/week) and consumption near home (yes/no). Healthy diet was defined as scoring in the top quintile of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index or bottom quintile of a Western-type dietary pattern. Neighborhood fast-food exposure was measured by densities of fast-food outlets, participant report, and informant report. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine associations of fast-food consumption and diet; fast-food exposure and consumption near home; and fast-food exposure and diet adjusted for site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Those never eating fast food had a 2-3-times higher odds of having a healthy diet versus those eating fast food > or =1 times/week, depending on the dietary measure. For every standard deviation increase in fast-food exposure, the odds of consuming fast food near home increased 11%-61% and the odds of a healthy diet decreased 3%-17%, depending on the model. Results show that fast-food consumption and neighborhood fast-food exposure are associated with poorer diet. Interventions that reduce exposure to fast food and/or promote individual behavior change may be helpful.

  2. Effects of food ration on SMR: influence of food consumption on individual variation in metabolic rate in juvenile coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; Rosenfeld, Jordan S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2012-03-01

    1. Consistency of differences in standard metabolic rate (SMR) between individual juvenile salmonids and the apparently limited ability of individuals to regulate their SMR has led many researchers to conclude that differences in individual SMR are fixed (i.e. genetic). 2. To test for the effects of food ration on individual performance and metabolism, SMR was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption using flow-through respirometry on individually separated young of the year coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) placed on varying food rations over a period of 44 days. 3. Results demonstrate that the quantity of food consumed directly affects SMR of juvenile coho salmon, independent of specific dynamic action (SDA, an elevation in metabolic rate from the increased energy demands associated with digestion immediately following a meal) and indicates that higher food consumption is a cause of elevated SMR rather than a consequence of it. Juvenile coho salmon therefore demonstrated an ability to regulate their SMR according to food availability and ultimately food consumption. 4. This study indicates that food consumption may play a pivotal role in understanding individual variation in SMR independent of inherent genetic differences. We suggest that studies involving SMR need to be cautious about the effects of intra-individual differences in food consumption in communal tanks or in different microhabitats in the wild as disproportionate food consumption may contribute more to variation in SMR than intrinsic (genetic) factors. 5. In general, our results suggest that evolutionary changes in SMR are likely a response to selection on food consumption and growth, rather than SMR itself.

  3. Associations between sleeping habits and food consumption patterns among 10-11-year-old children in Finland.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Lisa; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2009-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is of special concern. Inverse associations between sleep length and overweight have been found in children. Short sleeping hours result in hormonal changes, which increase perceived hunger and appetite. This could affect food intake, and consequently lead to overweight. The aim is to find out whether there is an association between adequate sleep and food consumption among 10-11-year-old school children in Finland. One thousand two hundred and sixty-five children (response rate 79 %), aged 9-11, from thirty-one schools filled in a questionnaire about their health behaviour. Inadequate sleep was measured as short sleeping hours during school nights and weekend nights, difficulties in waking up in the morning and tiredness during the day. Food consumption patterns were measured by two consumption indices, energy-rich foods and nutrient-dense foods, based on a short FFQ (sixteen items). Inadequate sleep is associated with food consumption patterns. Boys with shorter sleep duration during school nights, and who were felt tired during the day, were more likely to consume energy-rich foods. Girls with shorter sleep duration during school nights consumed more likely energy-rich foods and less likely nutrient-dense foods. Adjusting for physical activity and screen time weakened the explored associations. The associations with energy-rich foods were stronger for boys than for girls. Sleeping habits are associated with food consumption patterns. Shorter sleep duration during school nights in school children is associated with higher consumption of energy-rich foods.

  4. Feeling happy and thinking about food. Counteractive effects of mood and memory on food consumption.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rebecca; Stafford, Lorenzo D

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have demonstrated the role of mood and memory in the amount of food we consume. However, no work has examined these factors in a single study and given their combined effects beyond food research, this would seem important. In this study, the interactive effect of these factors was investigated. Unrestrained female participants (n = 64) were randomly assigned to either a positive or neutral mood induction, and were subject to a lunch cue (recalling their previously eaten meal) or no lunch cue, followed by a snack taste/intake test. We found that in line with prediction that food intake was lower in the lunch cue versus no cue condition and in contrast, food intake was higher in the positive versus neutral mood condition. We also found that more food was consumed in the lunch cue/positive mood compared to lunch cue/neutral mood condition. This suggests that positive mood places additional demands on attentional resources and thereby reduces the inhibitory effect of memory on food consumption. These findings confirm that memory cue and positive mood exert opposing effects on food consumption and highlight the importance of both factors in weight control interventions.

  5. Altered food consumption in mice lacking lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Dusaulcy, R; Daviaud, D; Pradère, J P; Grès, S; Valet, Ph; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2009-12-01

    The release of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes has previously been proposed to play a role in obesity and associated pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes. In the present work, the sensitivity to diet-induced obesity was studied in mice lacking one of the LPA receptor subtype (LPA1R). Conversely to what was observed in wild type (WT) mice, LPA1R-KO-mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed no significant increase in body weight or fat mass when compared to low fat diet (LFD). In addition, in contrast to what was observed in WT mice, LPA1R-KO mice did not exhibit over-consumption of food associated with HFD. Surprisingly, when fed a LFD, LPA1R-KO mice exhibited significant higher plasma leptin concentration and higher level of adipocyte leptin mRNA than WT mice. In conclusion, LPA1R-KO mice were found to be resistant to diet-induced obesity consecutive to a resistance to fat-induced over-consumption of food that may result at least in part from alterations in leptin expression and production.

  6. Food consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum in north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bidoli, E; Franceschi, S; Talamini, R; Barra, S; La Vecchia, C

    1992-01-21

    The relation between dietary factors and the risk of colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Pordenone province, North-eastern Italy, on 123 cases of colon cancer, 125 of rectal cancer and 699 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic or digestive disorders. Consistent positive associations were observed with more frequent consumption of bread (odds ratio, OR = 2.1 for colon and 2.2 for rectum for highest vs. lowest tertile), polenta (OR = 2.1 for colon, 1.9 for rectum), cheese (OR = 1.7 for colon, 1.8 for rectum) and eggs (2.5 for colon, 1.9 for rectum), whereas reduced ORs were observed in subjects reporting more frequent consumption of tomatoes (OR = 0.5 for colon and 0.4 for rectum). High consumption of margarine exerted a significant protection against cancer of the colon whereas high consumption of carrot spinach, whole-grain bread and pasta (favorably) and red meat (unfavorably) affected rectal cancer risk in particular. Thus the present study gives support for a protective effect associated with a fiber-rich or vegetable-rich diet, while it indicates that frequent consumption of refined starchy foods, eggs and fat-rich foods such as cheese and red meat is a risk factor for colo-rectal cancer.

  7. Excessive recreational computer use and food consumption behaviour among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Using the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data, we explore the association between excessive recreational computer use and specific food consumption behavior among California's adolescents aged 12-17. Method The adolescent component of CHIS 2005 measured the respondents' average number of hours spent on viewing TV on a weekday, the average number of hours spent on viewing TV on a weekend day, the average number of hours spent on playing with a computer on a weekday, and the average number of hours spent on playing with computers on a weekend day. We recode these four continuous variables into four variables of "excessive media use," and define more than three hours of using a medium per day as "excessive." These four variables are then used in logistic regressions to predict different food consumption behaviors on the previous day: having fast food, eating sugary food more than once, drinking sugary drinks more than once, and eating more than five servings of fruits and vegetables. We use the following variables as covariates in the logistic regressions: age, gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, household poverty status, whether born in the U.S., and whether living with two parents. Results Having fast food on the previous day is associated with excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 1.38, p < 0.01). Having sugary food more than once is associated with excessive weekend TV viewing (O.R. = 1.50, p < 0.001). Having sugary drinks more than once is associated with excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 1.41, p < 0.01), excessive weekday recreational computer use (O.R. = 1.38, p < 0.05), and excessive weekend TV viewing (O.R. = 1.43, p < 0.001). Finally, having more than five servings of fruits and vegetables on the previous day is negatively associated with all four media use variables: excessive weekday TV viewing (O.R. = 0.64, p < 0.001), excessive weekday recreational computer use (O.R. = 0.68, p < 0.01), excessive weekend TV viewing

  8. A commentary on the "eating addiction" versus "food addiction" perspectives on addictive-like food consumption.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Potenza, Marc N; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2016-10-27

    The food addiction construct posits that vulnerable individuals may experience an addictive-like response to certain foods, such as those high in fat and refined carbohydrates. Recently, an alternative model to food addiction was proposed, suggesting that the act of eating may be a behavioral addiction that can trigger an addictive-like response in susceptible individuals. One major rationale for the eating addiction framework is that the assessment of food addiction is based on behavioral indicators, such as consuming greater quantities of food than intended and eating certain foods despite negative consequences. It is also suggested that the lack of investigation into which foods and food attributes (e.g., sugar) may have an addictive potential is evidence that food addiction does not parallel a substance-based addiction and more closely resembles a behavioral addiction. The present paper provides a commentary suggesting that the substance-based, food-addiction framework is more appropriate than the behavioral-addiction, eating-addiction perspective to conceptualize addictive-like food consumption. In order to illustrate this point, this manuscript will discuss behavioral components characteristic of all substance-use disorders, preliminary evidence to suggest that all foods are not equally associated with addictive-like eating, and key differences between the hypothesized eating addiction phenotype and the only existing behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder. Further, this paper will consider implications of applying an addiction label to food versus eating and suggest future research directions to evaluate whether food addiction is a valid and clinically useful construct.

  9. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    PubMed

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country.

  10. Motivations for Food Consumption during Specific Eating Occasions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Delores; Phan, Uyen T. X.; Chanadang, Sirichat; Maughan, Curtis; Sanchez, Karolina; Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Gomez, David; Higa, Federica; Li, Han; Chambers, Edgar; Esen, Eyyup

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in different countries have been conducted to investigate factors affecting food choices. The objective of this study was to understand the motivations of specific food and beverage choices for different eating occasions in a typical diet of the Turkish people. A convenience sample of 141 respondents from seven different geographical regions in Turkey completed an online survey questionnaire that included questions about demographic information and details about their latest eating occasion. Respondents reported all of their motivations for choosing each food/beverage item reported for that specific eating occasion. Results indicated that different motivations played different roles in food choices of people in Turkey. Liking was a key characteristic for all eating occasions, but key natural concerns were even more important at breakfast, and need and hunger were more important for a mid-afternoon snack. Lunch involved additional motivations such as Sociability, Variety Seeking, and Social Norms. In addition to Liking, choices of different food groups were also driven by other motivations such as Habits, Convenience, Need and Hunger, Natural Concerns, and Health. This study helped better understand the current dietary patterns of Turkish people as well as the motives underlying their choices of foods and beverages for different meals and snacks. These findings could be useful for dietary campaigns that aim to improve eating behaviors in Turkey. PMID:28231134

  11. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    PubMed Central

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health. PMID:28326003

  12. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    PubMed

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  13. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  14. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-07-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating.

  15. Identifying Innovative Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Using Consumption-Oriented Food Supply Chain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-01-01

    The mapping and analysis of supply chains is a technique increasingly used to address problems in the food system. Yet such supply chain management has not yet been applied as a means of encouraging healthier diets. Moreover, most policies recommended to promote healthy eating focus on the consumer end of the chain. This article proposes a consumption-oriented food supply chain analysis to identify the changes needed in the food supply chain to create a healthier food environment, measured in terms of food availability, prices, and marketing. Along with established forms of supply chain analysis, the method is informed by a historical overview of how food supply chains have changed over time. The method posits that the actors and actions in the chain are affected by organizational, financial, technological, and policy incentives and disincentives, which can in turn be levered for change. It presents a preliminary example of the supply of Coca-Cola beverages into school vending machines and identifies further potential applications. These include fruit and vegetable supply chains, local food chains, supply chains for health-promoting versions of food products, and identifying financial incentives in supply chains for healthier eating. PMID:23144674

  16. Household Food Expenditure Patterns, Food Nutrient Consumption and Nutritional Vulnerability in Nigeria: Implications for Policy.

    PubMed

    Akerele, Dare

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the patterns of food spending, food nutrient consumption, and nutrient deficiency profiles of households in Nigeria using a cross-sectional nationwide household survey data. Food nutrients were estimated from food expenditure data while the nutrient deficiency profiles were assessed adapting Foster et al. (1984) poverty index. The study established widespread nutritional deficiencies with low-income household cohorts bearing a greater burden of the deficiencies. Protein-protein deficiency appears to be much more prevalent in urban than rural areas. However, the deficiency of micro-nutrients seems to diffuse across urban-rural divides of the country with deficiency of calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C appearing to be more pronounced in rural areas while phosphorous, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and vitamin B3 deficiencies seem to be higher in urban settings. Pro-poor income growth strategies and sensitively guided urban-rural food and nutrition interventions are advocated for improved food consumption and nutritional deficiency reduction.

  17. Social ideological influences on food consumption, physical activity and BMI.

    PubMed

    Wang, W C; Worsley, A; Cunningham, E G

    2009-12-01

    We investigated relationships between ideological beliefs (i.e., diaphanous body image and environmental concerns), food attitudes, evening meal patterns, physical activity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). A behavioural model was hypothesized based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. A survey was conducted among shoppers aged 40-70 years at Eastland Shopping Centre, Melbourne, Australia. The hypothesized model was tested among female baby boomers (n=547) for younger (n=245) and older (n=302) age groups using structural equation modeling. Findings showed that diaphanous body image had a direct and positive influence on negative food attitudes, which is likely to lead to higher BMI for both age groups. Body image beliefs were positively related to physical activity only for women aged 56-70 years. In contrast, among women aged 40-55 years, strong pro-environmental concerns suggested less consumption of both healthy (e.g., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., sugar and fats) foods. Moreover, strong pro-animal concerns resulted in higher BMI for the younger women. As expected, increased physical activity negatively influenced BMI. Importantly, the associations between ideological beliefs, attitudes, evening meal patterns, and BMI differed between younger and older female baby boomers.

  18. Lifestyle segmentation of US food shoppers to examine organic and local food consumption.

    PubMed

    Nie, Cong; Zepeda, Lydia

    2011-08-01

    The food related lifestyle (FRL) model, widely used on European data, is applied to US data using a modified survey instrument to examine organic and local food consumption. Since empirical studies indicate these shoppers are motivated by environmental and health concerns and limited by access, the conceptual framework employs an environmental behavior model, Attitude Behavior Context (ABC), which is consistent with means-end chain theory, the Health Belief (HB) model, and the FRL model. ABC theory incorporates contextual factors that may limit consumers' ability to act on their intentions. US food shopper data was collected in 2003 (n=956) utilizing an instrument with variables adapted from the FRL, ABC, and HB models. Cluster analysis segmented food shoppers into four FRL groups: rational, adventurous, careless, and a fourth segment that had some characteristics of both conservative and uninvolved consumers. The segments exhibited significant differences in organic and local food consumption. These were correlated with consumers' environmental concerns, knowledge and practices, health concerns and practices, as well as some demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, education), income, and variables that measured access to these foods. Implications for marketing and public policy strategies to promote organic and local foods include: emphasizing taste, nutrition, value, children, and enjoyment of cooking for rational consumers; and emphasizing health, fitness, and freshness, and providing ethnic foods for adventurous consumers. While both careless and conservative/uninvolved consumers valued convenience, the former tended to be in the highest income group, while the latter were in the lowest, were more likely to be either in the youngest or oldest age groups, and were very concerned about food safety and health.

  19. Food Consumption: Households in the United States, Seasons and Year 1977-78. Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977-78, Report No. H-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This report presents data on food consumption for the year 1977-78 with seasonal variations gathered by a survey of 14,023 households across the United States. As a part of an on-going effort by the Department of Agriculture, the report provides statistical information on American food habits, the kinds and quantities of food people eat, and the…

  20. [Food consumption in children and youth: effect of sedentary activities].

    PubMed

    Thivel, D; Chaput, J P

    2013-08-01

    Sedentary behavior has progressed with modern society, generating very low levels of energy expenditure and subsequent body weight disorders (obesity). There is also evidence that the absence of physical activity associated with short sleep time and watching television or playing video games leads to poor eating habits and favors high-energy intake. These findings have generally been reported in adults, with a few studies including data on children and adolescents. This brief review summarizes the current literature regarding the impact of such activities on food consumption and eating behavior in children and adolescents. There appears to be an uncoupling effect dissociating these activities from the sensation of hunger and thus energy intake. Children and adolescents seem to increase their energy intake during and after such activities without any alteration of their subjective appetite. In addition to considering the impact of sedentary behavior and physical activity level, future public health recommendations should also focus on associated nutritional adaptations (energy balance).

  1. US FDA's revised consumption factor for polystyrene used in food-contact applications.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, K; Elyashiv-Barad, S

    2007-09-01

    US FDA's continual effort to evaluate the safety of food-contact materials includes periodically re-examining our established packaging factors, such as consumption and food-type distribution factors. The use of polystyrene in food-contact and disposable food-packaging applications has expanded and is expected to continue to increase in the future. Therefore, it is important to revise the polystyrene consumption factor to account for increases in consumer exposure to substances migrating from styrenic food packaging. The currently used consumption factor for polystyrene is 0.1, which is based on market data collected around 1980. US FDA has revised the polystyrene consumption factor utilizing three different sources of market data. Using consumption and population data, US FDA calculated a new consumption factor of 0.14 for polystyrene. This consumption factor has been further subdivided to allow for the refinement of exposure estimates for uses limited to specific subcategories of polystyrene packaging.

  2. The parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), influences food consumption and utilization by larval Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Guilherme Duarte; Salvador, Gabriela; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis

    2014-10-01

    Parasitoids exploit host insects for food and other resources; they alter host development and physiology to optimize conditions to favor parasitoid development. Parasitoids influence their hosts by injecting eggs, along with a variety of substances, including venoms, polydnaviruses, ovarian fluids, and other maternal factors, into hosts. These factors induce profound changes in hosts, such as behavior, metabolism, endocrine events, and immune defense. Because endoparasitoids develop and consume tissues from within their hosts, it is reasonable to suggest that internal parasitization would also influence host food consumption and metabolism. We report on the effects of parasitism by Cotesia flavipes on the food consumption and utilization of its host, Diatraea saccharalis. Cotesia flavipes reduces the host food consumption, but parasitized larvae considered a unit with their parasitoid's attained the same final weight as the nonparasitized larvae. Nutritional indices, midgut activities of carbohydrases, and trypsin of parasitized and nonparasitized D. saccharalis were assessed. Parasitized larvae had reduced relative food consumption, metabolic and growth rates, coupled with higher efficiency for conversion of the digested, but not ingested, food into body mass. Parasitism also affected food flux through the gut and protein contents in the midgut of parasitized larvae. The activity of α-amylase and trehalase in parasitized host was enhanced in the first day after parasitism relative to control larvae. Saccharase activity remained unchanged during larval development. Trypsin activity was reduced from the fifth to ninth day after parasitism. We argue on the mechanisms involved in host food processing after parasitism.

  3. Presentation and interpretation of food intake data: factors affecting comparability across studies.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Wenhold, Friede A M; Macintyre, Una E; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Steyn, Nelia P; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform, unclear, or incomplete presentation of food intake data limits interpretation, usefulness, and comparisons across studies. In this contribution, we discuss factors affecting uniform reporting of food intake across studies. The amount of food eaten can be reported as mean portion size, number of servings or total amount of food consumed per day; the absolute intake value for the specific study depends on the denominator used because food intake data can be presented as per capita intake or for consumers only. To identify the foods mostly consumed, foods are reported and ranked according to total number of times consumed, number of consumers, total intake, or nutrient contribution by individual foods or food groups. Presentation of food intake data primarily depends on a study's aim; reported data thus often are not comparable across studies. Food intake data further depend on the dietary assessment methodology used and foods in the database consulted; and are influenced by the inherent limitations of all dietary assessments. Intake data can be presented as either single foods or as clearly defined food groups. Mixed dishes, reported as such or in terms of ingredients and items added during food preparation remain challenging. Comparable presentation of food consumption data is not always possible; presenting sufficient information will assist valid interpretation and optimal use of the presented data. A checklist was developed to strengthen the reporting of food intake data in science communication.

  4. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector.

  5. Obesity and its Association with Food Consumption, Diabetes Mellitus, and Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Vieira, Liana Lima; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; de Souza, Jacqueline Danesio

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity affects a large part of elderly individuals worldwide and is considered a risk predictor for the development of chronic diseases such as cardiac diseases, the leading causes of death in the elderly population. Objective To investigate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors, with emphasis on the occurrence of other diseases and on food consumption in elderly individuals treated at the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS). Methods Cross-sectional sampling study performed in the city of Goiânia (Brazil) including elderly individuals (≥ 60 years) receiving primary care. During home visits, we performed anthropometric measurements and applied a structured, standardized, and pre-tested questionnaire assessing socioeconomic, demographic and lifestyle conditions, occurrence of diseases, and food consumption. We performed multiple Poisson regression analysis using a hierarchical model and adopting a significance level of 5%. Results We evaluated 418 elderly patients with a mean age of 70.7 ± 7 years. Their body mass indices had a mean value of 27.0 kg/m2 and were higher in women than in men (27.4 kg/m2 versus 26.1 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.017). Obesity had a prevalence of 49.0%, a risk 1.87 times higher between the ages of 60-69 years and 70-79 years, and a rate 1.4 times higher among individuals with more than four morbidities. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with obesity were age 60-69 and 70-79 years, inadequate consumption of whole-wheat grains and adequate consumption of fruit, musculoskeletal diseases, diabetes mellitus, and acute myocardial infarction. Conclusions Obesity had a high prevalence in the evaluated elderly population and was associated with food consumption, musculoskeletal disease, diabetes mellitus, and acute myocardial infarction.

  6. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability.

  7. Access conditions affect binge-type shortening consumption in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wojnicki, F.H.E.; Johnson, D.S.; Corwin, R.L.W.

    2009-01-01

    When non-food-deprived rats are given intermittent access to certain substances, consumption of those substances is greater than when more frequent access is provided. The present study examined the effects of three different shortening access conditions on subsequent shortening intake in rats. Each of the three different shortening conditions lasted five weeks and was followed by a five-week period in which shortening access was limited by time (1 hr of availability) on either an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) or Daily schedule of access. In Part 1, limiting the quantity of shortening provided during the 1-hour period of availability attenuated subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in the Intermittent access group, but had no statistically significant effect in the Daily access group. In Part 2, unrestricted availability of shortening (24-hr/day-7days/week) attenuated subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in all groups. In Part 3, shortening non-availability for five weeks enhanced subsequent 1-hr shortening intake in all groups. It was also shown that rats under an Intermittent, but not a Daily, schedule of access consumed as much shortening during a 1 hr period of availability, as was consumed in 24-hr when shortening availability was unrestricted. These results demonstrate that while intermittent access is necessary and sufficient to stimulate binge-type eating in rats, the behavioral history can modulate binge size. PMID:18851983

  8. Consumption of ultra-processed foods predicts diet quality in Canada.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Batal, M; Louzada, M L; Martinez Steele, E; Monteiro, C A

    2017-01-01

    This study describes food consumption patterns in Canada according to the types of food processing using the Nova classification and investigates the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and the nutrient profile of the diet. Dietary intakes of 33,694 individuals from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey aged 2 years and above were analyzed. Food and drinks were classified using Nova into unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods and ultra-processed foods. Average consumption (total daily energy intake) and relative consumption (% of total energy intake) provided by each of the food groups were calculated. Consumption of ultra-processed foods according to sex, age, education, residential location and relative family revenue was assessed. Mean nutrient content of ultra-processed foods and non-ultra-processed foods were compared, and the average nutrient content of the overall diet across quintiles of dietary share of ultra-processed foods was measured. In 2004, 48% of calories consumed by Canadians came from ultra-processed foods. Consumption of such foods was high amongst all socioeconomic groups, and particularly in children and adolescents. As a group, ultra-processed foods were grossly nutritionally inferior to non-ultra-processed foods. After adjusting for covariates, a significant and positive relationship was found between the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and the content in carbohydrates, free sugars, total and saturated fats and energy density, while an inverse relationship was observed with the dietary content in protein, fiber, vitamins A, C, D, B6 and B12, niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, as well as zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Lowering the dietary share of ultra-processed foods and raising consumption of hand-made meals from unprocessed or minimally processed foods would substantially improve the diet quality of Canadian.

  9. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies.

  10. Water consumption, not expectancies about water consumption, affects cognitive performance in adults.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Crombie, Rosanna; Ballieux, Haiko; Gardner, Mark R; Dawkins, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that water supplementation positively affects cognitive performance in children and adults. The present study considered whether this could be a result of expectancies that individuals have about the effects of water on cognition. Forty-seven participants were recruited and told the study was examining the effects of repeated testing on cognitive performance. They were assigned either to a condition in which positive expectancies about the effects of drinking water were induced, or a control condition in which no expectancies were induced. Within these groups, approximately half were given a drink of water, while the remainder were not. Performance on a thirst scale, letter cancellation, digit span forwards and backwards and a simple reaction time task was assessed at baseline (before the drink) and 20 min and 40 min after water consumption. Effects of water, but not expectancy, were found on subjective thirst ratings and letter cancellation task performance, but not on digit span or reaction time. This suggests that water consumption effects on letter cancellation are due to the physiological effects of water, rather than expectancies about the effects of drinking water.

  11. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    PubMed

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models.

  12. Exposure to food advertising on television: associations with children's fast food and soft drink consumption and obesity.

    PubMed

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Kelly, Inas Rashad; Harris, Jennifer L

    2011-07-01

    There is insufficient research on the direct effects of food advertising on children's diet and diet-related health, particularly in non-experimental settings. We employ a nationally-representative sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the Nielsen Company data on spot television advertising of cereals, fast food restaurants and soft drinks to children across the top 55 designated-market areas to estimate the relation between exposure to food advertising on television and children's food consumption and body weight. Our results suggest that soft drink and fast food television advertising is associated with increased consumption of soft drinks and fast food among elementary school children (Grade 5). Exposure to 100 incremental TV ads for sugar-sweetened carbonated soft drinks during 2002-2004 was associated with a 9.4% rise in children's consumption of soft drinks in 2004. The same increase in exposure to fast food advertising was associated with a 1.1% rise in children's consumption of fast food. There was no detectable link between advertising exposure and average body weight, but fast food advertising was significantly associated with body mass index for overweight and obese children (≥85th BMI percentile), revealing detectable effects for a vulnerable group of children. Exposure to advertising for calorie-dense nutrient-poor foods may increase overall consumption of unhealthy food categories.

  13. Consumption of organic and functional food. A matter of well-being and health?

    PubMed

    Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim

    2014-06-01

    Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health.

  14. Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents.

  15. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... regulations to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia (gum arabic) in foods. This action is in response... ] additive regulations in Sec. 172.780, Acacia (gum arabic) (21 CFR 172.780) to provide for the expanded...

  16. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project`s primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

  17. Influences on consumption of soft drinks and fast foods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Crawford, David; Dobbins, Timothy; Hardy, Louise; Okely, Anthony D

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink and fast food are energy dense foodstuffs that are heavily marketed to adolescents, and are likely to be important in terms of risk of obesity. This study sought to examine the influences on soft drink and fast food consumption among adolescents as part of a cross-sectional survey of 2,719 adolescents (aged 11-16) from 93 randomly selected schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students provided information on soft drink and fast food consumption, and responded to statements examining influences over consumption. Over half of the boys and more than one third of the girls reported drinking soft drink daily, and consumption peaked in Grade 8 students. A quarter of students reported choosing soft drinks instead of water or milk, and around 40% agreed that soft drink was usually available in their homes. Availability in the home and drinking soft drinks with meals was most strongly associated with consumption in all age groups. Fast food consumption was higher among boys than girls in all age groups. Convenience and value for money yielded the strongest associations with fast food consumption in boys, while preferring fast food to meals at home and preferring to "upsize" meals were most strongly associated with consumption in girls. Interventions to reduce consumption of soft drinks should target availability in both the home and school environment by removing soft drinks and replacing them with more nutritive beverages. Fast food outlets should be encouraged to provide a greater range of healthy and competitively priced options in reasonable portions.

  18. Differential effect of lipopolysaccharide on food hoarding behavior and food consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Aubert, A; Kelley, K W; Dantzer, R

    1997-09-01

    Experimental studies assessing the suppressing effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on feeding behavior have focused exclusively on the ingestive component of this behaviour without taking into account its appetitive component. The appetitive sequence of feeding behavior regroups activities animals engage in to gain access to food without necessarily eating it. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of LPS on food intake and food hoarding. Rats were given the possibility to access food during a 30-min daily session in an apparatus consisting of a cage connected to an alley with free food at its end. Subjects were tested under different motivational levels for food hoarding: a first group (FS) received a food supplement to maintain stable body weight while a second group (noFS) did not receive such a supplement. LPS (250 micrograms/kg i.p.) dramatically decreased total food intake in rats from both groups whereas food hoarding was much less affected in LPS-treated rats from the noFS group. This expression of a still salient secondary motivation in LPS-treated rats which did not receive any food supplement can be interpreted to suggest the expression of an anticipatory feeding behavior along with a reduced immediate appetite. In addition, LPS had no effect, in rats from the noFS group, on the amount of food eaten after transport to the refuge. LPS-treated animals still appear to be able to adjust their defensive behavioral strategies with regard to their needs and capacities. These findings support the adaptive value of the behavioral changes displayed by LPS-treated animals.

  19. Validity of a Competing Food Choice Construct regarding Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Urban College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…

  20. Effects of Imagined Consumption and Simulated Eating Movements on Food Intake: Thoughts about Food Are Not Always of Advantage.

    PubMed

    Haasova, Simona; Elekes, Botond; Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd

    2016-01-01

    Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants who imagined eating the chocolate pudding 15 times (M15 = 178.20, SD15 = 68.08) ate more of the pudding than those who imagined consuming it 3 times (M3 = 150.73, SD3 = 73.31). The nature of the motor movements that were performed did not impact this effect. The data suggest that the imagined food consumption technique can result in an unexpected increase in food consumption, when smaller numbers of imagination repetitions are performed.

  1. Effects of Imagined Consumption and Simulated Eating Movements on Food Intake: Thoughts about Food Are Not Always of Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Haasova, Simona; Elekes, Botond; Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd

    2016-01-01

    Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants who imagined eating the chocolate pudding 15 times (M15 = 178.20, SD15 = 68.08) ate more of the pudding than those who imagined consuming it 3 times (M3 = 150.73, SD3 = 73.31). The nature of the motor movements that were performed did not impact this effect. The data suggest that the imagined food consumption technique can result in an unexpected increase in food consumption, when smaller numbers of imagination repetitions are performed. PMID:27840619

  2. Establishing a food list for a Total Diet Study: how does food consumption of specific subpopulations need to be considered?

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; De Henauw, S; Dofkova, M; Ruprich, J; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M C; Pinchen, H; Blume, K; Lindtner, O; Brantsaeter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Sioen, I

    2015-01-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and analysing commonly consumed foods to obtain concentration data of different chemical compounds in foods as eaten. A TDS food list summarises the most consumed foods and represents the dietary habits of the general population of the country under study. The work reported here investigated whether TDS food lists that were initially designed for the whole population of the country under study also sufficiently cover the dietary pattern of specific subpopulations that are extra vulnerable for certain contaminants. The work was performed using data of three European countries: the Czech Republic, France and the UK. Each national food consumption database was combined with the corresponding national TDS food list (containing 336, 212 and 119 food items for the Czech Republic, France and the UK, respectively). The data were aggregated on the highest level of hierarchy of FoodEx-1, a pan-European food classification system, including 20 main FoodEx-1 groups. For the group 'milk and dairy products', the coverage of the consumption by the food list was investigated for more refined subgroups. For each food group or subgroup and country, the average percentage of coverage of the diet by the national TDS food list was calculated for different subpopulations, including children versus adults, women versus men, vegetarians versus non-vegetarians, and women of child-bearing age versus older women. The average diet of the different subpopulations was sufficiently covered by the food list of the Czech Republic and France. For the UK the average coverage was low due to a different food-coding approach and because food lists were not derived directly from national food consumption data. At the level of the 20 main food groups, differences between the subpopulations with respect to the average coverage of consumption by the TDS food list were minimal. The differences were more pronounced when looking in detail at the

  3. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M. Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es. PMID:27513636

  4. Affective Pictures and the Open Library of Affective Foods (OLAF): Tools to Investigate Emotions toward Food in Adults.

    PubMed

    Miccoli, Laura; Delgado, Rafael; Guerra, Pedro; Versace, Francesco; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several sets of standardized food pictures have been created, supplying both food images and their subjective evaluations. However, to date only the OLAF (Open Library of Affective Foods), a set of food images and ratings we developed in adolescents, has the specific purpose of studying emotions toward food. Moreover, some researchers have argued that food evaluations are not valid across individuals and groups, unless feelings toward food cues are compared with feelings toward intense experiences unrelated to food, that serve as benchmarks. Therefore the OLAF presented here, comprising a set of original food images and a group of standardized highly emotional pictures, is intended to provide valid between-group judgments in adults. Emotional images (erotica, mutilations, and neutrals from the International Affective Picture System/IAPS) additionally ensure that the affective ratings are consistent with emotion research. The OLAF depicts high-calorie sweet and savory foods and low-calorie fruits and vegetables, portraying foods within natural scenes matching the IAPS features. An adult sample evaluated both food and affective pictures in terms of pleasure, arousal, dominance, and food craving, following standardized affective rating procedures. The affective ratings for the emotional pictures corroborated previous findings, thus confirming the reliability of evaluations for the food images. Among the OLAF images, high-calorie sweet and savory foods elicited the greatest pleasure, although they elicited, as expected, less arousal than erotica. The observed patterns were consistent with research on emotions and confirmed the reliability of OLAF evaluations. The OLAF and affective pictures constitute a sound methodology to investigate emotions toward food within a wider motivational framework. The OLAF is freely accessible at digibug.ugr.es.

  5. [Daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Roberta de Vargas; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; González-Chica, David Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A school-based cross-sectional study in 2007 evaluated the prevalence and associated factors of daily consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among adolescents (15 to 20 years of age) in public schools in Caruaru in the state of Pernambuco. To evaluate the factors associated with the daily consumption of the above foods, a multivariate and hierarchical analysis was conducted using Poisson regression, with social and demographic variables at the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables at the second level and dietary standards at the third level. Consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods at least once a week was declared by 90.9%, 95.4% and 89.6% of the adolescents, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of the daily consumption of these items was 30.2%, 42% and 28.3%. The daily consumption of sweets was 21% higher among girls and 25% higher among adolescents who ate rice and beans daily. With respect to fried foods, girls mentioned 37% greater consumption than boys. Adolescents who consumed meat every day admitted a 43% higher daily consumption of fried foods. The consumption of soft drinks, sweets and fried foods among the adolescents from Caruaru was high and showed a homogeneous consumption standard for most variables analyzed.

  6. Effects of baclofen and naltrexone, alone and in combination, on the consumption of palatable food in male rats.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    Excess consumption of palatable food has been shown to affect reward-related brain regions, and pharmaceutical treatments for drug addiction may also be effective in treating overeating of such foods. The GABA-B agonist baclofen and opioid antagonist naltrexone have both been used to treat addiction, and have been shown to suppress intake of certain foods. The combination of these drugs has shown to be more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than either drug alone. The present study assessed the effects of naltrexone and baclofen, alone and in combination, on intake of foods comprised of various macronutrients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 12-hr daily access to chow and a fat emulsion, sugar-fat emulsion, or a sugar solution for 21 days. Rats were then administered (intraperitoneal) baclofen-naltrexone combinations (0.1 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.0 mg/kg baclofen, 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.8 mg/kg baclofen), and naltrexone (0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) alone. The high dose of the baclofen-naltrexone combination reduced palatable food intake in both the fat and sugar-fat groups compared with vehicle, without affecting chow consumption in these groups. Naltrexone showed little significant effects on intake of either palatable food or chow. Baclofen also reduced palatable food intake in the fat and fat-sugar groups, but differences were only noted between the low and high dose. The combination of baclofen and naltrexone may be a useful tool in selectively targeting the consumption of high-fat and sugar- and fat-rich foods.

  7. Factors affecting rabbit meat consumption among Spanish university students.

    PubMed

    González-Redondo, Pedro; Mena, Yolanda; Fernández-Cabanás, Victor M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the rabbit meat consumption patterns among students. Results of the 342 students surveyed at the University of Seville, Spain showed that more men than women consumed rabbit meat. More students consumed wild rabbit meat than farmed rabbit meat. The practice of hunting by students or their relatives, and the raising of rabbits for self-consumption, positively influenced the proportion of students that currently consumed rabbit meat. Most of the students that had eaten rabbit meat before but are currently non-eaters do so because of the meat's organoleptic characteristics or from lack of consumption habit.

  8. Maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Li-Jie; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhong-Tang

    2015-04-24

    To study the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Data collected from a hospital-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Shandong/Shanxi provinces including 459 mothers with NTDs-affected births and 459 mothers without NTDs-affected births. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of NTDs in offspring. The effects were evaluated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) with SAS9.1.3.software. Maternal consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester were protective factors for total NTDs. Compared with consumption frequency of ˂1 meal/week, the ORs for milk consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28-0.88), 0.56 (0.32-0.99), and 0.59 (0.38-0.90), respectively; the ORs for fresh fruits consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12-0.72), 0.22 (0.09-0.53), and 0.32 (0.14-0.71), respectively; the ORs for nuts consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94), 0.49 (0.31-0.79), and 0.63 (0.36-1.08), respectively. Different effects of above factors on NTDs were found for subtypes of anencephaly and spina bifida. Maternal non-staple food consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester was associated with reducing NTDs risk in offspring.

  9. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  10. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  11. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  12. Exploring changes in middle-school student lunch consumption after local school food service policy modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the impact of changes in school food policy on student lunch consumption in middle schools. Two years of lunch food records were collected from students at three middle schools in the Houston, Texas area. During the first year, no changes occurred in the school food environment. ...

  13. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and their impact on the diet of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bielemann, Renata M; Motta, Janaína V Santos; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the consumption of ultra-processed foods, its associated factors, and its influence on nutrient intake in young adults. METHODS In 2004-2005, the individuals belonging to the Pelotas birth cohort of 1982 were identified for a home interview. A total of 4,297 individuals were interviewed and 4,202 individuals were included in the study (follow-up rate of 77.4%). Diet was assessed using a questionnaire on dietary intake and the percentage of daily caloric intake attributed to ultra-processed foods as well as the intake of macro- and micronutrients were estimated. The association between cohort characteristics and the consumption of ultra-processed foods was assessed using linear regression. Analysis of variance and Pearson’s Chi-square test were used to evaluate the association between the quintiles of the consumption of ultra-processed food, nutrient intake and adequacy of nutrient intake, respectively. RESULTS The consumption of ultra-processed foods corresponded to 51.2% of the total caloric intake. The consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among women, individuals with higher education, and individuals who were never poor and eutrophic. The increased consumption of ultra-processed foods was positively correlated with the consumption of fat, cholesterol, sodium, iron, calcium, and calories (p < 0.001) and was negatively correlated with the consumption of carbohydrates, protein, and dietary fiber (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The high consumption of ultra-processed foods and its positive correlation with the intake of sodium, cholesterol, and fats underscores the need to perform interventions aimed at decreasing the intake of this food group. PMID:26018785

  14. Association between proximity to and coverage of traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets and fast-food consumption among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between residential exposure to fast-food entrées, using two measures of potential spatial access: proximity (distance to the nearest location) and coverage (number of different locations), and weekly consumption of fast-food meals. Methods Traditional fast-food restaurants and non-traditional fast-food outlets, such as convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores, from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project were linked with individual participants (n = 1409) who completed the nutrition module in the 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Results Increased age, poverty, increased distance to the nearest fast food, and increased number of different traditional fast-food restaurants, non-traditional fast-food outlets, or fast-food opportunities were associated with less frequent weekly consumption of fast-food meals. The interaction of gender and proximity (distance) or coverage (number) indicated that the association of proximity to or coverage of fast-food locations on fast-food consumption was greater among women and opposite of independent effects. Conclusions Results provide impetus for identifying and understanding the complex relationship between access to all fast-food opportunities, rather than to traditional fast-food restaurants alone, and fast-food consumption. The results indicate the importance of further examining the complex interaction of gender and distance in rural areas and particularly in fast-food consumption. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the need for health promotion and policy efforts to consider all sources of fast-food as part of promoting healthful food choices. PMID:21599955

  15. Exploration of functional food consumption in older adults in relation to food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health.

    PubMed

    Vella, Meagan N; Stratton, Laura M; Sheeshka, Judy; Duncan, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    The functional food industry is expanding, yet research into consumer perceptions of functional foods is limited. Older adults could benefit from functional foods due to age-related food and health issues. This research gathered information about functional foods from community-dwelling older adults (n = 200) who completed a researcher-administered questionnaire about consumption, food matrices, bioactive ingredients, and health areas addressed through functional foods. Overall prevalence of functional food consumption was found to be 93.0%. Commonly consumed foods included yogurt with probiotics (56.0%), eggs with omega-3 fatty acids (37.0%), and bread with fiber (35.5%). Functional food matrices primarily consumed were yogurt (51.5%), bread (44.0%), and cereal (40.0%). The primary functional food bioactive consumed was dietary fiber (79.5%). Most participants (86.2%) indicated that they consume functional foods to improve health, and the major areas specified were osteoporosis/bone health (67.5%), heart disease (61.0%), and arthritis (55.0%). These results inform health professionals regarding the potential of functional foods to support health among older adults.

  16. Endogenous GLP1 and GLP1 analogue alter CNS responses to palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Veltman, Dick J; van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; Groot, Paul F C; Ruhé, Henricus G; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Ijzerman, Richard G

    2016-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) affects appetite, supposedly mediated via the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigate whether modulation of CNS responses to palatable food consumption may be a mechanism by which GLP1 contributes to the central regulation of feeding. Using functional MRI, we determined the effects of endogenous GLP1 and treatment with the GLP1 analogue liraglutide on CNS activation to chocolate milk receipt. Study 1 included 20 healthy lean individuals and 20 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Scans were performed on two occasions: during infusion of the GLP1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39 (blocking actions of endogenous GLP1) and during placebo infusion. Study 2 was a randomised, cross-over intervention study carried out in 20 T2DM patients, comparing treatment with liraglutide to insulin, after 10 days and 12 weeks. Compared with lean individuals, T2DM patients showed reduced activation to chocolate milk in right insula (P = 0.04). In lean individuals, blockade of endogenous GLP1 effects inhibited activation in bilateral insula (P ≤ 0.03). Treatment in T2DM with liraglutide, vs insulin, increased activation to chocolate milk in right insula and caudate nucleus after 10 days (P ≤ 0.03); however, these effects ceased to be significant after 12 weeks. Our findings in healthy lean individuals indicate that endogenous GLP1 is involved in the central regulation of feeding by affecting central responsiveness to palatable food consumption. In obese T2DM, treatment with liraglutide may improve the observed deficit in responsiveness to palatable food, which may contribute to the induction of weight loss observed during treatment. However, no long-term effects of liraglutide were observed.

  17. Influence of ethnocentrism and neo-phobia on ethnic food consumption in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camarena, Dena M; Sanjuán, Ana I; Philippidis, George

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade, a strong upsurge in Spanish immigration has fostered a thriving ethnic food market. To examine indigenous consumer predilections toward ethnic foods, a carefully designed choice experiment is employed, with particular focus on ethnocentricity and food neo-phobia traits on potential purchase decisions. Employing a two level nested logit model, consumers choose to accept/reject ethnic foods, with a positive response met by a further series of different ethnic cuisine and consumption scenario alternatives. Bivariate tests reveal that higher ethnocentric and neo-phobic segments possess common socio-demographic characteristics, whilst neo-phobia plays a significantly stronger role in determining the probability of rejection. Further tests reveal culturally similar Mexican food as the preferred ethnic food across all consumption scenarios. Moreover, the 'restaurant' is the favoured format of consumption, whilst there is evidence of a strong association between specific ethnic food types and consumption formats. The implications of our research suggest that in the short to medium turn, price is a strong strategic variable, whilst marketing strategies must successfully isolate and exploit specific 'ethnic food/consumption scenario' mixes. Finally, stronger messages emphasizing quality and convenience factors are seen as key to bolstering the underrepresented 'home preparation' ethnic food market in Spain.

  18. [Changes in the food and beverage consumption pattern in Argentina, 1996-2013].

    PubMed

    Zapata, María Elisa; Rovirosa, Alicia; Carmuega, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The dietary pattern of the population has shifted in recent years as a result of cultural changes and modifications in food accessibility. In order to describe the changes in food and beverage consumption patterns in the last two decades in Argentina, the National Survey of Household Expenditure [Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares] was analyzed for the periods 1996-1997, 2004-2005 and 2012-2013. The average apparent consumption of food and beverages in grams or milliliters of net weight per adult equivalent was estimated for each period. The variation in the amount of food and beverages available for consumption between 1996 and 2013 shows that the structure of the dietary pattern has changed, appearing to indicate shifts in the ways of buying, preparing and consuming foods related to greater convenience and accessibility and less time spent on food preparation.

  19. Food consumption and nutritional adequacy in Brazilian children: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Carolina Abreu; Fonsêca, Poliana Cristina de Almeida; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a review of studies of food consumption and nutritional adaptation in Brazilian infants pointing the main findings and limitations of these studies. DATA SOURCE: The articles were selected from Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) (Latin-American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Science Direct in Portuguese and in English. The descriptors were: ''food consumption'', ''nutritional requirements'', ''infant nutrition'' and ''child''. The articles selected were read by two evaluators that decided upon their inclusion. The following were excluded: studies about children with pathologies; studies that approached only food practices or those adaptation of the food groups or the food offert; and studies that did not utilize the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). DATA SYNTHESIS: Were selected 16 studies published between 2003 and 2013. In the evaluation of the energy consumption, four studies presented energetic consumption above the individual necessities. The prevalence of micronutrients inadequacy ranged from 0.4% to 65% for iron, from 20% to 59.5% for vitamin A, from 20% to 99.4% for zinc, from 12.6% to 48.9% for calcium and from 9.6% 96.6% for vitamin C. CONCLUSIONS: The food consumption of Brazilian infants is characterized by high frequencies of inadequacy of micronutrients consumption, mainly iron, vitamin A and zinc. These inadequacies do not exist only as deficiencies, but also as excesses, as noted for energetic consumption. PMID:25935607

  20. Consumption of food away from home in Bangladesh: Do rich households spend more?

    PubMed

    Mottaleb, Khondoker A; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Mishra, Ashok K

    2017-03-24

    While consumption of food away from home (FAFH) is an established phenomenon among households in the developed countries, FAFH is a growing phenomenon in many middle-income and rapidly growing developing countries. Although, studies are available on the factors affecting consumption of FAFH in developed countries, there is a paucity of such studies in developing countries. This study examines households' choice of and expenditures on FAFH. We used information from Bangladeshi households and applied a double-hurdle regression model estimation procedure. Findings show that, in general, rich households are spending proportionately less on FAFH and, over time, the trend is continuing. Although households with female members who work in the non-farm sector are more likely to consume FAFH, educated household heads and spouses, and particularly urban households are less likely to consume and spend on FAFH. As the problem of food adulteration by dishonest sellers is rampant in Bangladesh, perhaps it discourages rich, urban and households headed by educated heads and spouses to consume and spend more on FAFH. Based on the findings, some points of interventions are also prescribed in this study.

  1. Underestimating a serving size may lead to increased food consumption when using Canada's Food Guide.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Sharona L; Reddigan, Jacinta I; Hamadeh, Mazen J; Jamnik, Veronica K; Rowan, Chip P; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    It is unclear whether Canadians accurately estimate serving sizes and the number of servings in their diet as intended by Canada's Food Guide (CFG). The objective of this study was to determine if participants can accurately quantify the size of 1 serving and the number of servings consumed per day. White, Black, South Asian, and East Asian adults (n = 145) estimated the quantity of food that constituted 1 CFG serving, and used CFG to estimate the number of servings that they consumed from their 24-h dietary recall. Participants estimated 1 serving size of vegetables and fruit (+43%) and grains (+55%) to be larger than CFG serving sizes (p ≤ 0.05); meat alternatives (-33%) and cheese (-31%) to be smaller than a CFG serving size (p ≤ 0.05); and chicken, carrots, and milk servings accurately (p > 0.05). Serving size estimates were positively correlated with the amount of food participants regularly consumed at 1 meal (p < 0.001). From their food records, all ethnicities estimated that they consumed fewer servings of vegetables and fruit (-15%), grains (-28%), and meat and alternatives (-14%) than they actually consumed, and more servings of milk and alternatives (+26%, p ≤ 0.05) than they actually consumed. Consequently, 68% of participants believed they needed to increase consumption by greater than 200 kcal to meet CFG recommendations. In conclusion, estimating serving sizes to be larger than what is defined by CFG may inadvertently lead to estimating that fewer servings were consumed and overeating if Canadians follow CFG recommendations without guidance. Thus, revision to CFG or greater public education regarding the dietary guidelines is warranted.

  2. Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

  3. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  4. Trophic disruption: a meta-analysis of how habitat fragmentation affects resource consumption in terrestrial arthropod systems.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Fagan, William F

    2014-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a complex process that affects ecological systems in diverse ways, altering everything from population persistence to ecosystem function. Despite widespread recognition that habitat fragmentation can influence food web interactions, consensus on the factors underlying variation in the impacts of fragmentation across systems remains elusive. In this study, we conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the effects of habitat fragmentation and spatial habitat structure on resource consumption in terrestrial arthropod food webs. Across 419 studies, we found a negative overall effect of fragmentation on resource consumption. Variation in effect size was extensive but predictable. Specifically, resource consumption was reduced on small, isolated habitat fragments, higher at patch edges, and neutral with respect to landscape-scale spatial variables. In general, resource consumption increased in fragmented settings for habitat generalist consumers but decreased for specialist consumers. Our study demonstrates widespread disruption of trophic interactions in fragmented habitats and describes variation among studies that is largely predictable based on the ecological traits of the interacting species. We highlight future prospects for understanding how changes in spatial habitat structure may influence trophic modules and food webs.

  5. Increasing Primary School Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Review of the Food Dudes Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Charlotte; Upton, Penney; Upton, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence base of the Food Dudes healthy eating programme, specifically the short- and long-term effectiveness of the intervention for consumption of fruit and vegetables both at school and at home and displacement of unhealthy snack consumption. Design/Methodology/Approach: Articles were…

  6. Eat fit. Get big? How fitness cues influence food consumption volumes.

    PubMed

    Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Groeppel-Klein, Andrea; Kettenbaum, Myriam; Klicker, Kristina

    2013-06-01

    Fitness cues on food packages are a common marketing practice in the food sector. This study aims to find out whether and how fitness cues influence food consumption. The results of two field studies show that, even though eating fitness-cued food does not help consumers become more fit, the claims on the packaging increase both serving size and actual food consumption. This effect is mediated by serving size inferences. Also, consumers feel less guilty and perceive themselves closer to desired fitness levels after having consumed the food. The findings show that packaging cues relating to energy expenditure can increase energy intake despite the fact that consumers are not engaged in any actual physical activity while eating the food.

  7. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P < 0.001) and subjective norms as the weakest (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  8. Cross-Continental Comparison of National Food Consumption Survey Methods—A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    De Keyzer, Willem; Bracke, Tatiana; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Parnell, Winsome; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Pereira, Rosangela A.; Lee, Haeng-Shin; van’t Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys. PMID:25984745

  9. The effect of food consumption on the thickness of abdominal muscles, employing ultrasound measurements.

    PubMed

    Kordi, Ramin; Rostami, Mohsen; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2011-08-01

    Recently, the roles of transabdominal muscles particularly TrA (transverse abdominis) muscle in spinal stability leading to treatment of low back pain have been suggested. Both in clinical setting and follow up studies, abdominal muscle thickness measurements need to be repeated at a later point in time to demonstrate efficacy of a therapeutic intervention. Different issues have been suggested as source of error in the repeated measurements of abdominal muscle thickness in different days such as patient position and stability of probe location. The level of stomach fullness has not been investigated as a source of error in ultrasonic measurements of transabdominal muscles thickness. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of food consumption on thickness of lateral abdominal muscles. Lateral abdominal muscles thicknesses of 63 healthy volunteer men were measured before and after food consumption. All the measurements were performed in two transducer positions and both sides. Waist circumference and body weight of participants were also measured before and post-food consumption. The thickness measures of all three muscles layers of lateral abdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) in both sides and measured positions were significantly reduced after food consumption. We found no correlation between the increase of waist circumference and reduction of muscle layer thicknesses after food consumption. In case of comparison between the values of transabdominal muscle thicknesses over the time, the effect of food consumption on muscle thickness might be assumed as a potential source of error.

  10. Cross-continental comparison of national food consumption survey methods--a narrative review.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Bracke, Tatiana; McNaughton, Sarah A; Parnell, Winsome; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Pereira, Rosangela A; Lee, Haeng-Shin; van't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-05-13

    Food consumption surveys are performed in many countries. Comparison of results from those surveys across nations is difficult because of differences in methodological approaches. While consensus about the preferred methodology associated with national food consumption surveys is increasing, no inventory of methodological aspects across continents is available. The aims of the present review are (1) to develop a framework of key methodological elements related to national food consumption surveys, (2) to create an inventory of these properties of surveys performed in the continents North-America, South-America, Asia and Australasia, and (3) to discuss and compare these methodological properties cross-continentally. A literature search was performed using a fixed set of search terms in different databases. The inventory was completed with all accessible information from all retrieved publications and corresponding authors were requested to provide additional information where missing. Surveys from ten individual countries, originating from four continents are listed in the inventory. The results are presented according to six major aspects of food consumption surveys. The most common dietary intake assessment method used in food consumption surveys worldwide is the 24-HDR (24 h dietary recall), occasionally administered repeatedly, mostly using interview software. Only three countries have incorporated their national food consumption surveys into continuous national health and nutrition examination surveys.

  11. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study`s scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  12. Food production and consumption near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Routine operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) result in the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere and to the Savannah River. The resulting radiological doses to the off-site maximum individual and the 80-km population are estimated on a yearly basis. These estimates are generated using dose models prescribed in the NRC Reg. Guide 1.109 for the commercial nuclear power industry. A study of land and water usage characteristics in the region of the Savannah River Site has been conducted to determine site-specific values of the NRC dose model parameters. The study's scope included local characteristics of meat, milk, vegetable production; Savannah River recreational activities and fish harvests; meat, milk, vegetable, and seafood consumption rates; and Savannah River drinking-water populations. Average and maximum consumption rates of beef, milk, vegetables, and fish have been determined for individuals residing in the southern United States. The study suggest that many of the consumption rates provided by the NRC may not be appropriate for residents of the South. Average consumption rates are slightly higher than the defaults provided by the NRC. Maximum consumption rates, however, are typically lower than NRC values. Agricultural productivity in the SRS region was found to be quite different than NRC recommendations. Off-site doses have been predicted using both NRC and SRS parameter values to demonstrate the significance of site-specific data.

  13. Food Consumption and Handling Survey for Quantitative Microbiological Consumer Phase Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Chardon, Jurgen; Swart, Arno

    2016-07-01

    In the consumer phase of a typical quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), mathematical equations identify data gaps. To acquire useful data we designed a food consumption and food handling survey (2,226 respondents) for QMRA applications that is especially aimed at obtaining quantitative data. For a broad spectrum of food products, the survey covered the following topics: processing status at retail, consumer storage, preparation, and consumption. Questions were designed to facilitate distribution fitting. In the statistical analysis, special attention was given to the selection of the most adequate distribution to describe the data. Bootstrap procedures were used to describe uncertainty. The final result was a coherent quantitative consumer phase food survey and parameter estimates for food handling and consumption practices in The Netherlands, including variation over individuals and uncertainty estimates.

  14. Facilitators and Barriers to Traditional Food Consumption in the Cree Community of Mistissini, Northern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Laberge Gaudin, Véronique; Receveur, Olivier; Girard, Félix; Potvin, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To identify barriers to traditional food consumption and factors that facilitate it among the Cree community of Mistissini, a series of four focus groups was conducted with a total of twenty-three people. Two ecological models were created, one for facilitating factors and a second for obstacles, illustrating the role of numerous interconnected influences of traditional food consumption. Environmental impact project, laws and regulation, local businesses, traditional knowledge, youth influence, employment status, and nonconvenience of traditional food were named among numerous factors influencing traditional food consumption. The findings of this study can be used by political and public health organizations to promote traditional food where more emphasis should be invested in community and environmental strategies.

  15. Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change.

    PubMed

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; González, Alejandro D

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximately 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO(2) equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, pasta, and wheat, are <1.1 kg/kg edible food. We suggest that changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  16. Public acceptance of nanotechnology foods and food packaging: the influence of affect and trust.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Kastenholz, Hans; Wiek, Arnim

    2007-09-01

    Nanotechnology is increasingly being employed in the areas of food production and packaging. Public perception will be crucial to the realization of these technological advances. We examined how lay people (N=153) perceive nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging, and we examined the factors that influence willingness to buy these products. Participants received some general information about nanotechnology, and specific information about four nanotechnology applications. Overall, participants were hesitant to buy nanotechnology foods or food with nanotechnology packaging. Results suggest, however, that nanotechnology packaging is perceived as being more beneficial than nanotechnology foods. Results further suggest that social trust in the food industry is an important factor directly influencing the affect evoked by these new products. As suggested by the affect heuristic, affect had an impact on perceived benefits and perceived risks. Perceived benefit seems to be the most important predictor for willingness to buy.

  17. Ground beef consumption patterns in the United States, FoodNet, 2006 through 2007.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ethel V; Holt, Kristin G; Mahon, Barbara E; Ayers, Tracy; Norton, Dawn; Gould, L Hannah

    2012-02-01

    Infection resulting from foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, is often associated with consumption of raw or undercooked ground beef. However, little is known about the frequency of ground beef consumption in the general population. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of self-reported ground beef and pink ground beef consumption using data from the 2006 through 2007 FoodNet Population Survey. From 1 July 2006 until 30 June 2007, residents of 10 FoodNet sites were contacted by telephone and asked about foods consumed within the previous week. The survey included questions regarding consumption of ground beef patties both inside and outside the home, the consumption of pink ground beef patties and other types of ground beef inside the home, and consumption of ground beef outside the home. Of 8,543 survey respondents, 75.3% reported consuming some type of ground beef in the home. Of respondents who ate ground beef patties in the home, 18.0% reported consuming pink ground beef. Consumption of ground beef was reported most frequently among men, persons with incomes from $40,000 to $75,000 per year, and persons with a high school or college education. Ground beef consumption was least often reported in adults ≥65 years of age. Men and persons with a graduate level education most commonly reported eating pink ground beef in the home. Reported consumption of ground beef and pink ground beef did not differ by season. Ground beef is a frequently consumed food item in the United States, and rates of consumption of pink ground beef have changed little since previous studies. The high rate of consumption of beef that has not been cooked sufficiently to kill pathogens makes pasteurization of ground beef an important consideration, especially for those individuals at high risk of complications from foodborne illnesses such as hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  18. Local food environment and fruit and vegetable consumption: An ecological study.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Mariana Carvalho; Costa, Bruna Vieirade Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2017-03-01

    Ecological studies are essential for understanding the environment-diet relationship. The purpose of this study was to describe environmental conditions and their relationship with fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among Brazilian public health service users in the city of Belo Horizonte. We evaluated food stores contained within 1600 m buffer zones at 18 Health Academy Programme sites, from 2013 to 2014. Variables at the community (density, proximity and type) and the consumer (sectional location of FV; availability, quality, variety, price and advertising of FV and ultra-processed foods) nutrition environment were measured by direct observation, while aggregate data from users (income and FV consumption) were obtained by interview. Data were analysed using the Kernel intensity estimator, average nearest neighbour value and Local Moran's Index for local spatial autocorrelation. We interviewed 3414 users and analysed 336 food stores. Major geographical variations in the FV consumption were identified. Average consumption was higher (site 2A: 410.5 ± 185.7 g vs. site 4B: 311.2 ± 159.9 g) in neighbourhoods with higher income and concentration of food stores, and better index of access to healthy foods. Sites with poor FV consumption had the most stores with poor access to healthy foods (index in the first tertile, ≤ 10). In conclusion, negative characteristics of the food environment, as seen in the present study, may contribute to low FV consumption, suggesting the need for the development and consolidation of public policies aimed at creating healthy environments through built environment interventions that increase access to and consumption of healthy foods like FV.

  19. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  20. Patterns and predictors of fast food consumption after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Adam C; Chan, Paul S; Gosch, Kensey L; Buchanan, Donna M; Spertus, John A

    2011-04-15

    Although fast food is affordable and convenient, it is also high in calories, saturated fat, and sodium. The frequency of fast food intake at the time of and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is modifiable. However, patterns of fast food intake and characteristics associated with its consumption in patients with AMI are unknown. The aim of this study was to study fast food consumption at the time of AMI and 6 months later in 2,481 patients from the prospective, 24-center Translational Research Investigating Underlying Disparities in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients' Health Status (TRIUMPH) study of patients with AMI. Fast food intake was categorized as frequent (weekly or more often) or infrequent (less than weekly). Multivariate log-binomial regression was used to identify patient characteristics associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. At baseline, 884 patients (36%) reported frequent fast food intake, which decreased to 503 (20%) 6 months after discharge (p <0.001). Male gender, white race, lack of college education, current employment, and dyslipidemia were independently associated with frequent fast food intake 6 months after AMI. In contrast, older patients and those who underwent coronary bypass surgery were less likely to eat fast food frequently. Documentation of discharge dietary counseling was not associated with 6-month fast food intake. In conclusion, fast food consumption by patients with AMI decreased 6 months after the index hospitalization, but certain populations, including younger patients, men, those currently working, and less educated patients were more likely to consume fast food, at least weekly, during follow-up. Novel interventions that go beyond traditional dietary counseling may be needed to address continued fast food consumption after AMI in these patients.

  1. Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    2000-01-01

    In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

  2. Time of day effects on the regulation of food consumption after activation of health goals.

    PubMed

    Boland, Wendy Attaya; Connell, Paul M; Vallen, Beth

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has found that while self-regulation is a resource that can be depleted, enhanced motivation to do so can help people successfully self-regulate. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals-either via laboratory priming techniques or via advertisements-can help people regulate food intake later in the day, when self-regulation resources are typically depleted. In two experimental studies, participants completed goal activation tasks in the morning or in the afternoon while they had a snack food (M&M's candies) available for consumption. In study 1, 121 participants viewed television shows with either healthy food ads, indulgent food ads, or non-food ads embedded within the program. In study 2, 149 participants completed a supraliminal but nonconscious goal priming exercise, in which they searched for health, indulgence, or control words in a puzzle. In both studies, activation of health goals led to decreased consumption of the snack food in the afternoon. In contrast, activation of health goals did not change consumption in the morning, when self-regulatory resources are typically high, due to replenishment after rest. These results suggest that activating health goals-either via classic laboratory goal-priming paradigms or via "real world primes," such as ads for healthy foods-helps people to overcome failures in curbing food consumption due to depleted self-regulatory resources later in the day.

  3. Negative affect words prime beer consumption in young drinkers.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X; Fragopoulos, Fofo; Woodford, Tracy M; MacLeod, Colin M

    2006-01-01

    Negative affect is consistently associated with pathological aspects of alcohol use. Priming of motivation for alcohol by negative affect cues may contribute to this relationship. This study sought to determine whether: (a) exposure to negative affect words primes actual drinking behavior; (b) this effect is related to severity of alcohol problems; and (c) these effects are moderated by gender and anxiety sensitivity. Prime words (negative, positive, neutral) were administered using a synonym generation task. Primed drinking behavior was measured in a taste-test procedure, using placebo beer. Drinking scores were significantly greater in the negative affect condition than in the other two conditions, which did not differ from each other. Problem drinking severity directly predicted priming effects of negative affect words but was unrelated to drinking in the other two word prime conditions. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to drinking in any condition. Even unobtrusive exposure to negative affect cues can prime drinking behavior in young drinkers, and this effect is tied to the severity of alcohol problems.

  4. The interplay of health claims and taste importance on food consumption and self-reported satiety.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Morwitz, Vicki; Chandon, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown that subtle health claims used by food marketers influence pre-intake expectations, but no study has examined how they influence individuals' post-consumption experience of satiety after a complete meal and how this varies according to the value placed on food taste. In two experiments, we assess how labeling a pasta salad as "healthy" or "hearty" influences self-reported satiety, consumption volume, and subsequent consumption of another food. Using MANOVA, Study 1 shows that individuals who report low taste importance consume less-yet feel just as satiated-when a salad is labeled "hearty" rather than "healthy." In contrast, for individuals with higher taste importance, consumption and self-reported satiety are correlated and are both higher when a salad is labeled as "hearty" versus "healthy." Study 2 primes taste importance, rather than measuring it, and replicates these findings for consumption, but not for self-reported satiety. There was no effect on the consumption of other foods in either study. Overall, our findings add to earlier work on the impact of health labels by showing that subtle food descriptions also influence post-intake experiences of satiety, but that the direction of the effects depends on taste importance and on the selection of direct or indirect measures of satiety.

  5. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources.

    PubMed

    Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Nonhebel, S; Krol, M S

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes relationships between food supply, consumption and income, taking supply, meat and dairy, and consumption composition (in macronutrients) as indicators, with annual per capita GDP as indicator for income. It compares food consumption patterns for 57 countries (2001) and gives time trends for western and southern Europe. Cross-sectional and time series relationships show similar patterns of change. For low income countries, GDP increase is accompanied by changes towards food consumption patterns with large gaps between supply and actual consumption. Total supply differs by a factor of two between low and high income countries. People in low income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates; the contribution of fats is small, that of protein the same as for high income countries and that of meat and dairy negligible. People in high income countries derive nutritional energy mainly from carbohydrates and fat, with substantial contribution of meat and dairy. Whenever and wherever economic growth occurs, food consumption shows similar change in direction. The European nutrition transition happened gradually, enabling agriculture and trade to keep pace with demand growth. Continuation of present economic trends might cause significant pressure on natural resources, because changes in food demand occur much faster than in the past, especially in Asia.

  6. Effects of bariatric surgery on food cravings: do food cravings and the consumption of craved foods “normalize” after surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Bond, Dale S.; Raynor, Hollie; Roye, Dean; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Ryder, Beth A.; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The reported effects of bariatric surgery on food cravings have been inconsistent. Moreover, research has been largely limited to sweet cravings, and no study has examined whether surgery patients’ cravings differ from those of normal weight (NW) controls. Our objective was to use an empirically validated instrument to examine changes in bariatric surgery patients’ frequency of food cravings and consumption of craved foods from before to 3 and 6 months after surgery and to compare surgery patients’ frequency of food cravings to those of NW controls. The setting was private hospitals and research center in the United States. Methods Bariatric surgery patients (n = 32) and NW controls (n = 20) completed the Food Cravings Inventory and had their height and weight measured. Results Before surgery, the patients reported more overall cravings and cravings for high fat and fast foods and a greater consumption of craved high-fat foods than the NW controls. From before to 3 and 6 months after surgery, the patients had significant reductions in overall cravings for, and consumption of, craved foods, with specific effects for sweets and fast food; however, surgery had virtually no effect on the cravings for high-fat foods. Moreover, high-fat and fast food cravings did not reduce to normative levels. The postoperative patients were less likely to consume craved sweets than NW controls, and the patients’ postoperative weight loss was largely unrelated to food cravings. Conclusion Bariatric surgery is associated with significant reductions in food cravings and consumption of craved foods, with the exception of high-fat foods. Despite these decreases, patients’ cravings do not fully reduce to “normative” levels and are not associated with postoperative weight loss. PMID:21925967

  7. Variations in compliance with starchy food recommendations and consumption of types of starchy foods according to sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Castetbon, Katia

    2010-05-01

    Nutritional recommendations call for balanced, diversified consumption of starchy foods and increased whole-grain food intake. Their efficiency may depend on sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, for which little information is available. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics and starchy food consumption in a large general population of French adults. Dietary intake was assessed using at least six 24-h dietary records collected, during a 2-year period, from 4574 men and women aged 45-60 years who participated in the Supplémentation en VItamines Minéraux et AntioXydants cohort study in 1995-7. Compliance with the recommendation ( > or = 3 and < 6 servings/d), non-consumption of whole-grain products, variety and daily cost were compared across sociodemographic and socioeconomic categories using logistic regression and covariance analyses. About 55 % of subjects complied with the starchy food recommendation, with little variation across sociodemographic characteristics. Consumption of whole-grain products was less likely in men (P = 0.001), in subjects with a lower education level (P-trend = 0.01) and in those belonging to intermediate occupational categories (P = 0.02). The variety of starchy food intake increased with education level (P-trend = 0.0002) and was lowest for manual workers (P = 0.03). The proportion of daily food cost spent on starchy foods decreased with occupational category (P < 0.0001), and was higher in rural areas (P = 0.0004). The starchy food budget spent on potatoes decreased with the educational level (P-trend = 0.007), whereas it increased for rice and unsweetened breakfast cereals (P-trend = 0.001 for both). Public recommendations concerning starchy food variety and whole-grain intake should specifically target subjects with a lower education level and/or occupational category.

  8. Socioeconomic driving factors of nitrogen load from food consumption and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Fei, Jinling; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2014-09-01

    To diagnose environmental nitrogen (N) load from food consumption and to suggest preventive measures, this study identified relationships between nitrogen load from food consumption and driving factors by examining six representative countries and regions for the period 1970-2009 as an example. The logarithmic mean Divisia index technique was used to disassemble nitrogen load growth into four driving factors: population, economic activity, food intensity of the economy, and nitrogen content of food. In all study areas, increased economic activity was the main factor driving nitrogen load increase. The positive effect of population growth was relatively small but not negligible and changes in food intensity had a decreasing effect on nitrogen load. Changes in nitrogen content of food varied between areas. Broad strategies to reduce and mitigate nitrogen loading and decouple nitrogen load from economic growth in both developed and developing countries are suggested.

  9. Facial affective reactions to bitter-tasting foods and body mass index in adults.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Burgos, D; Zamora, M C

    2013-12-01

    Differences in food consumption among body-weight statuses (e.g., higher fruit intake linked with lower body mass index (BMI) and energy-dense products with higher BMI) has raised the question of why people who are overweight or are at risk of becoming overweight eat differently from thinner people. One explanation, in terms of sensitivity to affective properties of food, suggests that palatability-driven consumption is likely to be an important contributor to food intake, and therefore body weight. Extending this approach to unpalatable tastes, we examined the relationship between aversive reactions to foods and BMI. We hypothesized that people who have a high BMI will show more negative affective reactions to bitter-tasting stimuli, even after controlling for sensory perception differences. Given that hedonic reactions may influence consumption even without conscious feelings of pleasure/displeasure, the facial expressions were included in order to provide more direct access to affective systems than subjective reports. Forty adults (28 females, 12 males) participated voluntarily. Their ages ranged from 18 to 46 years (M=24.2, SD=5.8). On the basis of BMI, participants were classified as low BMI (BMI<20; n=20) and high BMI (BMI>23; n=20). The mean BMI was 19.1 for low BMI (SD=0.7) and 25.2 for high BMI participants (SD=1.8). Each subject tasted 5 mL of a grapefruit juice drink and a bitter chocolate drink. Subjects rated the drinks' hedonic and incentive value, familiarity and bitter intensity immediately after each stimulus presentation. The results indicated that high BMI participants reacted to bitter stimuli showing more profound changes from baseline in neutral and disgust facial expressions compared with low BMI. No differences between groups were detected for the subjective pleasantness and familiarity. The research here is the first to examine how affective facial reactions to bitter food, apart from taste responsiveness, can predict differences in BMI.

  10. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  11. Food prices and fruit and vegetable consumption among young American adults.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Wang, Youfa

    2009-12-01

    Multivariate negative binomial count models were estimated to examine associations between young adults' fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and the prices of FV, other food at home grocery items, and fast food and the availability of restaurants and food stores. This study used the 2002 wave of data collected from US young adults aged 18-23 years in the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged by geocode identifiers with food prices and restaurant and food store availability. The results showed that higher levels of FV consumption were associated with lower FV prices (price elasticity of -0.32) and that this own-price effect was robust to the inclusion of other food prices and food outlet availability. Lower income and lower educated young adults and those with lower educated mothers and middle-income parents were found to be most price sensitive. No statistically significant cross-price effects on FV consumption were found with other grocery food (meat, dairy and bread) prices or fast food prices. Fiscal policy instruments such as FV subsidies may help to increase FV intake, particularly among young adults of lower socioeconomic status.

  12. Drug use is associated with elevated food consumption in college students.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Laurence J; Stolze, Megan R

    2012-06-01

    Higher food consumption, particularly of sweets, has been reported by substance-dependent persons in various stages of treatment but no investigation of substance use and actual food consumption has been conducted in non-dependent persons. Sixty-two male and female college students completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey and the amount of each of six snack foods (including both sweet and savory items) they consumed were measured. Participants also rated appetite before and after eating and rated the pleasantness of and desire to eat each food. Hierarchical multivariate regression revealed that, while controlling for the influence of BMI and intermeal interval, frequency and breadth of substance use significantly predicted elevated food consumption and elevated ratings of hunger and desire to eat. Furthermore, the link between breadth of drug use and food consumption was mediated by higher desire to eat and not by pleasantness of the food. The relationship between substance use and eating behavior may not be restricted only to those in recovery or treatment for persons diagnosed with substance use disorders.

  13. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem.

  14. Strategies to reduce sodium consumption: a food industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Dötsch, Mariska; Busch, Johanneke; Batenburg, Max; Liem, Gie; Tareilus, Erwin; Mueller, Rudi; Meijer, Gert

    2009-11-01

    The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products. Significant sodium reduction is not without complications as salt plays an important role in taste, and in some products is needed also for preservation and processing. The most promising sodium reduction strategy is to adapt the preference of consumers for saltiness by reducing sodium in products in small steps. However, this is a time-consuming approach that needs to be applied industry-wide in order to be effective. Therefore the food industry is also investigating solutions that will maintain the same perceived salt intensity at lower sodium levels. Each of these has specific advantages, disadvantages, and time lines for implementation. Currently applied approaches are resulting in sodium reduction between 20-30%. Further reduction will require new technologies. Research into the physiology of taste perception and salt receptors is an emerging area of science that is needed in order to achieve larger sodium reductions.

  15. The effects of social support and stress perception on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H

    2016-08-01

    Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students.

  16. The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.

    PubMed

    Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status.

  17. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    PubMed

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions.

  18. Memantine reduces consumption of highly palatable food in a rat model of binge eating

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Tomasz; Zhang, Yulei; Bisaga, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Excessive consumption of highly palatable food has been linked to the development of eating disorders and obesity, and can be modeled in non-food-deprived rats by offering them a limited (2-h daily) access to an optional dietary fat. Since the glutamatergic system has recently emerged as a viable target for binge-eating medication development, we compared the effects of subchronic treatment with glutamatergic receptor antagonists to the effects of a reference appetite-suppressing agent sibutramine on highly palatable food (lard) and normal chow intake. In three separate experiments, the consumption of a standard laboratory chow and lard were measured during 12 days of medication treatment and for 6 days afterwards. Generalized estimating equations analysis demonstrated that sibutramine (7.5 mg/kg, PO) significantly decreased lard consumption, with a concurrent increase in chow consumption. Sibutramine effects disappeared after treatment discontinuation. The NMDA receptor antagonist memantine (5 mg/kg, IP) significantly decreased lard consumption and increased chow consumption, comparable to effects of sibutramine; however, memantine’s effects persisted after treatment discontinuation. The effects of the mGluR5 antagonist MTEP (7.5 mg/kg, IP) on food consumption were in the same direction as seen with memantine, but the observed differences were not significant. In an additional control experiment, sibutramine and memantine reduced unlimited (24 h) chow intake during the treatment phase. Present results provide evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission might be involved in the regulation of excessive consumption of highly palatable foods, and suggest that NMDA receptor may be an attractive target for developing obesity and disordered eating pharmacotherapies. PMID:20571841

  19. Associations between dairy food consumption and chronic kidney disease in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Harris, David C.; Flood, Victoria M.; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the association between dairy product consumption and calcium intake with the prevalence and 10-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). 1185 participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were examined between 1992–4 and 2002–4. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and servings of dairy food consumption were calculated. Baseline biochemistry including serum creatinine was measured. CKD was defined as Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL·min−1.1.73 m−2. Cross-sectional analysis showed that older adults in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile (reference group) of low/reduced fat dairy food consumption had reduced odds of CKD, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, OR, 0.64 (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.43–0.96). Increasing total intake of dietary calcium was associated with reduced odds of CKD (P-trend = 0.02); comparing highest versus lowest quintile: OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.42–0.92). Participants in the second versus first quintile of low/reduced fat dairy food consumption at baseline had 49% reduced risk of CKD 10 years later, OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.29–0.89). Higher consumption of low/reduced fat dairy foods was independently associated with lower risk of CKD. Additional population-based studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27996057

  20. Associations between dairy food consumption and chronic kidney disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Harris, David C; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-12-20

    We aimed to assess the association between dairy product consumption and calcium intake with the prevalence and 10-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). 1185 participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were examined between 1992-4 and 2002-4. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and servings of dairy food consumption were calculated. Baseline biochemistry including serum creatinine was measured. CKD was defined as Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL·min(-1.)1.73 m(-2). Cross-sectional analysis showed that older adults in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile (reference group) of low/reduced fat dairy food consumption had reduced odds of CKD, multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, OR, 0.64 (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.43-0.96). Increasing total intake of dietary calcium was associated with reduced odds of CKD (P-trend = 0.02); comparing highest versus lowest quintile: OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.92). Participants in the second versus first quintile of low/reduced fat dairy food consumption at baseline had 49% reduced risk of CKD 10 years later, OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.89). Higher consumption of low/reduced fat dairy foods was independently associated with lower risk of CKD. Additional population-based studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  1. Frequency of consumption of foods and beverages by Inuvialuit adults in Northwest Territories, Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Zotor, Francis; Sheehy, Tony; Lupu, Madalina; Kolahdooz, Fariba; Corriveau, Andre; Sharma, Sangita

    2012-11-01

    Limited data exist regarding nutrient intakes and overall dietary quality in Canadian Arctic populations. This cross-sectional study determined the frequency of consumption of traditional meats (e.g. caribou, polar bear, seal, char and whale) and non-traditional store-bought foods including non-traditional meats (e.g. beef, pork and chicken), grains, dairy, fruits, vegetables and non-nutrient dense foods (NNDFs) (e.g. butter, chocolate, chips, candy and pop) by Inuvialuit adults (175 women, mean age 44 ± 14 years; 55 men, mean age 41 ± 13 years) in three remote communities in the Northwest Territories. Using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire, frequency of consumption over a 30-day period was determined for 141 commonly reported foods. Mean consumption of traditional meats (1.6 times/day), fruits (1 time/day) and vegetables (0.6 times/day) was less frequent than that of NNDFs (5.0 times/day). Nutritional intervention strategies are needed to promote more frequent consumption of nutrient-rich foods and less frequent consumption of NNDFs in these Arctic communities.

  2. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  3. Multicontextual correlates of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack food consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Miller, Jonathan M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods is an eating behavior of public health concern. This study was designed to inform strategies for reducing adolescent intake of energy-dense snack foods by identifying individual and environmental influences. Surveys were completed in 2009-2010 by 2540 adolescents (54% females, mean age = 14.5 ± 2.0, 80% nonwhite) in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Daily servings of energy-dense snack food was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire that asked about consumption of 21 common snack food items, such as potato chips, cookies, and candy. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, Geographic Information System sources, and a content analysis of favorite television shows. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between each individual or environmental characteristic and snack food consumption in separate models and also to examine relationships in a model including all of the characteristics simultaneously. The factors found to be significantly associated with higher energy-dense snack food intake represented individual attitudes/behaviors (e.g., snacking while watching television) and characteristics of home/family (e.g., home unhealthy food availability), peer (friends' energy-dense snack food consumption), and school (e.g., student snack consumption norms) environments. In total, 25.5% of the variance in adolescents' energy-dense snack food consumption was explained when factors from within each context were examined together. The results suggest that the design of interventions targeting improvement in the dietary quality of adolescents' snack food choices should address relevant individual factors (e.g., eating while watching television) along with characteristics of their home/family (e.g., limiting the availability of unhealthy foods), peer (e.g., guiding the efforts of a peer leader in

  4. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources.

  5. Body weight and food consumption scores in adolescents from northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Augusto Cesar; de Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of excess weight and analyze eating habits in relation to cardiovascular disease in adolescents from the city of Vitória de Santo Antão, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with male and female students (10-19 years old) enrolled at public and private schools in Vitória de Santo Antão. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle variables were collected. Food consumption was evaluated using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and subsequently converted to monthly intake pattern scores, obtaining the intake distribution for a group of foods associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and for a group of protective foods. The significance level for the statistical tests was set at 5.0%. Results: The sample consisted of 2866 students. The female gender accounted for 54.2% of the sample, and median age was 14 years (interquartile range: 12-16 years). The food intake scores showed greater dispersion in the group of protective foods (51.1%). Higher median scores for consumption of risk foods were found among adolescents whose mothers had more than 9 years of schooling (p<0.001). Conclusions: Excess weight was prevalent among the students analyzed. The consumption of risk foods was only associated with maternal schooling, which shows the need for nutritional interventions directed at families, regardless of socioeconomic status. PMID:26113308

  6. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers.

  7. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gadiraju, Taraka V; Patel, Yash; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-10-06

    Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week). Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying), temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  8. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women.

  9. 9 CFR 311.16 - Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cause food poisoning. (a) All carcasses of animals so infected that consumption of the products thereof... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses so infected that consumption of the meat may cause food poisoning. 311.16 Section 311.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD...

  10. Effect of repeated exposures and sociality on novel food acceptance and consumption by orangutans.

    PubMed

    Hardus, Madeleine E; Lameira, Adriano R; Wich, Serge A; de Vries, Han; Wahyudi, Rachmad; Shumaker, Robert W; Menken, Steph B J

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of rehabilitant great apes have been released into the wild, and thousands await release. However, survival rates after release can be as low as 20%. Several factors influence individuals' survival rates, one of which is the capacity to obtain an adequate diet once released. Released individuals are faced with a mixture of familiar and novel foods in an unfamiliar forest; therefore, it is important to understand how they increase acceptance and consumption of novel foods. This is especially vital for omnivorous species, such as wild great apes, which consume several hundred species of different foods. We assessed the effects of repeated exposures and sociality (i.e. co-feeding in the presence of one or more other individuals) on the acceptance and consumption of novel foods by captive orangutans (Pongo sp). Repeated exposures of food (novel, at first) did not cause an increase of acceptance of food; in other words, the orangutans did not start to eat a food item after being exposed to that food more often, but repeated exposures of food increased consumption (i.e. quantity). After repeated exposures, the orangutans also became gradually more familiar with the food, decreasing their explorative behaviour. The presence of co-feeding conspecifics resulted in an increased acceptance of the novel food by orangutans, and they ate a larger amount of said foods than when alone. Repeated exposure and sociality may benefit rehabilitant great apes in augmenting and diversifying diet and, once practiced before release, may accelerate an individuals' adaptation to their new habitat, improving survival chances. Great ape rescue, rehabilitation and reintroduction require large financial and logistic investments; however, their effectiveness may be improved at low cost and low effort through the suggested measures.

  11. Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves. PMID:24987478

  12. A toy story: Association between young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums and their fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2016-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids' meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children's knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013-March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids' meals (McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N = 583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald's. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald's released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald's if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children's toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children's knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald's, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys.

  13. The Influence of U.S. Chain Restaurant Food Consumption and Obesity in China and South Korea: An Ecological Perspective of Food Consumption, Self-Efficacy in Weight Management, Willingness to Communicate About Weight/Diet, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Mazzone, Raphael; Oh, Hyun; Du, Joshua; Smithson, Anne-Bennett; Ryan, Diane; MacNeil, David; Tong, Xing; Stiller, Carol

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the impact of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption in China and South Korea from an ecological perspective. Specifically, it explored the relationships among several environmental and individual variables that have been found to affect obesity/weight management in previous research, including the prevalence/popularity of U.S. chain restaurants in these countries, frequency of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption, self-efficacy in weight management, willingness to communicate about weight/diet, self-perceptions of weight/obesity stigma, body mass index (BMI), and depression. The results indicated that willingness to communicate about weight/diet predicted increased self-efficacy in weight management. Higher BMI scores were found to predict increased weight/obesity stigma, and increased frequency of U.S. restaurant food consumption, weight/obesity stigma, and reduced self-efficacy in weight management were found to predict increased levels of depression. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and directions for future research.

  14. Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dohyeong; Seo, Dong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The concept of "food deserts" has been widely used in Western countries as a framework to identify areas with constrained access to fresh and nutritious foods, providing guidelines for targeted nutrition and public health programs. Unlike the vast amount of literature on food deserts in a Western context, only a few studies have addressed the concept in an East Asian context, and none of them have investigated spatial patterns of unhealthy food consumption from a South Korean perspective. SUBJECTS/METHODS We first evaluated the applicability of food deserts in a Korean setting and identified four Korean-specific unhealthy food consumption indicators, including insufficient food consumption due to financial difficulty, limited consumption of fruits and vegetables, excessive consumption of junk food, and excessive consumption of instant noodles. The KNHANES 2008-2012 data in Seoul were analyzed with stratified sampling weights to understand the trends and basic characteristics of these eating patterns in each category. GIS analyses were then conducted for the data spatially aggregated at the sub-district level in order to create maps identifying areas of concern regarding each of these indicators and their combinations. RESULTS Despite significant reduction in the rate of food insufficiency due to financial difficulty, the rates of excessive consumption of unhealthy foods (junk food and instant noodles) as well as limited consumption of fruits and vegetables have increased or remained high. These patterns tend to be found among relatively younger and more educated groups, regardless of income status. CONCLUSIONS A GIS-based analysis demonstrated several hotspots as potential "food deserts" tailored to the Korean context based on the observed spatial patterns of undesirable food consumption. These findings could be used as a guide to prioritize areas for targeted intervention programs to facilitate healthy food consumption behaviors and thus

  15. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  16. Getting a taste for food waste: a mixed methods ethnographic study into hospital food waste before patient consumption conducted at three New Zealand foodservice facilities.

    PubMed

    Goonan, Sarah; Mirosa, Miranda; Spence, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Foodservice organizations, particularly those in hospitals, are large producers of food waste. To date, research on waste in hospitals has focused primarily on plate waste and the affect of food waste on patient nutrition outcomes. Less focus has been placed on waste generation at the kitchen end of the hospital food system. We used a novel approach to understand reasons for hospital food waste before consumption and offer recommendations on waste minimization within foodservices. A mixed methods ethnographic research approach was adopted. Three New Zealand hospital foodservices were selected as research sites, all of which were contracted to an external foodservice provider. Data collection techniques included document analyses, observations, focus groups with kitchen staff, and one-on-one interviews with managers. Thematic analysis was conducted to generate common themes. Most food waste occurred during service and as a result of overproduction. Attitudes and habits of foodservice personnel were considered influential factors of waste generation. Implications of food waste were perceived differently by different levels of staff. Whereas managers raised discussion from a financial perspective, kitchen staff drew upon social implications. Organizational plans, controls, and use of pre-prepared ingredients assisted in waste minimization. An array of factors influenced waste generation in hospital foodservices. Exploring attitudes and practices of foodservice personnel allowed an understanding of reasons behind hospital food waste and ways in which it could be minimized. This study provides a foundation for further research on sustainable behavior within the wider foodservice sector and dietetics practice.

  17. Living together, feeding apart: how to measure individual food consumption in social house mice.

    PubMed

    Neuhäusser-Wespy, F; König, B

    2000-02-01

    In many studies with animals kept in groups, scientists need information about each individual's food access without disturbance or separation of the animals. We developed an automatic feeding device that allows measurement of individual food consumption and experimental manipulation of individual food availability in small social mammals, such as house mice. The feeding device is based on radio frequency identification that triggers access to a motor-driven metal arm filled with food pellets and is mediated with the help of subcutaneously implanted transponders.

  18. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.

  19. Effect of the exposure to TV food advertisements on the consumption of foods by mothers and children.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Ramírez, Glenda; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Souto-Gallardo, Maria de las Cruces; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Foods advertised were recorded in 2 television (TV) channels. The present article studies the association between products advertised and those consumed by mothers and children. A total of 365 mothers and their children were assessed. A positive correlation was observed between the food advertisements that the mothers recalled and the frequency of TV food advertisements (Rho = 0.44, P = 0.03). A positive correlation was found between the frequency of the foods advertised on TV and the consumption of these by the mothers (r = 0.73, P = 0.0001) and their children (Rho = 0.66, P = 0.0001). These results suggest that TV advertisements influence the food choices of mothers and children.

  20. Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01). Conclusions Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation. PMID:23866682

  1. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-03

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing.

  2. Food cravings, appetite, and snack-food consumption in response to a psychomotor stimulant drug: the moderating effect of "food-addiction".

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Kennedy, James L; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating resemble an addiction disorder. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-based study of overeating in healthy adults who were predominately overweight and obese (aged 25-50 years), 136 participants completed the YFAS, of whom 23 met the diagnostic criteria for food-addiction. They took part in a 2-day, double-blind, cross-over, single-dose drug challenge using a psychomotor stimulant (methylphenidate) and placebo. Participants were first assessed on ratings of appetite and food cravings after holding and tasting their favorite snack food, after which they were able to eat all or part of the snack, as they wished. Three separate repeated-measures analysis-of-variance procedures were carried out, each with two between-subjects factors (Diagnosis: food-addiction vs. non-food addiction) and (Sex: male vs. female) and 1 within-subjects factor (Days: drug vs. placebo). As anticipated, for all three dependent variables, there was a significant main effect for Days with a response decrease from placebo to the drug condition. With respect to food cravings and appetite ratings, results indicated that the food addiction group had significantly higher scores on both variables. For food consumption, there was a significant Days × Diagnosis interaction whereby the food-addiction group showed no food-intake suppression across days compared to the non-food-addiction group who demonstrated a significant decrease in snack-food consumption with methylphenidate. The finding that the food-addiction group was resistant to the food-intake suppression typically induced by a

  3. A Serious Game to Increase Healthy Food Consumption in Overweight or Obese Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing global issue that is linked to cognitive and psychological deficits. Objective This preliminary study investigated the efficacy of training to improve inhibitory control (IC), a process linked to overeating, on consumption and cognitive control factors. Methods This study utilized a multisession mobile phone–based intervention to train IC in an overweight and obese population using a randomized waitlist-control design. A combination of self-assessment questionnaires and psychophysiological measures was used to assess the efficacy of the intervention in terms of improved general IC and modified food consumption after training. Attitudes toward food were also assessed to determine their mediating role in food choices. A total of 58 participants (47 female) completed 2 assessment sessions 3 weeks apart, with 2 weeks of intervention training for the training group during this time. The groups did not differ in baseline demographics including age, body mass index, and inhibitory control. Results Inhibitory control ability improved across the training sessions, with increases in P3 amplitude implying increased cognitive control over responses. Inhibitory control training was associated with increased healthy and reduced unhealthy food consumption in a taste test and in the week following training, as measured by the Healthy Eating Quiz and the food consumption test. Cognitive restraint was enhanced after training for the training but not the waitlist condition in the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, implying that attempts to avoid unhealthy foods in the future will be easier for the training group participants. Conclusions Inhibitory control training delivered via a purpose-designed mobile phone app is easy to complete, is convenient, and can increase cognitive restraint and reduce unhealthy food consumption. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616000263493; http

  4. Characterization of a method for quantitating food consumption for mutation assays in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, E.D.; Reeder, B.A.; Bruce, R.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitation of food consumption is necessary when determining mutation responses to multiple chemical exposures in the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila. One method proposed for quantitating food consumption by Drosophila is to measure the incorporation of 14C-leucine into the flies during the feeding period. Three sources of variation in the technique of Thompson and Reeder have been identified and characterized. First, the amount of food consumed by individual flies differed by almost 30% in a 24 hr feeding period. Second, the variability from vial to vial (each containing multiple flies) was around 15%. Finally, the amount of food consumed in identical feeding experiments performed over the course of 1 year varied nearly 2-fold. The use of chemical consumption values in place of exposure levels provided a better means of expressing the combined mutagenic response. In addition, the kinetics of food consumption over a 3 day feeding period for exposures to cyclophosphamide which produce lethality were compared to non-lethal exposures. Extensive characterization of lethality induced by exposures to cyclophosphamide demonstrate that the lethality is most likely due to starvation, not chemical toxicity.

  5. Pre-Pregnancy Fast Food Consumption Is Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Tehranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Lamyian, Minoor; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Goshtasebi, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Tehranian women. This study was conducted over a 17-month period, on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 1026), aged 18–45 years, attending prenatal clinics in five hospitals affiliated with universities of medical sciences, located in different districts of Tehran, Iran. Dietary data were collected during gestational age ≤6 weeks, using a 168-item valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of total fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and French fries was calculated. Between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, all pregnant women underwent a scheduled 100 g 3 h oral glucose tolerance test. GDM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association definition. The mean age and pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI of participants were 26.7 ± 4.3 years and 25.4 ± 4.5 Kg/m2, respectively. A total of 71 women developed GDM. After adjustment for confounders, the OR (95% CI) for GDM for total fast food consumption was 2.12 (1.12–5.43) and for French fries it was 2.18 (1.05–4.70). No significant association was found between hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and GDM. Fast food consumption in women of reproductive age was found to have undesirable effects in the prevalence of GDM. PMID:28257029

  6. Factors Influencing Fast-Food Consumption Among Adolescents in Tehran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Askari Majabadi, Hesamedin; Solhi, Mahnaz; Montazeri, Ali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nejat, Saharnaz; Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Djazayeri, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consumption of different types of fast food is increasingly growing in all parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. Because of the changes and transitions in the lifestyle and dietary habits of people, an increasing number of people from different age groups, particularly adolescents and young adults, are inclined toward consuming fast food. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing fast-food consumption among adolescents in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted in 2012 - 2013 in Tehran, the capital of Iran. To achieve the objective of this study, 42 adolescents were enrolled in this study through a purposive sampling method, and the required data was collected via individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously, and the collected data was analyzed via a thematic content analysis and using MAXQDA 10 software. Results: In this study after coding the transcribed interviews, the findings were categorized into three main themes as follows: personal views, social factors, and family factors. Each theme included several categories and subcategories, and the coded sentences and phrases were placed under each category and subcategory. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the number of factors promoting fast-food consumption appeared to be more than the inhibiting factors and that the diverse factors at the individual and social level influenced fast-food consumption among adolescents. PMID:27247793

  7. Food consumption and weight gain after cessation of chronic amphetamine administration.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Caitlin A; Ginton, Guy; Shimp, Kristy G; Avena, Nicole M; Gold, Mark S; Setlow, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Cessation of drug use often coincides with increased food consumption and weight gain in recovering addicts. However, it is not known whether this phenomenon (particularly the weight gain) is uniquely human, or whether it represents a consequence of drug cessation common across species. To address this issue, rats (n = 10/group) were given systemic injections of D-amphetamine (3 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline vehicle for 9 consecutive days. Beginning 2 days after the final injection, rats were given free access to a highly palatable food mixture (consisting of sugar and butter) along with their standard chow diet, and food consumption and body weight were measured every 48 h for 30 days. Consistent with clinical observations, amphetamine-treated rats showed a greater increase in body weight over the course of the 30 days relative to vehicle-treated rats. Surprisingly, there was no difference in highly palatable food consumption between amphetamine- and vehicle-treated groups, but the amphetamine-treated group consumed significantly more standard chow than the control group. The finding that a history of chronic amphetamine exposure increases food consumption is consistent with previous work in humans showing that withdrawal from drugs of abuse is associated with overeating and weight gain. The current findings may reflect amphetamine-induced sensitization of mechanisms involved in reward motivation, suggesting that weight gain following drug cessation in humans could be due to similar mechanisms.

  8. Pre-Pregnancy Fast Food Consumption Is Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Tehranian Women.

    PubMed

    Lamyian, Minoor; Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Moghaddam Banaem, Lida; Goshtasebi, Azita; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Tehranian women. This study was conducted over a 17-month period, on a random sample of pregnant women (n = 1026), aged 18-45 years, attending prenatal clinics in five hospitals affiliated with universities of medical sciences, located in different districts of Tehran, Iran. Dietary data were collected during gestational age ≤6 weeks, using a 168-item valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Consumption of total fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and French fries was calculated. Between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, all pregnant women underwent a scheduled 100 g 3 h oral glucose tolerance test. GDM was defined according to the American Diabetes Association definition. The mean age and pre-pregnancy body mass index BMI of participants were 26.7 ± 4.3 years and 25.4 ± 4.5 Kg/m², respectively. A total of 71 women developed GDM. After adjustment for confounders, the OR (95% CI) for GDM for total fast food consumption was 2.12 (1.12-5.43) and for French fries it was 2.18 (1.05-4.70). No significant association was found between hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), pizza and GDM. Fast food consumption in women of reproductive age was found to have undesirable effects in the prevalence of GDM.

  9. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2008-06-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 255 m3 cap-1y-1 in 1961 to 860 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 2003, largely due to an increase in the consumption of animal products in recent decades. Although steadily increasing, the CWRF of China is still much lower than that of many developed countries. The total water requirement for food (TWRF) has been determined as 1127 km3 y-1 in 2003. Three scenarios are proposed to project future TWRF, representing low, medium, and high levels of modernization (S1, S2, and S3, respectively). Analysis of these three scenarios indicates that TWRF will likely continue to increase in the next three decades. An additional amount of water ranging between 407 and 515 km3 y-1 will be required in 2030 compared to the TWRF in 2003. This will undoubtedly put high pressure on China's already scarce water resources. We conclude that the effect of the food consumption patterns on China's water resources is substantial both in the recent past and in the near future. China will need to strengthen "green water" management and to take advantage of "virtual water" import to meet the additional TWRF.

  10. Food consumption patterns and their effect on water requirement in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that food consumption patterns significantly impact water requirements. The aim of this paper is to quantify how food consumption patterns influence water requirements in China. The findings show that per capita water requirement for food (CWRF) has increased from 250 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 1961 to 780 m3 cap-1 y-1 in 2003, largely due to an increase in the consumption of animal products in recent decades. Although steadily increasing, the CWRF of China is still much lower than that of many developed countries. The total water requirement for food (TWRF) has been determined as 1023 km3 y-1 in 2003. Three scenarios are proposed to project future TWRF, representing low, medium, and high levels of modernization (S1, S2, and S3, respectively). Analysis of these three scenarios indicates that TWRF will reach a maximum between 2020 and 2025, after which it is expected to decline. According to S2, the shift in food consumption patterns together with population growth may lead to an additional amount of required water of 114 km3 y-1 in 2025, even after taking technological advances into consideration. This will undoubtedly put high pressure on China's already scarce water resources. China needs to strengthen "green water" management and to take advantage of "virtual water" import to meet the additional TWRF.

  11. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    PubMed

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors.

  12. Does frequent eating out cause undesirable food choices? Association of food away from home with food consumption frequencies and obesity among Korean housewives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Kyung; Kim, Tae Yoon; Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among socioeconomic factors, frequency of food away from home (FAFH) and food-consumption patterns of 1,070 housewives, and the association of those factors with obesity, using data from the third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although lower intakes of fruits, meats, and fast foods were associated with seldom eating out, no consistent pattern was observed regarding the relationship between the frequency of FAFH and food consumption for all groups of housewives. Further analysis indicated that obesity rates were lower among housewives aged 20-49 years with 7-12 years of education and moderate eating-out frequency, compared to older, less educated women. It appeared that reducing the frequency of FAFH does not always entail desirable food intakes among full-time housewives in Korea. Our findings suggest that choosing healthy meals away from home is more important for housewives than refraining from eating out.

  13. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults. PMID:26828518

  14. Determination of quantitative food consumption levels for use in microbial risk assessments: cheddar cheese as an example.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Gyung-Jin; Todd, Ewen C D

    2007-01-01

    Microbial risk assessment (MRA) is becoming increasingly used in the management of food safety because it can be used to quantify risks and help rank intervention strategies. The exposure assessment components of the assessments have become complex with many aspects of the contamination, survival, and growth of a pathogen in a food being taken into consideration. Insufficient consumption data constitutes an important data gap and consequently one of many sources of uncertainty in MRA even though the effects of uncertainty are smaller than those affecting bacterial concentration in foods. Therefore, food consumption data also play an important role in exposure assessment of MRA. In the United States, there are large-scale, nationwide sets of consumption data available for use in MRA, i.e., the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Newly released dietary interview data in the NHANES 2001 to 2002 survey show that it has been redesigned and that the data were sufficiently updated from previous versions to have more value for MRAs. We propose a model that can effectively use the new data sets and be incorporated into MRAs, using as an example consumption of Cheddar cheese/American-type cheese. This model included the prevalence of food eaten as well as the amount and frequency. We determined the amount of Cheddar/American cheese consumed per day with probability distribution (e.g., lognormal distribution). These could be further determined by gender, age, pregnancy, and combination food type, which we plan to do in the future. The frequency of the range of serving numbers for Cheddar/American cheese consumed per person per day and prevalence as the proportion of a population (e.g., survey respondents) eating a certain food in a day are also presented. Unlike traditional published mean values, the results of this model provide probability distribution intakes that can be compared with mean and median intakes. This allows values in the upper

  15. Consumption of Fried Foods and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians' Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Petrone, Andrew B.; Gaziano, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Consumption of fried foods is highly prevalent in the Western dietary pattern. Though limited studies have reported a positive association between frequency of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, diabetes, or hypertension, other investigators failed to report such an association. It is unclear whether intake of fried foods is associated with a higher risk of heart failure (HF). Hence, we sought to examine the association between the frequency of fried food consumption and the risk of HF. Methods and Results This was a prospective cohort study of 15 362 participants from the Physicians' Health Study. Fried food intake frequency was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire (1997–2001), and incident HF was captured by annual questionnaires. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of HF. After an average follow‐up of 9.6±2.4 years, a total of 632 new HF cases occurred in this cohort. Compared to subjects who reported fried food consumption of <1 per week, HRs (95% CI) for HF were 1.24 (1.04 to 1.48), 1.28 (1.00 to 1.63), and 2.03 (1.37 to 3.02) for fried food intake of 1 to 3/week, 4 to 6/week, and 7+/week, respectively, after adjustment for age, energy intake, alcohol use, exercise, smoking, and overall diet score (P linear trend, 0.0002). Similar results were obtained for intake of fried foods at home or away from home and among subjects with higher dietary score or HF without antecedent myocardial infarction. Conclusions Our data are consistent with a positive association of fried food intake frequency with incident HF in male physicians. PMID:25907125

  16. Food odors trigger an endocrine response that affects food ingestion and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Oleh V; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-01

    Food odors stimulate appetite and innate food-seeking behavior in hungry animals. The smell of food also induces salivation and release of gastric acid and insulin. Conversely, sustained odor exposure may induce satiation. We demonstrate novel effects of food odors on food ingestion, metabolism and endocrine signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. Acute exposure to attractive vinegar odor triggers a rapid and transient increase in circulating glucose, and a rapid upregulation of genes encoding the glucagon-like hormone adipokinetic hormone (AKH), four insulin-like peptides (DILPs) and some target genes in peripheral tissues. Sustained exposure to food odors, however, decreases food intake. Hunger-induced strengthening of synaptic signaling from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to brain neurons increases food-seeking behavior, and conversely fed flies display reduced food odor sensitivity and feeding. We show that increasing the strength of OSN signaling chronically by genetic manipulation of local peptide neuromodulation reduces feeding, elevates carbohydrates and diminishes lipids. Furthermore, constitutively strengthened odor sensitivity altered gene transcripts for AKH, DILPs and some of their targets. Thus, we show that food odor can induce a transient anticipatory endocrine response, and that boosted sensitivity to this odor affects food intake, as well as metabolism and hormonal signaling.

  17. Consumption of attention versus affect elicited by cognitions in modifying acute pain.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M J; Heise, R A; Pfost, K S

    1989-02-01

    40 subjects were randomly assigned to conditions of high pleasure, low pleasure, high anger, or low anger in a 2 x 2 (intensity x affect) design. Although subjects used highly intense cognitions more than less intense ones, pleasant cognitions produced higher tolerance for pressure pain. Modification of pain may be mediated by specific affect rather than intensity or consumption of attention.

  18. Whole-grain food consumption in Singaporean children aged 6-12 years.

    PubMed

    Neo, Jia En; Binte Mohamed Salleh, Saihah; Toh, Yun Xuan; How, Kesslyn Yan Ling; Tee, Mervin; Mann, Kay; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J; Brownlee, Iain A

    2016-01-01

    Public health bodies in many countries are attempting to increase population-wide habitual consumption of whole grains. Limited data on dietary habits exist in Singaporean children. The present study therefore aimed to assess whole grain consumption patterns in Singaporean children and compare these with dietary intake, physical activity and health parameters. Dietary intake (assessed by duplicate, multipass, 24-h food recalls), physical activity (by questionnaire) and anthropometric measurements were collected from a cross-section of 561 Singaporean children aged 6-12 years. Intake of whole grains was evaluated using estimates of portion size and international food composition data. Only 38·3 % of participants reported consuming whole grains during the dietary data collection days. Median intake of whole grains in consumers was 15·3 (interquartile range 5·4-34·8) g/d. The most commonly consumed whole-grain food groups were rice (29·5 %), wholemeal bread (28·9 %) and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (18·8 %). A significantly lower proportion of Malay children (seven out of fifty-eight; P < 0·0001) consumed whole grains than children of other ethnicities. Only 6 % of all children consumed the amount of whole grains most commonly associated with improved health outcomes (48 g/d). There was no relationship between whole grain consumption patterns and BMI, waist circumference or physical activity but higher whole grain intake was associated with increased fruit, vegetable and dairy product consumption (P < 0·001). These findings demonstrate that consumption of whole grain foods is low at a population level and infrequent in Singaporean children. Future drives to increase whole-grain food consumption in this population are likely to require input from multiple stakeholders.

  19. Perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency in the college students of China Seven Cities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhong; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Koprowski, Carol; Zhou, Dunjin; Palmer, Paula; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Duan, Lei; Sun, Xiufa; Anderson Johnson, C

    2007-11-23

    The aim of the study was to explore the association between perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency. A self-administered questionnaire that included the perceived stress scale, the depression scale and dietary intake was used in the baseline survey of a cohort study of 2579 local college students over 7 cities in China. Gender and city differences were found in perceived stress scores and depression scores. There were also significant differences among diverse smoking levels and among perceived weight categories in perceived stress and depression scores. Stepwise logistic regression models found that frequency of consumption of fresh fruit, ready-to-eat food and snack food had apparently independent effects on perceived stress, whereas the intake level of fresh fruit, ready-to-eat food and fast food was significantly associated with depression. The link between food consumption frequency, perceived stress and depression suggests that diet intervention may be considered a mediate strategy integrated in psychology prevention program among normal population of the college.

  20. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  1. Effects of a dietary intervention promoting the adoption of a Mediterranean food pattern on fast-food consumption among healthy French-Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Alexandra; Goulet, Julie; Riverin, Mélissa; Lamarche, Benoît; Lemieux, Simone

    2010-12-01

    It is expected that a dietary intervention based on the traditional Mediterranean food pattern should be associated with a reduction in fast-food consumption but this has never been tested before. We assessed the impact of a 12-week dietary intervention, promoting the adoption of a Mediterranean food pattern, on fast-food consumption among seventy-one healthy women aged between 30 and 65 years. The dietary intervention consisted of two group sessions and seven individual sessions with a dietitian. To determine the Mediterranean dietary score (MedScore) and fast-food consumption, an FFQ was administered. During the 12-week intervention, the MedScore significantly increased (from 21.1 (SD 3.6) units at baseline to 28.6 (SD 4.4) units at week 12, P < 0.0001), while the fast-food consumption significantly decreased (from 51.7 (SD 46.4) g/d at baseline to 20.5 (SD 18.2) g/d at week 12, P < 0.0001). Moreover, women who had a higher consumption of fast food at baseline decreased their fast-food consumption to the most (r - 0.50, P < 0.0001). When four subgroups were formed on the basis of median values of Medscore and fast-food consumption changes, it was found that only the subgroup of women which increased the most their MedScore and decreased the most their fast-food consumption experienced a significant decrease in BMI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, a dietary intervention promoting the Mediterranean food pattern led to a decrease in fast-food consumption among healthy women even if it was not a specific target of the intervention. Dietary strategies for increasing intake of healthy foods may be a useful approach for decreasing intake of less healthy foods.

  2. Food consumption and retention time in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, J.T.; Gee, G.F.; Slack, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Food consumption, digesta retention time, and food preference were measured for captive whooping cranes fed pelleted diets. The basal commercial diet was compared to four mixtures containing 70% basal and 30% of one of four important winter foods for the whooping crane: blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn), live oak acorn (Quercus virginiana), or common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata). Because captive birds would not eat whole foods, we were prevented from direct food preference tests. Food passed through the gut rapidly, with almost complete elimination within 7 hr. There was some indication that retention time was shorter for the low fiber and high ash and calcium clam diet. Cranes ate less wolfberry feed (g/day) than the other feeds, and all birds ate less wolfberry feed on the day it was first fed, compared to basal diet the previous day. Birds ate more low energy feed than high energy feed. Due to combined effects of low energy content, lower metabolizable energy coefficients, and reduced feed consumption, less energy was assimilated for study diets than basal diet. Apparent shorter retention times for some diets con-taming whooping crane foods may partly explain lower digestibilities and metabolizable energy of winter whooping crane foods compared to commercial crane diet.

  3. Does Weight Status Influence Weight-Related Beliefs and the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Fast Food Purchases in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight status affects the relationship between weight-related beliefs and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fast and convenience store food purchases (FCFP). Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Methods: Body composition and psychosocial survey…

  4. Economic transition and household food consumption: a study of Bulgaria from 1985 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Ludmila; Dimitrov, Plamen; Ovcharova, Dora; Dellava, Jocilyn; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2006-12-01

    Major economic transitions typically entail changes in the availability of and purchasing power for different types of foods leading to long-term changes in the composition of the diet. Bulgaria, a former Eastern Bloc country, underwent a difficult and protracted transition from a centralized to market economy with acute economic crises and a much slower recovery of income levels than in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. Using annual data from the Bulgarian National Household Survey, we study changes in the reported consumption of major foods (excluding alcoholic drinks) and their constituent macronutrients from 1985 to 2002, examining also the differences in dietary patterns between the period prior to and following the transition. The consumption of most major food items decreased, resulting in a fall in per capita energy consumption of 429 kcal/day (1.80 MJ/d), following the economic transition of 1991. As expected, the consumption of foods that were more expensive per unit of energy decreased greater than cheaper foods, -34% for animal products and -19% for visible fats, but only -10% for carbohydrates. These changes are related to the changes in income and market prices as well as the general negative trend in economic growth and hyperinflation in the mid-1990s. Thus, Bulgaria experienced a decrease in food consumption without significant changes in the dietary pattern following the economic transition of 1991. The fact that part of this decline may be attributed to continued economic challenges suggests that future transitions in the diet may be expected as economic development proceeds.

  5. Training response inhibition to reduce food consumption: Mechanisms, stimulus specificity and appropriate training protocols.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel C; Lawrence, Natalia S; Verbruggen, Frederick; Chambers, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Training individuals to inhibit their responses towards unhealthy foods has been shown to reduce food intake relative to a control group. Here we aimed to further explore these effects by investigating the role of stimulus devaluation, training protocol, and choice of control group. Restrained eaters received either inhibition or control training using a modified version of either the stop-signal or go/no-go task. Following training we measured implicit attitudes towards food (Study 1) and food consumption (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 1 we used a modified stop-signal training task with increased demands on top-down control (using a tracking procedure and feedback to maintain competition between the stop and go processes). With this task, we found no evidence for an effect of training on implicit attitudes or food consumption, with Bayesian inferential analyses revealing substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. In Study 2 we removed the feedback in the stop-signal training to increase the rate of successful inhibition and revealed a significant effect of both stop-signal and go/no-go training on food intake (compared to double-response and go training, respectively) with a greater difference in consumption in the go/no-go task, compared with the stop-signal task. However, results from an additional passive control group suggest that training effects could be partly caused by increased consumption in the go control group whereas evidence for reduced consumption in the inhibition groups was inconclusive. Our findings therefore support evidence that inhibition training tasks with higher rates of inhibition accuracy are more effective, but prompt caution for interpreting the efficacy of laboratory-based inhibition training as an intervention for behaviour change.

  6. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli intestinal

  7. Genetic Relatedness Among Escherichia coli Pathotypes Isolated from Food Products for Human Consumption in Cartagena, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Amézquita-Montes, Zorangel; Tamborski, Maria; Kopsombut, Usa G.; Zhang, Chengxian; Arzuza, Octavio S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of mild-to-severe gastrointestinal illnesses worldwide. Escherichia coli pathotypes have been known to cause gastrointestinal illnesses in children less than 5 years old in Colombia. However, insufficient information is available on the prevalence of E. coli contamination of food products and the kind of E. coli food product reservoirs. The two objectives of this study were designed to address this issue. The first objective was to ascertain coliform, E. coli, and pathogenic E. coli contamination of food products readily available for human consumption in Cartagena, Colombia. The second objective was to evaluate the relationship between pathogenic E. coli isolated from food products and those isolated from cases of diarrhea in children. Food product samples consisting of pasteurized milk, unpasteurized fruit juice, ground beef, cheese, and vegetables were obtained at four retail stores. The food samples were cultured in liquid media and tested for the presence of coliforms and E. coli. E. coli isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathotypes contamination were detected in 88.4%, 53%, and 2.1% of food product samples, respectively. Ground beef and cheese were the only food samples contaminated with E. coli intestinal pathotypes including enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin–producing (STEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Closed multilocus sequencing typing relationships between diarrheagenic E. coli isolates from food products and from individuals with diarrhea suggest that food products readily available at public markets in Cartagena can transmit ETEC and possibly EPEC and STEC. We demonstrated that a high proportion of food products for human consumption available at public markets in Cartagena are contaminated with coliforms, E. coli, and E. coli intestinal pathogens. Furthermore, food products containing E. coli

  8. Consumption of added sugars among US children and adults by food purchase location and food source123

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label by the US Food and Drug Administration will include information on added sugars for the first time. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the sources of added sugars in the diets of a representative sample of US children and adults by food purchase location and food source (eg, food group). Design: This cross-sectional study among 31,035 children, adolescents, and adults aged ≥6 y from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 NHANES used data from a 24-h dietary recall to evaluate consumption of added sugars. Food locations of origin were identified as stores (supermarket or grocery store), quick-service restaurants/pizza (QSRs), full-service restaurants (FSRs), schools, and others (eg, vending machines or gifts). Added sugars consumption by food purchase location was evaluated by age, family income-to-poverty ratio, and race-ethnicity. Food group sources of added sugars were identified by using the National Cancer Institute food categories. Results: Added sugars accounted for ∼14.1% of total dietary energy. Between 65% and 76% of added sugars came from stores, 6% and 12% from QSRs, and 4% and 6% from FSRs, depending on age. Older adults (aged ≥51 y) obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did younger adults. Lower-income adults obtained a significantly greater proportion of added sugars from stores than did higher-income adults. Intake of added sugars did not vary by family income among children/adolescents. Soda and energy and sports drinks were the largest food group sources of added sugars (34.4%), followed by grain desserts (12.7%), fruit drinks (8.0%), candy (6.7%), and dairy desserts (5.6%). Conclusions: Most added sugars came from foods obtained from stores. The proposed changes to the Nutrition Facts Label should capture the bulk of added sugars in the US food supply, which suggests that the recommended changes have the potential to

  9. Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15-19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fast food and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fast food causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fast food regularly, induced by the appeal of 'modern' lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fast food and its many adverse health consequences.

  10. The effect of varying protein levels on blood chemistry, food consumption, and behavior of captive seaducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Olsen, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is a primary wintering area for scoters and the long-tailed ducks (Clangia hyemalis) that migrate along the Atlantic Flyway. Recently, the Chesapeake Bay had undergone an ecosystem shift and little is known about how this is affecting the seaduck populations. We are determining what are the preferred food sources of the seaducks wintering on the Bay and analyzing the factors influencing prey selection whether it is prey composition, energy assimilated, prey availability, or a combination of any or all of these factors. We have established a captive colony of surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) as well as long-tailed ducks at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to allow us to examine these factors in a more controlled environment. This project contains a multitude of experiments and the resultant data will be compiled into a compartmental model on the feeding ecology of seaducks wintering on the Bay. The first experiment entailed feeding groups of each species (four ducks per pen of equal sex ratio, if possible, and four pens per species) three diets varying in percent protein levels from November to February. Each diet was randomly assigned to each pen and the amount of food consumed was recorded each day. New feed was given when all existing food was consumed. Behavioral trials and blood profiles were completed on all study birds to determine the effects of the varying diets. There were no significant differences in food consumption, blood chemistry, and behavior detected at the 5% level among the diets for all three species of interest. There was a seasonal effect determined based on the food consumption data for white-winged scoters, but not for surf scoters or long-tailed ducks. The blood profiles of the surf scoters were compared to blood profiles of wild surf scoters and a there was no difference detected at the 5% level. As a health check of the ducks an aspergillosis test was run on the blood obtained

  11. Effects of social interaction, physical environment and food choice freedom on consumption in a meal-testing environment.

    PubMed

    Weber, Annette J; King, Silvia C; Meiselman, Herbert L

    2004-02-01

    Consumption of pizza, salad and iced tea was assessed in four separate tests at a central location. Three aspects of context were added in successive tests-social interaction during consumption, the physical environment in which the food was consumed and choice among foods-so that the fourth test had all effects present. The proportion consumed averaged from 79 to 82% of the food presented and increased significantly in the presence of one or more of the context manipulations. Salad consumption was higher when there was a choice of dressings in an enhanced environment. Pizza and tea consumption were higher in an enhanced restaurant-like environment. Social interaction alone has no detectable impact on food consumption. It is concluded that people eat more in enhanced contexts and careful consideration should be given to the environment in studies of food consumption.

  12. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters.

  13. Infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via consumption of homemade baby food in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Won Chan; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-10-01

    Limited data are available on the residue levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in baby food. In this study, 24 PBDE congeners were determined in 147 homemade baby food samples collected from 97 households for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and from 24 to 27-month-old infant groups during the period of 2012-2013. The concentrations of total PBDEs (ΣPBDE) ranged from 24.5 to 6000 (mean: 263) pg/g fresh weight, higher than those found in commercial formulae from the United States. The predominant congeners were BDEs 209 and 47, accounting for 92% of the ΣPBDE concentrations, reflected by high deca-BDE consumption in Korea. The residue levels and detection rates of BDE 47 in the baby food samples showed a gradual increasing trend with an increase in infant ages, due to changes in the food ingredients from hypoallergenic to greasy. The daily intakes of BDEs 47 and 209 via baby food consumption ranged from 0.04 to 0.58, 0.80 to 20.3, and 1.06 to 22.3 ng/kg body weight/day for 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 24-27-month-old infant groups, respectively; these intakes were lower than the oral reference doses proposed by the US EPA. Together with three exposure sources, baby food, breast milk and dust ingestion for 6-month-old infants, the daily intake of ΣPBDE was 25.5 ng/kg body weight/day, which was similar to the intake via baby food consumption only for over 24-month-old infants in our study. This indicates that baby food is an important exposure pathway of PBDEs for over 24-month-old infants. This is the first study regarding the occurrence and exposure assessment of PBDEs via homemade baby food.

  14. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Conclusions: Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them. PMID:27095987

  15. Material flow analysis of phosphorus through food consumption in two megacities in northern China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Min; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-08-01

    The key stocks and flows of phosphorus (P) through food consumption in Beijing and Tianjin, two megacities in northern China, were explored using a material flow analysis (MFA) approach to construct a static model of P metabolism. A total of 4498 t P has accumulated with 72% of P flow imported through food consumption eventually remaining in Beijing in 2008. Around 64% of the total inflow of P (2670 t) remained in Tianjin in 2008. P in the uncollected sewage from both urban and rural residents and the effluents from sewage treatment plants has significant negative effects on water quality. An average of 55% the P flow remained in the sewage sludge through urban food consumption. The key problems in P metabolism and management in megacities are identified based on the quantitative analysis of P cycling through food consumption. Relevant solutions for improving P recycling efficiency are also discussed. It is important to link P flows with environmental regulations and to establish a strong coordination between urban and rural areas for nutrient recycling to attain sustainable development of megacities.

  16. Distance to food stores & adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: mediation effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical environments in which adolescents reside and their access to food stores may influence their consumption of fruit and vegetables. This association could either be direct or mediated via psychosocial variables or home availability of fruit and vegetables. A greater understanding of these...

  17. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  18. Perceptions of Factors Influencing Healthful Food Consumption Behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus Group Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…

  19. The Effects of School Lunch Participation, Socioeconomic and Psychological Variables on Food Consumption of School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, David W.; Price, Dorothy Z.

    Estimates were made of the effects of school lunch participation and various socioeconomic, anthropometric, and psychological variables on the consumption of 20 food items by 8- to 12-year-old children. The study sample consisted of 845 school children in the State of Washington, stratified by ethnic group and by poverty level so that it contained…

  20. Children's Sensitivity to External Food Cues: How Distance to Serving Bowl Influences Children's Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Young, Kathleen M.; Laurene, Kimberly; Galliger, Courtney; Hauser, Jessica; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Overweight is increasing in children, leading to negative health consequences. Children also lack appropriate levels of important vitamins and nutrients in their diets. Environmental cues, such as food proximity, have been shown to influence consumption rates in adults. The present study has tested whether proximity to either a nutrient-dense or…

  1. Association between dairy food consumption and risk of myocardial infarction in women differs by type of dairy food.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Emma; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    The relation between dairy foods, particularly specific foods, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. We examined the association between total, as well as specific, dairy food intakes and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in a prospective population-based cohort. We followed 33,636 women (aged 48-83 y), free from CVD, cancer, and diabetes at baseline (1997), in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Consumption of milk, cultured milk/yogurt, cheese, cream, crème fraiche, and butter was obtained from a validated self-administered FFQ at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs, adjusted for relevant CVD risk factors. MI incidence was ascertained from national registries. Over 11.6 y of follow-up, we ascertained 1392 cases of MI. When the highest quintile was compared with the lowest quintile, total dairy food intake was inversely associated with MI risk [multivariable adjusted HR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.95)]. Among specific dairy food products, total cheese was inversely associated [HR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.91)] and butter used on bread but not on cooking was positively associated [HR: 1.34 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.75)] with MI risk. Other specific dairy food products were not significantly associated with MI risk. No differences were observed between consumption of specific low-fat and high-fat dairy foods, expressed as either absolute intakes or intakes relative to the total, and MI risk. Failure to consider dairy foods as a heterogeneous group in future studies could hamper important insights of relevance for the development of dietary guidelines.

  2. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  3. Consumption habits and innovation potential of mung bean foods in Hisar District of Haryana State, India.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Pradeep K; Linnemann, Anita R; Nout, Martinus J R; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Khetarpaul, Neelam K; Grewal, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Consumption habits for mung bean foods were assessed by the free word association method and interview techniques. Four groups of closely related products and perceived quality were revealed. The largest group comprised sweets and snacks, which were associated with unhealthiness, expensiveness and sensory liking. Another group consisted of split dhals associated with convenience and healthiness. It appeared that under different circumstances food choices vary and are influenced more by socioeconomic restrictions then by consumer perception and preferences. Scenario analysis based on consumer perception, preferences, practices and nutritional value of products revealed dhals as the most promising food for innovation.

  4. Access to fast food and food prices: relationship with fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Auld, M Christopher; Chaloupka, Frank J; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2007-01-01

    We examine the extent to which food prices and restaurant outlet density are associated with adolescent fruit and vegetable consumption, body mass index (BMI), and the probability of overweight. We use repeated cross-sections of individual-level data on adolescents from the Monitoring the Future Surveys from 1997 to 2003 combined with fast food and fruit and vegetable prices obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and fast food and full-service restaurant outlet density measures obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. The results suggest that the price of a fast food meal is an important determinant of adolescents' body weight and eating habits: a 10% increase in the price of a fast food meal leads to a 3.0% increase in the probability of frequent fruit and vegetable consumption, a 0.4% decrease in BMI, and a 5.9% decrease in probability of overweight. The price of fruits and vegetables and restaurant outlet density are less important determinants, although these variables typically have the expected sign and are often statistically associated with our outcome measures. Despite these findings, changes in all observed economic and socio-demographic characteristics together only explain roughly one-quarter of the change in mean BMI and one-fifth of the change in overweight over the 1997-2003 sampling period.

  5. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-04-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control.

  6. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R2 around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.19, P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that behavioral intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P < 0.01) and perceived behavioral control (b = 0.56, P < 0.001). Attitude toward fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control. PMID:21556232

  7. Sugary beverage and food consumption, and leukocyte telomere length maintenance in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Leung, C W; Laraia, B A; Coleman-Phox, K; Bush, N R; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Adler, N E; Epel, E S

    2016-09-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been inversely associated with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in cross-sectional studies, but no studies have examined whether dietary intake influences LTL over time. This study examined longitudinal associations between sugary foods and beverages and LTL. Participants were 65 overweight and obese pregnant women, aged 18-45 years, from a mindfulness intervention study conducted from early pregnancy (⩽16 weeks gestation) and followed through 9 months postpartum. During pregnancy and postpartum, dietary intake was measured with 24-h diet recalls, and LTL was assessed using quantitative PCR. Adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics, decreased SSB consumption from baseline to 9 months postpartum was associated with greater concurrent LTL lengthening (β=-0.102, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.192, -0.013). No associations between sugary foods and LTL were found in either period. The finding that reduced SSB consumption is associated with increased LTL warrants investigation in large cohort studies.

  8. Appetizer administration stimulates food consumption, weight gain and leptin levels in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Wadikar, D D; Premavalli, K S

    2011-08-01

    Appetizers based on different spices/herbs are highly acceptable but evaluation of their functionality needs more attention. The present study, investigated the effects of appetizers on food consumption, weight gain, and leptin levels in male Wistar rats. Three appetizers, namely ginger beverage, ajowan beverage, and karpurvalli beverage were administered to groups of rats. The fasting leptin levels ranged from 0.75 to 2.5 ng/ml, while weights were in the range of 147-201 g. Decreased (3.4-10.8%) leptin levels following the consumption of appetizers indicated their appetizing effect, with a greater reduction (p<0.05) for ginger beverage and karpurvalli beverage. Weight gain after 10 days was 7.68% in the control group whereas it was 11.20 and 13.26% in rats fed with ginger and karpurvalli beverages, respectively. However, food consumption was higher in all the appetizer groups than in the controls.

  9. The Effect of Implicit Preferences on Food Consumption: Moderating Role of Ego Depletion and Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Jinglei; Hu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Guosen; Cui, Xianghua; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ego depletion has been found to moderate the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption, such that implicit preferences predict consumption only under a depleted state. The present study tested how trait impulsivity impacts the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption in a depleted condition. Trait impulsivity was measured by means of self-report and a stop signal task. Results showed that both self-reported impulsivity and behavioral impulsivity moderated the ‘depletion and then eating according to implicit preferences’ effect, albeit in different ways. Participants high in self-reported impulsivity and low in behavioral impulsivity were more vulnerable to the effect of depletion on eating. The implications of these results for extant theories are discussed. Future research is needed to verify whether or not trait impulsivity is associated with vulnerability to depletion across different self-control domains. PMID:27881966

  10. The Effect of Implicit Preferences on Food Consumption: Moderating Role of Ego Depletion and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Jinglei; Hu, Yi; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Guosen; Cui, Xianghua; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Ego depletion has been found to moderate the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption, such that implicit preferences predict consumption only under a depleted state. The present study tested how trait impulsivity impacts the effect of implicit preferences on food consumption in a depleted condition. Trait impulsivity was measured by means of self-report and a stop signal task. Results showed that both self-reported impulsivity and behavioral impulsivity moderated the 'depletion and then eating according to implicit preferences' effect, albeit in different ways. Participants high in self-reported impulsivity and low in behavioral impulsivity were more vulnerable to the effect of depletion on eating. The implications of these results for extant theories are discussed. Future research is needed to verify whether or not trait impulsivity is associated with vulnerability to depletion across different self-control domains.

  11. Increasing In-School Food Consumption of an Elementary Student with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Flanagan, Timothy F.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers conducted the present case study to address the immediate need of a student who consumed food at home and refused all food and liquids in her elementary school setting. In order to increase in-school food consumption, researchers developed a multicomponent treatment package that included antecedent adjustments (time and place food was…

  12. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, whi...

  13. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P.; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats ( Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  14. [Food consumption patterns of children 4 to 14 years old in Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    del Real, Sara Irene; Fajardo, Zuleida; Solano, Liseti; Concepción Páez, María; Sánchez, Armando

    2005-09-01

    Results from a nutritional assessment are presented to establish the usual food consumption pattern of 438 children between 4-14 years of age, from a low income urban community in Valencia, Venezuela. Food intake data were collected through multiple 24 hours recalls and converted to individual food item weight in grams. Amounts of energy, macronutrients, iron, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C were estimated to compare them to national references. The food pattern was established according to intake frequency per food item and per food groups. Arepa was the most commonly consumed food item, and a main source of kilocalories, protein, carbohydrates, iron, and vitamin A. Unlike coffee, fruits were not among the most commonly consumed foods. Black beans were the main source of protein. Cookies and sodas were among the major sources of energy. Energy and nutrient intake were adequate, except for calcium (67% in preschoolers y 43% in school-aged children). Preschoolers' diet showed a better adequacy for all nutrients (p < 0.005), except for iron which was significantly higher in school-aged children. Since children below 15 years old are still forming food behaviors and habits, they are an ideal group to develop nutritional education strategies to modify harmful patterns such as high intake of sodas, and low intakes of calcium rich foods.

  15. Fisheries productivity and its effects on the consumption of animal protein and food sharing of fishers' and non-fishers' families.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Mikaelle Kaline Bezerra; de Melo, Clarissy Dinyz; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana Macedo

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the consumption of animal protein and food sharing among fishers' and non-fishers' families of the northeastern Brazilian coast. The diet of these families was registered through the 24-hour-recall method during 10 consecutive days in January (good fishing season) and June (bad fishing season) 2012. Fish consumption was not different between the fishers' and non-fishers' families, but varied according to fisheries productivity to both groups. Likewise, food sharing was not different between the two groups, but food was shared more often when fisheries were productive. Local availability of fish, more than a direct dependency on fisheries, determines local patterns of animal protein consumption, but a direct dependency on fisheries exposes families to a lower-quality diet in less-productive seasons. As such, fisheries could shape and affect the livelihoods of coastal villages, including fishers' and non-fishers' families.

  16. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  17. Associations of reward sensitivity with food consumption, activity pattern, and BMI in children.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Annelies; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeken, Sandra; Braet, Caroline; Michels, Nathalie; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, the associations of reward sensitivity with weight related behaviors and body mass index were investigated in a general population sample of 443 Flemish children (50.3% boys) aged 5.5-12 years. Cross-sectional data on palatable food consumption frequency, screen time, physical activity, parental education level and measured length and weight were collected. The Drive subscale of the 'Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale' was used as a short method to measure reward sensitivity. A significant positive association of reward sensitivity with the fast food and sweet drink consumption frequency was found. Furthermore, a significant positive association of reward sensitivity with the z-score of body mass index was demonstrated, which explained additional variance to the variance explained by palatable food consumption frequency, screen time, physical activity and parental education level. Hence, the assessment of reward sensitivity may have an added value to the assessment of weight-related behavior indicators when evaluating the determinants of overweight in a child. In sum, children high in reward sensitivity might be more attracted to fast food and sweet drinks, and hence, might be more vulnerable to develop unfavorable food habits and overweight. These findings suggest that considering inter-individual differences in reward sensitivity is of importance in future childhood obesity prevention campaigns.

  18. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  19. 76 FR 41687 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... accordance with good manufacturing practice, as an emulsifier, film former, protective colloid, stabilizer..., protective colloid, stabilizer, suspending agent, or thickener in food, in accordance with good...

  20. Association between high consumption of phytochemical-rich foods and anthropometric measures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Carnauba, Renata A; Chaves, Daniela F S; Baptistella, Ana Beatriz; Paschoal, Valéria; Naves, Andreia; Buehler, Anna Maria

    2017-03-01

    Phytochemical-rich foods consumption may be a valid nutritional strategy to reduce the risk of weight gain and obesity. The phytochemical index (PI) is a simple and nonspecific method to evaluate the phytochemical intake, defined as the percentage of dietary calories derived from foods rich in phytochemicals. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to evaluate whether high consumption of phytochemical-rich foods evaluated by the PI is associated with lower values of anthropometric measurements. The available literature suggests that the PI seems to be inversely associated with body weight and waist circumference. Analyzing the longitudinal changes in anthropometric variables, individuals with high intake of phytochemicals gained less weight and fat mass when compared to those with lower PI. Our findings suggest that higher PI is associated with lower body mass index, waist circumference and adiposity. Whether the results are a reflex of a lower calorie intake or the anti-obesity properties of phytochemicals remains to be elucidated.

  1. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    PubMed

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity.

  2. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-07-01

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  3. Estimation of 1945 to 1957 food consumption. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Bates, D.J.; Marsh, T.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report details the methods used and the results of the study on the estimated historic levels of food consumption by individuals in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) study area from 1945--1957. This period includes the time of highest releases from Hanford and is the period for which data are being collected in the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study. These estimates provide the food-consumption inputs for the HEDR database of individual diets. This database will be an input file in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Code (HEDRIC) computer model that will be used to calculate the radiation dose. The report focuses on fresh milk, eggs, lettuce, and spinach. These foods were chosen because they have been found to be significant contributors to radiation dose based on the Technical Steering Panel dose decision level.

  4. Oxygen consumption in the foraging honeybee depends on the reward rate at the food source.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, L; Núñez, J A

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen consumption of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica was measured as a function of the flow rate supply of sucrose solution at an automatic feeder located inside a respirometric chamber. Trained bees freely entered the respirometric chamber and collected the sucrose solution supplied. The mean value of the O2 consumption rate per visit increased with the sucrose flow rate, and for a given flow rate, with increasing locomotor activity. However, when no locomotor activity was displayed, O2 consumption also increased with increasing nectar flow rate. Crop load attained at the end of the visit showed a positive relationship with the nectar flow rate; however, for a given flow rate, O2 consumption showed either no correlation or a negative one with the final crop load attained. It is concluded that the energy expenditure of the foraging bee is controlled by a motivational drive whose intensity depends on the reward rate at the food source.

  5. Mealtime behaviors associated with consumption of unfamiliar foods by young children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Odar Stough, Cathleen; Dreyer Gillette, Meredith L; Roberts, Michael C; Jorgensen, Terrence D; Patton, Susana R

    2015-12-01

    Parent and child mealtime behaviors associated with consumption of unfamiliar foods by children with ASD were examined. Families of 38 children aged 2 through 8 years old and diagnosed with ASD videotaped a typical home mealtime during which parents presented the child with an unfamiliar food and mealtime behaviors were subsequently coded through an observational coding system. The child taking sips of their drink was the only behavior related to whether the child took a bite of the unfamiliar food throughout the course of the meal. Parent direct commands and parents feeding the child were related to greater frequency of subsequent bites in a close temporal window, while child play, the child being away from the table, and child talk about things other than food related to lower frequencies of subsequent bites. Clinical interventions for food selectivity in children with ASD might provide parents education on effective mealtime parenting strategies and decreasing inappropriate child mealtime behaviors.

  6. The effect of consumption of foods that differ in energy density and/or sodium bicarbonate supplementation on subsequent diet selection in sheep.

    PubMed

    James, Sarah M; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2002-07-01

    The short-term consumption of foods that differed in energy density (ED) and/or NaHCO3 supplementation, on subsequent food intake and diet selection in sheep were measured. Thirty sheep weighing 35.9 (sd 2.89) kg were used. Two foods were formulated: H had 11 and L had 8 MJ metabolizable energy/kg fresh matter. Four further foods were formulated by adding either 40 g NaHCO3/kg or 16.5 g NaCl/kg to foods H and L. NaCl was added to give the same Na concentration as with 40 g NaHCO3/kg to control for any effects of Na per se. In a preliminary test, it was found that a 2 h consumption of food H supplemented with NaHCO3 could buffer potential impact on the rumen environment of subsequent consumption of food H alone (as judged by rumen pH and acid-buffering capacity); however, it was not as effective as the consumption of food L alone in doing so. Each food treatment was offered to one of six groups (n 5) for 2 h following 16 h of food deprivation. Sheep were then offered a choice between H and L for a further 6 h. Supplementing H or L with either NaHCO3 or NaCl had no significant effect on either intake or diet selection. ED significantly (P<0.01) affected intake during the 2 h single feeding period, with sheep offered H or L consuming 540 and 663 (sed 37) g respectively, but had no effect on subsequent intake during the choice period. During the choice period all sheep showed a preference for food H, but sheep previously offered L selected significantly more H (0.873 g/g) than sheep previously offered H (0.544 (sed 0.028) g/g; P<0.001). It is concluded that short-term consumption of foods that differ in ED, and hence in their potential impact on the rumen environment, significantly affects subsequent diet selection. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that ruminant animals select a diet to help maintain the rumen environment within a certain physiological range. Food H with 40 g NaHCO3 added/kg may not have been sufficient to affect subsequent diet selection. It

  7. Trends in technology, trade and consumption likely to impact on microbial food safety.

    PubMed

    Quested, T E; Cook, P E; Gorris, L G M; Cole, M B

    2010-05-30

    Current and potential future trends in technology, consumption and trade of food that may impact on food-borne disease are analysed and the key driving factors identified focusing on the European Union and, to a lesser extent, accounting for the United States and global issues. Understanding of factors is developed using system-based methods and their impact is discussed in relation to current events and predictions of future trends. These factors come from a wide range of spheres relevant to food and include political, economic, social, technological, regulatory and environmental drivers. The degree of certainty in assessing the impact of important driving factors is considered in relation to food-borne disease. The most important factors driving an increase in the burden of food-borne disease in the next few decades were found to be the anticipated doubling of the global demand for food and of the international trade in food next to a significantly increased consumption of certain high-value food commodities such as meat and poultry and fresh produce. A less important factor potentially increasing the food-borne disease burden would be the increased demand for convenience foods. Factors that may contribute to a reduction in the food-borne disease burden were identified as the ability of governments around the world to take effective regulatory measures as well as the development and use of new food safety technologies and detection methods. The most important factor in reducing the burden of food-borne disease was identified as our ability to first detect and investigate a food safety issue and then to develop effective control measures. Given the global scale of impact on food safety that current and potentially future trends have, either by potentially increasing or decreasing the food-borne disease burden, it is concluded that a key role is fulfilled by intergovernmental organisations and by international standard setting bodies in coordinating the

  8. Associations between the school food environment, student consumption and body mass index of Canadian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students’ dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N = 174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N = 11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hierarchical mixed-effect regression analyses examined the association between the school food environment and student’s intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), food consumption, and body mass index. Analyses controlled for school setting, neighborhood education level and student’s age and sex. Results School availability of SSBs was positively associated with moderate (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-1.30) and high (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.13-1.80) SSB intake as were less healthful school nutrition guidelines for moderate SSB consumers only (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.48-0.88). Availability of SSBs at school and its consumption were positively associated with student obesity (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.12-2.01 and OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.19-2.34, respectively) but not with overweight. In contrast, consumption of less healthful food was positively associated with overweight (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06). Conclusions The results of this study provide further evidence to support the important role of schools in shaping adolescents’ dietary habits. Availability and consumption of SSBs, but not less healthful foods, at school were associated with higher adolescent obesity highlighting that other environments also contribute to adolescent obesity. PMID:24666770

  9. Daytime sleepiness affects prefrontal regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Schwab, Zachary J; Weber, Mareen; Kipman, Maia; Deldonno, Sophie R; Weiner, Melissa R; Rauch, Scott L

    2013-05-01

    The recent epidemic of obesity corresponds closely with the decline in the average number of hours of sleep obtained nightly. While growing research suggests that sleep loss may affect hormonal and other physiological systems related to food intake, no studies have yet explored the role that sleepiness may play in reducing prefrontal inhibitory control over food intake. Because evidence suggests that women may be more prone to obesity and eating disorders, as well as more likely to suffer from sleep problems, we examined the relation between general daytime sleepiness, brain responses to food stimuli, and self-reported overeating separately for men and women. Thirty-eight healthy adults (16 women; 22 men) aged 18 to 45 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. Subjects completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and provided a rating to the query "how often do you eat more than you intend to." Contrast images comparing brain activation derived from the high- versus low-calorie conditions were correlated voxel-wise with scores from the ESS in a second-level regression model, the output of which was used to predict self-reported overeating. As hypothesized, daytime sleepiness correlated with reduced activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during perception of high- versus low-calorie food images. Moreover, activation within this cluster predicted overeating, but only for women. Findings suggest that normal fluctuations in sleepiness may be sufficient to affect brain regions important for regulating food intake, but that these effects may differ between men and women.

  10. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  11. The influence of oral processing, food perception and social aspects on food consumption: a review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L J; van der Bilt, A

    2016-08-01

    Eating is an essential activity to get energy and necessary nutrients for living. While chewing, the food is broken down by the teeth and dissolved by saliva. Taste, flavour and texture are perceived during chewing and will contribute to the appreciation of the food. The senses of taste and smell play an important role in selecting nutritive food instead of toxic substances. Also visual information of a food product is essential in the choice and the acceptance of food products, whereas auditory information obtained during the chewing of crispy products will provide information on whether a product is fresh or stale. Food perception does not just depend on one individual sense, but appears to be the result from multisensory integration of unimodal signals. Large differences in oral physiology parameters exist among individuals, which may lead to differences in food perception. Knowledge of the interplay between mastication and sensory experience for groups of individuals is important for the food industry to control quality and acceptability of their products. Environment factors during eating, like TV watching or electronic media use, may also play a role in food perception and the amount of food ingested. Distraction during eating a meal may lead to disregard about satiety and fullness feelings and thus to an increased risk of obesity. Genetic and social/cultural aspects seem to play an important role in taste sensitivity and food preference. Males generally show larger bite size, larger chewing power and a faster chewing rhythm than females. The size of swallowed particles seems to be larger for obese individuals, although there is no evidence until now of an 'obese chewing style'. Elderly people tend to have fewer teeth and consequently a less good masticatory performance, which may lead to lower intakes of raw food and dietary fibre. The influence of impaired mastication on food selection is still controversial, but it is likely that it may at least cause

  12. A Toy Story: Association between Young Children’s Knowledge of Fast Food Toy Premiums and their Fast Food Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Longacre, Meghan R.; Drake, Keith M.; Titus, Linda J.; Cleveland, Lauren P.; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    Fast food restaurants spend millions of dollars annually on child-targeted marketing, a substantial portion of which is allocated to toy premiums for kids’ meals. The objectives of this study were to describe fast food toy premiums, and examine whether young children’s knowledge of fast food toy premiums was associated with their fast food consumption. Parents of 3- to 5-year old children were recruited from pediatric and WIC clinics in Southern New Hampshire, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April 2013–March 2014. Parents reported whether their children usually knew what toys were being offered at fast food restaurants, and whether children had eaten at any of four restaurants that offer toy premiums with kids’ meals (McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s) during the 7 days preceding the survey. Seventy-one percent of eligible parents participated (N=583); 48.4% did not receive any education beyond high school, and 27.1% of children were non-white. Half (49.7%) the children had eaten at one or more of the four fast food restaurants in the past week; one-third (33.9%) had eaten at McDonald’s. The four restaurants released 49 unique toy premiums during the survey period; McDonald’s released half of these. Even after controlling for parent fast food consumption and sociodemographics, children were 1.38 (95% CI=1.04, 1.82) times more likely to have consumed McDonald’s if they usually knew what toys were offered by fast food restaurants. We did not detect a relationship between children’s toy knowledge and their intake of fast food from the other restaurants. In this community-based sample, young children’s knowledge of fast food toys was associated with a greater frequency of eating at McDonald’s, providing evidence in support of regulating child-directed marketing of unhealthy foods using toys. PMID:26471803

  13. Aligning food-processing policies to promote healthier fat consumption in India.

    PubMed

    Downs, Shauna M; Marie Thow, Anne; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-09-01

    India is undergoing a shift in consumption from traditional foods to processed foods high in sugar, salt and fat. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans-fat are often used in processed foods in India given their low cost and extended shelf life. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of PHVOs from the global food supply and recommends their replacement with polyunsaturated fat to maximize health benefits. This study examined barriers to replacing industrially produced trans-fat in the Indian food supply and systematically identified potential policy solutions to assist the government in encouraging its removal and replacement with healthier polyunsaturated fat. A combination of food supply chain analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was conducted. The main barriers faced by the food-processing sector in terms of reducing use of trans-fat and replacing it with healthier oils in India were the low availability and high cost of oils high in polyunsaturated fats leading to a reliance on palm oil (high in saturated fat) and the low use of those healthier oils in product reformulation. Improved integration between farmers and processors, investment in technology and pricing strategies to incentivize use of healthier oils for product reformulation were identified as policy options. Food processors have trouble accessing sufficient affordable healthy oils for product reformulation, but existing incentives aimed at supporting food processing could be tweaked to ensure a greater supply of healthy oils with the potential to improve population health.

  14. Aligning food-processing policies to promote healthier fat consumption in India

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Shauna M.; Marie Thow, Anne; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    India is undergoing a shift in consumption from traditional foods to processed foods high in sugar, salt and fat. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs) high in trans-fat are often used in processed foods in India given their low cost and extended shelf life. The World Health Organization has called for the elimination of PHVOs from the global food supply and recommends their replacement with polyunsaturated fat to maximize health benefits. This study examined barriers to replacing industrially produced trans-fat in the Indian food supply and systematically identified potential policy solutions to assist the government in encouraging its removal and replacement with healthier polyunsaturated fat. A combination of food supply chain analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders was conducted. The main barriers faced by the food-processing sector in terms of reducing use of trans-fat and replacing it with healthier oils in India were the low availability and high cost of oils high in polyunsaturated fats leading to a reliance on palm oil (high in saturated fat) and the low use of those healthier oils in product reformulation. Improved integration between farmers and processors, investment in technology and pricing strategies to incentivize use of healthier oils for product reformulation were identified as policy options. Food processors have trouble accessing sufficient affordable healthy oils for product reformulation, but existing incentives aimed at supporting food processing could be tweaked to ensure a greater supply of healthy oils with the potential to improve population health. PMID:24399031

  15. Impact of fasting on food craving, mood and consumption in bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Domínguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Fernández-Santaella, M Carmen; Ortega-Roldán, Blanca; Cepeda-Benito, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have found that dietary restraint increases food cravings and may contribute to loss of control over eating. Negative mood states often precede food cravings and binge eating. In the present study, we tested the influence of a prolonged food deprivation period over emotional states and food cravings. Twenty-one bulimia nervosa participants and 20 healthy women participants were asked to refrain from any eating for 20 hours and reported, at baseline, after 6 hours and at the end of the fasting period, their mood and craving states. Food consumption was also measured. Fasting increased food cravings in both groups but increased negative mood in healthy women only. Bulimia nervosa participants reported improved mood following food deprivation. Whereas Bulimia nervosa and healthy women participants ate moderate and similar amounts of food following the 20-hour fasting period, food cravings were significantly associated with the number of calories ingested. These findings are congruent with self-regulation theories that predict that prolonged fasting may reduce negative emotions in women with bulimia nervosa.

  16. Reported consumption of takeaway food and its contribution to socioeconomic inequalities in body mass index.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether takeaway food consumption mediated (explained) the association between socioeconomic position and body mass index (BMI). A postal-survey was conducted among 1500 randomly selected adults aged between 25 and 64years in Brisbane, Australia during 2009 (response rate 63.7%, N=903). BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height. Participants reported usual takeaway food consumption, and these takeaway items were categorised into "healthy" and "less healthy" choices. Socioeconomic position was ascertained by education, household income, and occupation. The mean BMI was 27.1kg/m(2) for men and 25.7kg/m(2) for women. Among men, none of the socioeconomic measures were associated with BMI. In contrast, women with diploma/vocational education (β=2.12) and high school only (β=2.60), and those who were white-collar (β=1.55) and blue-collar employees (β=2.83) had significantly greater BMI compared with their more advantaged counterparts. However, household income was not associated with BMI. Among women, the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway food mediated BMI differences between the least and most educated, and between those employed in blue collar occupations and their higher status counterparts. Decreasing the consumption of "less healthy" takeaway options may reduce socioeconomic inequalities in overweight and obesity among women but not men.

  17. Modifying the snack food consumption patterns of inner city high school students: the Great Sensations Study.

    PubMed

    Coates, T J; Barofsky, I; Saylor, K E; Simons-Morton, B; Huster, W; Sereghy, E; Straugh, S; Jacobs, H; Kidd, L

    1985-03-01

    The Great Sensations Program is a nutrition-education project developed for high school students. It was designed to (a) decrease students' consumption of salty snacks and (b) increase students' consumption of fresh fruit snacks. The overall programs were designed following principles of social learning: informative instruction, participatory classroom activities, personal goal setting, feedback, and reinforcement. The program was delivered in six lessons during regular health-education classes. A parental involvement program consisted of mailers and telephone calls to parents to teach them to encourage changes in student snacking habits. A schoolwide program was designed to provide out-of-class peer support for student modifications in salty snack foods. The program was evaluated in one high school using a 2 X 2 design. A second high school served as a no-treatment control. Program assessments were made at both schools before and after the classes, at the end of the school year, and the following fall the next school year following summer vacation. The schoolwide media program was effective in decreasing consumption of salty snack foods and in increasing consumption of target snack foods. However, only those students receiving classroom instruction maintained those changes until the end of the school year. No changes were maintained across summer vacation. These outcomes suggest that school programs developed using principles of social learning may be effective in facilitating important behavior changes at home and at school.

  18. Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption among Rural Western Australian Children?

    PubMed Central

    Godrich, Stephanie L.; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R.; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version 23). A total of 13.4% of children in this sample had adequate vegetable intake. FSD that met inclusion criteria (p ≤ 0.20) for multivariable regression analyses included price; promotion; quality; location of food outlets; variety of vegetable types; financial resources; and transport to outlets. After adjustment for potential demographic confounders, the FSD that predicted adequate vegetable consumption were, variety of vegetable types consumed (p = 0.007), promotion (p = 0.017), location of food outlets (p = 0.027), and price (p = 0.043). Food retail outlets should ensure that adequate varieties of vegetable types (i.e., fresh, frozen, tinned) are available, vegetable messages should be promoted through food retail outlets and in community settings, towns should include a range of vegetable purchasing options, increase their reliance on a local food supply and increase transport options to enable affordable vegetable purchasing. PMID:28054955

  19. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  20. Food supply versus household survey data: nutrient consumption trends for Spain, 1958-1988.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Banegas, J R; Graciani, A; Hernández-Vecino, R; del Rey-Calero, J

    1996-08-01

    Various methods of estimating food consumption, such as food balance sheets (FBS) and household surveys (HS), have been developed over the years and have been used to inform, monitor and evaluate nutrition policies. Because these methods vary in their objectives and data collection procedures, the objective of this study has been to elaborate FBS data for Spain and to study the consistency of fat, carbohydrate and protein intake trends, as measured by FBS and HS, for the period 1958 to 1988. Food balance sheets were elaborated by the authors according to the methodology of FAO using all available data sources for the 1958-1988 period. This data considered every major food item contributing to the total energy intake of the spanish population. Household survey data were taken from three similar national household budget surveys carried out on a representative sample of the Spanish population in 1958, 1964-1965, and 1980-1981. Estimates of food consumption were transformed into macronutrient intake by applying standard food tables. When macronutrient intake were expressed in absolute amounts, an unexpected finding was the tendency of the household surveys to overestimate food balance sheet data for fat, and to a lesser extent protein and carbohydrate, intake during the first years in the series. Also, the slopes of the trends of macronutrient intake were significantly (p < 0.05) greater for food balance sheets than for household survey data, specially for fat. When macronutrient intake were expressed as percent of total energy, differences between the two types of data tended to diminish and heterogeneity of slopes disappeared. We conclude that household survey and food supply data provide partially different information on macronutrient intake trends in the Spanish population for the period 1958-1988. The discrepancy is particularly noticeable for fat intake and when data are expressed in absolute amounts.

  1. Food consumption patterns of Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin.

    PubMed

    Llull, Rosa; Bibiloni, Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade, the immigrant population of the Balearic Islands archipelago (Spain), in the Mediterranean, has risen to 22% of its total population. The aim of this study was to assess food consumption patterns among Balearic Islands' adolescents depending on their origin. A population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008; n = 1,231; 12-17 years old). Dietary assessment was based on a 145-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Food consumption differences between the adolescents' point of origin and time of arrival were been studied, as well as average daily meals and snacks. The adolescents' origin and number of years living in the Balearic Islands were also assessed. Native adolescents and immigrants from other Mediterranean countries showed healthier food consumption patterns than their peers from non-Mediterranean countries. Immigrant adolescents adapted their eating patterns to native dietary patterns increasingly, the longer they lived in the Balearic Islands.

  2. Acculturation, physical activity, and fast-food consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Reynolds, Kim; Shakib, Sohaila; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Sun, Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated acculturation to the US as a risk factor for unhealthy behaviors among Hispanic and Asian-American adolescents, including substance use, violence, and unsafe sex. This study examined the association between acculturation and obesity-related behaviors-physical activity and fast-food consumption-among 619 Asian-American and 1385 Hispanic adolescents in Southern California. Respondents completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. The 6th grade survey assessed acculturation with the AHIMSA acculturation scale and a measure of English language usage. The 7th grade survey assessed frequency of moderate-to-intense physical activity and frequency of eating fast-food. Multiple regression analyses included acculturation and demographic covariates as predictors of physical activity and fast-food consumption. Acculturation to the US, assessed in 6th grade, was significantly associated with a lower frequency of physical activity participation and a higher frequency of fast-food consumption in 7th grade. The significant associations persisted after controlling for covariates and were consistent across gender and ethnic groups. Results suggest that acculturation to the US is a risk factor for obesity-related behaviors among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. Health promotion programs are needed to encourage physical activity and healthy diets among adolescents in acculturating families.

  3. Associations between children's television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: a household diary-survey study.

    PubMed

    Buijzen, Moniek; Schuurman, Joris; Bomhof, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In a diary-survey study in 234 households with children aged 4-12 years, we investigated the associations between children's exposure to food advertising and their consumption of (a) advertised food brands, (b) advertised energy-dense food product categories, and (c) food products overall. Relations were examined using multiple hierarchical regression analysis, while controlling for various child (i.e., age, sex, television viewing time) and family variables (i.e., family income and consumption-related communication styles). Results showed that children's exposure to food advertising was significantly related to their consumption of advertised brands (beta=.21) and energy-dense product categories (beta=.19). The relation between advertising exposure and overall food consumption only held in lower-income families (beta=.19). In addition, consumption-related family communication was an important moderator of the relations between advertising and the food consumption variables. Socio-oriented family communication (i.e., striving for harmony and conformity) was particularly successful in reducing these relations. In conclusion, consistent with communication theories predicting spill-over effects of advertising, the impact of television food advertising exceeded the advertised brand and generalized to more generic unhealthy consumption patterns. Theoretical and societal consequences, as well as the important role of the family are discussed.

  4. Modulation of food consumption and sleep–wake cycle in mice by the neutral CB1 antagonist ABD459

    PubMed Central

    Goonawardena, Anushka V.; Plano, Andrea; Robinson, Lianne; Ross, Ruth; Greig, Iain; Pertwee, Roger G.; Hampson, Robert E.; Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The brain endocannabinoid system is a potential target for the treatment of psychiatric and metabolic conditions. Here, a novel CB1 receptor antagonist (ABD459) was synthesized and assayed for pharmacological efficacy in vitro and for modulation of food consumption, vigilance staging and cortical electroencephalography in the mouse. ABD459 completely displaced the CB1 agonist CP99540 at a Ki of 8.6 nmol/l, and did not affect basal, but antagonized CP55940-induced GTPγS binding with a KB of 7.7 nmol/l. Acute ABD459 (3–20 mg/kg) reliably inhibited food consumption in nonfasted mice, without affecting motor activity. Active food seeking was reduced for 5–6 h postdrug, with no rebound after washout. Epidural recording of electroencephalogram confirmed that ABD459 (3 mg/kg) robustly reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, with no alterations of wakefulness or non-REM sleep. Effects were strongest during 3 h postdrug, followed by a progressive washout period. The CB1 antagonist AM251 (3mg/kg) and agonist WIN-55,212-2 (WIN-2: 3 mg/kg) also reduced REM, but variously affected other vigilance stages. WIN-2 caused a global suppression of normalized spectral power. AM251 and ABD459 lowered delta power and increased power in the theta band in the hippocampus, but not the prefrontal cortex. The neutral antagonist ABD459 thus showed a specific role of endocannabinoid release in attention and arousal, possibly through modulation of cholinergic activity. PMID:25356730

  5. Modulation of food consumption and sleep-wake cycle in mice by the neutral CB1 antagonist ABD459.

    PubMed

    Goonawardena, Anushka V; Plano, Andrea; Robinson, Lianne; Ross, Ruth; Greig, Iain; Pertwee, Roger G; Hampson, Robert E; Platt, Bettina; Riedel, Gernot

    2015-04-01

    The brain endocannabinoid system is a potential target for the treatment of psychiatric and metabolic conditions. Here, a novel CB1 receptor antagonist (ABD459) was synthesized and assayed for pharmacological efficacy in vitro and for modulation of food consumption, vigilance staging and cortical electroencephalography in the mouse. ABD459 completely displaced the CB1 agonist CP99540 at a Ki of 8.6 nmol/l, and did not affect basal, but antagonized CP55940-induced GTPγS binding with a KB of 7.7 nmol/l. Acute ABD459 (3-20 mg/kg) reliably inhibited food consumption in nonfasted mice, without affecting motor activity. Active food seeking was reduced for 5-6 h postdrug, with no rebound after washout. Epidural recording of electroencephalogram confirmed that ABD459 (3 mg/kg) robustly reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, with no alterations of wakefulness or non-REM sleep. Effects were strongest during 3 h postdrug, followed by a progressive washout period. The CB1 antagonist AM251 (3 mg/kg) and agonist WIN-55,212-2 (WIN-2: 3 mg/kg) also reduced REM, but variously affected other vigilance stages. WIN-2 caused a global suppression of normalized spectral power. AM251 and ABD459 lowered delta power and increased power in the theta band in the hippocampus, but not the prefrontal cortex. The neutral antagonist ABD459 thus showed a specific role of endocannabinoid release in attention and arousal, possibly through modulation of cholinergic activity.

  6. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158

  7. Mediterranean countries' food consumption and sourcing patterns:An Ecological Footprint viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessandro; Iha, Katsunori; Halle, Martin; El Bilali, Hamid; Grunewald, Nicole; Eaton, Derek; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; Bottalico, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Securing food for growing populations while minimizing environmental externalities is becoming a key topic in the current sustainability debate. This is particularly true in the Mediterranean region, which is characterized by scarce natural resources and increasing climate-related impacts. This paper focuses on the pressure Mediterranean people place on the Earth ecosystems because of their food consumption and sourcing patterns and then explores ways in which such pressure can be reduced. To do so, it uses an Ecological-Footprint-Extended Multi-Regional Input-Output (EF-MRIO) approach applied to 15 Mediterranean countries. Results indicate that food consumption is a substantial driver of the region's ecological deficit, whereby demand for renewable resources and ecosystems services outpaces the capacity of its ecosystems to provide them. Portugal, Malta and Greece are found to have the highest per capita food Footprints (1.50, 1.25 and 1.22 global hectares (gha), respectively), while Slovenia, Egypt and Israel have the lowest (0.63, 0.64 and 0.79gha, respectively). With the exception of France, all Mediterranean countries rely on the biocapacity of foreign countries to satisfy their residents' demand for food. By analyzing the effect of shifting to a calorie-adequate diet or changing dietary patterns, we finally point out that the region's Ecological Footprint - and therefore its ecological deficit - could be reduced by 8% to 10%.

  8. Food consumption and buying patterns of students from a Philippine university fastfood mall.

    PubMed

    Patricia, M; Azanza, V

    2001-11-01

    A consumer survey was conducted in a university fastfood mall to determine the food consumption and buying patterns of Philippine university students. The survey established that a typical fastfood consumer in the test university foodmall is female between 16 and 22 years old, with a purchasing capability of < or = US$1.79 for a complete meal, and who generally frequents the mall only once a day during weekdays. Wholesomeness, affordability and variety of the foods were the general basis for satisfaction of the typical student consumer.

  9. Proximity of foods in a competitive food environment influences consumption of a low calorie and a high calorie food.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Zuraikat, Faris M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences food intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity of popcorn and apple slices was manipulated and 56 participants were randomly assigned to groups. In Group Apples Near, apple slices were placed near (within arms reach) a participant and popcorn was placed far (2m away). In Group Popcorn Near, buttered popcorn was placed near and apple slices were placed far. As a control for the absence of a proximity manipulation, Group Both Near had both test foods placed near. Although participants rated the popcorn as more liked than apples, the food that was placed closer to the participant was consumed most in the two experimental groups, regardless of preference (R(2)=0.38). Total energy intake was reduced most when popcorn was placed far from a participant compared to when it was placed near (R(2)=0.24). The effects reported here were not moderated by BMI and did not vary by sex. In all, the results support the hypothesis that making a low calorie food more proximate will reduce total energy intake and increase intake of a low calorie food, even when a higher calorie and more preferred food is also available, but less proximate.

  10. Parental attachment insecurity predicts child and adult high-caloric food consumption.

    PubMed

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette

    2015-05-01

    Eating habits are established early and are difficult to change once formed. This study investigated the role of caregiver-child attachment quality and its associations with high-caloric food consumption in a sample of middle socio-economic status children and adults, respectively. Survey data were collected from an online questionnaire administered separately to 213 (143 girls) children and 216 parents (adult sample; 180 women). Two studies showed that an insecure parental attachment, whether actual (Study 1; children) or recalled (Study 2; adults), significantly and positively predicted high-caloric food consumption in both samples. The present findings highlight the importance of parental attachment and its association with unhealthy eating patterns in children and adults.

  11. Influence of body position, food and beverage consumption on BIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, G.; Eitner, F.; Ismail, A. H.; Pikkemaat, R.; Cordes, A.; Floege, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2010-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of fluid changes using bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) during hemodialysis could help to predict hypotensive complications and extend the patient's life. Food and beverage consumption during the treatment may influence the measurements and the calculated fluid removal. In the present article the change observed in whole body and segmental (knee-to-knee, abdomen) BIS measurements following a sequence similar to the one of dialysis treatment (lying down, sitting and eating, lying down) on healthy subjects is presented. The measurements have been performed using a commercial bioimpedance device with a frequency range of 5 kHz to 1 MHz. Knee-to-knee measurements seem to be less sensitive to these influences, compared to the standard whole body and the alternative abdomen BIS measurements. The results indicate that the individual influence of both body posture and food and beverage consumption may be superposed when combined.

  12. The relationship between emotions and food consumption (macronutrient) in a foodservice college setting - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Heather J; Edwards, John S A; Brown, Lorraine

    2013-05-01

    Many aspects of eating out have been studied, yet emotions remain an under-researched area, despite having been shown to play a significant role in food consumption. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the relationship between emotions and food consumption (macronutrient) in a realistic eating environment, a college cafeteria. Subjects (n = 408), diners using a cafeteria, completed an emotions questionnaire before and after freely choosing, paying for and consuming a hot main meal. The results demonstrated a greater feeling of contentment with a high fat, high energy meal, whereas with a low carbohydrate meal, participants felt unfulfilled. In addition, a high protein meal also leads to a feeling of contentment. These results are rather counter-intuitive to public health nutrition policy but indicate the importance of inclusion of a protein or high carbohydrate item in any dish design in a foodservice setting.

  13. Ontogenetic Variation in Food Consumption of Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in a Central New York Stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined feeding periodicity of three size groups of the rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) at four-hour intervals over a 28-hour period during July in a headwater stream of the Susquehanna River drainage in central New York. Feeding activity was expressed as the ratio of stomach weight divided by the crayfish wet weight. The diel food consumption patterns of all three size groups of rusty crayfish (i.e., ≤ 10 mm, 11–20 mm, and > 20 mm carapace length) were significantly different. Peak feeding of the smallest crayfish occurred during crepuscular periods. Food consumption of the intermediate size crayfish was highest at 2000 h, and feeding of large crayfish was consistently high from 1200 h to 0400 h. Feeding intensity of both small and intermediate size crayfish was highest when feeding intensity of large crayfsh was lowest. Ontogenetic differences in feeding periodicity may be associated with predation pressure from large rusty crayfish on smaller individuals.

  14. Ontogenetic variation in food consumption of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in a central New York stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Nack, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined feeding periodicity of three size groups of the rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) at four-hour intervals over a 28-hour period during July in a headwater stream of the Susquehanna River drainage in central New York. Feeding activity was expressed as the ratio of stomach weight divided by the crayfish wet weight. The diel food consumption patterns of all three size groups of rusty crayfish (i.e., ??? 10 mm, 11-20 mm, and > 20 mm carapace length) were significantly different. Peak feeding of the smallest crayfish occurred during crepuscular periods. Food consumption of the intermediate size crayfish was highest at 2000 h, and feeding of large crayfish was consistently high from 1200 h to 0400 h. Feeding intensity of both small and intermediate size crayfish was highest when feeding intensity of large crayfsh was lowest. Ontogenetic differences in feeding periodicity may be associated with predation pressure from large rusty crayfish on smaller individuals.

  15. Age-related increase in food spilling by laboratory mice may lead to significant overestimation of actual food consumption: implications for studies on dietary restriction, metabolism, and dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals.

  16. Are we indeed what we eat? Street food consumption in the Market Circle area of Takoradi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hiamey, Stephen Edem; Amuquandoh, Francis Eric; Boison, Grace Aba

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines street foods consumption in the Market Circle of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. The data used for the study were obtained from individuals who were either purchasing or consuming street foods in the Market Circle in August of 2011. The results revealed that the average consumer makes use of street foods six times in a week and there was a penchant for carbohydrate based foods over other types of street foods. Reasons including cost saving, convenience and eating on credit were noted to underlie the consumption of street foods in the area. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the high consumption of street foods in the Market Circle was for reasons other than nutrition and health.

  17. Associations between food consumption patterns and saliva composition: Specificities of eating difficulties children.

    PubMed

    Morzel, Martine; Truntzer, Caroline; Neyraud, Eric; Brignot, Hélène; Ducoroy, Patrick; Lucchi, Géraldine; Canlet, Cécile; Gaillard, Ségolène; Nicod, Florian; Nicklaus, Sophie; Peretti, Noël; Feron, Gilles

    2017-05-01

    Identifying objective markers of diet would be beneficial to research fields such as nutritional epidemiology. As a preliminary study on the validity of using saliva for this purpose, and in order to explore the relationship between saliva and diet, we focused on clearly contrasted groups of children: children with eating difficulties (ED) receiving at least 50% of their energy intake through artificial nutrition vs healthy controls (C). Saliva of ED and C children was analyzed by various methods (targeted biochemical analyses, 2-D electrophoresis coupled to MS, (1)H NMR) and their diet was characterized using food frequency questionnaires, considering 148 food items grouped into 13 categories. Complete datasets were obtained for 16 ED and 16 C subjects (median age 4.7y and 5.0y, respectively) and the statistical link between salivary and dietary characteristics was studied by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Overall, ED children showed as expected lower consumption frequency scores and higher food selectivity. The two groups of children differed in "diet/saliva" associations. Some distinctive salivary variables were common to both groups of children. For example, carbonic anhydrase 6 and the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets and drinks were positively associated with the MFA axis 1 in C children, but oppositely associated in ED children. Specifically for ED children, abundant salivary proteins (cystatins, amylase, amylase fragments) and some metabolites (amino acids, galactose, lactate) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of sauces & seasonings, bread & cereal products, ready-to-eat meals, fish, biscuits & sweets, drinks and potatoes. Specifically for C children, several proteins (serum albumin, haptoglobin, Igκ, apolipoprotein A-1, α-1 antitrypsin) correlated with axis 1, together with the consumption frequency of biscuits & sweets, milk & dairy products, drinks, fruit, meat and vegetables. This study demonstrates that the

  18. Phytonutrient intakes in relation to European fruit and vegetable consumption patterns observed in different food surveys.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R; Davidson, Julia; Day, Andrea J

    2014-10-14

    Fruit and vegetables make an important contribution to health, partly due to the composition of phytonutrients, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intake of fruit and vegetables across different European countries using food consumption data of increasing complexity: food balance sheets (FBS); the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive Database; individual food consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). Across Europe, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables ranged from 192 to 824 g/d (FBS data). Based on EFSA data, nine out of fourteen countries consumed < 400 g/d (recommended by the WHO), although even in the highest-consuming countries such as Spain, 36 % did not reach the target intake. In the UK, the average consumption of fruit and vegetables was 310 g/d (NDNS data). Generally, phytonutrient intake increased in accordance with fruit and vegetable intake across all European countries with the exception of lycopene (from tomatoes), which appeared to be higher in some countries that consumed less fruit and vegetables. There were little differences in the average intake of flavanols, flavonols and lycopene in those who did or did not meet the 400 g/d recommendation in the UK. However, average intakes of carotenoid, flavanone, anthocyanidin and ellagic acid were higher in those who consumed >400 g/d of fruit and vegetables compared with those who did not. Overall, intakes of phytonutrients are highly variable, suggesting that while some individuals obtain healthful amounts, there may be others who do not gain all the potential benefits associated with phytonutrients in the diet.

  19. Positive affective states and alcohol consumption: The moderating role of trait positive urgency.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Linda; Cooper, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Trait positive urgency is characterised by risky and maladaptive actions in response to extreme positive affective states. Positive urgency has previously been shown to be a risk factor for alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems; however, there has been limited experimental research examining how positive urgency may moderate relations between affective states and alcohol consumption. In the current study, a sample of 106 participants completed a trait measure of positive urgency and were then randomly assigned to one of three mood induction conditions: a high-activation positive, a low-activation positive or a neutral mood condition. Subsequently, participants took part in a bogus beer taste test, where their alcohol consumption was subsequently measured. The results revealed that positive urgency significantly predicted increased beer consumption, but only for those participants in the high-activation positive mood induction group. The findings from this study provide support for positive urgency as a risk factor for alcohol use and suggest that it may be of particular relevance in social situations where individuals experience highly activated positive affective states.

  20. Unconscious affective reactions to masked happy versus angry faces influence consumption behavior and judgments of value.

    PubMed

    Winkielman, Piotr; Berridge, Kent C; Wilbarger, Julia L

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored three properties of basic, unconsciously triggered affective reactions: They can influence consequential behavior, they work without eliciting conscious feelings, and they interact with motivation. The authors investigated these properties by testing the influence of subliminally presented happy versus angry faces on pouring and consumption of beverage (Study 1), perception of beverage value (Study 2), and reports of conscious feelings (both studies). Consistent with incentive motivation theory, the impact of affective primes on beverage value and consumption was strongest for thirsty participants. Subliminal smiles caused thirsty participants to pour and consume more beverage (Study 1) and increased their willingness to pay and their wanting more beverage (Study 2). Subliminal frowns had the opposite effect. No feeling changes were observed, even in thirsty participants. The results suggest that basic affective reactions can be unconscious and interact with incentive motivation to influence assessment of value and behavior toward valenced objects.

  1. Barriers to and Facilitators of the Consumption of Animal-Based Protein-Rich Foods in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein intakes in the older population can be lower than recommended for good health, and while reasons for low protein intakes can be provided, little work has attempted to investigate these reasons in relation to actual intakes, and so identify those of likely greatest impact when designing interventions. Questionnaires assessing: usual consumption of meat, fish, eggs and dairy products; agreement/disagreement with reasons for the consumption/non-consumption of these foods; and several demographic and lifestyle characteristics; were sent to 1000 UK community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and over. In total, 351 returned questionnaires, representative of the UK older population for gender and age, were suitable for analysis. Different factors were important for consumption of the four food groups, but similarities were also found. These similarities likely reflect issues of particular concern to both the consumption of animal-based protein-rich foods and the consumption of these foods by older adults. Taken together, these findings suggest intakes to be explained by, and thus that strategies for increasing consumption should focus on: increasing liking/tastiness; improving convenience and the effort required for food preparation and consumption; minimizing spoilage and wastage; and improving perceptions of affordability or value for money; freshness; and the healthiness of protein-rich foods. PMID:27043615

  2. US adolescents and MyPyramid: Associations between fast-food consumption and lower likelihood of meeting recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goals of this study were to determine the effect of fast food consumption on adolescents’ food group intakes and likelihood of meeting recommendations outlined in USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System. Two days of 24-hour recall data from 1,956 adolescents 12-19 years of age collected in What W...

  3. Production and supply of high-quality food protein for human consumption: sustainability, challenges, and innovations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Fanzo, Jessica; Miller, Dennis D; Pingali, Prabhu; Post, Mark; Steiner, Jean L; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 843 million people worldwide are hungry and a greater number suffer from nutrient deficiencies. Approximately one billion people have inadequate protein intake. The challenge of preventing hunger and malnutrition will become even greater as the global population grows from the current 7.2 billion people to 9.6 billion by 2050. With increases in income, population, and demand for more nutrient-dense foods, global meat production is projected to increase by 206 million tons per year during the next 35 years. These changes in population and dietary practices have led to a tremendous rise in the demand for food protein, especially animal-source protein. Consuming the required amounts of protein is fundamental to human growth and health. Protein needs can be met through intakes of animal and plant-source foods. Increased consumption of food proteins is associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions and overutilization of water. Consequently, concerns exist regarding impacts of agricultural production, processing and distribution of food protein on the environment, ecosystem, and sustainability. To address these challenging issues, the New York Academy of Sciences organized the conference "Frontiers in Agricultural Sustainability: Studying the Protein Supply Chain to Improve Dietary Quality" to explore sustainable innovations in food science and programming aimed at producing the required quality and quantity of protein through improved supply chains worldwide. This report provides an extensive discussion of these issues and summaries of the presentations from the conference.

  4. Trends in U.S. consumers' safe handling and consumption of food and their risk perceptions, 1988 through 2010.

    PubMed

    Fein, Sara B; Lando, Amy M; Levy, Alan S; Teisl, Mario F; Noblet, Caroline

    2011-09-01

    Although survey results measuring the safety of consumers' food handling and risky food consumption practices have been published for over 20 years, evaluation of trends is impossible because the designs of published studies are not comparable. The Food Safety Surveys used comparable methods to interview U.S. adults by telephone in 1988, 1993, 2001, 2006, and 2010 about food handling (i.e., cross-contamination prevention) and risky consumption practices (eating raw or undercooked foods from animals) and perceived risk from foodborne illness. Sample sizes ranged from 1,620 to 4,547. Responses were analyzed descriptively, and four indices measuring meat, chicken, and egg cross-contamination, fish cross-contamination, risky consumption, and risk perceptions were analyzed using generalized linear models. The extent of media coverage of food safety issues was also examined. We found a substantial improvement in food handling and consumption practices and an increase in perceived risk from foodborne illness between 1993 and 1998. All indices were stable or declined between 1998 and 2006. Between 2006 and 2010, the two safe food handling practice indices increased significantly, but risk perceptions did not change, and safe consumption declined. Women had safer food handling and consumption practices than men. The oldest and youngest respondents and those with the highest education had the least safe food handling behaviors. Changes in safety of practices over the survey years are consistent with the change in the number of media stories about food safety in the periods between surveys. This finding suggests that increased media attention to food safety issues may raise awareness of food safety hazards and increase vigilance in food handling by consumers.

  5. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    PubMed

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  6. Effects of melatonin on biochemical factors and food and water consumption in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Bibak, Bahram; Khalili, Monavareh; Rajaei, Ziba; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Hayatdavoudi, Parichehr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetic neuropathy is one of the serious problems due to microvessel vasculopathy in diabetes. It has been reported that hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia are the underlying mechanisms in inducing and progression of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on serum glucose and lipid levels, as well as food consumption and water intake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups including; normal control group, diabetic control group and 4 diabetic experimental groups that received melatonin intraperitoneally at doses of 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg at the end of sixth week after verification of neuropathy by means of evaluation of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), for two weeks. Blood glucose and lipid levels, body weight, the amounts of food consumption, and water intake were determined in all groups at weeks 0 (before diabetes induction), 3, 6, and at the end of eighth week. Results: Treatment with melatonin reduced significantly the serum glucose (P < 0.001) and triglyceride (P < 0.05) levels, food consumption (P < 0.001), and water intake (P < 0.001) in diabetic rats at the end of eighth week. However, melatonin had no significant effect on body weight of diabetic animals. Conclusions: Treatment with melatonin could improve several signs of diabetes, including hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, polyphagia, and polydipsia. Therefore, melatonin may be used as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25250287

  7. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p < 0.05). Price (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p < 0.05) for all groups. Conclusions Consumption of discretionary calories is high regardless of body weight or weight loss intention. Practice Implications Promoting reduced SSB and snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  8. 76 FR 16285 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Bacteriophage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... following factors: Inactivation of LLO by cholesterol that is present in RTE meat and poultry products... Acid and Cholesterol FWW contends that FDA relies on conjecture in concluding that foods treated with a... any residual LLO will be inactivated by factors such as cholesterol in the meat or poultry,...

  9. Nitrogen food-print: N use related to meat and dairy consumption in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzimpiros, P.; Barles, S.

    2013-01-01

    Human foods typically contain a minor fraction of the nitrogen (N) used in agricultural production. The major fraction is lost to the environment and interferes with all current environmental problems and global change issues. Food is also generally consumed far from its production location and associated N losses remain unknown unless connected to products through consumption-based indicators. We develop the N food-print as an indicator to connect N flows and losses in livestock systems to the consumption of dietary N in the form of beef, pork and fresh milk in France. This N food-print of a product is the N loss associated with its agricultural production. The conversions of N, from field application to recovery in vegetal and animal proteins, are calculated from statistical data on crop and animal production and through modelling of feed rations for cattle and swine. Beef farming to feed an individual in France uses 11.1 kg N cap-1 yr-1, out of which 3.8 kg N cap-1 yr-1 (or 35%) is the N food-print, 7% is recovered in retail products, 3% is slaughter waste and 55% returns to agriculture as manure. Pork and dairy production use 7.5 and 2.3 kg N cap-1 yr-1, respectively, out of which 53 and 48% is the N food-print, respectively; about 11% is recovered in retail products and 35% returns to agriculture as manure. In total, more than 75% of the N food-print relates to crop cultivation for feed and much of these losses (80% for dairy and pork production, 20% for beef production) occur in crop farms far from where the livestock is reared. Regional and national policies to reduce N losses should take into account that trade in feed implies causal relationships among N losses in agrosystems distant from each other.

  10. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  11. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  12. Associations Between Fast-Food Consumption and Body Mass Index: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adult Twins.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Lau, Richard; Moudon, Anne V; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a substantial health problem in the United States, and is associated with many chronic diseases. Previous studies have linked poor dietary habits to obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the association between body mass index (BMI) and fast-food consumption among 669 same-sex adult twin pairs residing in the Puget Sound region around Seattle, Washington. We calculated twin-pair correlations for BMI and fast-food consumption. We next regressed BMI on fast-food consumption using generalized estimating equations (GEE), and finally estimated the within-pair difference in BMI associated with a difference in fast-food consumption, which controls for all potential genetic and environment characteristics shared between twins within a pair. Twin-pair correlations for fast-food consumption were similar for identical (monozygotic; MZ) and fraternal (dizygotic; DZ) twins, but were substantially higher in MZ than DZ twins for BMI. In the unadjusted GEE model, greater fast-food consumption was associated with larger BMI. For twin pairs overall, and for MZ twins, there was no association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI in any model. In contrast, there was a significant association between within-pair differences in fast-food consumption and BMI among DZ twins, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in the observed association. Thus, although variance in fast-food consumption itself is largely driven by environmental factors, the overall association between this specific eating behavior and BMI is largely due to genetic factors.

  13. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution

    PubMed Central

    Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  14. Food consumption and food exchange of caged honey bees using a radioactive labelled sugar solution.

    PubMed

    Brodschneider, Robert; Libor, Anika; Kupelwieser, Vera; Crailsheim, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of sugar solution within groups of caged honey bees (Apis mellifera) under standard in vitro laboratory conditions using 14C polyethylene glycol as a radioactive marker to analyze ingestion by individual bees after group feeding. We studied the impact of different experimental setups by varying the number of bees, age of bees, origin of bees, duration of experiment, the amount of available diet, and the influence of the neurotoxic pesticide imidacloprid in the diet on the feeding and food sharing behavior (trophallaxis). Sugar solution was non-uniformly distributed in bees in 36 out of 135 cages. As a measure of the extent to which the sugar diet was equally distributed between caged bees, we calculated the (inner 80%) intake ratio by dividing the intake of the 90th percentile bee by the intake of the 10th percentile bee. This intake ratio ranged from 1.3 to 94.8 in 133 individual cages, further supporting a non-uniform distribution of food among caged bees. We can expect a cage with 10 or 30 bees containing one bee that ingests, on average, the 8.8-fold of the bee in the same cage ingesting the smallest quantity of food. Inner 80% intake ratios were lower in experiments with a permanent or chronic offering of labelled sugar solution compared to temporary or acute feedings. After pooling the data of replicates to achieve a higher statistical power we compared different experimental setups. We found that uniform food distribution is best approached with 10 newly emerged bees per cage, which originate from a brood comb from a single colony. We also investigated the trophallaxis between caged honey bees which originally consumed the diet and newly added bees. Color marked bees were starved and added to the cages in a ratio of 10:5 or 20:20 after the initial set of bees consumed all the labelled sugar solution. The distribution of the labelled sugar solution by trophallaxis within 48 hours to added bees was 25% (10:5) or 45% (20:20) of the

  15. Shift Work in Rats Results in Increased Inflammatory Response after Lipopolysaccharide Administration: A Role for Food Consumption.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Vargas, Natalí N; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Fuentes, Rebeca; García, Joselyn; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Basualdo, María del Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Markus, Regina P; Buijs, Ruud M

    2015-08-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives circadian rhythms in behavioral and physiological variables, including the inflammatory response. Shift work is known to disturb circadian rhythms and is associated with increased susceptibility to develop disease. In rodents, circadian disruption due to shifted light schedules (jet lag) induced increased innate immune responses. To gain more insight into the influence of circadian disruption on the immune response, we characterized the inflammatory response in a model of rodent shift work and demonstrated that circadian disruption affected the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. Since food consumption is a main disturbing element in the shift work schedule, we also evaluated the inflammatory response to LPS in a group of rats that had no access to food during their working hours. Our results demonstrated that the shift work schedule decreased basal TNF-α levels in the liver but not in the circulation. Despite this, we observed that shift work induced increased cytokine response after LPS stimulation in comparison to control rats. Also, Kupffer cells (liver macrophages) isolated from shift work rats produced more TNF-α in response to in vitro LPS stimulation, suggesting important effects of circadian desynchronization on the functionality of this cell type. Importantly, the effects of shift work on the inflammatory response to LPS were prevented when food was not available during the working schedule. Together, these results show that dissociating behavior and food intake from the synchronizing drive of the SCN severely disturbs the immune response.

  16. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  17. Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption?--A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Tim; Russell, Jean; Campbell, Michael J; Barker, Margo E

    2005-10-01

    Lack of access to affordable healthy foods has been suggested to be a contributory factor to poor diet. This study investigated associations between diet and access to supermarkets, transport, fruit and vegetable price and deprivation, in a region divergent in geography and socio-economic indices. A postal survey of 1000 addresses (response rate 42%) gathered information on family demographics, supermarket and shop use, car ownership, mobility and previous day's fruit and vegetable intake. Postcode information was used to derive road travel distance to nearest supermarket and deprivation index. Fruit and vegetable prices were assessed using a shopping basket survey. Generalised linear regression models were used to ascertain predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Male grocery shoppers ate less fruit than female grocery shoppers. Consumption of vegetables increased slightly with age. Deprivation, supermarket fruit and vegetable price, distance to nearest supermarket and potential difficulties with grocery shopping were not significantly associated with either fruit or vegetable consumption. These data suggest that the three key elements of a food desert, fruit and vegetable price, socio-economic deprivation and a lack of locally available supermarkets, were not factors influencing fruit or vegetable intake. We suggest that food policies aimed at improving diet should be orientated towards changing socio-cultural attitudes towards food.

  18. Inviting consumers to downsize fast-food portions significantly reduces calorie consumption.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Janet; Riis, Jason; Elbel, Brian; Ariely, Dan

    2012-02-01

    Policies that mandate calorie labeling in fast-food and chain restaurants have had little or no observable impact on calorie consumption to date. In three field experiments, we tested an alternative approach: activating consumers' self-control by having servers ask customers if they wanted to downsize portions of three starchy side dishes at a Chinese fast-food restaurant. We consistently found that 14-33 percent of customers accepted the downsizing offer, and they did so whether or not they were given a nominal twenty-five-cent discount. Overall, those who accepted smaller portions did not compensate by ordering more calories in their entrées, and the total calories served to them were, on average, reduced by more than 200. We also found that accepting the downsizing offer did not change the amount of uneaten food left at the end of the meal, so the calorie savings during purchasing translated into calorie savings during consumption. Labeling the calorie content of food during one of the experiments had no measurable impact on ordering behavior. If anything, the downsizing offer was less effective in changing customers' ordering patterns with the calorie labeling present. These findings highlight the potential importance of portion-control interventions that specifically activate consumers' self-control.

  19. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-08-13

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques.

  20. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques. PMID:26287234

  1. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  2. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  3. Historical overview of diet assessment and food consumption surveys in Spain: assessment methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; López-Pardo Martínez, Mercedes; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The food consumption assessment methods are used in nutrition and health population surveys and are the basis for the development of guidelines, nutritional recommendations and health plans, The study of these issues is one of the major tasks of the research and health policy in developed countries. Major advances nationally in this area have been made since 1940, both in the reliability of the data and in the standardization of studies, which is a necessary condition to compare changes over time. In this article the history and application of different dietary surveys, dietary history and food frequency records are analyzed. Besides information from surveys conducted at a national level, the main data currently available for public health planning in nutrition comes from nutritional analysis of household budget surveys and food balance sheets, based on data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  4. Consumption of palatable food decreases the anorectic effects of serotonergic, but not dopaminergic drugs in baboons.

    PubMed

    Foltin, Richard W

    2011-07-06

    We examined the effects of periodic access to a palatable, high sugar content food (candy) in 8 male baboons on the anorectic response to d-amphetamine, which increases dopamine, and dexfenfluramine, which increases serotonin. During candy access, up to 200 candies containing 75% of energy as sugar were available during the morning on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; food pellets (19% of energy as sugar) were available in the afternoon and throughout the remaining days of the week. During candy access, baboons consumed a mean of 177 pieces of candy containing 696 kcal (2.91 MJ) in the morning compared to 44 food pellets and 150 kcal (0.63 MJ) in the morning on non-candy days. Food pellet intake was lower during candy access. Complete dose-response functions for the effects of the drugs on food pellet intake on days that candy was not available were determined before, during, and after the period of access to candy. Dexfenfluramine and amphetamine produced dose-dependent decreases in food pellet intake and increases in latency to eat food pellets before, during, and after candy access. During access to candy, the dose-response function for dexfenfluramine was shifted to the right indicating the development of tolerance, while that for amphetamine was shifted to the left indicating sensitization. Only the dose-response function for dexfenfluramine returned to baseline after candy access suggesting that the difference was specific to concurrent palatable food consumption. We hypothesize that tolerance to the effects of dexfenfluramine reflects a decrease in the satiating effect of serotonin release due to repeatedly eating large amounts of palatable food.

  5. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone “apps” are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called “SmartAPPetite,” which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to “nudge” users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the “triple bottom line” of health, economy, and environment. PMID:26380298

  6. Using a Smartphone Application to Promote Healthy Dietary Behaviours and Local Food Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, Jason; Sadler, Richard; Clark, Andrew; O'Connor, Colleen; Milczarek, Malgorzata; Doherty, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone "apps" are a powerful tool for public health promotion, but unidimensional interventions have been ineffective at sustaining behavioural change. Various logistical issues exist in successful app development for health intervention programs and for sustaining behavioural change. This study reports on a smartphone application and messaging service, called "SmartAPPetite," which uses validated behaviour change techniques and a behavioural economic approach to "nudge" users into healthy dietary behaviours. To help gauge participation in and influence of the program, data were collected using an upfront food survey, message uptake tracking, experience sampling interviews, and a follow-up survey. Logistical and content-based issues in the deployment of the messaging service were subsequently addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the app in changing dietary behaviours. Challenges included creating relevant food goal categories for participants, providing messaging appropriate to self-reported food literacy and ensuring continued participation in the program. SmartAPPetite was effective at creating a sense of improved awareness and consumption of healthy foods, as well as drawing people to local food vendors with greater frequency. This work serves as a storehouse of methods and best practices for multidimensional local food-based smartphone interventions aimed at improving the "triple bottom line" of health, economy, and environment.

  7. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p < 0.05). Stronger inhibitory control was associated with less consumption of high fat foods in the last 7 days (standardized beta = 0.20; p < 0.05) in the multiple linear regression analysis. Executive functions that predict fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss.

  8. Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancera,b

    PubMed Central

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. Methods We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate specific antigen level). Results Compared with <1/week, there was a positive association with PCa risk for intake ≥ 1/week of French fries (OR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.11–1.69), fried chicken (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.04–1.62), fried fish (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.05–1.66), and doughnuts (OR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.11–1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR=1.08; 95% CI, 0.89–1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.04–1.92 for fried fish). Conclusion Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. PMID:23335051

  9. Organic Food Consumption during Pregnancy and Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism at Birth: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Torjusen, Hanne; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alexander, Jan; Lieblein, Geir; Roos, Gun; Holten, Jon Magne; Swartz, Jackie; Haugen, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies hypospadias and cryptorchidism remain unclear. It has been suggested that maternal diet and environmental contaminants may affect the risk of these anomalies via placental or hormonal disturbances. Objectives We examined associations between organic food consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism at birth. Methods Our study includes 35,107 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) who delivered a singleton male infant. Information about use of six groups of organically produced food (vegetables, fruit, bread/cereal, milk/dairy products, eggs, and meat) during pregnancy was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Women who indicated that they sometimes, often, or mostly consumed organic foods in at least one of the six food groups were classified as organic food consumers in analyses. Hypospadias and cryptorchidism diagnoses were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression. Results Seventy-four male newborns were diagnosed with hypospadias (0.2%), and 151 with cryptorchidism (0.4%). Women who consumed any organic food during pregnancy were less likely to give birth to a boy with hypospadias (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.70, based on 21 exposed cases) than women who reported they never or seldom consumed organic food. Associations with specific organic foods were strongest for vegetable (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.85; 10 exposed cases) and milk/dairy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.17, 1.07; 7 exposed cases) consumption. No substantial association was observed for consumption of organic food and cryptorchidism. Conclusions Consumption of organically produced foods during pregnancy was associated with a lower prevalence of hypospadias in our study population. These findings were based on small numbers of cases and require replication in other

  10. Pre-pregnancy fried food consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Zhang, Cuilin

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Fried foods are frequently consumed in Western countries. However, the health effects of frequent fried food consumption in humans are not well understood. We aimed to prospectively examine the association between pre-pregnancy fried food consumption and risk of incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We included 21,079 singleton pregnancies from 15,027 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. Since 1991 and every 4 years thereafter, we collected diet information, including consumption of fried foods at home and away from home, using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We used generalised estimating equations with log-binomial models to estimate the RRs and 95% CIs. Results We documented 847 incident GDM pregnancies during 10 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, parity, dietary and non-dietary factors, the RRs (95% CIs) of GDM among women who consumed total fried foods 1–3, 4–6 and ≥ 7 times/week, compared with those who consumed it less than once/week, were 1.13 (0.97, 1.32), 1.31 (1.08, 1.59) and 2.18 (1.53, 3.09), respectively (p for trend < 0.001). The association persisted after further adjustment for BMI (p for trend = 0.01). When analysed separately, we found a significant association of GDM with fried food consumption away from home, but not with fried food consumption at home. Conclusions/interpretation Frequent fried food consumption, particularly away from home, was significantly associated with a greater risk of incident GDM. Our study indicates potential benefits of limiting fried food consumption in the prevention of GDM in women of reproductive age. PMID:25303998

  11. Do Orexins contribute to impulsivity-driven binge consumption of rewarding stimulus and transition to drug/food dependence?

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2015-07-01

    Orexins (OX) are neuropeptides synthesized in the lateral hypothalamic region which play a fundamental role in a wide range of physiological and psychological functions including arousal, stress, motivation or eating behaviors. This paper reviews under the addiction cycle framework (Koob, 2010), the role of the OX system as a key modulator in compulsivity-driven consumption of rewarding stimulus including ethanol, palatable food and drugs and their role in impulsivity and binge-like consumption in non dependent organisms as well. We propose here that drug/food binge-like consumption in vulnerable organisms increases OX activity which, in turn, elicits enhanced impulsivity and further impulsivity-driven binge consumption in a positive loop that would promote compulsive-driven binge-consumption and the transition to drug/food disorders over time.

  12. Hair mercury levels and food consumption in residents from the Pearl River Delta: South China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dingding; Kang, Yuan; Cheng, Zhang; Wang, Hongsheng; Huang, Minjuan; Wu, Shengchun; Chen, Kunci; Wong, Ming H

    2013-01-15

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is located in the Southern part of China and is the main region for fish culture in Guangdong Province. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with dietary consumption of mercury, hair samples from 91 urban, town and fishing village residents, 37 species of fish, cereal, vegetables, and meat samples were collected. The average total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in hair were 1.08 ± 0.94 and 0.58 ± 0.59 μg/g, respectively. Daily Hg intake via fish consumption is significantly correlated with THg and MeHg accumulated in human hair (r=0.48, p<0.01; r=0.43, p<0.01). The estimated daily intake of Hg via different food types showed that both fish and cereal consumption were the two main routes of Hg exposure for residents in the sampling areas. Besides food intake, smoking was also an important source for daily THg intake in the smoke group, contributing 11-18% to EDI of THg.

  13. Consumption processes and food web structure in the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simenstad, Charles A.; Small, Lawrence F.; David McIntire, C.

    Consumption processes at several trophic levels tend to coverage in the central (estuarine-mixing) region of the Columbia River estuary, where living and dentrital food resources are entrained within the energy null of the turbidity maximum zone. Primary consumers in this region are generalist and omnivorous feeders, capable of exploiting both autotrophic and heterotrophic food web pathways. In the presence of higher standing stocks of their prey resources, feeding by secondary and tertiary consumers is also concentrated, or more effective, in the estuarine mixing region of the estuary. During the 1980-1981 studies of the estuary, total consumer (metazoan) production averaged 5.5g C m -2 within the estuary. Of the estimated 15 x 10 3mt Cyy -1 attributed to primary consumption in the water column, 83% was the result of suspension-feeding pelagic zooplankton. In comparison to grazing on phytoplankton, it was estimated that approximately 84% of primary consumption in the water column was based on suspended detritus and, presumably, associated microbiota. Endemic primary,consumers, principally epibenthic crustaceans such as the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis, the harpacticoid copepod Scottolana canadensis, and the crangonid shrimp Crangon franciscorum, accounted for a high proportion of the consumption of suspended particles. Wertland herbivores inhabiting the estuary's extensive marshes, on the other hand, were estimated to account for only 2 to 17% of total estuarine primary consumption. Trophic linkages to secondary and tertiary consumers were more evenly apportioned among pelagic fishes, motile macroinvertebrates, and benthic infauna. High, comparatively unknown fluxes of migratory or wide-ranging tertiary consumers, such as piscivorous birds, seals and sea lions, made estimation of their annual consumption rates in the estuary highly tenuous. The physical processes of mixing and stratification, sediments accretion and erosion, and salinity intrusion appear to

  14. South Korea's entry to the global food economy: shifts in consumption of food between 1998 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-01-01

    Korea has undergone a major opening of its food markets and economy in the past decade. Little is understood about the impact of these shifts on the diet of Koreans. This analysis studies the shifts in consumption of foods between 1998 and 2009 to provide a thorough understanding of the transition and insights into directions in the next decades in Korea. Data are from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The sample used was a nationally representative sample of individuals age ≥2 in 1998 and 2009 (n=10,267 and 9,264, respectively). The data was corrected for seasonality, and the original raw food data was regrouped into 53 food groups. SAS was used to adjust for design effects and weight. Despite a decade of efforts to increase whole grains intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, the mean intake of whole grains increased only a small amount (16 kcal/person/day); however, the proportion consuming any whole grains doubled from 24% to 46.3%. Rice declined significantly, and several important less healthful food trends emerged: total alcohol intake increased from 39 kcal/person/day to 82 kcal/person/day. Also, energy from sugar-sweetened beverages increased among teens and energy from tea and coffee increased among adults. Remarkably, compared to other Asian countries and a general worldwide trend, vegetable intake remained relative high in South Korea during this last decade while fat energy increased modestly from relative low levels. Dynamic causes of these trends and the government's response are discussed.

  15. South Korea’s entry to the global food economy: Shifts in consumption of food between 1998 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Korea has undergone a major opening of its food markets and economy in the past decade. Little is understood about the impact of these shifts on the diet of Koreans. This analysis studies the shifts in consumption of foods between 1998 and 2009 to provide a thorough understanding of the transition and insights into directions in the next decades in Korea. Data are from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationally representative sample of individuals age ≥2 in 1998 and 2009 (n=10,267 and 9,264, respectively). The data are corrected for seasonality, and the original raw food data are regrouped into 53 food groups. SAS is used to adjust for design effects and weight the results. Despite a decade of efforts to increase whole grains intake and fruit and vegetable intake, the mean intake of whole grains increased only a small amount (+16 kcal/person/d); however, the proportion consuming any whole grains doubled from 24% to 46.3%. Rice declined significantly, and several important less healthful food trends emerged: total Alcohol intake increased from 39 kcal/person/d to 82 kcal/person/d. Also, energy from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages increased among teens and energy from Tea & Coffee increased among adults. Remarkably, compared to other Asian countries and a general worldwide trend, vegetable intake remained very high in South Korea during this last decade while fat energy increased modestly from very low levels. Dynamic causes of these trends and the government’s response are discussed. PMID:23017321

  16. Income-based projections of water footprint of food consumption in Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Frohberg, Klaus; Djanibekov, Utkur

    2013-11-01

    Assessing future water requirements for feeding the growing population of Central Asia can improve understanding of the projected water supply scenarios in the region. Future water requirements will be partially determined by the dietary habits of the populations, and are thus responsive to significant variation of income levels. Using Uzbekistan as an example, this study projects the water footprints of income driven changes on the population's diet in Central Asia. To reveal the influence of large income changes on dietary habits a Normalized Quadratic-Quadratic Expenditure System was calibrated and applied to data from 2009. The national water footprints of food consumption in Uzbekistan were projected until 2034 by applying the parameterized demand system to estimate the respective water footprint values. The results showed that for Uzbekistan the projected increase in the food consumption water footprint would be primarily linked to income growth rather than population growth. Due to the high water footprint of common food products, the composition of the population's diet, and responsiveness to income, economic growth is expected to put greater pressure on water resources in Uzbekistan unless proper measures are undertaken.

  17. Pre-exposure to food temptation reduces subsequent consumption: A test of the procedure with a South-African sample.

    PubMed

    Duh, Helen Inseng; Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the consumption of unhealthy Westernized diet in a context of poverty and resultant food insecurity may have contributed to South-Africa's status of the third fattest country in the World. Considering that a number of South-Africans are reported to have experienced, or are still experiencing food insecurity, procedures which have been shown to reduce the consumption of unhealthy food in higher income countries may be ineffective in South-Africa. We thus tested the robustness of the so called pre-exposure procedure in South-Africa. We also tested the moderating role of childhood poverty in the pre-exposure procedure. With the pre-exposure procedure, a respondent is exposed to a tempting unhealthy food (e.g. candy) in a context that is designed such that eating the food interferes with a task goal. The typical result is that this procedure spills over and reduces consumption of similar tempting food later on. An experimental study conducted in a South-African laboratory showed that the pre-exposure effect is robust even with a sample, where food insecurity prevails. Childhood poverty did not moderate the effect. This study proves that behavioral procedures aimed at reducing the consumption of unhealthy food would be valuable in less rich non-Western countries. Further testing of the robustness of the pre-exposure effect is however recommended in other poorer food insecure countries.

  18. Evaluation of Radiation Doses Due to Consumption of Contaminated Food Items and Calculation of Food Class-Specific Derived Intervention Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G

    2010-04-27

    This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.

  19. Food consumption and the actual statistics of cardiovascular diseases: an epidemiological comparison of 42 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Grasgruber, Pavel; Sebera, Martin; Hrazdira, Eduard; Hrebickova, Sylva; Cacek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this ecological study was to identify the main nutritional factors related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Europe, based on a comparison of international statistics. Design The mean consumption of 62 food items from the FAOSTAT database (1993–2008) was compared with the actual statistics of five CVD indicators in 42 European countries. Several other exogenous factors (health expenditure, smoking, body mass index) and the historical stability of results were also examined. Results We found exceptionally strong relationships between some of the examined factors, the highest being a correlation between raised cholesterol in men and the combined consumption of animal fat and animal protein (r=0.92, p<0.001). The most significant dietary correlate of low CVD risk was high total fat and animal protein consumption. Additional statistical analyses further highlighted citrus fruits, high-fat dairy (cheese) and tree nuts. Among other non-dietary factors, health expenditure showed by far the highest correlation coefficients. The major correlate of high CVD risk was the proportion of energy from carbohydrates and alcohol, or from potato and cereal carbohydrates. Similar patterns were observed between food consumption and CVD statistics from the period 1980–2000, which shows that these relationships are stable over time. However, we found striking discrepancies in men's CVD statistics from 1980 and 1990, which can probably explain the origin of the ‘saturated fat hypothesis’ that influenced public health policies in the following decades. Conclusion Our results do not support the association between CVDs and saturated fat, which is still contained in official dietary guidelines. Instead, they agree with data accumulated from recent studies that link CVD risk with the high glycaemic index/load of carbohydrate-based diets. In the absence of any scientific evidence connecting saturated fat with CVDs, these findings show that

  20. Urban food consumption and associated water resources: The example of Dutch cities.

    PubMed

    Vanham, D; Mak, T N; Gawlik, B M

    2016-09-15

    Full self-sufficiency in cities is a major concern. Cities import resources for food, water and energy security. They are however key to global sustainability, as they concentrate a rapidly increasing and urbanising population (or number of consumers). In this paper, we analysed the dependency of urban inhabitants on the resource water for food consumption, by means of Dutch cities. We found that in extremely urbanised municipalities like Amsterdam and Rotterdam, people eat more meat and cereals and less potatoes than in other Dutch municipalities. Their current water footprint (WF) related to food consumption is therefore higher (3245l/cap/day) than in strongly urbanised cities (3126l/cap/day). Dutch urban citizens who eat too many animal products, crop oils and sugar can reduce their WF (with 29 to 32%) by shifting to a healthier diet. Recommended less meat consumption has the largest impact on the total WF reduction. A shift to a pesco-vegetarian or vegetarian diet would require even less water resources, where the WF can be reduced by 36 to 39% and 40 to 42% respectively. Dutch cities such as Amsterdam have always scored very high in international sustainability rankings for cities, partly due to a long history in integrated (urban) water management in the Netherlands. We argue that such existing rankings only show a certain - undoubtedly very important - part of urban environmental sustainability. To communicate the full picture to citizens, stakeholders and policy makers, indicators on external resource usage need to be employed. The fact that external resource dependency can be altered through changing dietary behaviour should be communicated.

  1. Determination of antibiotic consumption index for animal originated foods produced in animal husbandry in Iran, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The public health concerns over the long-term exposure to antibiotics have risen in different parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibiotic consumption pattern in livestock and poultry and to estimate the quantity of antibiotic active ingredient (mg) consumed per unit weight (Kg) of red meat, milk and egg production in Iran in 2010. A cross-sectional study was designed in charmahal - bakhtiary province-Iran. A questioner has been developed by naming 110 types of antibiotics. Twenty two veterinary clinicians and three livestock pharmaceutical distributor companies were included in the survey to determine the antibiotic prescription and distribution pattern in the farms. Veterinary organization of Iran supplied the information of the total antibiotic consumption in different dosage forms. National and international data on the livestock and poultry production were obtained from the relevant official web sites. Tetracycline class of antibiotics was the most common types of antibacterial prescribed and sold to both livestock and poultry farms. Amino glycoside, penicillin and macrolide in the cattle farms and furofenocole in broiler farms were the second most used groups of antibiotics. The quantity of antibiotic active ingredients consumed per unit weight of animal-originated food products was counted as 107.4 mg/kg for both milk and red meat and 249.5 mg/kg for broiler meat and egg. Totally, it was estimated that 133 mg antibiotic substances was used per kg of milk, meat and egg produced in 2010. In comparison to available data for other countries, consumption of antibiotics in livestock and poultry in Iran is higher than developed countries with an exception of South Korea. The findings of the present study could be alarming for the legislative authorities in food security and safety. More clear evaluation should be carried out as well as implementation of national monitoring and inspective programs in order to reach an added

  2. The mass balance of production and consumption: Supporting policy-makers for aquatic food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, A. S.; Ferreira, J. G.; Vale, C.; Johansen, J.

    2017-03-01

    the world, well above both Malaysia and South Korea (each with 58 kg ind-1 y-1). The corrected data show that Portugal had the highest consumption rate in the world until the mid-1970's, when it was overtaken by Iceland for reasons discussed herein. The lack of detailed per-species consumption data, as well as the grouping of species by commodities, hinders a more detailed seafood consumption analysis, required by policy makers and stakeholders to effectively develop management measures to reduce illegal fishing or bycatch, and to correctly formulate strategic options for development of aquaculture and fisheries, necessary for ensuring food security over the next decades.

  3. Food systems: perspectives on demographics and affluence, food supply and consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, G T

    1990-01-01

    Global population may double by 2020 but the Malthusian specter of rapid population growth outracing slower increases in production will continue to be a false alarm. A vast array of agricultural technologies have the capacity to increase output 10-fold, perhaps as much as 100-fold. Discovery of a sweetener 54,000 times sweeter than sucrose (cane or beet sugar) indicates the magnitude of prodigious increases portended by new technologies. Productive agriculture, however, has become capital intense, limiting its availability in poorer nations. Increased production is the key to low prices and affordable supplies. In a world continuing to face starvation, there is no place for government policies purposely limiting supplies and artificially propping prices at high levels that place life-sustaining food beyond means of the poor. Affluence provides financial wherewithal to secure an adequate diet. Unfortunately, an estimated 25% of the world's population go hungry and face starvation. The specter of starvation may afflict as many as 600 million, and malnutrition, another 150 million by the year 2020. Improving self-sufficiency in these nations will remain a top humanitarian concern. PMID:2401256

  4. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Kevin B

    2015-07-09

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group's National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011-2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group's Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3-5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients-potassium, calcium and fiber-when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  5. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older) from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET®) database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week); n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week); n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week); n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans. PMID:26184294

  6. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.

  7. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes.

  8. Dining in the dark. The importance of visual cues for food consumption and satiety.

    PubMed

    Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Todd, Peter M; Wansink, Brian

    2010-12-01

    How important are visual cues for determining satiation? To find out, 64 participants were served lunch in a "dark" restaurant where they ate in complete darkness. Half the participants unknowingly received considerably larger "super-size" portions which subsequently led them to eat 36% more food. Despite this difference, participants' appetite for dessert and their subjective satiety were largely unaffected by how much they had consumed. Consistent with expectations, participants were also less accurate in estimating their actual consumption quantity than a control group who ate the same meal in the light.

  9. Food consumption, a health risk? Norms and medical practice in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Marilyn

    2008-07-01

    The health regimen was a medical genre developed in Western Europe as of the 13th century and is one of the main sources attesting the interest that professionals working on health devoted to the dangers incurred in eating. This medical genre, part of an ancient tradition, was well known by the elites of the time. The surviving texts reveal themselves to be extremely attentive to contemporary food consumption and provided their readers with the necessary recommendations in order to enable them to take care of their health.

  10. Food consumption of adults in Germany: results of the German National Nutrition Survey II based on diet history interviews.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Thorsten; Krems, Carolin; Moon, Kilson; Brombach, Christine; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2015-05-28

    The second German National Nutrition Survey (NVS II) aimed to evaluate food consumption and other aspects of nutritional behaviour of a representative sample of the German population, using a modular design with three different dietary assessment methods. To assess usual food consumption, 15,371 German speaking subjects 14-80 years of age completed a diet history interview between November 2005 and November 2006. With reference to the guidelines of the German Nutrition Society (DGE), NVS II observed that the German population did not eat enough foods of plant origin, especially vegetables and consumed too much of meat and meat products. While generally similar food consumption is observed in other European countries, consumption of bread, fruit juices/nectars and beer is higher in Germany. On average, men consumed two times more meat and soft drinks as well as six times more beer than women did, whereas the consumption of vegetables, fruit as well as herbal/fruit tea was higher in women. Older participants showed a lower consumption of meat, fruit juice/nectars, soft drinks and spirits as well as a higher consumption of fish, vegetables, fruit, and herbal/fruit tea than adolescents and younger adults did. There are also differences in food consumption with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Persons with higher SES consumed more vegetables, fruit, fish, water, coffee/tea and wine, while persons with lower SES consumed more meat and meat products, soft drinks and beer. In general, the food consumption of women, the elderly and the higher SES group tends to be closer to the official dietary guidelines in Germany.

  11. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    PubMed

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2).

  12. The behavioralist as nutritionist: leveraging behavioral economics to improve child food choice and consumption.

    PubMed

    List, John A; Samek, Anya Savikhin

    2015-01-01

    We leverage behavioral economics to explore new approaches to tackling child food choice and consumption. Using a field experiment with >1500 children, we report several key insights. We find that incentives have large influences: in the control, 17% of children prefer the healthy snack, whereas introduction of small incentives increases take-up of the healthy snack to ∼75%. There is some evidence that the effects continue post-treatment, consistent with a model of habit formation. We find little evidence that the framing of incentives (loss vs. gain) matters. Educational messaging alone has little effect, but we observe a combined effect of messaging and incentives: together they provide an important influence on food choice.

  13. Water consumption patterns and factors contributing to water consumption in arsenic affected population of rural West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Amir; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Murrill, Matthew; Das, Bhaskar; Roy, Bimol; Dey, Shankar; Maity, Debasish; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2013-10-01

    A direct water intake study was conducted for one year, involving 423 individuals from three arsenic (As) affected villages of West Bengal, India. Average direct water intake per person and per unit body weight was found to be 3.12±1.17 L/day and 78.07±47.08 mL/kg/day (± SD), respectively. Average direct water intakes for adult males, adult females and children (age <15 years) were 3.95, 3.03 and 2.14 L/day, respectively. Significant sex differentials were observed between ages 16-55 years. For all participants, a sharp increase in water intake up to 15 years of age was observed followed by a plateau at a higher intake level. Significant monthly, seasonal, regional, and occupational variability was also observed. Another study involving 413 subjects determined the amount of indirect water intake. Average indirect water intake per person was 1.80±0.64 L/day; for adult males, adult females and children, intake was 2.15, 1.81, and 1.10 L/day, respectively. Average total (direct + indirect) water intake was 4.92 L/person/day; for adult males, adult females and children, total intake was 6.10, 4.84, and 3.24 L/person/day, respectively. The overall contribution of indirect water intake to total water consumption was 36.6% for all participants. This study additionally elucidated several factors that contribute to variable water intake, which can lead to better risk characterization of subpopulations and water contaminant ingestion. The study reveals that the water intake rates in the three studied populations in West Bengal are greater than the assumed water intake rates utilized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the establishment of drinking water quality guidelines; therefore, these assumed intake values may be inappropriate for the study population as well as similar ones.

  14. Food Seeking in a Risky Environment: A Method for Evaluating Risk and Reward Value in Food Seeking and Consumption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lockie, Sarah H.; McAuley, Clare V.; Rawlinson, Sasha; Guiney, Natalie; Andrews, Zane B.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus. We then assessed parameters of the interaction with the food reward. Fasted mice or mice treated with ghrelin showed increased consumption and increased time spent in the food zone immediately around the food reward compared to ad libitum fed mice or mice treated with saline. However, fasted mice treated with IP glucose before exposure to the behavioral arena showed reduced time in the food zone compared to fasted controls, indicating that acute metabolic signals can modify the assessment of safety in food seeking in a risky environment. The tests described in this study will be useful in assessing risk processing and incentive salience of food reward, which are intrinsic components of food acquisition outside of the laboratory environment, in a range of genetic and pharmacological models. PMID:28194094

  15. Consumption of Bt Maize Pollen Containing Cry1Ie Does Not Negatively Affect Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yanmin; Yin, Xinming; Romeis, Jörg; Song, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiuping; Geng, Lili; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2017-01-01

    Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are prevalent predators and pollen feeders in East Asian maize fields. They are therefore indirectly (via prey) and directly (via pollen) exposed to Cry proteins within Bt-transgenic maize fields. The effects of Cry1Ie-producing transgenic maize pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, survival, larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity did not differ between ladybirds consuming Bt or non-Bt maize pollen. In the second experiment, none of the tested lethal and sublethal parameters of P. japonica were negatively affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing Cry1Ie protein at 200 μg/g dry weight of diet. In contrast, the larval developmental time, adult fresh weight, and fecundity of P. japonica were significantly adversely affected when fed diet containing the positive control compound E-64. In both experiments, the bioactivity of the Cry1Ie protein in the food sources was confirmed by bioassays with a Cry1Ie-sensitive lepidopteran species. These results indicated that P. japonica are not affected by the consumption of Cry1Ie-expressing maize pollen and are not sensitive to the Cry1Ie protein, suggesting that the growing of Bt maize expressing Cry1Ie protein will pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:28300767

  16. [Differences in food consumption associated with ethnic group and acculturation in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2009-12-01

    In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches.

  17. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3.

  18. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    PubMed

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours.

  19. Estimation of exposure to food packaging materials. 3: Development of consumption factors and food-type distribution factors from data collected on Irish children.

    PubMed

    Duffy, E; Hearty, A P; McCarthy, S; Gibney, M J

    2007-01-01

    There are many initiatives in Europe trying to refine the exposure assessment for food packaging migrants. In the USA, the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) uses food consumption and food-type distribution factors to aid the exposure assessment process and generate more realistic estimates of exposure. The present study developed food-consumption factors and food-type distribution factors for Irish children aged 5-12 years from data collected as part of a National Children's Food Survey (NCFS) completed in Ireland in 2003-04, combined with data from the 2003-05 Irish Food Packaging Database and from literature data on surface area-to-weight ratios for food packaging. Consumption factors are defined as the fraction of a person's diet likely to contact a specific food-contact material, while food-type distribution factors reflect the fraction of all food contacting each material that is aqueous, acidic, alcoholic or fatty. In this study, it was found that 'total plastics' had the highest consumption factor of 0.83, while 'total paper and board' had a factor of 0.13 and 'total metal and alloys' had a factor of 0.06. Although it is tentative to compare the US FDA factors with the factors derived in the current study, as the US FDA data are for the total US population, the consumption factor for 'total plastics' in the present study (0.83) was similar to that used by the US FDA (0.79). However, a large difference existed for the consumption factor for 'total metal and alloys' in the Irish data (0.06) and the US FDA data (0.2). In terms of the type of materials used for foods, glass was used mainly for acidic foods (0.67), while plastic was uniformly used for all food types. The food-contact area for plastic packaging for all foods consumed by children was 10.67 dm2/child day(-1), which is slightly lower than the proposed value for the average European consumer of 12.4 dm2/person day(-1). However, this should be expected, as children do not consume as much food as

  20. Consumption of sugary foods and drinks and risk of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    King, Melony G; Chandran, Urmila; Olson, Sara H; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu, Shou-En; Parekh, Niyati; Bandera, Elisa V

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of foods high in sugar promotes insulin production, which has been linked to endometrial carcinogenesis. We evaluated the impact of dietary intake of sugary foods and beverages, as well as added sugar and total sugar on endometrial cancer risk in a population-based case-control study, including 424 cases and 398 controls. Participants completed an interview and food frequency questionnaire, and provided self-recorded waist and hip measurements. Women in the highest quartile of added sugar intake had significantly increased endometrial cancer risk (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.16-2.92). Among women with waist-to-hip ratio ≥0.85, risk was significantly higher for the highest versus lowest tertile of added sugar intakes (OR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.38-4.52). The association with added sugar also became stronger when analyses were restricted to never users of hormone replacement therapy (OR = 2.03; 95% CI 1.27-3.26, for highest versus lowest tertile). There was little evidence of effect modification by body mass index or physical activity. Given the high prevalence of intake of sugary foods and drinks in Western populations, additional research is warranted to confirm our findings on endometrial cancer.

  1. What influences urban Indian secondary school students' food consumption? - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Indian adolescents' over reliance on foods such as nutrient-poor snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and take-away foods puts them at significant risk of obesity and several diet-related chronic diseases. Therefore, the factors that influence their dietary behaviours need to be better understood in order to develop effective nutrition promotion strategies. The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to investigate adolescents', parents', teachers', and school principals' perceptions of the main influences on adolescent eating behaviours. Fifteen adolescents aged 14-15 years, 15 parents, 12 teachers and 10 principals from 10 private English-speaking schools in Kolkata, India, participated in semi-structured interviews. The digitally-recorded conversations were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The 52 interviews revealed a number of factors that may influence adolescents' eating habits including parent and peer influences, home and school food environments, and the mass media. Emerging evidence suggests that future health and nutrition promotion interventions need to target the different influences on Indian teenagers' food consumption.

  2. Seasonal variation in food consumption, assimilation, and conversion efficiency of Indian bivoltine hybrid silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Rahmathulla, V K; Suresh, H M

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption and utilization is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Under different environmental, feeding, and nutritional conditions, and with ingestion of the same amount of mulberry leaves, the silkworm shows significant difference in its ability to digest, absorb, and convert food to body matter. Here, influences of season, temperature, and humidity on food intake, assimilation, and conversion efficiency of the Indian bivoltine hybrid (CSR2 × CSR4) Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) were studied. The results indicated that food ingestion and assimilation were significantly higher among silkworm batches where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained compared with silkworm batches exposed to natural climatic conditions of the respective season. However, during summer the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher among silkworms reared under natural temperature and humidity conditions when compared with the control. During the winter and rainy season, the nutritional efficiency parameters were significantly higher in control batches, where optimum temperature and humidity were maintained. Ingesta and digesta required to produce one gram of cocoon/shell were also lower in control batches for all seasons except summer. This may be due to the physiological adaptation of silkworms to overcome stress during the summer season.

  3. Effect of Acidic Challenge Preceded by Food Consumption on Enamel Erosion

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Júnior, Edmêr Silvestre Pereira; de Oliveira, Daniela Silva Barroso; Fior, Fernanda Alves; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of food consumption followed by acidic challenge on enamel erosion. Methods: Seventy-five enamel blocks obtained from bovine teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=15 per group): GI – erosion with previous immersion in milk; GII – erosion with previous immersion in cheese extract; GIII – erosion with previous immersion in liver extract; GIV – erosion with previous immersion in broccoli extract; and GV – erosive effect of cola drink (control). Over 24 h, the slabs were submitted to 3 pH-cycles, each consisting of immersion in the studied food (GI to GIV) for 5 min followed by immersion in a cola drink for 5 min, and subsequently, the slabs were stored in artificial saliva (110 min). At the end of the pH-cycles, the slabs were stored in artificial saliva for 18 h. Enamel alterations were assessed by profilometry (μm). Data were tested using ANOVA and Scott-Knott’s tests (P<.05). Results: Mean erosion depths for enamel (μm) were 0.46 in GI, 0.55 in GII, 0.64 in GIII, 0.54 in GIV, and 1.18 in GVI. Enamel loss by acidic challenge alone (GV) was significantly higher than when the acidic challenges were preceded by food extract immersion. Conclusions: The data suggest that all studied foods could minimize the erosive effect on enamel. PMID:20922161

  4. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal) for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old) who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of those foods. The means of the nutrients indicated on the labels of the most consumed brands were considered. For the calculation of the percent composition of breast milk and salt meal, Tables of Food Composition were used. To assess the nutritional adequacy, we used the Dietary Reference Intakes by age group. The percentage of adequacy evaluation of the petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles nutritional compositions was made by comparing them with those of the human milk and the salt meal, respectively. Results: The petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles were consumed by 89.6 and 65.3% of the children in the first year of life. The percentages of adequacy for carbohydrates were more than twice and the percentages for sodium were 20 times higher than those found in the recommended foods. Conclusions: Both industrialized products are inappropriate for infants, emphasizing the need for adoption of norms that can inform health professionals, educators and parents about the risks of consumption. PMID:24676188

  5. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits.

  6. [Popularity of "fast-food" products consumption by school youth in urban and country secondary schools from Mazowsze area].

    PubMed

    Kośmider, Anita; Gronowska-Senger, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of frequency intake of "fast-food" products by young people in urban and country secondary schools. The group of 282 pupils (14 years) was investigated. Frequency intake was estimated using questionnaire. In the populations of boys in town frequency of consuming "fast-food" products has risen in comparison with boys from country. Three groups comprised adolescent girls (for a change) have not difference in frequency of "fast-food" consumption.

  7. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Srivastava, Diane S

    2010-09-01

    1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads. 3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead, Corinna spiders contributed allochthonous nitrogen to bromeliads. 4. Our results provide the novel observations that predators in one ecosystem not only directly reduce taxa whose life cycles cross-ecosystem boundaries, but also indirectly facilitate taxa whose life cycles are entirely within the second ecosystem. This compensatory response between cross-ecosystem and within-ecosystem taxa may have led to an attenuation of top-down effects across ecosystem boundaries. In addition, our results add to a growing consensus that species identity is an important determinant of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic food webs may affect the strength of cross-ecosystem interactions.

  8. Evaluating the impact of hemp food consumption on workplace drug tests.

    PubMed

    Leson, G; Pless, P; Grotenhermen, F; Kalant, H; ElSohly, M A

    2001-01-01

    Foods containing seeds or oil of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.) are increasingly found in retail stores in the U.S. The presence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in these foods has raised concern over their impact on the results of workplace drug tests for marijuana. Previous studies have shown that eating hemp foods can cause screening and confirmed positive results in urine specimens. This study evaluated the impact of extended daily ingestion of THC via hemp oil on urine levels of its metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) for four distinct daily THC doses. Doses were representative of THC levels now commonly found in hemp seed products and a range of conceivable daily consumption rates. Fifteen THC-naïve adults ingested, over four successive 10-day periods, single daily THC doses ranging from 0.09 to 0.6 mg. Subjects self-administered THC in 15-mL aliquots (20 mL for the 0.6-mg dose) of four different blends of hemp and canola oils. Urine specimens were collected prior to the first ingestion of oil, on days 9 and 10 of each of the four study periods, and 1 and 3 days after the last ingestion. All specimens were screened for cannabinoids by radioimmunoassay (Immunalysis Direct RIA Kit), confirmed for THC-COOH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and analyzed for creatinine to identify dilute specimens. None of the subjects who ingested daily doses of 0.45 mg of THC screened positive at the 50-ng/mL cutoff. At a daily THC dose of 0.6 mg, one specimen screened positive. The highest THC-COOH level found by GC-MS in any of the specimens was 5.2 ng/mL, well below the 15-ng/mL confirmation cutoff used in federal drug testing programs. A THC intake of 0.6 mg/day is equivalent to the consumption of approximately 125 mL of hemp oil containing 5 microg/g of THC or 300 g of hulled seeds at 2 microg/g. These THC concentrations are now typical in Canadian hemp seed products. Based on our findings, these concentrations appear

  9. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, MR; Taylor, FC; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2014-01-01

    Background Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. PMID:25473147

  10. Leptin intake during lactation prevents obesity and affects food intake and food preferences in later life.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2009-02-01

    Breast milk is practically the only food ingested during the first months of life in fully breastfed infants and it is assumed to match the infant's nutritional needs. Epidemiological data suggest that breastfeeding compared with infant formula feeding confers protection against several chronic diseases later on in life and, particularly, against obesity and related medical complications. However, causality has not been related to any specific compound of breast milk. Recent data in our laboratory have identified leptin as the specific compound that is responsible for some of these beneficial effects of breastfeeding. The hormone leptin was identified as a key candidate because it is present in breast milk, but is not present in infant formula, and when ingested during the suckling period can be absorbed by the immature stomach exerting biological effects. Evidence of the beneficial effects of breast milk leptin was obtained from human studies, showing that milk-borne maternal leptin appeared to give moderate protection to infants from excess weight gain. Direct cause-effect evidence was obtained in rats, where oral leptin supplementation during the suckling period resulted in a decrease in food intake, affected food preferences in favour of carbohydrates versus fat, and protected against overweight in adulthood, with an improvement of related parameters such as leptin and insulin sensitivity. These findings open a new area of research on the use of leptin in the design of more appropriate infant formula, which is significant considering the increasing incidence of obesity and its associated medical complications.

  11. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12–18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents. PMID:27420094

  12. Associations between Consumption of Dairy Foods and Anthropometric Indicators of Health in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nezami, Manijeh; Segovia-Siapco, Gina; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabaté, Joan

    2016-07-13

    Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12-18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods. Dairy foods were categorized into milk, cheese, sweetened dairy, and total dairy. Anthropometrics were measured during school visits. Total dairy intake was associated with WAZ (β = 0.25 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), p = 0.045) and HAZ (β = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.52), p = 0.021). In boys, total dairy was associated with WHtR (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.04), p = 0.039), FFM (β = 4.83 (95% CI: 1.79, 7.87), p = 0.002), and FM (β = 3.89 (95% CI: 0.58, 7.21), p = 0.021), and cheese was associated with FFM (β = 4.22 (95% CI: 0.98, 7.47), p = 0.011). Dairy consumption seems to influence growth in both genders, and body composition and central obesity in boys. Prospective studies are needed to identify how types of dairy relate to growth, body composition, and central obesity of adolescents.

  13. Public health issues related with the consumption of food obtained from genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Paparini, Andrea; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2004-01-01

    Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are a fact of modern agriculture and a major field of discussion in biotechnology. As science incessantly achieves innovative and unexpected breakthroughs, new medical, political, ethical and religious debates arise over the production and consumption of transgenic organisms. Despite no described medical condition being directly associated with a diet including approved GM crops in large exposed populations such as 300,000,000 Americans and a billion Chinese, public opinion seems to look at this new technology with either growing concern or even disapproval. It is generally recognized that a high level of vigilance is necessary and highly desirable, but it should also be considered that GMOs are a promising new challenge for the III Millennium societies, with remarkable impact on many disciplines and fields related to biotechnology. To acquire a basic knowledge on GMO production, GM-food consumption, GMO interaction with humans and environment is of primary importance for risk assessment. It requires availability of clear data and results from rigorous experiments. This review will focus on public health risks related with a GMO-containing diet. The objective is to summarize state of the art research, provide fundamental technical information, point out problems and perspectives, and make available essential tools for further research. Are GMO based industries and GMO-derived foods safe to human health? Can we consider both social, ethical and public health issues by means of a constant and effective monitoring of the food chain and by a clear, informative labeling of the products? Which are the so far characterized or alleged hazards of GMOs? And, most importantly, are these hazards actual, potential or merely contrived? Several questions remain open; answers and solutions belong to science, to politics and to the personal opinion of each social subject.

  14. Piscivorous birds on the saline lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands: Abundance, prey selection and annual food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.

    Since 1971, when the Grevelingen estuary was turned into a 108 km 2 saline lake, the number of foraging piscivorous birds has increased significantly. Up to 7000 to 10 000 Great Crested Grebes may be present on the lake, representing about half of the northwestern European breeding population. In the winter 1000 to 3000 Red-breasted Mergansers also forage here, while in summer and early autumn 500 to 800 Cormorants can be found on the lake. From December 1981 through March 1982 the food habits of the grebes and mergansers were studied by means of stomach analyses. Total annual consumption of the two fish-eating birds was estimated at 46.6 and 39.2 tons fresh weight, respectively. Gobiidae proved to be the main food source, accounting for 60% of the total intake (by weight). In addition, the grebes consumed 9.9 tons of Clupea harengus and the mergansers 11.0 tons of brown shrimps Crangon crangon. The birds tended to select the larger specimens of Gobiidae and C. crangon. The estimated amount of food consumed by these two bird species represents about 28 to 36% of the standing stocks of Gobiidae, C. harengus and Sprattus sprattus present at the arrival of the birds in September/October. Total annual consumption by all major piscivorous birds, including the populations of Cormorant and Grey Heron, was estimated at 115 tons (1.1 g FW·m -2·a -1). Over the last 10-year period the number of wintering grebes showed a positive correlation ( p < 0.01) with the density of Pomatoschistus microps during the preceding (summer) season ( i.e. the most abundant gobiid species in the lake).

  15. Caloric density affects food hoarding and intake by Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wood, A D; Bartness, T J

    1996-01-01

    Siberian hamsters respond to food deprivation or restriction by increasing their food hoarding and do so proportionately to the degree of body mass (fat) loss. These data suggest that Siberian hamsters integrate their internally stored energy as body fat with their externally stored energy as hoarded food such that when internal energy stores are decreased, external stores are increased. The purpose of the present experiments was to test whether the caloric value of the food hoard is regulated. This was accomplished by challenging the hamsters with diets of varying caloric density and assessing whether their hoarded food is changed accordingly. Specifically, in Experiment 1 hamsters were switched from the control food pellets to a diet where the caloric density was increased by creating a high fat diet (HFD). In Experiment 2, the caloric density of the control diet was decreased by diluting it with cellulose such that 25% and 50% (kcal/wt) reduced calorie diets (RCDs) were created. HFD-fed hamsters decreased their food hoarding, increased their body mass, and decreased the grams of food eaten, but not enough to compensate exactly for the increased caloric density of the diet. When refed the control diet, food hoarding increased to pre-HFD levels as body mass and food intake decreased. RCD feeding resulted in caloric density-dependent effects on all measures. Food hoarding and intake (grams and calories) increased when hamsters were given the 25% RCD and did so to an even greater degree when given the 50% RCD. Thus, Siberian hamsters responded to increases or decreases in the caloric density of their food by attempting to regulate the number of calories hoarded and eaten; however, the adjustments in food hoarding: 1) were not precise, 2) were largely opposite of food intake, 3) tended to be inversely related to body mass and 4) were caloric density dependent.

  16. Applying a nutribusiness approach to increase animal source food consumption in local communities.

    PubMed

    Maretzki, Audrey N; Mills, Edward W

    2003-11-01

    Animal source foods (ASF) in the diets of schoolchildren are beneficial for supporting optimal physical and cognitive development. Nevertheless, behavioral change and economic development are needed to increase and sustain adequate meat product consumption by schoolchildren in developing countries. A NutriBusiness enterprise may be one way for local communities to promote economic development while increasing the availability of meat for children. This work evaluates the feasibility of a NutriBusiness enterprise involving the production of rabbits and the manufacture of solar dried snack food. Some rabbits would be kept for home use, whereas others would be used in the manufacture of a rabbit-sweet potato dried snack food that could be fed to children or sold for income. The NutriBusiness enterprise would be composed of participants from the community contributing to a cooperative effort for setting up a manufacturing facility and organizing production, manufacturing and marketing functions. A unit operation for rabbit-sweet potato Chiparoos, based on full-capacity operation of a single solar drier would involve up to 110 shareholder families, each producing 240 rabbits/y with 120 used at home and 120 sold for Chiparoos manufacture. Participation in the enterprise would increase the availability to children of iron, zinc and vitamin B-12, and other nutrients, and provide approximately 350 dollars/y additional income for the family.

  17. Food consumption and nutrient intake in Italian school children: results of the ZOOM8 study.

    PubMed

    Martone, Deborah; Roccaldo, Romana; Censi, Laura; Toti, Elisabetta; Catasta, Giovina; D'Addesa, Dina; Carletti, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    The food consumption and food habits of Italian third-class-primary-school children were assessed and their energy and nutrient intakes were compared with requirements. The study involved 1740 subjects (900 males and 840 females) aged 8-9 years, from the north, centre and south of Italy. Body weight and height were measured. Parents filled in a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for their child. The results showed that the diet of Italian children is unbalanced in terms of macronutrients and deficient in fiber. The average daily intakes of fruit (234 g/d), vegetables (134 g/d) and legumes (17 g/d), were lower than the nationally recommended ones. The percentages of energy intake from fats (41%) and from carbohydrates (45%) were higher and lower respectively than recommended. Low intakes of fiber (13.5 g/d) were reported. A national nutrition policy in Italy should focus on nutrition education programs in schools and for parents.

  18. The Association between Socioeconomic Characteristics and Consumption of Food Items among Brazilian Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Vinholes, Daniele B.; Melo, Ione M. F.; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Methods. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. Results. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m2 of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50–76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. Conclusion. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits. PMID:22701097

  19. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  20. Food prices are associated with dietary quality, fast food consumption, and body mass index among U.S. children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-02-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994-1998) for 6759 children (2-9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10-18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals' CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2-9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (β ± SE: -0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (β ± SE: -3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10-18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2-9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2-9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables.

  1. Amounts of artificial food colors in commonly consumed beverages and potential behavioral implications for consumption in children.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are widely used to color foods and beverages. The amount of AFCs the Food and Drug Administration has certified over the years has increased more than 5-fold since 1950 (12 mg/capita/day) to 2012 (68 mg/capita/day). In the past 38 years, there have been studies of adverse behavioral reactions such as hyperactivity in children to double-blind challenges with AFCs. Studies that used 50 mg or more of AFCs as the challenge showed a greater negative effect on more children than those which used less. The study reported here is the first to quantify the amounts of AFCs in foods (specifically in beverages) commonly consumed by children in the United States. Consumption data for all foods would be helpful in the design of more challenge studies. The data summarized here should help clinicians advise parents about AFCs and beverage consumption.

  2. Do People Eat the Pain Away? The Effects of Acute Physical Pain on Subsequent Consumption of Sweet-Tasting Food

    PubMed Central

    Darbor, Kathleen E.; Lench, Heather C.; Carter-Sowell, Adrienne R.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet tasting foods have been found to have an analgesic effect. Therefore people might consume more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to a pain or non-pain condition and their consumption of cheesecake was measured. Participants ate more cheesecake (a sweet-tasting food) following a painful experience than a non-painful one. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to a painful experience or a resource depleting experience (i.e., squeezing a handgrip) and then were asked to taste test two foods, one sweet and one not sweet. Participants ate more sweet-tasting food following a painful experience than a non-painful or a resource-depleting experience. These differences were not present for consumption of non-sweet food. Further, habitual self-control predicted consumption of sweet-tasting food when in pain, with those lower in self-control particularly likely to eat more. Results suggest that people do eat more sweet-tasting food when they feel pain, particularly if they are not in the habit of controlling their impulses. These findings have implications for health given rising rates of obesity and pain-related diagnoses. PMID:27861581

  3. Is Higher Consumption of Animal Flesh Foods Associated with Better Iron Status among Adults in Developed Countries? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jacklyn; Williams, Rebecca; McEvoy, Mark; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Patterson, Amanda

    2016-02-16

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem) iron, however, it is unclear whether low animal flesh diets contribute to ID. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether a higher consumption of animal flesh foods is associated with better iron status in adults. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for published studies that included adults (≥18 years) from developed countries and measured flesh intakes in relation to iron status indices. Eight experimental and 41 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies varied in population and study designs and results were conflicting. Of the seven high quality studies, five showed a positive association between animal flesh intake (85-300 g/day) and iron status. However, the optimum quantity or frequency of flesh intake required to maintain or achieve a healthy iron status remains unclear. Results show a promising relationship between animal flesh intake and iron status, however, additional longitudinal and experimental studies are required to confirm this relationship and determine optimal intakes to reduce ID development.

  4. Is Higher Consumption of Animal Flesh Foods Associated with Better Iron Status among Adults in Developed Countries? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jacklyn; Williams, Rebecca; McEvoy, Mark; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Patterson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem) iron, however, it is unclear whether low animal flesh diets contribute to ID. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether a higher consumption of animal flesh foods is associated with better iron status in adults. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for published studies that included adults (≥18 years) from developed countries and measured flesh intakes in relation to iron status indices. Eight experimental and 41 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies varied in population and study designs and results were conflicting. Of the seven high quality studies, five showed a positive association between animal flesh intake (85–300 g/day) and iron status. However, the optimum quantity or frequency of flesh intake required to maintain or achieve a healthy iron status remains unclear. Results show a promising relationship between animal flesh intake and iron status, however, additional longitudinal and experimental studies are required to confirm this relationship and determine optimal intakes to reduce ID development. PMID:26891320

  5. Temperature and food quality effects on growth, consumption and post-ingestive utilization efficiencies of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Levesque, K R; Levesque, K R; Fortin, M; Mauffette, Y

    2002-04-01

    Temperature and food quality can both influence growth rates, consumption rates, utilization efficiencies and developmental time of herbivorous insects. Gravimetric analyses were conducted during two consecutive years to assess the effects of temperature and food quality on fourth instar larvae of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hübner. Larvae were reared in the laboratory at three different temperatures (18, 24 and 30 degrees C) and on two types of diet; leaves of sugar maple trees Acer saccharum Marsh. located at the forest edge (sun-exposed leaves) or within the forest interior (shade-exposed leaves). In general, larvae reared at 18 degrees C had lower growth rates and lower consumption rates than larvae reared at the warmer temperatures (24 and 30 degrees C). Moreover, the duration of the instar decreased significantly with increasing temperatures. Type of diet also affected the growth rates and amount of food ingested by larvae but did not affect the duration of the instar. Larvae fed sun-exposed leaves consumed more food and gained higher biomasses. Values of approximate digestibility and efficiency of conversion of ingested food were also higher when larvae were fed sun-exposed leaves. Higher growth rates with increasing temperatures were primarily the result of the shorter stadium duration. The higher growth rates of larvae fed sun-exposed leaves were possibly the result of stimulatory feeding and consequently greater food intake and also a more efficient use of food ingested. This study suggests that the performance of M. disstria caterpillars could be enhanced by warmer temperatures and higher leaf quality.

  6. Adolescents' attitudes about and consumption of low-fat foods: associations with sex and weight-control behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the study was to examine adolescents' attitudes about and consumption of low-fat foods by sex and weight-control behaviors. Ninth- to 12th-grade students (n=1,083) in 20 Minnesota high schools completed mail surveys (response rate=74%) as part of baseline measurements (Fall 2001) in a randomized controlled trial (TACOS: Trying Alternative Cafeteria Options in Schools). Linear models examined attitudes and consumption of low-fat foods by sex and weight-control behaviors. Girls were more likely than boys to report positive attitudes and consumption of low-fat foods (all P<.01). Weight-control practices were associated with more positive attitudes about and higher consumption of low-fat foods. Promoting low-fat snacks to adolescents who are interested in weight control may be an effective component of nutrition intervention programs because these students have more positive attitudes about low-fat foods. Dietitians' efforts to educate adolescents about the benefits and healthfulness of low-fat foods would aid intervention programs.

  7. Specific patterns of food consumption and preparation are associated with diabetes and obesity in a Native Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, J; Wolever, T M; Harris, S B; Harris-Giraldo, R; Hanley, A J; Zinman, B

    1998-03-01

    We examined the relationship between usual patterns of food intake, fattiness of food preparation and consumption, and diabetes and obesity status in a Native Canadian reserve in northwestern Ontario. Patterns of intake were estimated using a 34-item food frequency instrument. Scales and scores were developed using factor analysis procedures and were tested for reliability using coefficient alpha. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes status was determined by administering a 75-g glucose tolerance test. A number of the food groups appear to have a protective effect in regard to IGT and diabetes, including vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.41, confidence interval (CI) = 0.18-0.91], breakfast foods (OR = 0.41, CI = 0.18-0. 93) and hot meal foods (OR = 0.29, CI = 0.11-0.78). Most of these foods are relatively high in fiber and low in fat. High consumption of junk foods and the bread and butter group was associated with substantial increases in risk for diabetes (OR = 2.40, CI = 1.13-5. 10; OR = 2.22, CI = 1.22-4.41, respectively). These foods tend to be high in simple sugars, low in fiber and high in fat. More fatty methods of food preparation are also associated with increased risk for diabetes in this population (OR = 2.58, CI = 1.11-6.02). This information has been incorporated into an ongoing community-based diabetes prevention program in the community.

  8. [Food consumption and the nutritional status of schoolchildren of the Community of Madrid (CAENPE): general methodology and overall food consumption. Consumo de alimentos y estado nutricional de la población escolar].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; de Cos, A I; Martínez, P; Jaunsolo, M A; Román, E; Gómez, C; López, T; Hernáez, I; Seijas, V; Ramos, V

    1995-01-01

    The CAENPE study (Food Consumption and Nutritional State of the School Population) was a transversal observational study funded and promoted by the Directorate-General of Food Hygiene in the Ministry of Health, implemented in 1991-93, with the main aim of quantifying food consumption in the school population (6-14 years of age) in the Regional Community of Madrid, together with an anthropometric study and nutritional analysis of that population. This project sets our the General Methodology for the study, paying particular attention to the sampling design, to ensure that the sample is representative of the community, and the results of the overall consumption of food and its comparison with recommended diet and other population studies. Quantification shows a high and rising consumption of meat, meat products, sweets, snacks and prepared dishes, suitable consumption of eggs, legumes and fruit and a notable lack of greens, vegetables and potatoes. The basic results underline the need to introduce educational measures with practical effect on home and school menus.

  9. Oral fat perception is related with body mass index, preference and consumption of high-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina R; López-Díaz, José A; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Angulo, Ofelia

    2014-04-22

    Oral sensory perception may play an important role in food preferences, driving food intake and energy balance. Fat perceived in oral cavity has been associated with satiety and homeostatic signals. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that fat oral-intensity perception may be associated with BMI, food preferences and consumption of fat-rich foods. The ability to perceive linoleic acid at different concentrations by intensity scaling was measured in young adults (n=121), characterized by anthropometric measurements such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and total body fat (TBF) percentage. Additionally, dietary habits were recorded online during 35days using a questionnaire designed according to the 24-hour recall and the food diary methods. Finally, food preferences were evaluated online using a nine-point hedonic scale. Taste sensitivity (intensity scaling with suprathreshold concentrations) was estimated with different linoleic acid concentrations using a linear scale of 150mm labeled at the ends. Four groups were established after the ratings for oral-intensity perception of linoleic acid: quartile high ratings (QH), quartile medium-high ratings (QMH), quartile medium-low ratings (QML) and quartile low ratings (QL). Participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) had lower BMI (p=0.04) and waist circumference (WC) (p=0.03) values than participants in the QL group. High-fat foods (foods with more than 20% of energy from lipids such as fast foods and Mexican street foods) were less preferred by participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) than by participants with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings (p<0.01). Also, participants with high-intensity ratings for linoleic acid (QH) presented lower consumption of high-fat foods like fast foods (p=0.04) and Mexican street foods (p=0.03) than subjects with medium- (QMH, QML) and low-(QL) intensity ratings. Overall, these data suggest that

  10. Calculation: Values and Consumption Rates of Locally Produced Food and Tap Water for the Receptor of Interest

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bland

    2000-07-31

    This calculation produces standard statistical data on the consumption of locally produced food and tap water. The results of this calculation provide input parameters for the GENII-S (Leigh et al. 1993) computer code to support calculation of Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF) for the nominal performance (groundwater contamination) scenario and the volcanic eruption (contamination of soil by volcanic ash deposition) scenario. The requirement and parameters for these data are identified in ''Identification Of The Critical Group (Consumption Of Locally Produced Food And Tap Water)'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Development Plan for Calculation: Values and Consumption Rates of Locally Produced Food and Tap Water for the Receptor of Interest'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b).

  11. Feeding periodicity, diet composition, and food consumption of subyearling rainbow trout in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Although winter is a critically important period for stream salmonids, aspects of the ecology of several species are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined the diel feeding ecology of subyearling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during winter in a central New York stream. Rainbow trout diet was significantly different during each 4-h interval and also differed from the drift and benthos. Feeding was significantly greater during darkness (i.e. 20:00 h – 04:00 h) than during daylight hours (i.e. 08:00 h – 16:00 h), peaking at 20:00 h. Daily food consumption (1.9 mg) and daily ration (3.4 %) during winter were substantially lower than previously reported for subyearling rainbow trout in the same stream during summer. These findings provide important new insights into the winter feeding ecology of juvenile rainbow trout in streams.

  12. Quinalphos induced alteration in respiratory rate and food consumption of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Muttappa, K; Reddy, H R V; Rajesh, Mridula; Padmanabha, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute toxicity of commercial grade organophosphate insecticide, quinalphos (25% emulsified concentration) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was tested through bioassay. The acute toxicity of quinalphos to the fingerlings exposed for 96 hr was found to be 2.75 ppm. For sub lethal toxicity study, the fish were exposed to two concentration viz., 1/10th of LC50 (0.275 ppm) and 1/5th of LC50 (0.55 ppm) along with lethal concentration (2.75 ppm) as reference for 48 hr. The carps were under stress and mortality was insignificant in both sub lethal and lethal concentrations. However, considerable variation in respiration rate and food consumption rate was observed in both lethal and sublethal concentrations. The alteration observed in the physiological condition may be a consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological stress by fish against quinalphos.

  13. Contribution of take-out food consumption to socioeconomic differences in fruit and vegetable intake: a mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin

    2011-10-01

    Lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups has been well documented, and may be a consequence of a higher consumption of take-out foods. This study examined whether, and to what extent, take-out food consumption mediated (explained) the association between socioeconomic position and F/V intake. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted among 1,500 randomly selected adults aged 25 to 64 years in Brisbane, Australia, during 2009 (response rate 63.7%, N=903). A food frequency questionnaire assessed usual daily servings of F/V (0 to 6), overall take-out consumption (times per week), and the consumption of 22 specific take-out items (never to once per day or more). These specific take-out items were grouped into "less healthy" and "healthy" choices and indexes were created for each type of choice (0 to 100). Socioeconomic position was ascertained by education. The analyses were performed using linear regression, and a bootstrap resampling approach estimated the statistical significance of the mediated effects. Mean daily servings of F/V were 1.89±1.05 and 2.47±1.12, respectively. The least educated group members were more likely to consume fewer servings of fruit (β= -.39, P<0.001) and vegetables (β= -.43, P<0.001) compared with members of the highest educated group. The consumption of "less healthy" take-out food partly explained (mediated) education differences in F/V intake; however, no mediating effects were observed for overall and "healthy" take-out consumption. Regular consumption of "less healthy" take-out items may contribute to socioeconomic differences in F/V intake, possibly by displacing these foods.

  14. CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL FOODS AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER RISK: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Moore, Dirk F.; Gifkins, Dina M.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes and quantifies the current evidence relating dietary intake of animal products and endometrial cancer. Literature searches were conducted to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to December 2006. Twenty-two manuscripts from three cohort studies and 16 case-control studies were identified. One of these cohort studies evaluated only fried meat and another only milk consumption; they were not included in our meta-analyses. The third cohort study identified did not present exposure levels and could not be included in dose-response meta-analysis. This cohort study did not show an association with meat or red meat consumption. Random-effects dose-response summary estimates for case-control studies evaluating these foods were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.54) per 100 g/day of total meat, 1.51 (95% CI: 1.19–1.93) per 100 g/day of red meat, 1.03 (95% CI: 0.32–3.28) per 100 g/day of poultry, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.55–1.98) per 100 g/day of fish, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93–1.01) per serving of dairy. Our meta-analysis, based on case-control data, suggests that meat consumption, particularly red meat, increases endometrial cancer risk. The current literature does not support an association with dairy products, while the evidence is inconsistent for poultry, fish, and eggs. More studies, particularly prospective studies, are needed. PMID:17638104

  15. Commercial complementary food consumption is prospectively associated with added sugar intake in childhood.

    PubMed

    Foterek, Kristina; Buyken, Anette E; Bolzenius, Katja; Hilbig, Annett; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Given that commercial complementary food (CF) can contain high levels of added sugar, a high consumption may predispose to a preference for sweet taste later in life. This study examined cross-sectional associations between commercial CF consumption and added sugar intake in infancy as well as its prospective relation to added sugar intake in pre-school and primary-school age children. In all, 288 children of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with 3-d weighed dietary records at 0·5 and 0·75 (infancy), 3 and 4 (pre-school age) and 6 and 7 years of age (primary-school age) were included in this analysis. Individual commercial CF