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  1. Factors affecting recovery of postoperative bowel function after pediatric laparoscopic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Daphnée; Andreu-Gallien, Juliette; Skhiri, Alia; Bonnard, Arnaud; Nivoche, Yves; Dahmani, Souhayl

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Laparoscopic pediatric surgery allows a rapid postoperative rehabilitation and hospital discharge. However, the optimal postoperative pain management preserving advantages of this surgical technique remains to be determined. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the postoperative recovery of bowel function after laparoscopic surgery in children. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of factors affecting recovery of bowel function in children and infants undergoing laparoscopic surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2009, was performed. Factors included were: Age, weight, extent of surgery (extensive, regional or local), chronic pain (sickle cell disease or chronic intestinal inflammatory disease), American Society of Anaesthesiologists status, postoperative analgesia (ketamine, morphine, nalbuphine, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], nefopam, regional analgesia) both in the Postanesthesia Care Unit and in the surgical ward; and surgical complications. Data analysis used classification and regression tree analysis (CART) with a 10-fold cross validation. Results: One hundred and sixty six patients were included in the analysis. Recovery of bowel function depended upon: The extent of surgery, the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications, the administration of postoperative morphine in the surgical ward, the coadministration of paracetamol and NSAIDs and/or nefopam in the surgical ward and the emergency character of the surgery. The CART method generated a decision tree with eight terminal nodes. The percentage of explained variability of the model and the cross validation were 58% and 49%, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodal analgesia using nonopioid analgesia that allows decreasing postoperative morphine consumption should be considered for the speed of bowel function recovery after laparoscopic pediatric surgery.

  2. Viewing Nature Scenes Positively Affects Recovery of Autonomic Function Following Acute-Mental Stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor. PMID:23590163

  3. The administration of intermittent parathyroid hormone affects functional recovery from trochanteric fractured neck of femur

    PubMed Central

    Chesser, T. J. S.; Fox, R.; Harding, K.; Halliday, R.; Barnfield, S.; Willett, K.; Lamb, S.; Yau, C.; Javaid, M. K.; Gray, A. C.; Young, J.; Taylor, H.; Shah, K.; Greenwood, R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We wished to assess the feasibility of a future randomised controlled trial of parathyroid hormone (PTH) supplements to aid healing of trochanteric fractures of the hip, by an open label prospective feasibility and pilot study with a nested qualitative sub study. This aimed to inform the design of a future powered study comparing the functional recovery after trochanteric hip fracture in patients undergoing standard care, versus those who undergo administration of subcutaneous injection of PTH for six weeks. Patients and Methods We undertook a pilot study comparing the functional recovery after trochanteric hip fracture in patients 60 years or older, admitted with a trochanteric hip fracture, and potentially eligible to be randomised to either standard care or the administration of subcutaneous PTH for six weeks. Our desired outcomes were functional testing and measures to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the study. Results A total of 724 patients were screened, of whom 143 (20%) were eligible for recruitment. Of these, 123 were approached and 29 (4%) elected to take part. However, seven patients did not complete the study. Compliance with the injections was 11 out of 15 (73%) showing the intervention to be acceptable and feasible in this patient population. Take home message: Only 4% of patients who met the inclusion criteria were both eligible and willing to consent to a study involving injections of PTH, so delivering this study on a large scale would carry challenges in recruitment and retention. Methodological and sample size planning would have to take this into account. PTH administration to patients to enhance fracture healing should still be considered experimental. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:840–5. PMID:27235530

  4. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Qi, A; Lin, C; Zhou, A; Du, J; Jia, X; Sun, L; Zhang, G; Zhang, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  5. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Qi, A.; Lin, C.; Zhou, A.; Du, J.; Jia, X.; Sun, L.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL) and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S), Knee Society Score (KSS), and HRQL (SF-36). At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05). SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001). Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS) scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score) (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05). Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI), and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05). The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05), but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05). The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05). In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions. PMID:26577843

  6. Recovery of Heat Treated Bacillus cereus Spores Is Affected by Matrix Composition and Factors with Putative Functions in Damage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Warda, Alicja K.; Tempelaars, Marcel H.; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of spores to recover and grow out after food processing is affected by cellular factors and by the outgrowth conditions. In the current communication we studied the recovery and outgrowth of individually sorted spores in BHI and rice broth media and on agar plates using flow cytometry. We show that recovery of wet heat treated Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 spores is affected by matrix composition with highest recovery in BHI broth or on rice agar plates, compared to BHI agar plates and rice broth. Data show that not only media composition but also its liquid or solid state affect the recovery of heat treated spores. To determine the impact of factors with putative roles in recovery of heat treated spores, specific genes previously shown to be highly expressed in outgrowing heat-treated spores were selected for mutant construction. Spores of nine B. cereus ATCC 14579 deletion mutants were obtained and their recovery from wet heat treatment was evaluated using BHI and rice broth and agar plates. Deletion mutant spores showed different capacity to recover from heat treatment compared to wild type with the most pronounced effect for a mutant lacking BC5242, a gene encoding a membrane protein with C2C2 zinc finger which resulted in over 95% reduction in recovery compared to the wild type in BHI broth. Notably, similar relative performance of wild type and mutants was observed using the other recovery conditions. We obtained insights on the impact of matrix composition and state on recovery of individually sorted heat treated spores and identified cellular factors with putative roles in this process. These results may provide leads for future developments in design of more efficient combined preservation treatments. PMID:27486443

  7. Recovery of Heat Treated Bacillus cereus Spores Is Affected by Matrix Composition and Factors with Putative Functions in Damage Repair.

    PubMed

    Warda, Alicja K; Tempelaars, Marcel H; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N

    2016-01-01

    The ability of spores to recover and grow out after food processing is affected by cellular factors and by the outgrowth conditions. In the current communication we studied the recovery and outgrowth of individually sorted spores in BHI and rice broth media and on agar plates using flow cytometry. We show that recovery of wet heat treated Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 spores is affected by matrix composition with highest recovery in BHI broth or on rice agar plates, compared to BHI agar plates and rice broth. Data show that not only media composition but also its liquid or solid state affect the recovery of heat treated spores. To determine the impact of factors with putative roles in recovery of heat treated spores, specific genes previously shown to be highly expressed in outgrowing heat-treated spores were selected for mutant construction. Spores of nine B. cereus ATCC 14579 deletion mutants were obtained and their recovery from wet heat treatment was evaluated using BHI and rice broth and agar plates. Deletion mutant spores showed different capacity to recover from heat treatment compared to wild type with the most pronounced effect for a mutant lacking BC5242, a gene encoding a membrane protein with C2C2 zinc finger which resulted in over 95% reduction in recovery compared to the wild type in BHI broth. Notably, similar relative performance of wild type and mutants was observed using the other recovery conditions. We obtained insights on the impact of matrix composition and state on recovery of individually sorted heat treated spores and identified cellular factors with putative roles in this process. These results may provide leads for future developments in design of more efficient combined preservation treatments. PMID:27486443

  8. Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fuglø, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

  9. Can landscape memory affect vegetation recovery in drylands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baartman, Jantiene; Garcia Mayor, Angeles; Temme, Arnaud; Rietkerk, Max

    2016-04-01

    Dryland ecosystems are water-limited and therefore vegetation typically forms banded or patchy patterns with high vegetation cover, interspersed with bare soil areas. In these systems, a runoff-runon system is often observed with bare areas acting as sources and vegetation patches acting as sinks of water, sediment and other transported substances. These fragile ecosystems are easily disturbed by overgrazing, removing above-ground vegetation. To avoid desertification, vegetation recovery after a disturbance is crucial. This poster discusses the potential of 'landscape memory' to affect the vegetation recovery potential. Landscape memory, originating in geomorphology, is the concept that a landscape is the result of its past history, which it 'remembers' through imprints left in the landscape. For example, a past heavy rainstorm may leave an erosion gully. These imprints affect the landscape's contemporary functioning, for example through faster removal of water from the landscape. In dryland ecosystems vegetation is known to affect the soil properties of the soil they grow in, e.g. increasing porosity, infiltration, organic matter content and soil structure. After a disturbance of the banded ecosystem, e.g. by overgrazing, this pattern of soil properties - favourable for regrowth, stays in the landscape. However, removal of the above-ground vegetation also leads to longer runoff pathways and increased rill and gully erosion, which may hamper vegetation regrowth. I hypothesize that vegetation recovery after a disturbance, depends on the balance between these two contrasting types of landscape memory (i.e. favourable soil properties and erosion rills/gullies).

  10. Recovery in schizophrenia: focus on neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Goland, Etel; Storozhakova, Yaina A

    2012-09-01

    Recovery encompasses symptom remission and functional elements such as cognition, social functioning and quality of life. Personal recovery is also important in illness management to help the person stay on track with treatment and focus on activities unrelated to taking medication that maintain mental health. In the present study we aimed to identify neurocognitive functioning in two clinically stable groups of patients with personal recovery and non-recovered patients. The results showered generalized cognitive deficits in both groups while the non-recovery group was more impaired in verbal and visual memory, acoustic and tactile gnosis and neurodynamics and executing functioning. Interestingly the recovery group demonstrated lack of programming of actions and sufficient error monitoring and self-correction whereas the non-recovery group was significantly more impaired in all executive domains. The obtained results could be beneficial in identifying a target for psychosocial treatments and specifically cognitive remediation for patients with schizophrenia to facilitate the process of recovery. PMID:22945216

  11. Recovery rate affects the effective epidemic threshold with synchronous updating.

    PubMed

    Shu, Panpan; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Accurate identification of effective epidemic threshold is essential for understanding epidemic dynamics on complex networks. In this paper, we systematically study how the recovery rate affects the susceptible-infected-removed spreading dynamics on complex networks, where synchronous and asynchronous updating processes are taken into account. We derive the theoretical effective epidemic threshold and final outbreak size based on the edge-based compartmental theory. To validate the proposed theoretical predictions, extensive numerical experiments are implemented by using asynchronous and synchronous updating methods. When asynchronous updating method is used in simulations, recovery rate does not affect the final state of spreading dynamics. But with synchronous updating, we find that the effective epidemic threshold decreases with recovery rate, and final outbreak size increases with recovery rate. A good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the numerical results are observed on both synthetic and real-world networks. Our results extend the existing theoretical studies and help us to understand the phase transition with arbitrary recovery rate. PMID:27368773

  12. Maximising functional recovery following hip fracture in frail seniors.

    PubMed

    Beaupre, Lauren A; Binder, Ellen F; Cameron, Ian D; Jones, C Allyson; Orwig, Denise; Sherrington, Cathie; Magaziner, Jay

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses factors affecting recovery following hip fracture in frail older people as well as interventions associated with improved functional recovery. Prefracture function, cognitive status, co-morbidities, depression, nutrition and social support impact recovery and may interact to affect post-fracture outcome. There is mounting evidence that exercise is beneficial following hip fracture with higher-intensity/duration programmes showing more promising outcomes. Pharmacologic management for osteoporosis has benefits in preventing further fractures, and interest is growing in pharmacologic treatments for post-fracture loss of muscle mass and strength. A growing body of evidence suggests that sub-populations - those with cognitive impairment, residing in nursing homes or males - also benefit from rehabilitation after hip fracture. Optimal post-fracture care may entail the use of multiple interventions; however, more work is needed to determine optimal exercise components, duration and intensity as well as exploring the impact of multimodal interventions that combine exercise, pharmacology, nutrition and other interventions. PMID:24836335

  13. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  14. Recovery of hand function through mental practice: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ietswaart, Magdalena; Johnston, Marie; Dijkerman, H Chris; Scott, Clare L; Joice, Sara A; Hamilton, Steven; MacWalter, Ronald S

    2006-01-01

    Background The study aims to assess the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery training in stroke patients with persistent motor weakness. There is evidence to suggest that mental rehearsal of movement can produce effects normally attributed to practising the actual movements. Imagining hand movements could stimulate the redistribution of brain activity, which accompanies recovery of hand function, thus resulting in a reduced motor deficit. Methods/Design A multi-centre randomised controlled trial recruiting individuals between one and six months post-stroke (n = 135). Patients are assessed before and after a four-week evaluation period. In this trial, 45 patients daily mentally rehearse movements with their affected arm under close supervision. Their recovery is compared to 45 patients who perform closely supervised non-motor mental rehearsal, and 45 patients who are not engaged in a training program. Motor imagery training effectiveness is evaluated using outcome measures of motor function, psychological processes, and level of disability. Discussion The idea of enhancing motor recovery through the use of motor imagery rehabilitation techniques is important with potential implications for clinical practice. The techniques evaluated as part of this randomised controlled trial are informed by the current understanding in cognitive neuroscience and the trial is both of scientific and applied interest. PMID:17067370

  15. Negative affective experiences in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery.

    PubMed

    Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this

  16. Recovery of impaired muscle function in severe sciatica.

    PubMed

    Balagué, F; Nordin, M; Sheikhzadeh, A; Echegoyen, A C; Skovron, M L; Bech, H; Chassot, D; Helsen, M

    2001-06-01

    This is a prospective cohort study of patients with acute treated severe sciatica. The objectives of the study are, firstly, to describe the recovery of muscle performance by manual and isokinetic muscle testing in patients with acute severe sciatica over 1 year, and secondly, to discuss the potential clinical relevance of the isokinetic testing of the ankle for patients with acute sciatica. In clinical daily practice, muscle performance is evaluated by means of isometric manual tests. Different authors using manual muscle tests have reported the long-term outcome of the muscle function in patients with sciatica. Overall, the results are good in terms of the recovery of muscle strength. However, it is not clear whether the isometric strength is sufficiently relevant to evaluate the more complete muscle performance of the affected muscles in patients with sciatica. This study presents data on the muscle recovery measured with manual testing and isokinetic testing of patients with severe sciatica. Consecutive patients admitted to the Cantonal Hospital for conservative management of severe acute sciatica were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were evaluated at admission, discharge, and follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. All the visits included a standardized clinical examination and the completion of questionnaires. Imaging and electromyography were conducted at the first visit. Isokinetic muscle tests at 30 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s were performed at discharge and follow-up visits. Manual and isokinetic tests were performed on foot and ankle flexor and extensor muscles. Eighty-two consecutive patients (66% men), with a mean age of 43 (+/-10.3) years, entered the study. The prevalence of major muscle weakness was low, with 7% of patients unable to perform toe walking and 11% unable to walk on the heel at visit one. Moreover, motor deficit defined as a score of 4 or less (out of 5) was found in 15% of subjects at the first evaluation. Such severe deficits

  17. Renal function recovery in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jay K; Folkert, Vaughn W

    2010-01-01

    Renal function recovery (RFR) from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis occurs at a high frequency. RFR from chronic dialysis, on the other hand, is an uncommon but well-recognized phenomenon, occurring at a rate of 1.0-2.4% according to data from large observational studies. The underlying etiology of renal failure is the single most important predicting factor of RFR in chronic dialysis patients. The disease types with the highest RFR rates are atheroembolic renal disease, systemic autoimmune disease, renovascular diseases, and scleroderma. The disease types with the lowest RFR rates are diabetic nephropathy and cystic kidney disease. Initial dialysis modality does not appear to influence RFR. Careful observation and history taking are needed to recognize the often nonspecific clinical and laboratory signs of RFR. When RFR is suspected in a chronic dialysis patient, a 24-hour urine urea and creatinine clearance should be measured. Based on the renal clearance, along with other clinical factors, the dialysis prescription may be gradually reduced until a complete discontinuation of dialysis. After RFR from maintenance dialysis, patients require close follow-up in an office setting for chronic kidney disease management. PMID:21166875

  18. Plasticity and functional recovery in neurology.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on patients with phantom limbs suggest that neural connections in the adult human brain are much more malleable than previously assumed. Three weeks after amputation of an arm, sensations from the ipsilateral face are referred to the phantom; this effect is caused by the sensory input from the face skin 'invading' and activating deafferented hand zones in the cortex and thalamus. Many phantom arms are 'paralysed' in a painful position. If a mirror is propped vertically in the sagittal plane and the patient looks at the reflection of his/her normal hand, this reflection appears superimposed on the 'felt' position of the phantom. Remarkably, if the real arm is moved, the phantom is felt to move as well and this sometimes relieves the painful cramps in the phantom. Mirror visual feedback (MVF) has shown promising results with chronic regional pain syndrome and hemiparesis following stroke. These results suggest two reasons for a paradigm shift in neurorehabilitation. First, there appears to be tremendous latent plasticity even in the adult brain. Second, the brain should be thought of, not as a hierarchy of organised autonomous modules, each of which delivers its output to the next level, but as a set of complex interacting networks that are in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the brain's environment. Both principles can be potentially exploited in a clinical context to facilitate recovery of function. PMID:16138492

  19. Recovery in skeletal muscle contractile function after prolonged hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Brimmer, C. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of three-month hindlimb immobilization (IM) in rats on contractile properties of slow-twitch soleus (SOL), fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus, and fast-twitch superficial region of the vastus lateralis were measured after 0, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days of recovery on excized, horizontally suspended muscles stimulated electrically to maximal twitch tension. IM caused decreases in muscle-to-body weight ratios for all muscles, with no complete recovery even after 90 days. The contractile properties of the fast-twitch muscles were less affected by IM than those of the slow-twitch SOL. The SOL isometric twitch duration was shortened, due to reduced contraction and half-relaxation time, both of which returned to control levels after 14 days of recovery. The peak tetanic tension, P(O), g/sq cm,, decreased with IM by 46 percent in the SOL, but recovered by the 28th day. The maximum shortening velocity was not altered by IM in any of the muscles. Thus, normal contractile function could recover after prolonged limb IM.

  20. Socioeconomic factors affecting local support for black bear recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Morzillo, Anita T; Mertig, Angela G; Hollister, Jeffrey W; Garner, Nathan; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-06-01

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species' historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery strategies prior to public release of a black bear conservation and management plan for eastern Texas, United States. Data were collected from 1,006 residents living in proximity to potential recovery locations, particularly Big Thicket National Preserve. In addition to traditional logistic regression analysis, we used conditional probability analysis to statistically and visually evaluate probabilities of public support for potential black bear recovery strategies based on socioeconomic characteristics. Allowing black bears to repopulate the region on their own (i.e., without active reintroduction) was the recovery strategy with the greatest probability of acceptance. Recovery strategy acceptance was influenced by many socioeconomic factors. Older and long-time local residents were most likely to want to exclude black bears from the area. Concern about the problems that black bears may cause was the only variable significantly related to support or non-support across all strategies. Lack of personal knowledge about black bears was the most frequent reason for uncertainty about preferred strategy. In order to reduce local uncertainty about possible recovery strategies, we suggest that wildlife managers focus outreach efforts on providing local residents with general information about black bears, as well as information pertinent to minimizing the potential for human-black bear conflict. PMID:20401658

  1. Herbivory affects salt marsh succession dynamics by suppressing the recovery of dominant species.

    PubMed

    Daleo, Pedro; Alberti, Juan; Pascual, Jesús; Canepuccia, Alejandro; Iribarne, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    Disturbance can generate heterogeneous environments and profoundly influence plant diversity by creating patches at different successional stages. Herbivores, in turn, can govern plant succession dynamics by determining the rate of species replacement, ultimately affecting plant community structure. In a south-western Atlantic salt marsh, we experimentally evaluated the role of herbivory in the recovery following disturbance of the plant community and assessed whether herbivory affects the relative importance of sexual and clonal reproduction on these dynamics. Our results show that herbivory strongly affects salt marsh secondary succession by suppressing seedlings and limiting clonal colonization of the dominant marsh grass, allowing subordinate species to dominate disturbed patches. These results demonstrate that herbivores can have an important role in salt marsh community structure and function, and can be a key force during succession dynamics. PMID:24549938

  2. Higher Education as the Catalyst of Recovery in Conflict-Affected Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sansom; Barakat, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of higher education in the recovery of conflict-affected societies and argues that while the sector is typically a very low reconstruction priority, it has the potential, if addressed strategically, to act as a catalyst for effective and sustainable post-war recovery. The article begins by contextualising higher…

  3. How mental stress affects endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Toda, Noboru; Nakanishi-Toda, Megumi

    2011-12-01

    Mental stress is an important factor contributing to recognized mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events. Among these, stress-related endothelial dysfunction is an early risk factor that predicts future development of severe cardiovascular disorders. Acute mental stress by a variety of tests impairs endothelial function in humans, although the opposite results have been reported by some investigators. Chronic stress always deteriorates endothelial function in humans and experimental animals. Stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1 liberated in response to mental stress participate in endothelial dysfunction possibly via downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, eNOS inactivation, decreased nitric oxide (NO) actions, and increased NO degradation, together with vasoconstriction counteracting against NO-induced vasodilatation. Catecholamines do not directly affect endothelial function but impair its function when blood pressure elevation by the amines is sustained. Endogenous opioids favorably affect endothelial function, which counteract deteriorating effects of other stress hormones and mediators. Inhibition of cortisol and endothelin-1 production, prevention of pro-inflammatory mediator accumulation, hypnotics, mirthful laughter, humor orientation, and lifestyle modification would contribute to the prevention and treatment for stress-related endothelial dysfunction and future serious cardiovascular disease. PMID:21947555

  4. Recovery of Olfactory Function following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Kathleen; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki

    2016-04-15

    There is increasing evidence that disruption of olfactory function after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common. Olfactory dysfunction (OD) has been linked to significant functional implications in areas of health, safety, and quality of life, but longitudinal research investigating olfactory recovery is limited. This study aimed to investigate recovery trajectories for olfaction following pediatric TBI and explore predictors of early and late olfactory outcomes. The olfactory function of 37 children with TBI ages 8-16 years was assessed on average at 1.5, 8.0, and 18.0 months post-injury using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. A significant improvement in olfactory performance was seen over time in those with acute OD, however, only 16% of those with the most severe OD showed recovery to normal olfactory function, with the remainder demonstrating ongoing olfactory impairment at the 18 month follow-up. Predictors of early (0-3 month) and late (18 month) olfactory outcomes varied with site of impact, a significant predictor of later olfactory performance. In summary, while there was evidence of recovery of OD over time in pediatric TBI, the majority of children with severe OD did not show any recovery. In light of limited recovery of function for more severely affected children, the importance of appropriate education and implementation of rehabilitation management strategies is highlighted. PMID:26413938

  5. Recovery of Motor Function After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nikhil; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2016-01-01

    The human brain possesses a remarkable ability to adapt in response to changing anatomical (e.g., aging) or environmental modifications. This form of neuroplasticity is important at all stages of life but is critical in neurological disorders such as amblyopia and stroke. This review focuses upon our new understanding of possible mechanisms underlying functional deficits evidenced after adult-onset stroke. We review the functional interactions between different brain regions that may contribute to motor disability after stroke and, based on this information, possible interventional approaches to motor stroke disability. New information now points to the involvement of non-primary motor areas and their interaction with the primary motor cortex as areas of interest. The emergence of this new information is likely to impact new efforts to develop more effective neurorehabilitative interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that may be relevant to other neurological disorders such as amblyopia. PMID:22415914

  6. Estrogen treatment affects brain functioning after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Sex hormones have powerful neuromodulatory effects on functional brain organization and cognitive functioning. This paper reviews findings from studies investigating the influence of sex hormones in postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy (HT). Functional brain organization was investigated using different behavioural tasks in postmenopausal women using either estrogen therapy or combined estrogen plus gestagen therapy and age- and IQ-matched postmenopausal women not taking HT. The results revealed HT-related modulations in specific aspects of functional brain organization including functional cerebral asymmetries and interhemispheric interaction. In contrast to younger women during the menstrual cycle, however, it seems that HT, and especially estrogen therapy, after menopause affects intrahemispheric processing rather than interhemispheric interaction. This might be explained by a faster and more pronounced age-related decline in intrahemispheric relative to interhemispheric functioning, which might be associated with higher sensitivity to HT. Taken together, the findings suggest that the female brain retains its plasticity even after reproductive age and remains susceptible to the effects of sex hormones throughout the lifetime, which might help to discover new clinical approaches in the hormonal treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22120942

  7. Hope and Abstinence Self-Efficacy: Positive Predictors of Negative Affect in Substance Abuse Recovery

    PubMed Central

    May, Emily M.; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Ferrari, Joseph; Noel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Goal-oriented thinking, including hope and self-efficacy, might play a constructive and integral role in the substance abuse recovery process, although such an effect may differ by race. The current study investigated hope and self-efficacy, specifically abstinence self-efficacy, as predictors of negative affect (i.e. depression and anxiety) in a longitudinal sample of men and women in substance abuse recovery who lived in sober living homes. We found hope agency and self-efficacy were related but not identical constructs; hope agency and self-efficacy predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms for individuals in recovery, yet these relationships were moderated by race. Theoretical and clinical implications for promoting positive affect among individuals in substance abuse recovery are discussed. PMID:25990539

  8. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  9. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P < 0.001) and eliminated all but remnants of vestibular activity. Virtually complete physiological recovery occurred in all animals studied over a period of 70 days following treatment. Thresholds recovered within two weeks of drug treatment whereas the return of response morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  10. Recovery time course in contractile function of fast and slow skeletal muscle after hindlimb immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Kim, D. H.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the time course and extent of recovery in the isometric and isotonic contractile properties of fast and slow skeletal muscle following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to an immobilized group or a control group. The results of the study show that fast and slow skeletal muscles possess the ability to completely recover normal contractile function following 6 wk of hindlimb immobilization. The rate of recovery is dependent on the fiber type composition of the affected muscle.

  11. The timing and amount of vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training affect post-stroke recovery of forelimb strength

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Seth A.; Khodaparast, Navid; Ruiz, Andrea; Sloan, Andrew M.; Hulsey, Daniel R.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of upper arm strength after stroke is a leading cause of disability. Strategies that can enhance the benefits of rehabilitative training could improve motor function after stroke. Recent studies in a rat model of ischemic stroke demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training substantially improves recovery of forelimb strength compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS. Here we report that the timing and amount of stimulation affect the degree of forelimb strength recovery. Similar amounts of delayed VNS delivered two hours after daily rehabilitative training sessions resulted in significantly less improvement compared to VNS that is paired with identical rehabilitative training. Significantly less recovery also occurred when several-fold more VNS was delivered during rehabilitative training. Both delayed and additional VNS confer moderately improved recovery compared to extensive rehabilitative training without VNS, but fail to enhance recovery to the same degree as VNS that is timed to occur with successful movements. These findings confirm that VNS paired with rehabilitative training holds promise for restoring forelimb strength post-stroke and indicate that both the timing and amount of VNS should be optimized to maximize therapeutic benefits. PMID:24818637

  12. Daidzein Augments Cholesterol Homeostasis via ApoE to Promote Functional Recovery in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee; Woo, Moon-Sook; Qin, Luye; Ma, Thong; Beltran, Cesar D.; Bao, Yi; Bailey, Jason A.; Corbett, Dale; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the world's leading cause of physiological disability, but there are currently no available agents that can be delivered early after stroke to enhance recovery. Daidzein, a soy isoflavone, is a clinically approved agent that has a neuroprotective effect in vitro, and it promotes axon growth in an animal model of optic nerve crush. The current study investigates the efficacy of daidzein on neuroprotection and functional recovery in a clinically relevant mouse model of stroke recovery. In light of the fact that cholesterols are essential lipid substrates in injury-induced synaptic remodeling, we found that daidzein enhanced the cholesterol homeostasis genetic program, including Lxr and downstream transporters, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1 genes in vitro. Daidzein also elevated the cholesterol homeostasis genes in the poststroke brain with Apoe, the highest expressing transporter, but did not affect infarct volume or hemispheric swelling. Despite the absence of neuroprotection, daidzein improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke and elevated synaptophysin expression. However, the daidzein-enhanced functional benefits and synaptophysin expression were abolished in Apoe-knock-out mice, suggesting the importance of daidzein-induced ApoE upregulation in fostering stroke recovery. Dissociation between daidzein-induced functional benefits and the absence of neuroprotection further suggest the presence of nonoverlapping mechanisms underlying recovery processes versus acute pathology. With its known safety in humans, early and chronic use of daidzein aimed at augmenting ApoE may serve as a novel, translatable strategy to promote functional recovery in stroke patients without adverse acute effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There have been recurring translational failures in treatment strategies for stroke. One underlying issue is the disparity in outcome analysis between animal and clinical studies. The former mainly depends on acute infarct size, whereas long

  13. We Are All Affected: Considering the Recovery of HIV/AIDS Infected and Affected Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carla

    2008-01-01

    This essay acknowledges that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has created entire communities for whom loss has become a common and a shared experience. As a result of this impact of HIV/AIDS, several questions surface. However, the one question upon which this essay focuses is, "What type of environment is required for children infected and affected by…

  14. Hyperinsulinemia adversely affects lung structure and function.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suchita; Bodas, Manish; Bhatraju, Naveen K; Pattnaik, Bijay; Gheware, Atish; Parameswaran, Praveen Kolumam; Thompson, Michael; Freeman, Michelle; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Gosens, Reinoud; Ghosh, Balaram; Pabelick, Christina; Linneberg, Allan; Prakash, Y S; Agrawal, Anurag

    2016-05-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding the consequences of hyperinsulinemia on the lung. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and epidemiological associations with asthma, this is a critical lacuna, more so with inhaled insulin on the horizon. Here, we demonstrate that insulin can adversely affect respiratory health. Insulin treatment (1 μg/ml) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proliferation of primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and induced collagen release. Additionally, ASM cells showed a significant increase in calcium response and mitochondrial respiration upon insulin exposure. Mice administered intranasal insulin showed increased collagen deposition in the lungs as well as a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K/Akt mediated activation of β-catenin, a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of insulin-treated mice and lung cells. Our data suggests that hyperinsulinemia may have adverse effects on airway structure and function. Insulin-induced activation of β-catenin in lung tissue and the contractile effects on ASM cells may be causally related to the development of asthma-like phenotype. PMID:26919895

  15. Sensorimotor integration for functional recovery and the Bobath approach.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mindy F; Panturin, Elia

    2011-04-01

    Bobath therapy is used to treat patients with neurological disorders. Bobath practitioners use hands-on approaches to elicit and reestablish typical movement patterns through therapist-controlled sensorimotor experiences within the context of task accomplishment. One aspect of Bobath practice, the recovery of sensorimotor function, is reviewed within the framework of current motor control theories. We focus on the role of sensory information in movement production, the relationship between posture and movement and concepts related to motor recovery and compensation with respect to this therapeutic approach. We suggest that a major barrier to the evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of the Bobath concept is the lack of a unified framework for both experimental identification and treatment of neurological motor deficits. More conclusive analysis of therapeutic effectiveness requires the development of specific outcomes that measure movement quality. PMID:21628730

  16. Embedded pupil function recovery for Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Xiaoze; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We develop and test a pupil function determination algorithm, termed embedded pupil function recovery (EPRY), which can be incorporated into the Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) algorithm and recover both the Fourier spectrum of sample and the pupil function of imaging system simultaneously. This EPRY-FPM algorithm eliminates the requirement of the previous FPM algorithm for a priori knowledge of the aberration in the imaging system to reconstruct a high quality image. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of this algorithm by reconstructing high resolution, large field-of-view images of biological samples. We also illustrate that the pupil function we retrieve can be used to study the spatially varying aberration of a large field-of-view imaging system. We believe that this algorithm adds more flexibility to FPM and can be a powerful tool for the characterization of an imaging system’s aberration. PMID:24663835

  17. Engagement & Disengagement in Mutual-Help Addiction Recovery Housing: A Test of Affective Events Theory

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Christopher R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement and disengagement in addiction recovery settings are important for these communities and their members. This study tested an Affective Events Theory (AET) model of these constructs in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents’ congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents—citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and how intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory. PMID:25791917

  18. How does the milk removal method affect teat tissue and teat recovery in dairy ewes?

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Manuel; Roca, Amparo; Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study how machine milking (MM) carried out in suitable conditions affects teat wall thickness and teat canal length and their return after milking to pre-milking conditions, in comparison with other milk extraction methods considered biological referents: lamb suckling (LS), milk removal by catheter (RC) and hand milking (HM). Three Latin square experiments were designed, using 11 ewes in the first experiment (LS), 13 in the second (RC) and 12 in the third (HM). Each of the Latin squares was divided into two periods: in the first, the left gland of each animal was machine milked and the corresponding treatment (LS, RC and HM) was applied to the right gland. Subsequently, in the second period the extraction methods were interchanged. During the experimental period, 4 sampling days were carried out (2 in each experimental period), where ultrasound scans were taken before (B) and immediately after milking (A) and at 1 (1 h), 2 (2 h), 3 (3 h), 4 (4 h), 6 (6 h), 8 (8 h) and 10 (10 h) hours after milking finished. Teat wall thickness (TWT), teat wall area (TWA), teat end area (TEWA) and teat canal length (TCL) were measured in all the ultrasound images. MM increased TWT after milking compared with RC. TWT, TWA, TEWA and TCL were lower (P<0.05) in HM than in MM. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between LS and MM for any variable. The extraction method affected the recovery time of the variables, with total teat recovery at 6 h after RC and 4 h after HM. In the case of LS, the TEWA and TCL values were recovered sooner, as of 3 h. Teat recovery time after MM was similar to the extraction method with which it was compared in each experiment. Thus, considering the similar increase in wall thickness and their recovery time compared with the reference methods, it was concluded that machine milking, carried out in optimum conditions and respecting the time interval between milkings usually applied on sheep farms (8-12 h), would not

  19. Does iron deficiency anemia affect olfactory function?

    PubMed

    Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dizdar, Denizhan; Develioglu, Omer; Topak, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study found a negative effect of IDA on olfactory function. IDA leads to a reduction in olfactory function, and decreases in hemoglobin levels result in further reduction in olfactory function. Objective This study examined the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on olfactory function. Method The study enrolled 50 IDA patients and 50 healthy subjects. Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test. The diagnosis of IDA was made according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Results Patients with IDA had a significantly lower threshold, discrimination, and identification (TDI) value, and a lower threshold compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of smell selectivity values. PMID:26963317

  20. Inosine promotes recovery of skilled motor function in a model of focal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin M; Lunga, Precious; Story, David; Harris, Neil; Le Belle, Janel; James, Michael F; Pickard, John D; Fawcett, James W

    2007-04-01

    Recovery of function following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is partly through neuronal plasticity. However plasticity is limited in the adult CNS compared with young animals. In order to test whether treatments that enhance CNS plasticity might improve functional recovery after TBI, a new rat head injury model was developed, in which a computer-controlled impactor produced full thickness lesions of the forelimb region of the sensorimotor cortex. Behavioural deficits were seen in several sensorimotor tasks, most of which recovered spontaneously by 21 days. However, skilled paw reaching behaviour, a task that requires corticospinal function, was only approximately 40% recovered by 28 days. In order to promote plasticity inosine was infused into the lateral ventricles for 28 days. This treatment produced an almost complete recovery of skilled paw reaching ability, associated with sprouting of the uninjured corticospinal axons across the midline into the territory of the lesioned pathway. In the cervical spinal cord the number of corticospinal axons originating from the uninjured cortex that innervated the contralateral cervical cord was five times that of controls, and in the red nucleus the number of contralaterally projecting axons was four times control values. Inosine treatment did not affect recovery in unskilled behavioural tasks, most of which recovered to normal levels by 28 days without treatment. Animals were placed in an enriched environment as an alternative method to promote plasticity. This resulted in more rapid recovery in several tasks including skilled paw function, but by 28 days normally housed animals had caught up to the same level of improvement. PMID:17293357

  1. Chesapeake Bay recovery and factors affecting trends: Long-termmonitoring, indicators, and insights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the outcome of restoration efforts is the only way to identify the status of a recovery and the most effective management strategies. In this paper, we discuss Chesapeake Bay and watershed recovery and factors influencing water quality trends. For over 30 years, the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership’s long-term tidal and watershed water quality monitoring networks have measured physical, chemical and biological parameters throughout the bay and its surrounding watershed underpinning an adaptive management process to drive ecosystem recovery. There are many natural and anthropogenic factors operating and interacting to affect the watershed and bay water quality recovery responses to management actions. Across habitats and indicators, the bay and its watershed continue to express a diverse spatial and temporal fabric of multiscale conditions, stressors and trends that show a range of health conditions and impairments, as well as evidence of progress and degradation. Recurrent independent reviews of the monitoring program have driven a culture of continued adaptation of the monitoring networks to reflect ever evolving management information needs. The adherence to bay and watershed-wide consistent monitoring protocols provides monitoring data supporting analyses and development of scientific syntheses that underpin indicator and model development, regulatory assessments, targeting of management actions, evaluation of management effectiveness, and directing of priorities and policies.

  2. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-01-01

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy. PMID:27583794

  3. Supplementary motor area deactivation impacts the recovery of hand function from severe peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ye-chen; Liu, Han-qiu; Hua, Xu-yun; Shen, Yun-dong; Xu, Wen-dong; Xu, Jian-guang; Gu, Yu-dong

    2016-01-01

    Although some patients have successful peripheral nerve regeneration, a poor recovery of hand function often occurs after peripheral nerve injury. It is believed that the capability of brain plasticity is crucial for the recovery of hand function. The supplementary motor area may play a key role in brain remodeling after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we explored the activation mode of the supplementary motor area during a motor imagery task. We investigated the plasticity of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury, using the motor imagery task. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that after brachial plexus injury, the motor imagery task for the affected limbs of the patients triggered no obvious activation of bilateral supplementary motor areas. This result indicates that it is difficult to excite the supplementary motor areas of brachial plexus injury patients during a motor imagery task, thereby impacting brain remodeling. Deactivation of the supplementary motor area is likely to be a serious problem for brachial plexus injury patients in terms of preparing, initiating and executing certain movements, which may be partly responsible for the unsatisfactory clinical recovery of hand function. PMID:27212933

  4. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback training for recovery of motor functions deteriorated by stroke.

    PubMed

    Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Rocha, José Antonio Martins da Silva; Silva, Alair Pedro Ribeiro da; Ribeiro, Luiz Henrique Brandão; Marques, Luciene; Siza, Maria Auxiliadora Freire; Silva, Vernon Furtado da

    2013-03-01

    According to World Health Organization, approximately 15 million people are affected by cerebrovascular accident in the world. We study the effect of brain stimulation plus an imaging procedure used as biofeedback training for recovery of motor functions impaired by CVA. Four individuals aged between 33 and 72 years were included in the study, of both genders, with hemiparesis on the left arm due to the CVA. They had their brain activity monitored by EEG. Functional tasks were evaluated according to an observational model proposed by the international classification of functioning and by runtime. The training was composed of 12 sessions of 30 minutes of stimulation by light and sound, as well as imaging procedures. Results revealed that improvements in the performance of the task, with regard to both the runtime and the functional quality of movements, are more related to the increase of effectiveness of neuronal function. PMID:23563715

  5. Engagement and disengagement in mutual-help addiction recovery housing: a test of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory. PMID:25791917

  6. [Stigmatization on the way to recovery in mental illness - the factors associated with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Podogrodzka-Niell, Magdalena; Tyszkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mental disorders often experience stigmatization. There is a number of social factors that may affect the process of recovery and at the same time, in certain circumstances, could be a source of stigma. Mentally ill may find strength in themselves to fight against the disease or the opposite - can internalize the negative attitudes of the society and become self-stigmatized. The patient's family, on the one hand, is often the only source of social support, on the other hand, can experience a destructive influence of courtesy-stigma. Mentally ill have to face social reluctance which is reinforced by stereotypical media coverage of mental disorders. The social network of patients is poor and often limited to a family system. Negative views about persons diagnosed with mental illness are most visible in the labour market. Patients experience many types of discrimination at work,have lower employment rates and lower mean wages than healthy ones. Structural discrimination is a form of stigma which is revealed in underfunded and inefficient system of mental health care. All the social factors mentioned above are necessary for recovery (positive stimulation of functioning), but can also increase stigma and become a significant barrier in the recovery of psychiatric patients. This paper highlights the complex and ambiguous nature of the relationship between social factors and the recovery of the mentally ill basing on the data from the literature. PMID:25717489

  7. Mechanisms affecting recovery in an upwelling food web: The case of the southern Humboldt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Sergio; Moloney, Coleen L.; Cury, Philippe; Mullon, Christian; Christensen, Villy

    2009-12-01

    Although bottom-up forcing and overfishing are known to induce shifts in ecosystem states, system changes and their reversibility under each factor are still poorly understood. In this paper, dynamic food web simulations are conducted to evaluate when and why ecological thresholds may be exceeded, and whether bottom-up forcing or fishing is more likely to induce irreversible ecosystem states. Simulations are conducted using a calibrated food web model of the upwelling system off central Chile (33-39°S) and the Ecopath with Ecosim software version 5.1. The effects of fishing scenarios are explored by changing fishing mortality according to trophic level. The effects of bottom-up forcing scenarios are explored by changing phytoplankton biomass, as a function of sea temperature, at El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and decadal scales. Simulations are carried out for 150 years and impacts, system recovery and regime shifts from each scenario are evaluated using trophodynamic indicators and limit reference points for biomass of functional groups as proxies of food web state and ecological thresholds, respectively. Proportionally distributed fishing along trophic levels is the least harmful fishing scenario, resulting in biomass limit reference points rarely being exceeded and high system recovery. Concentrating fishing at higher and lower trophic levels more likely causes reference points to be exceeded and induces ecosystem changes with low-to-medium recovery potential. No limit reference points are exceeded (or regime shift induced) under ENSO-scale bottom-up forcing. Decadal scale bottom-up forcing has different effects on the system depending on the sequence in which the high and low phytoplankton biomass periods are simulated. A shift from low phytoplankton biomass towards high phytoplankton biomass does not result in biomass limit reference points being exceeded, whereas the opposite sequence results in a large number of limit reference points being exceeded

  8. Intermittent hypoxia induces functional recovery following cervical spinal injury

    PubMed Central

    Vinit, Stéphane; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory-related complications are the leading cause of death in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Few effective SCI treatments are available after therapeutic interventions are performed in the period shortly after injury (e.g. spine stabilization and prevention of further spinal damage). In this review we explore the capacity to harness endogenous spinal plasticity induced by intermittent hypoxia to optimize function of surviving (spared) neural pathways associated with breathing. Two primary questions are addressed: 1) does intermittent hypoxia induce plasticity in spinal synaptic pathways to respiratory motor neurons following experimental SCI? and 2) can this plasticity improve respiratory function? In normal rats, intermittent hypoxia induces serotonin-dependent plasticity in spinal pathways to respiratory motor neurons. Early experiments suggest that intermittent hypoxia also enhances respiratory motor output in experimental models of cervical SCI, (cervical hemisection) and that the capacity to induce functional recovery is greater with longer durations post-injury. Available evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia-induced spinal plasticity has considerable therapeutic potential to treat respiratory insufficiency following chronic cervical spinal injury. PMID:19651247

  9. Exercise Type Affects Cardiac Vagal Autonomic Recovery After a Resistance Training Session.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Fariñas-Rodríguez, Juán; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Kingsley, J Derek

    2016-09-01

    Mayo, X, Iglesias-Soler, E, Fariñas-Rodríguez, J, Fernández-del-Olmo, M, and Kingsley, JD. Exercise type affects cardiac vagal autonomic recovery after a resistance training session. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2565-2573, 2016-Resistance training sessions involving different exercises and set configurations may affect the acute cardiovascular recovery pattern. We explored the interaction between exercise type and set configuration on the postexercise cardiovagal withdrawal measured by heart rate variability and their hypotensive effect. Thirteen healthy participants (10 repetitions maximum [RM] bench press: 56 ± 10 kg; parallel squat: 91 ± 13 kg) performed 6 sessions corresponding to 2 exercises (Bench press vs. Parallel squat), 2 set configurations (Failure session vs. Interrepetition rest session), and a Control session of each exercise. Load (10RM), volume (5 sets), and rest (720 seconds) were equated between exercises and set configurations. Parallel squat produced higher reductions in cardiovagal recovery vs. Bench press (p = 0.001). These differences were dependent on the set configuration, with lower values in Parallel squat vs. Bench press for Interrepetition rest session (1.816 ± 0.711 vs. 2.399 ± 0.739 Ln HF/IRR × 10, p = 0.002), but not for Failure session (1.647 ± 0.904 vs. 1.808 ± 0.703 Ln HF/IRR × 10, p > 0.05). Set configuration affected the cardiovagal recovery, with lower values in Failure session in comparison with Interrepetition rest (p = 0.027) and Control session (p = 0.022). Postexercise hypotension was not dependent on the exercise type (p > 0.05) but was dependent on the set configuration, with lower values of systolic (p = 0.004) and diastolic (p = 0.011) blood pressure after the Failure session but not after an Interrepetition rest session in comparison with the Control session (p > 0.05). These results suggest that the exercise type and an Interrepetition rest design could blunt the decrease of cardiac vagal activity after

  10. Positive Affect and Processes of Recovery among Treatment-Seeking Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Carrico, Adam W.; Woods, William J.; Siever, Michael D.; Discepola, Michael V.; Dilwort, Samantha E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Miller, Nicole; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie

    2015-01-01

    Background Revised Stress and Coping Theory proposes that positive affect serves adaptive functions, independent of negative affect. However, scant research has examined whether, how, and under what circumstances positive affect is associated with decreased substance use. Methods Eighty-eight methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) completed the baseline assessment for substance abuse treatment outcome study which included measures of positive and negative affect, cognitive-behavioral change processes (i.e., approach-oriented coping, self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, and abstinence-related action tendencies), abstinence-specific social support, and self-reported substance use. Participants also provided a urine sample for toxicology screening. Results After controlling for demographic characteristics and negative affect, higher positive affect was independently associated with greater approach-oriented coping, abstinence-related action tendencies, and abstinence-specific social support. Positive affect was also independently associated with greater self-efficacy for managing methamphetamine triggers, but only at lower levels of negative affect. Through these cognitive-behavioral and social pathways, positive affect was indirectly associated with lower frequency of stimulant use in the past 30 days, lower odds of reporting stimulant use two or more days in a row, and lower odds of providing a urine sample that was reactive for stimulant metabolites. On the other hand, negative affect was not indirectly associated with any measure of stimulant use. Conclusions Clinical research is needed to examine the pathways whereby positive affect may predict better substance abuse treatment outcomes. PMID:23684632

  11. Prognostic Factors Predicting Early Recovery of Pre-fracture Functional Mobility in Elderly Patients With Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daegu; Jo, Jae Yong; Jung, Ji Sun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic factors predicting the recovery of pre-fracture functional mobility, we evaluated this by the use of ambulatory assistive devices in short-term follow-up. Methods Five hundred and fifty-three elderly patients who had undergone hip fracture operations from January 2006 to June 2013 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and predicted factors affecting functional recovery, such as the delay of rehabilitation after the operation, were reviewed. The functional status of the gait was classified as either a bedridden state, wheelchair-bound state, walker gait, single cane gait, and self-gait without any ambulatory assistance device. When this functional grade in patients who recovered after the surgery was compared to before the surgery, this state was considered 'functional recovery'. Results One hundred and ninety-two patients (34.7%) showed recovery of preoperative mobility in the first month after their operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that the following four factors were significantly associated with a deterioration of functional recovery: old age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.97), delays in rehabilitation after operation (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98), the presence of cognitive dysfunction (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.71), and trochanteric fracturing (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.94). Conclusion We found that old age, cognitive dysfunction, trochanteric fracture type, and delay of rehabilitation were associated with the deterioration of functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. Therefore, early rehabilitation was required to acquire functional recovery after a hip fracture operation in the short-term. PMID:25566483

  12. Longitudinal Assessment of Motor Recovery of Contralateral Hand after Basal Ganglia Infarction Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Quan; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Zuo, Shanhuai; Zhang, Ningnannan

    2016-01-01

    We used functional fMRI to study the brain activation during active finger movements at different time points during the recovery phase following basal ganglia infarction. Four hemiplegic patients with basal ganglia infarction were serially evaluated at different time points spanning the acute and chronic phase using fMRI. To evaluate motor recovery, the patients were asked to perform functional tasks arranged in a block design manner with their hand. On follow-up (chronic phase), three patients achieved significant recovery of motor function of affected limbs. Activation of bilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) was observed in two of these patients, while activation of cerebellum was observed in all patients. No remarkable recovery of motor function was noted in one patient with left basal ganglia infarction. In this patient, the activation domain was located in SMC of both sides in acute phase and in ipsilateral SMC in chronic phase. Contralateral SMC appears to be involved in the functional rehabilitation following basal ganglia infarction. The cerebellum may act as an intermediary during functional recovery following basal ganglia infarction. The activation domain associated with active finger movement may be bilateral in acute phase; one patient was ipsilateral in the chronic stage. PMID:27069924

  13. Longitudinal Assessment of Motor Recovery of Contralateral Hand after Basal Ganglia Infarction Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yue; Zhang, Quan; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Zuo, Shanhuai; Zhang, Ningnannan

    2016-01-01

    We used functional fMRI to study the brain activation during active finger movements at different time points during the recovery phase following basal ganglia infarction. Four hemiplegic patients with basal ganglia infarction were serially evaluated at different time points spanning the acute and chronic phase using fMRI. To evaluate motor recovery, the patients were asked to perform functional tasks arranged in a block design manner with their hand. On follow-up (chronic phase), three patients achieved significant recovery of motor function of affected limbs. Activation of bilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) was observed in two of these patients, while activation of cerebellum was observed in all patients. No remarkable recovery of motor function was noted in one patient with left basal ganglia infarction. In this patient, the activation domain was located in SMC of both sides in acute phase and in ipsilateral SMC in chronic phase. Contralateral SMC appears to be involved in the functional rehabilitation following basal ganglia infarction. The cerebellum may act as an intermediary during functional recovery following basal ganglia infarction. The activation domain associated with active finger movement may be bilateral in acute phase; one patient was ipsilateral in the chronic stage. PMID:27069924

  14. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use. PMID:25343829

  15. Functional Task Test: 2. Spaceflight-Induced Cardiovascular Change and Recovery During NASA's Functional Task Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Tiffany; Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, Michael; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    The overall objective of the functional task test (FTT) is to correlate spaceflight-induced physiological adaptations with changes in performance of high priority exploration mission-critical tasks. This presentation will focus on the recovery from fall/stand test (RFST), which measures the cardiovascular response to the transition from the prone posture (simulated fall) to standing in normal gravity, as well as heart rate (HR) during 11 functional tasks. As such, this test describes some aspects of spaceflight-induced cardiovascular deconditioning and the course of recovery in Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The sensorimotor and neuromuscular components of the FTT are described in two separate abstracts: Functional Task Test 1 and 3.

  16. Voluntary forced use of the impaired limb following stroke facilitates functional recovery in the rat.

    PubMed

    Livingston-Thomas, Jessica M; McGuire, Emily P; Doucette, Tracy A; Tasker, R Andrew

    2014-03-15

    Constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT), which forces use of the impaired arm following stroke, improves functional recovery. The mechanisms underlying recovery are not well understood, necessitating further investigation into how rehabilitation may affect neuroplasticity using animal models. Animal motivation and stress make modelling CIMT in animals challenging. We have shown that following focal ischemia, voluntary forced use therapy using pet activity balls could engage the impaired forelimb and result in a modest acceleration in recovery. In this study, we investigated the effects of a more intensive appetitively motivated regimen that included task specific reaching exercises. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to focal unilateral stroke using intracerebral injections of endothelin-1 or sham surgery. Three days later, stroke animals were assigned to daily rehabilitation or control therapy. Rehabilitation consisted of 30 min of generalized movement sessions in activity balls, followed by 30 min of voluntary task-specific movement using reaching boxes. Rats were tested weekly to measure forelimb deficit and recovery. After 30 days, animals were euthanized and tissue was examined for infarct volume, brain derived neurotrophic factor expression, and the presence of new neurons using doublecortin immunohistochemistry. Rehabilitation resulted in a significant acceleration of forelimb recovery in several tests, and a significant increase in the number of doublecortin-expressing cells. Furthermore, while the proportion of cells expressing BDNF in the peri-infarct region did not change, there was a shift in the cellular origin of expressed BDNF, resulting in significantly more non-neuronal, non-astrocytic BDNF, presumed to be of microglial origin. PMID:24388978

  17. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  18. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  19. Social functioning and age across affective and non-affective psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Both non-affective and affective psychoses are associated with deficits in social functioning across the course of the illness. However, it is not clear how social functioning varies among diagnostic groups as a function of age. The current study examined the relationship between social functioning and age in schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD). We found that individuals with PBD had the highest functioning while individuals with SZ had the poorest. The functioning of individuals with SZA fell in between the other groups. We also found that older ages were associated with poorer functioning. Although there was not a significant diagnostic group by age interaction, visual inspection of our data suggests a subtly steeper trajectory of decline in PBD. These results indicate that a decline in social functioning with may be an important area of unmet need in treatment across psychotic disorders. PMID:25503785

  20. Catecholaminergic based therapies for functional recovery after TBI.

    PubMed

    Osier, Nicole D; Dixon, C Edward

    2016-06-01

    Among the many pathophysiologic consequences of traumatic brain injury are changes in catecholamines, including dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. In the context of TBI, dopamine is the one most extensively studied, though some research exploring epinephrine and norepinephrine have also been published. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence surrounding use of drugs that target the catecholaminergic system on pathophysiological and functional outcomes of TBI using published evidence from pre-clinical and clinical brain injury studies. Evidence of the effects of specific drugs that target catecholamines as agonists or antagonists will be discussed. Taken together, available evidence suggests that therapies targeting the catecholaminergic system may attenuate functional deficits after TBI. Notably, it is fairly common for TBI patients to be treated with catecholamine agonists for either physiological symptoms of TBI (e.g. altered cerebral perfusion pressures) or a co-occuring condition (e.g. shock), or cognitive symptoms (e.g. attentional and arousal deficits). Previous clinical trials are limited by methodological limitations, failure to replicate findings, challenges translating therapies to clinical practice, the complexity or lack of specificity of catecholamine receptors, as well as potentially counfounding effects of personal and genetic factors. Overall, there is a need for additional research evidence, along with a need for systematic dissemination of important study details and results as outlined in the common data elements published by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. Ultimately, a better understanding of catecholamines in the context of TBI may lead to therapeutic advancements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26711850

  1. The functional connectivity of semantic task changes in the recovery from stroke aphasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jie; Wu, Xia; Yao, Li; Li, Kun-Cheng; Shu, Hua; Dong, Qi

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about the difference of functional connectivity of semantic task between the recovery aphasic patients and normal subject. In this paper, an fMRI experiment was performed in a patient with aphasia following a left-sided ischemic lesion and normal subject. Picture naming was used as semantic activation task in this study. We compared the preliminary functional connectivity results of the recovery aphasic patient with the normal subject. The fMRI data were separated by independent component analysis (ICA) into 90 components. According to our experience and other papers, we chose a region of interest (ROI) of semantic (x=-57, y=15, z=8, r=11mm). From the 90 components, we chose one component as the functional connectivity of the semantic ROI according to one criterion. The criterion is the mean value of the voxels in the ROI. So the component of the highest mean value of the ROI is the functional connectivity of the ROI. The voxel with its value higher than 2.4 was thought as activated (p<0.05). And the functional connectivity networks of the normal subjects were t-tested as group network. From the result, we can know the semantic functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient and normal subjects are different. The activated areas of the left inferior frontal gyrus and inferior/middle temporal gyrus are larger than the ones of normal. The activated area of the right inferior frontal gyrus is smaller than the ones of normal. The functional connectivity of stroke aphasic patient under semantic condition is different with the normal one. The focus of the stroke aphasic patient can affect the functional connectivity.

  2. Neuromotor recovery from stroke: computational models at central, functional, and muscle synergy level

    PubMed Central

    Casadio, Maura; Tamagnone, Irene; Summa, Susanna; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Computational models of neuromotor recovery after a stroke might help to unveil the underlying physiological mechanisms and might suggest how to make recovery faster and more effective. At least in principle, these models could serve: (i) To provide testable hypotheses on the nature of recovery; (ii) To predict the recovery of individual patients; (iii) To design patient-specific “optimal” therapy, by setting the treatment variables for maximizing the amount of recovery or for achieving a better generalization of the learned abilities across different tasks. Here we review the state of the art of computational models for neuromotor recovery through exercise, and their implications for treatment. We show that to properly account for the computational mechanisms of neuromotor recovery, multiple levels of description need to be taken into account. The review specifically covers models of recovery at central, functional and muscle synergy level. PMID:23986688

  3. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries. PMID:26072156

  4. Role of Neurotrophins in Recovery of Phrenic Motor Function Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals who sustain a cervical spinal cord injury are unable to maintain adequate ventilation due to diaphragm muscle paralysis. These patients become dependent on mechanical ventilators and this situation is associated with ongoing problems with pulmonary clearance, infections, and lung injury leading to significant morbidity and reduced life expectancy. Therefore, functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity and the ability to generate expulsive forces would dramatically affect the quality of life of patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Neurotrophins are very promising in that they have been shown to play an important role in modulating functional neuroplasticity. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acting via the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB) has been implicated in neuroplasticity following spinal cord injury. Our central hypothesis is that functional recovery of rhythmic phrenic activity after cervical spinal cord injury is enhanced by an increase in BDNF/TrkB signaling in phrenic motoneurons, providing a novel therapeutic target for patients. PMID:19703592

  5. Recovery of laryngeal function after intraoperative injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Hydman, Jonas; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function in the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroid/parathyroid surgery, despite a macroscopically intact nerve, is a challenge which highlights the sensitivity and complexity of laryngeal innervation. Furthermore, the uncertain prognosis stresses a lack of capability to diagnose the reason behind the impaired function. There is a great deal of literature considering risk factors, surgical technique and mechanisms outside the nerve affecting the incidence of RLN paresis during surgery. To be able to prognosticate recovery in cases of laryngeal dysfunction and voice changes after thyroid surgery, the surgeon would first need to define the presence, location, and type of laryngeal nerve injury. There is little data describing the events within the nerve and the neurobiological reasons for the impaired function related to potential recovery and prognosis. In addition, very little data has been presented in order to clarify any differences between the transient and permanent injury of the RLN. This review aims, from an anatomical and neurobiological perspective, to provide an update on the current understandings of surgically-induced injury to the laryngeal nerves. PMID:25713777

  6. How Does Maternal Employment Affect Children's Socioemotional Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    The maternal employment becomes an irreversible trend across the globe. The effect of maternal employment on children's socioemotional functioning is so pervasive that it warrants special attention to investigate into the issue. A trajectory of analytical framework of how maternal employment affects children's socioemotional functioning originates…

  7. Recovery after prolonged sleep deprivation: residual effects of slow-release caffeine on recovery sleep, sleepiness and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Maurice; Batéjat, Denise; Coste, Olivier; Doireau, Philippe; Chauffard, Françoise; Enslen, Marc; Lagarde, Didier; Pierard, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 during the first 48 h of wakefulness. Recovery sleep was analysed with electroencephalography (EEG) and wrist actigraphy, daytime sleepiness with continuous EEG, sleep latency tests and actigraphy and cognitive functions with computerized tests from the NATO AGARD STRES battery. Both drug groups exhibited almost the same sleep architecture with a rebound of slow-wave sleep during both recovery nights and of REM sleep during the second night. Wakefulness level and cognitive functions were similarly impaired in both groups on the first day of recovery and partially returned to baseline on the second. To conclude, SRC appears to have no unwanted side-effects on recovery sleep, wakefulness and cognitive performance after a long period of sleep deprivation and might therefore be a useful choice over other psychostimulants for a long work schedule. PMID:15627809

  8. Inosine improves functional recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Shabashov, Dalia; Trembovler, Victoria; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Benowitz, Larry I; Shohami, Esther

    2014-03-25

    Despite years of research, no effective therapy is yet available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The most prevalent and debilitating features in survivors of TBI are cognitive deficits and motor dysfunction. A potential therapeutic method for improving the function of patients following TBI would be to restore, at least in part, plasticity to the CNS in a controlled way that would allow for the formation of compensatory circuits. Inosine, a naturally occurring purine nucleoside, has been shown to promote axon collateral growth in the corticospinal tract (CST) following stroke and focal TBI. In the present study, we investigated the effects of inosine on motor and cognitive deficits, CST sprouting, and expression of synaptic proteins in an experimental model of closed head injury (CHI). Treatment with inosine (100 mg/kg i.p. at 1, 24 and 48 h following CHI) improved outcome after TBI, significantly decreasing the neurological severity score (NSS, p<0.04 vs. saline), an aggregate measure of performance on several tasks. It improved non-spatial cognitive performance (object recognition, p<0.016 vs. saline) but had little effect on sensorimotor coordination (rotarod) and spatial cognitive functions (Y-maze). Inosine did not affect CST sprouting in the lumbar spinal cord but did restore levels of the growth-associated protein GAP-43 in the hippocampus, though not in the cerebral cortex. Our results suggest that inosine may improve functional outcome after TBI. PMID:24502983

  9. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Local Support for Black Bear Recovery Strategies(AED)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is global interest in recovering locally extirpated carnivore species. Successful efforts to recover Louisiana black bear in Louisiana have prompted interest in recovery throughout the species’ historical range. We evaluated support for three potential black bear recovery s...

  10. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Todd C; Hoane, Michael R; McConomy, Keith S; Farin, Fred M; Bammler, Theo K; MacDonald, James W; Kantor, Eric D; Anderson, Gail D

    2015-06-01

    Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72 h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24 h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24 h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24 h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24 h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  11. A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Todd C.; McConomy, Keith S.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Kantor, Eric D.; Anderson, Gail D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neuroprotection, recovery of function, and gene expression were evaluated in an animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) after a combination treatment of nicotinamide (NAM) and progesterone (Prog). Animals received a cortical contusion injury over the sensorimotor cortex, and were treated with either Vehicle, NAM, Prog, or a NAM/Prog combination for 72 h and compared with a craniotomy only (Sham) group. Animals were assessed in a battery of behavioral, sensory, and both fine and gross motor tasks, and given histological assessments at 24 h post-injury to determine lesion cavity size, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine treatment-specific changes on gene expression. Our results confirm the beneficial effects of treatment with either NAM or Prog, demonstrating significant improvements in recovery of function and a reduction in lesion cavitation, degenerating neurons, and reactive astrocytes 24 h post-injury. The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24 h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments. The NAM/Prog-treated group was the only treatment group to show a significant reduction of cortical loss 24 h post-injury. The combination appears to affect inflammatory and immune processes, reducing expression of a significant number of genes in both pathways. Further preclinical trials using NAM and Prog as a combination treatment should be conducted to identify the window of opportunity, determine the optimal duration of treatment, and evaluate the combination in other pre-clinical models of TBI. PMID:25313690

  12. Recovery of motor and cognitive function after cerebellar lesions in a songbird – role of estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Rory D.; Zhen, Yin; White, Stephanie; Schlinger, Barney A.; Day, Lainy B.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to its key role in complex motor function, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to have a role in cognition. Songbirds are particularly good models for the investigation of motor and cognitive processes but little is known about the role of the songbird cerebellum in these processes. To explore cerebellar function in a songbird, we lesioned the cerebellum of adult female zebra finches and examined the effects on a spatial working memory task and on motor function during this task. There is evidence for steroid synthesis in the songbird brain and neurosteroids may have an impact on some forms of neural plasticity in adult songbirds. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroids would affect motor and cognitive function after a cerebellar injury. We found that cerebellar lesions produced deficits in motor and cognitive aspects of a spatial task. In line with our prediction, birds in which estrogen synthesis was blocked had impaired performance in our spatial task compared with those that had estrogen synthesis blocked but estrogen replaced. There was no clear effect of estrogen replacement on motor function. We also found that lesions induced expression of the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase in reactive astrocytes and Bergmann glia around a cerebellar lesion. These data suggest that the cerebellum of songbirds mediates both motor and cognitive function and that estrogens may improve the recovery of cognitive aspects of cerebellar function after injury. PMID:19302157

  13. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Olga V; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S; Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Lachman, Margie E; Tun, Patricia A; Ryff, Carol D; Seeman, Teresa E; Sloan, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35-86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65-86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35-54) and middle-aged (aged 55-64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  14. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Olga V.; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S.; Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Ryff, Carol D.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35–86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65–86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35–54) and middle-aged (aged 55–64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  15. Brain plasticity as a basis for recovery of function in humans.

    PubMed

    Bach-y-Rita, P

    1990-01-01

    One of the factors leading to the virtual neglect of the long-term potential for functional recovery following brain damage was the eclipse of plasticity concepts during the 100 years following Broca's 1861 publication on location of function. However, in the last 30 years evidence has been accumulating that demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and thus recovery potential is a subject of practical as well as theoretical interest. "Unmasking" of relatively inactive pathways, the taking over of functional representation by undamaged brain tissue, and neuronal group selection are among the mechanisms that are being explored. Human models of recovery of function include hemispherectomy patients that have regained bilateral function, facial paralysis patients who recover function (with appropriate rehabilitation) after VII-XII cranial nerve anastomosis, and patients with muscle transpositions to re-establish lost motor functions. The role of early and late rehabilitation, with attention to psychosocial and environmental factors, appears to be critical for recovery. PMID:2395525

  16. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity.

  17. Heavy particle irradiation, neurochemistry and behavior: thresholds, dose-response curves and recovery of function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor behavior (upper body strength), amphetamine (dopamine)-mediated taste aversion learning, and operant conditioning (fixed-ratio bar pressing). Although the relationships between heavy particle irradiation and the effects of exposure depend, to some extent, upon the specific behavioral or neurochemical endpoint under consideration, a review of the available research leads to the hypothesis that the endpoints mediated by the CNS have certain characteristics in common. These include: (1) a threshold, below which there is no apparent effect; (2) the lack of a dose-response relationship, or an extremely steep dose-response curve, depending on the particular endpoint; and (3) the absence of recovery of function, such that the heavy particle-induced behavioral and neural changes are present when tested up to one year following exposure. The current report reviews the data relevant to the degree to which these characteristics are common to neurochemical and behavioral endpoints that are mediated by the effects of exposure to heavy particles on CNS activity. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  19. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  20. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mcinnes, Andrew D.; DeGroote, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease. PMID:25371840

  1. Lentiviral-mediated transfer of CDNF promotes nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Lei; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Ying-Jun; Nie, Lin

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •CDNF was successfully transfected by a lentiviral vector into the distal sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved S-100, NF200 expression and nerve regeneration after sciatic injury. •CDNF improved the remyelination and thickness of the regenerated sciatic nerve. •CDNF improved gastrocnemius muscle weight and sciatic functional recovery. -- Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete and unsatisfactory functional recovery and may be associated with sensory and motor impairment of the affected limb. Therefore, a novel method is needed to improve the speed of recovery and the final functional outcome after peripheral nerve injuries. This report investigates the effect of lentiviral-mediated transfer of conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) on regeneration of the rat peripheral nerve in a transection model in vivo. We observed notable overexpression of CDNF protein in the distal sciatic nerve after recombinant CDNF lentiviral vector application. We evaluated sciatic nerve regeneration after surgery using light and electron microscopy and the functional recovery using the sciatic functional index and target muscle weight. HE staining revealed better ordered structured in the CDNF-treated group at 8 weeks post-surgery. Quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry of NF200 and S-100 in the CDNF group revealed significant improvement of axonal and Schwann cell regeneration compared with the control groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks after injury. The thickness of the myelination around the axons in the CDNF group was significantly higher than in the control groups at 8 weeks post-surgery. The CDNF group displayed higher muscle weights and significantly increased sciatic nerve index values. Our findings suggest that CDNF gene therapy could provide durable and stable CDNF protein concentration and has the potential to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration, morphological and functional recovery following nerve injury, which suggests a

  2. Knocking down expression of Hsp22 and Hsp23 by RNA interference affects recovery from chill coma in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Lee, Siu Fai; Hoffmann, Ary

    2010-12-15

    To protect cells from the damaging effects of environmental stresses, all organisms possess a universal stress response involving upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps). The mechanisms underlying chilling injuries and the subsequent recovery phase are only beginning to be understood in insects. Hsp22 and Hsp23 are both upregulated during the recovery from prolonged chill coma in Drosophila melanogaster. This prompted us to investigate the functional significance of these modulations by testing whether expression of these two small Hsps is necessary for recovery after cold stress. We used the GAL4/UAS system to separately knock down expression of Hsp22 and Hsp23, and assayed three aspects of recovery performance in transgenic adults that had undergone 12 h of chill coma at 0°C. The time to recover (short-term recovery) and mobility parameters (medium-term recovery) were significantly impaired in the transgenic flies in which Hsp22 or Hsp23 was suppressed. Our findings show that both Hsp22 and Hsp23 play important roles in the recovery from chill coma in adult males, and suggest that these contribute to adaptive responses to fluctuating thermal conditions. PMID:21112994

  3. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  4. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  5. Intrathecal Morphine Attenuates Recovery of Function after a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Georgina; Woller, Sarah; Puga, Denise; Hoy, Kevin; Balden, Robyn; Grau, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Prior work has shown that a high dose (20 mg/kg) of systemic morphine, required to produce significant analgesia in the acute phase of a contusion injury, undermines the long-term health of treated subjects and increases lesion size. Moreover, a single dose of systemic morphine in the early stage of injury (24 h post-injury) led to symptoms of neuropathic pain 3 weeks later, in the chronic phase. The present study examines the locus of the effects using intrathecal morphine administration. Subjects were treated with one of three doses (0, 30, or 90 μg) of intrathecal morphine 24 h after a moderate contusion injury. The 90-μg dose produced significant analgesia when subjects were exposed to noxious stimuli (thermal and incremented shock) below the level of injury. Yet, despite analgesic efficacy, intrathecal morphine significantly attenuated the recovery of locomotor function and increased lesion size rostral to the injury site. A single dose of 30 or 90 μg of intrathecal morphine also decreased weight gain, and more than doubled the incidence of mortality and autophagia when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Morphine is one of the most effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of neuropathic pain and, therefore, is indispensable for the spinally injured. Treatment can, however, adversely affect the recovery process. A morphine-induced attenuation of recovery may result from increases in immune cell activation and, subsequently, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the contused spinal cord. PMID:19388818

  6. CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, A; Deumens, R; Scheffel, J; O'Dey, D M; Weis, J; Joosten, E A; Führmann, T; Brook, G A; Pallua, N

    2008-08-15

    Following peripheral nerve injury repair, improved behavioural outcome may be the most important evidence of functionality of axon regeneration after any repair strategy. A range of behavioural testing paradigms have been developed for peripheral nerve injury research. Complete injury of the adult rat sciatic nerve is frequently used in combination with walking track analysis. Despite its wide-spread use, these walking track analyses are unsuitable for the simultaneous assessment of both dynamic and static gait parameters. Conversely, a novel automated gait analysis system, i.e. CatWalk can simultaneously measure dynamic as well as static gait parameters and, importantly, it's easy to control for the speed of locomotion which can strongly affect gait parameters. In a previous study, CatWalk was already successfully used to examine deficits in both dynamic and static gait parameters using the sciatic nerve lesion model with a 1cm gap characterized by absence of recovery [Deumens R, Jaken RJ, Marcus MA, Joosten EA. The CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of both dynamic and static gait changes after adult rat sciatic nerve resection. J Neurosci Methods 2007;164:120-30]. Using the sciatic nerve crush injury model (validated with the static sciatic index) and a follow-up period of 12 weeks, we now show that CatWalk can also measure behavioural recovery. In particular dynamic gait parameters, coordination measures, and the intensity of paw prints are of interest in detecting recovery as far as these parameters completely return to pre-operative values after crush injury. We conclude that CatWalk can be used as a complementary approach to other behavioural testing paradigms to assess clinically relevant behavioural benefits, with a main advantage that CatWalk demonstrates both static and dynamic gait parameters at the same time. PMID:18577402

  7. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  8. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  9. Parameters Affecting Spore Recovery from Wipes Used in Biological Surface Sampling ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Sandra M.; Filliben, James J.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2011-01-01

    The need for the precise and reliable collection of potential biothreat contaminants has motivated research in developing a better understanding of the variability in biological surface sampling methods. In this context, the objective of this work was to determine parameters affecting the efficiency of extracting Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores from commonly used wipe sampling materials and to describe performance using the interfacial energy concept. In addition, surface thermodynamics was applied to understand and predict surface sampling performance. Wipe materials were directly inoculated with known concentrations of B. anthracis spores and placed into extraction solutions, followed by sonication or vortexing. Experimental factors investigated included wipe material (polyester, cotton, and polyester-rayon), extraction solution (sterile deionized water [H2O], deionized water with 0.04% Tween 80 [H2O-T], phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], and PBS with 0.04% Tween 80 [PBST]), and physical dissociation method (vortexing or sonication). The most efficient extraction from wipes was observed for solutions containing the nonionic surfactant Tween 80. The increase in extraction efficiency due to surfactant addition was attributed to an attractive interfacial energy between Tween 80 and the centrifuge tube wall, which prevented spore adhesion. Extraction solution significantly impacted the extraction efficiency, as determined by statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Moreover, the extraction solution was the most important factor in extraction performance, followed by the wipe material. Polyester-rayon was the most efficient wipe material for releasing spores into solution by rank; however, no statistically significant difference between polyester-rayon and cotton was observed (P > 0.05). Vortexing provided higher spore recovery in H2O and H2O-T than sonication, when all three wipe materials and the reference control were considered (P < 0.05). PMID:21296945

  10. PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

  11. Lifetime affect and midlife cognitive function: prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Richards, M.; Barnett, J. H.; Xu, M. K.; Croudace, T. J.; Gaysina, D.; Kuh, D.; Jones, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent affective problems are predictive of cognitive impairment, but the timing and directionality, and the nature of the cognitive impairment, are unclear. Aims To test prospective associations between life-course affective symptoms and cognitive function in late middle age. Method A total of 1668 men and women were drawn from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort). Longitudinal affective symptoms spanning age 13-53 years served as predictors; outcomes consisted of self-reported memory problems at 60-64 years and decline in memory and information processing from age 53 to 60-64 years. Results Regression analyses revealed no clear pattern of association between longitudinal affective symptoms and decline in cognitive test scores, after adjusting for gender, childhood cognitive ability, education and midlife socioeconomic status. In contrast, affective symptoms were strongly, diffusely and independently associated with self-reported memory problems. Conclusions Affective symptoms are more clearly associated with self-reported memory problems in late midlife than with objectively measured cognitive performance. PMID:24357571

  12. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  13. Intracerebral hemorrhage in mouse models: therapeutic interventions and functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There has been strong pre-clinical research on mechanisms of initial cell death and tissue injury in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This data has led to the evaluation of several therapeutics for neuroprotection or the mitigation of early tissue damage. Most of these studies have been done in the rat. Also, there has been little study of the mechanisms of tissue repair and recovery. This review examines the testing of candidate therapeutics in mouse models of ICH for their effect on tissue protection and repair. This review will help the readers compare it to the extensively researched rat model of ICH and thus enhance work that are pending in mouse model. PMID:24810632

  14. Vagus Nerve Stimulation during Rehabilitative Training Improves Functional Recovery after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Seth A.; Khodaparast, Navid; Hulsey, Daniel R.; Ruiz, Andrea; Sloan, Andrew M.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered during rehabilitative training enhances neuroplasticity and improves recovery in models of cortical ischemic stroke. However, VNS therapy has not been applied in a model of subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We hypothesized that VNS paired with rehabilitative training after ICH would enhance recovery of forelimb motor function beyond rehabilitative training alone. Methods Rats were trained to perform an automated, quantitative measure of forelimb function. Once proficient, rats received an intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase to induce ICH. Rats then underwent VNS paired with rehabilitative training (VNS+Rehab; N = 14) or rehabilitative training without VNS (Rehab; N = 12). Rehabilitative training began at least 9 days after ICH and continued for 6 weeks. Results VNS paired with rehabilitative training significantly improved recovery of forelimb function compared to rehabilitative training without VNS. The VNS+Rehab group displayed a 77% recovery of function, while the Rehab group only exhibited 29% recovery. Recovery was sustained after cessation of stimulation. Both groups performed similar amounts of trials during rehabilitative and lesion size was not different between groups. Conclusions VNS paired with rehabilitative training confers significantly improved forelimb recovery following ICH compared to rehabilitative training without VNS. PMID:25147331

  15. The aprosodias: further functional-anatomical evidence for the organisation of affective language in the right hemisphere.

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, P B; Ross, E D

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen right-handed patients with right hemispheric strokes were examined for disorders of affective language in order to further define the clinical-anatomical correlates of the aprosodias. A bedside evaluation strategy and CT scan mappings were utilised to make these comparisons. There were six patients with motor aprosodia, one with global aprosodia, two with conduction aprosodia, one with sensory aprosodia, one with transcortical sensory aprosodia, one with pure affective deafness and two with normal examinations of affect. Functional-anatomical correlations were consistent with those predicted previously. Recovery of affective language function in selected cases was characterised by improvements in affective-prosodic repetition and/or evolution into other aprosodic subtypes. Our results lend further support to the hypothesis that the organisation of affective language in the right hemisphere mirrors that of propositional language in the left hemisphere. Images PMID:2438386

  16. Sleep's function in the spontaneous recovery and consolidation of memories.

    PubMed

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Schulze, Claudia; Fischer, Stefan; Born, Jan

    2007-05-01

    Building on 2 previous studies (B. R. Ekstrand, 1967; B. R. Ekstrand, M. J. Sullivan, D. F. Parker, & J. N. West, 1971), the authors present 2 experiments that were aimed at characterizing the role of retroactive interference in sleep-associated declarative memory consolidation. Using an A-B, A-C paradigm with lists of word pairs in Experiment 1, the authors showed that sleep provides recovery from retroactive interference induced at encoding, whereas no such recovery was seen in several wake control conditions. Noninterfering word-pair lists were used in Experiment 2 (A-B, C-D). Sleeping after learning, in comparison with waking after learning, enhanced retention of both lists to a similar extent when encoding was less intense because of less list repetition and briefer word-pair presentations. With intense encoding, sleep-associated improvements were not seen for either list. In combination, the results indicate that the benefit of sleep for declarative memory consolidation is greater for weaker associations, regardless of whether weak associations result from retroactive interference or poor encoding. PMID:17500644

  17. Evaluation of normalized energy recovery (NER) in microbial fuel cells affected by reactor dimensions and substrates.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Ge, Zheng; Kelly, Patrick; Zhang, Fei; He, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an initial evaluation of normalized energy recovery (NER - a new parameter for presenting energy performance) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) through investigation of the effects of reactor dimensions and anode substrates. Although the larger-size MFCs generally have lower maximum power densities, their maximum NER is comparable to that of the smaller MFCs at the same anolyte flow rate. The mixed messages obtained from the MFC size tests suggest that MFCs can be further scaled up without decreasing energy recovery under certain conditions. The low-strength substrates seem to be more suitable for MFC treatment of wastewater, in terms of both energy recovery and organic removal. However, because the MFCs could not achieve the maximum NER and the maximum organic removal efficiency at the same time, one must determine a major goal for MFCs treating wastewater between energy recovery and contaminant removal. PMID:24534787

  18. Here today but not gone tomorrow: incivility affects after-work and next-day recovery.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tahnee; Griffin, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relation between daily incivility and afterwork recovery, hypothesizing that workplace incivility would have a negative effect on situational wellbeing, afterwork recovery experiences (psychological detachment and relaxation) and next-morning recovery level. Daily surveys were completed on 5 consecutive workdays by 175 employees in the legal industry. Multilevel analyses controlling for the daily number of hours worked showed that day-level incivility was negatively related to afterwork situational wellbeing and psychological detachment, but not to relaxation. Incivility experienced on 1 day also predicted recovery level the following morning. Results emphasize the ongoing impact of rudeness and disrespect in the workplace on employee wellbeing and offer an explanation for the long-term negative outcomes of what is typically thought of as a less severe workplace stressor. PMID:25402225

  19. Motor recovery at 6 months after admission is related to structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingming; Xiang, Zimin; Yan, Rubing; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Yongtao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Guo, Lei; Li, Haitao; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jixiang; Sun, Tiansheng; Liu, Hongliang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to explore structural and functional reorganization of the brain in the early stages of spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify brain areas that contribute to motor recovery. We studied 25 patients with SCI, including 10 with good motor recovery and 15 with poor motor recovery, along with 25 matched healthy controls. The mean period post-SCI was 9.2 ± 3.5 weeks in good recoverers and 8.8 ± 2.6 weeks in poor recoverers. All participants underwent structural and functional MRI on a 3-T magnetic resonance system. We evaluated differences in cross-sectional spinal cord area at the C2/C3 level, brain cortical thickness, white matter microstructure, and functional connectivity during the resting state among the three groups. We also evaluated associations between structural and functional reorganization and the rate of motor recovery. After SCI, compared with good recoverers, poor recoverers had a significantly decreased cross-sectional spinal cord area, cortical thickness in the right supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right primary motor cortex and posterior limb of the internal capsule. Meanwhile, poor recoverers showed decreased functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and higher order motor areas (supplementary motor area and premotor cortex), while good recoverers showed increased functional connectivity among these regions. The structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain was associated with motor recovery rate in all SCI patients. In conclusion, structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain directly affected the motor recovery of SCI. Less structural atrophy and enhanced functional connectivity are associated with good motor recovery in patients with SCI. Multimodal imaging has the potential to predict motor recovery in the early stage of SCI. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2195-2209, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26936834

  20. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area. PMID:22042409

  1. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P < 0.05, Cohen's effect size: 1.3, 38%) after CWI compared with active recovery. During CWI, muscle temperature decreased ∼7°C below postexercise values and remained below preexercise values for another 35 min. Venous blood O2 saturation decreased below preexercise values for 1.5 h after CWI. Serum endothelin-1 concentration did not change after CWI, whereas it decreased after active recovery. Plasma myoglobin concentration was lower, whereas plasma IL-6 concentration was higher after CWI compared with active recovery. These results suggest that CWI after resistance exercise allows athletes to complete more work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. PMID:25121612

  2. Functional significance of preserved affect recognition in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Johannesen, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Affect recognition (AR) is a core component of social information processing, thus may be critical to understanding social behavior and functioning in broader aspects of daily living. Deficits in AR are well documented in schizophrenia, however, there is also evidence that many individuals with schizophrenia perform AR tasks at near-normal levels. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the functional significance of AR deficits in schizophrenia by comparing subgroups with normal-range and impaired AR performance on proxy and interviewer-rated measures of real-world functioning. Schizophrenia outpatients were classified as normal-range (N=17) and impaired (N=31) based on a logistic cut point in the sample distribution of BLERT scores, referenced to a normative sample of healthy control subjects (N=56). The derived schizophrenia subgroups were then compared on proxy (UCSD, UPSA, SSPA, MMAA) and interviewer-rated (QLS, ILSS) measures of functioning, as well as battery of neurocognitive tests. Initial analyses indicated superior MMAA and QLS performance in the near-normal AR subgroup. Covariate analyses indicated that group differences in neurocognition fully mediated the observed associations between AR and MMAA and attenuated the observed relationships between AR classification and QLS. These results support three main conclusions. First, AR, like many other domains of psychopathology studied in schizophrenia, is preserved in select subgroups. Second, there is a positive relationship between AR performance and functional outcome measures. Third, neurocognition appears to mediate the relationship between AR and measures of functioning. PMID:20202689

  3. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. PMID:27590367

  4. Microbial composition affects the functioning of estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Heather E; Martiny, Jennifer BH

    2013-01-01

    Although microorganisms largely drive many ecosystem processes, the relationship between microbial composition and their functioning remains unclear. To tease apart the effects of composition and the environment directly, microbial composition must be manipulated and maintained, ideally in a natural ecosystem. In this study, we aimed to test whether variability in microbial composition affects functional processes in a field setting, by reciprocally transplanting riverbed sediments between low- and high-salinity locations along the Nonesuch River (Maine, USA). We placed the sediments into microbial ‘cages' to prevent the migration of microorganisms, while allowing the sediments to experience the abiotic conditions of the surroundings. We performed two experiments, short- (1 week) and long-term (7 weeks) reciprocal transplants, after which we assayed a variety of functional processes in the cages. In both experiments, we examined the composition of bacteria generally (targeting the 16S rDNA gene) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) specifically (targeting the dsrAB gene) using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In the short-term experiment, sediment processes (CO2 production, CH4 flux, nitrification and enzyme activities) depended on both the sediment's origin (reflecting differences in microbial composition between salt and freshwater sediments) and the surrounding environment. In the long-term experiment, general bacterial composition (but not SRB composition) shifted in response to their new environment, and this composition was significantly correlated with sediment functioning. Further, sediment origin had a diminished effect, relative to the short-term experiment, on sediment processes. Overall, this study provides direct evidence that microbial composition directly affects functional processes in these sediments. PMID:23235294

  5. Hyperforin promotes post-stroke functional recovery through interleukin (IL)-17A-mediated angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Yao, Chengye; Chen, Jiayi; Zhang, Yujing; Yuan, Shiying; Lin, Yun

    2016-09-01

    Hyperforin, the main active ingredient of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum, has been shown to be neuroprotective against acute ischemic stroke. However, the long-term actions of hyperforin on the post-stroke functional recovery and underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. C57BL/6 wild-type mice or interleukin (IL)-17A knock-out mice underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (60min) followed by reperfusion for 28 days. Here, we found that delayed treatment with hyperforin significantly promoted functional recovery and increased IL-17A expression in the ischemic hemisphere at 28 days post-ischemia (dpi). IL-17A knock-out or anti-IL-17A monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment significantly attenuated the promoting effects of hyperforin on functional recovery. After screening for neurotrophic factors, we revealed that blocking IL-17A significantly decreased, whereas recombinant mouse IL-17A (rIL-17A) treatment significantly increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Our data also showed that rIL-17A treatment significantly increased CD34 expression and promoted functional recovery at 28dpi, and the promoting effects were attenuated by VEGF neutralizing antibody treatment. Furthermore, hyperforin treatment significantly increased the expression of VEGF and CD34 in the ischemic hemisphere at 28dpi, and the effects were attenuated by blocking IL-17A. Furthermore, VEGF neutralizing antibody significantly attenuated the promoting role of hyperforin on the cerebral CD34 expression. Thus, our results suggest that, in addition to the acute neuroprotection when delivered immediately after ischemic stroke, hyperforin could also promote functional recovery when delivered in the later phases of stroke recovery. Our results also reveal a previously uncharacterized property of IL-17A/VEGF signaling-induced angiogenesis in hyperforin-mediated functional recovery. PMID:27328426

  6. Remodelling of spared proprioceptive circuit involving a small number of neurons supports functional recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Edmund R.; Ishiko, Nao; Pessian, Maysam; Tolentino, Kristine; Lee-Kubli, Corinne A.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Zou, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that limited functional recovery can be achieved by plasticity and adaptation of the remaining circuitry in partial injuries in the central nervous system, although the new circuits that arise in these contexts have not been clearly identified or characterized. We show here that synaptic contacts from dorsal root ganglions to a small number of dorsal column neurons, a caudal extension of nucleus gracilis, whose connections to the thalamus are spared in a precise cervical level 1 lesion, underwent remodeling over time. These connections support proprioceptive functional recovery in a conditioning lesion paradigm, as silencing or eliminating the remodelled circuit completely abolishes the recovered proprioceptive function of the hindlimb. Furthermore, we show that blocking repulsive Wnt signalling increases axon plasticity and synaptic connections that drive greater functional recovery. PMID:25597627

  7. Oxidative damage of workers in secondary metal recovery plants affected by smoking status and joining the smelting work.

    PubMed

    Chia, Taipau; Hsu, Ching Yi; Chen, Hsiu Ling

    2008-04-01

    In Taiwan, secondary copper smelters and zinc recovery plants primarily utilize recovering metal from scrap and dross, and handles mostly fly ash and slag with high temperature to produce ZnO from the iron and steel industry. The materials may contain organic impurities, such as plastic and organic chloride chemicals, and amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are produced during the smelting process. Therefore, secondary metal recovery industries are major emission sources of PCDD/Fs, which may have been demonstrated to elicit oxidative stress and to involve the production of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA). Many studies have also indicated that the intake of antioxidants, smoking, age and exposure to environmental pollutants may be implicated to DNA damage or lipid peroxidation. This study therefore aims to elucidate the roles of occupational exposure like joining the smelting work, age, smoking and alcohol status, and antioxidant intake on oxidative damage in secondary metal recovery workers in Taiwan. 73 workers were recruited from 2 secondary metal recovery plants. The analysis of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in urine, DNA strand breakage (comet assay) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in blood samples were completed for all of the workers. The results showed that the older subjects exhibited significantly lower levels of 8-OH-dG and MDA than younger subjects. Our investigation also showed that working departments were in related to plasma MDA and DNA strand breakage levels of nonsmokers, however, the observation become negligible in smokers. And it is implicated that cigarette type might affect 8-OH-dG levels in secondary metal recovery workers. Since, adding to results above, the MDA level in production workers was significantly higher than those in managerial departments, it is important for the employers to make efforts on improving occupational environments or serving protective equipments to protect workers

  8. Research note: does cost recovery for curative care affect preventive care utilization?

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, A; Leighton, C

    1995-09-01

    Findings are presented from cost recovery pilot tests implemented by the government of Niger, with technical assistance from USAID's Health Financing and Sustainability (HFS) Project, in the primary health care sector in Boboye and Say districts during 1993-94. The tests focused upon the use of free prenatal care for pregnant women. Two different payment methods were tested along with interventions to improve the quality of care. An annual adult tax plus a small fee-per-episode at the time of use were assessed in Boboye, while a straight fee-per-episode of illness was implemented in Say. The difference in the financial burden to the consumer between the two schemes depended upon the number of illnesses experienced. Preventive services remained free of charge in all public facilities. Together with the introduction of cost recovery, health facility staff in the two test districts were trained on diagnostic and treatment protocols, an initial stock of generic drugs was provided to the involved health facilities, and a drug inventory and financial management system were established. Far from suffering with the introduction of cost recovery and quality improvements, the use of preventive services actually increased. Additional research is needed on the effect of cost recovery upon the use of preventive services. PMID:10151846

  9. Sex Differences in Neuroanatomy of the Human Mirror Neuron System: Impact on Functional Recovery of Ischemic Hemiparetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Motaqhey, Monireh; Ghanjal, Ali; Mastri Farahani, Reza; Ghabaee, Mojdeh; Kaka, Gholamreza; Noroziyan, Mohsen; Fadaee Fathabadi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the higher activity of mirror neuron system in females, they frequently have better performance in empathy, interpersonal sensitivity, and emotional recognition compared to males. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender difference in neuroanatomy of the human mirror neuron system has any impact on functional recovery of ischemic hemiparetic patients. Patients and Methods: This single-blind clinical trial was conducted on 24 patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in the age range of 45 - 60 years, referring at a rehabilitation center in Tehran, Iran, during 2013 - 2014. Sampling method was stratified random sampling. The subjects were assigned to 2 groups of 12 males and 12 females. Then, each group was randomly divided into 2 groups (totally 4 groups, n = 6 for each group): women watching functional movies, control women, men watching functional movies, and control men. Movies were shown to patients and then, they were evaluated by Timed Up and Go (TUG), Six-minute walk test (SMW), Barthel index (BI), and Berg balance scale (BBS). Results: Comparison of all variables related to functional activities of all groups before and after watching movies revealed significant differences. The highest percentage of change and improvement was observed in groups 1 and 3 watching the functional movies (P = 0.0001). Percentage of improvement in women of groups 1 and 2 was higher than men in groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.0003). The changes in group of females watching the functional movies (group 1) were significantly greater than in other groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of the human mirror neuron system affect functional recovery of patients with hemiparesis. The improvement in studied women was found to be significantly greater than studied men. The results indicate a higher chance of recovery among hemiparetic women, especially those watching functional movies. PMID:26430528

  10. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase.

  11. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability-implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M P; Dideriksen, K; Sakuma, H; Stipp, S L S

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase. PMID:27352933

  12. Modelling how incorporation of divalent cations affects calcite wettability–implications for biomineralisation and oil recovery

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M. P.; Dideriksen, K.; Sakuma, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Using density functional theory and geochemical speciation modelling, we predicted how solid-fluid interfacial energy is changed, when divalent cations substitute into a calcite surface. The effect on wettability can be dramatic. Trace metal uptake can impact organic compound adsorption, with effects for example, on the ability of organisms to control crystal growth and our ability to predict the wettability of pore surfaces. Wettability influences how easily an organic phase can be removed from a surface, either organic compounds from contaminated soil or crude oil from a reservoir. In our simulations, transition metals substituted exothermically into calcite and more favourably into sites at the surface than in the bulk, meaning that surface properties are more strongly affected than results from bulk experiments imply. As a result of divalent cation substitution, calcite-fluid interfacial energy is significantly altered, enough to change macroscopic contact angle by tens of degrees. Substitution of Sr, Ba and Pb makes surfaces more hydrophobic. With substitution of Mg and the transition metals, calcite becomes more hydrophilic, weakening organic compound adsorption. For biomineralisation, this provides a switch for turning on and off the activity of organic crystal growth inhibitors, thereby controlling the shape of the associated mineral phase. PMID:27352933

  13. How does temperature affect the function of tissue macrophages?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Repasky, Elizabeth A.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages create a major danger signal following injury or infection and upon activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn help to generate febrile conditions. Thus, like other cells of the body, tissue macrophages are often exposed to naturally occurring elevations in tissue temperature during inflammation and fever. However, whether macrophages sense and respond to temperature changes in a specific manner which modulates their function is still not clear. In this brief review, we highlight recent studies which have analyzed the effects of temperatures on macrophage function, and summarize the possible underlying molecular mechanisms which have been identified. Mild, physiological range hyperthermia has been shown to have both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in regulating macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and at the meeting presentation, we will show new data demonstrating that hyperthermia can indeed exert both positive and negative signals to macrophages. While some thermal effects are correlated with the induction of heat shock factors/heat shock proteins, overall it is not clear how mild hyperthermia can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions. We also summarize data which shows that hyperthermia can affect other macrophage effector functions, including the anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Overall, these studies may help us to better understand the immunological role of tissue temperature and may provide important information needed to maximize the application of heat in the treatment of various diseases including cancer.

  14. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    PubMed

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts. PMID:24284259

  15. The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. PMID:25276333

  16. Resting State Alpha-band Functional Connectivity and Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Westlake, Kelly P.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Bucci, Monica; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Findlay, Anne M.; Byl, Nancy; Henry, Roland G.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2013-01-01

    After cerebral ischemia, disruption and subsequent reorganization of functional connections occur both locally and remote to the lesion. However, the unpredictable timing and extent of sensorimotor recovery reflects a gap in understanding of these underlying neural mechanisms. We aimed to identify plasticity of alpha-band functional neural connections within the perilesional area and the predictive value of functional connectivity with respect to motor recovery of the upper extremity after stroke. Our results show improvements in upper extremity motor recovery in relation to distributed changes in MEG-based alpha band functional connectivity, both in the perilesional area and contralesional cortex. Motor recovery was found to be predicted by increased connectivity at baseline in the ipsilesional somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum, contrasted with reduced connectivity of contralesional motor regions, after controlling for age, stroke onset-time and lesion size. These findings support plasticity within a widely distributed neural network and define brain regions in which the extent of network participation predicts post-stroke recovery potential PMID:22750324

  17. Additional Post-Concussion Impact Exposure May Affect Recovery in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Terwilliger, Virginia K; Pratson, Lincoln; Vaughan, Christopher G; Gioia, Gerard A

    2016-04-15

    Repeat concussion has been associated with risk for prolonged and pronounced clinical recovery in athletes. In this study of adolescent athletes, we examined whether an additional head impact within 24 h of a sports-related concussion (SRC) is associated with higher symptom burden and prolonged clinical recovery compared with a single-injury group. Forty-two student-athletes (52% male, mean age = 14.9 years) diagnosed with an SRC in a concussion clinic were selected for this study: (1) 21 athletes who sustained an additional significant head impact within 24 h of the initial injury (additional-impact group); (2) 21 single-injury athletes, age and gender matched, who sustained only one discrete concussive blow to the head (single-injury group). Groups did not differ on initial injury characteristics or pre-injury risk factors. The effect of injury status (single- vs. additional-impact) was examined on athlete- and parent-reported symptom burden (at first clinic visit) and length of recovery (LOR). Higher symptom burden was reported by the athletes and parents in the additional-impact group at the time of first visit. The additional-impact group also had a significantly longer LOR compared with the single-injury group. These findings provide preliminary, hypothesis-generating evidence for the importance of immediate removal from play following an SRC to protect athletes from re-injury, which may worsen symptoms and prolong recovery. The retrospective study design from a specialized clinical sample points to the need for future prospective studies of the relationship between single- and additional-impact injuries on symptom burden and LOR. PMID:26421452

  18. Comparison of the effects of erythropoietin and anakinra on functional recovery and gene expression in a traumatic brain injury model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail D.; Peterson, Todd C.; Vonder Haar, Cole; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of two inflammatory modulators, erythropoietin (EPO) and anakinra, on functional recovery and brain gene expression following a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in the range obtained with clinically approved doses. Functional recovery was assessed using both motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements conducted in the cortex and hippocampus. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to evaluate the effect on relevant functional categories. EPO and anakinra treatment resulted in significant changes in brain gene expression in the CCI model demonstrating acceptable brain penetration. At all three time points, EPO treatment resulted in significantly more differentially expressed genes than anakinra. For anakinra at 24 h and EPO at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days, the genes in the top 3 functional categories were involved in cellular movement, inflammatory response and cell-to-cell signaling. For EPO, the majority of the genes in the top 10 canonical pathways identified were associated with inflammatory and immune signaling processes. This was true for anakinra only at 24 h post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). The immunomodulation effects of EPO and anakinra did not translate into positive effects on functional behavioral and lesion studies. Treatment with either EPO or anakinra failed to induce significant beneficial effects on recovery of function or produce any significant effects on the prevention of injury induced tissue loss at 30 days post-injury. In conclusion, treatment with EPO or anakinra resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain without affecting functional outcome. This suggests that targeting these inflammatory processes alone may not be sufficient for preventing secondary injuries

  19. Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. )

    1991-09-01

    To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

  20. Functional testing of hepatocytes following their recovery from cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Innes, G K; Fuller, B J; Hobbs, K E

    1988-02-01

    Various tests of function have been suggested for assessing hepatocytes recovered from cryopreservation. In this study we have investigated hepatocyte attachment during tissue culture and cellular density in order to assess function and compared them with two classical dye exposure tests. The ability of hepatocytes to exclude trypan blue dye (TB) and metabolize fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was demonstrated. In populations of freshly prepared hepatocytes 88.07% were able to exclude TB and 87.31% were able to metabolize FDA. However in populations of hepatocytes recovered after cryopreservation using 1.5 M dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant only 33.44% were able to exclude TB and 31.59% able to metabolize FDA. Both of these tests gave the same estimate of functional ability. Density gradient centrifugation of hepatocytes on Percoll 400 (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) separated two populations of hepatocytes; one (density ca.1.07 g/ml Percoll) in which most of the cells were able to exclude TB and the second (density ca. 1.02 g/ml Percoll) in which they were stained blue. The dense population was highly enriched in dye-excluding hepatocytes: freshly prepared hepatocytes, 92.4%, and cryopreserved hepatocytes, 88.66%. When samples of these cells (2 x 10(6) dye-excluding cells per dish) were tested for their ability to attach to tissue culture dishes only 17.28% of the cryopreserved hepatocytes were able to attach compared to 55.28% of the freshly prepared cells. We conclude that cryopreservation of hepatocytes produces a population of cells which are not metabolically identical to a population of freshly prepared hepatocytes even though they appear to have the same buoyant density and dye-excluding capabilities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3349809

  1. A Review of Instruments for Measuring Functional Recovery in Those Diagnosed With Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Moore, Raeanne; Bowie, Christopher; Cardenas, Veronica; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The task of judging an individual's functional recovery is not an easy one for healthcare professionals. Indeed, increasing one's accuracy in predicting one's ability to self-maintain would be of great value for determining if functional recovery has or is occurring. The purpose of this review is to examine existing measures for assessing remission/normalization of functional status among people with psychosis. Our review evaluates 8 measures of functional ability encompassing self-report, clinical, and performance-based measures. We elected to utilize a grading system to aid readers in understanding the merit of a scale for use in assessing functional recovery. In this approach, a letter grade (A, B, or C) was assigned to each of 4 domains we deemed important to professionals in electing to use specific assessments: (1) Ease of Administration, (2) Reliability, (3) Validity/Relationship to Real-World Outcomes, and (4) Sensitivity to Change/Use in Clinical Trials. Results indicated that no “gold standard” measure has been developed to date, but performance-based measures appear to have the most evidence for predicting concurrent self-maintenance abilities (eg, residing independently or maintaining work). More research on existing measures is needed, and greater funding for developing new measures of functional recovery is strongly recommended. PMID:19023122

  2. Barrier Island Morphology and Sediment Characteristics Affect the Recovery of Dune Building Grasses following Storm-Induced Overwash

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Steven T.; Bissett, Spencer N.; Young, Donald R.; Wolner, Catherine W. V.; Moore, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Barrier islands are complex and dynamic systems that provide critical ecosystem services to coastal populations. Stability of these systems is threatened by rising sea level and the potential for coastal storms to increase in frequency and intensity. Recovery of dune-building grasses following storms is an important process that promotes topographic heterogeneity and long-term stability of barrier islands, yet factors that drive dune recovery are poorly understood. We examined vegetation recovery in overwash zones on two geomorphically distinct (undisturbed vs. frequently overwashed) barrier islands on the Virginia coast, USA. We hypothesized that vegetation recovery in overwash zones would be driven primarily by environmental characteristics, especially elevation and beach width. We sampled species composition and environmental characteristics along a continuum of disturbance from active overwash zones to relict overwash zones and in adjacent undisturbed environments. We compared species assemblages along the disturbance chronosequence and between islands and we analyzed species composition data and environmental measurements with Canonical Correspondence Analysis to link community composition with environmental characteristics. Recovering and geomorphically stable dunes were dominated by Ammophila breviligulata Fernaud (Poaceae) on both islands while active overwash zones were dominated by Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. (Poaceae) on the frequently disturbed island and bare sand on the less disturbed island. Species composition was associated with environmental characteristics only on the frequently disturbed island (p = 0.005) where A. breviligulata was associated with higher elevation and greater beach width. Spartina patens, the second most abundant species, was associated with larger sediment grain size and greater sediment size distribution. On the less frequently disturbed island, time since disturbance was the only factor that affected community

  3. Detrimental effects of immobilization on functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Sarikcioglu, Levent; Ozkan, Olcay; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2005-07-01

    Peripheral-nerve trauma has been a challenge to surgeons, with significant advances in the surgery of repair. Immobilization of the injured limb after repair has been the traditional method of treatment. Although peripheral-nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, the correlation between functional recovery and the immobilization period has not been well-documented. In the present study, the authors studied the effects of immobilization on axonal regeneration after sciatic crush injury. They found a detrimental effect of immobilization on the functional recovery. PMID:15971165

  4. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina M; Salazar, Celia; Jensen, Erik; Ruiz, Paula A; Tiznado, William; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 (∙-) production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  5. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B. Alex; Jetten, Anton M.; Austin, Christopher, P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  6. Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Teng, Christina; Goodwin, Bonnie; Shockley, Keith; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Norris, John; Merrick, B Alex; Jetten, Anton M; Austin, Christopher P; Tice, Raymond R

    2013-05-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is a well-known endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) that affects the normal development and function of the female and male reproductive system, however the mechanisms of action remain unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. The results showed that two receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR), are affected by BPA in opposite direction. To confirm the observed effects of BPA on ERα and AR, we performed transient transfection experiments with full-length receptors and their corresponding response elements linked to luciferase reporters. We also included in this study two BPA analogs, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS). As seen in African green monkey kidney CV1 cells, the present study confirmed that BPA and BPAF act as ERα agonists (half maximal effective concentration EC50 of 10-100 nM) and as AR antagonists (half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 of 1-2 μM). Both BPA and BPAF antagonized AR function via competitive inhibition of the action of synthetic androgen R1881. BPS with lower estrogenic activity (EC50 of 2.2 μM), did not compete with R1881 for AR binding, when tested at 30 μM. Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. Similar to 17β-estradiol (E2) which was used as control, BPA was able to enhance ERα nuclear foci formation but at a 100-fold higher concentration. Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. Furthermore, BPA was unable to induce functional foci in the nuclei and is consistent with the transient transfection study that BPA is unable to activate AR. PMID:23562765

  7. Edaravone promotes functional recovery after mechanical peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Li, Zhengwei; Dong, Jianli; Nan, Feng; Li, Tao; Yu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone has been shown to reduce ischemia/reperfusion-induced peripheral nerve injury. However, the therapeutic effect of edaravone on peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors is unknown. In the present study, we established a peripheral nerve injury model by crushing the sciatic nerve using hemostatic forceps, and then administered edaravone 3 mg/kg intraperitoneally. The sciatic functional index and superoxide dismutase activity of the sciatic nerve were increased, and the malondialdehyde level was decreased in animals in the edaravone group compared with those in the model group. Bcl-2 expression was increased, but Bax expression was decreased in anterior horn cells of the L4-6 spinal cord segments. These results indicated that edaravone has a neuroprotective effect following peripheral nerve injury caused by mechanical factors through alleviating free radical damage to cells and inhibiting lipid peroxidation, as well as regulating apoptosis-related protein expression. PMID:25374594

  8. Functional Recovery following Critical Illness in Children: the “Wee-cover” Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Karen; Al-Harbi, Samah; Siu, Katie; Wong, Katie; Cheng, Ji; Baird, Burke; Pogorzelski, David; Timmons, Brian; Gorter, Jan-Willem; Thabane, Lehana; Khetani, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of conducting a longitudinal prospective study to evaluate functional recovery and predictors of impaired functional recovery in critically ill children. Design Prospective pilot study. Setting Single center Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at McMaster Children’s Hospital, Hamilton, Canada. Patients Children aged 12 months to 17 years, with at least one organ dysfunction, limited mobility or bed-rest during the first 48 hours of PICU admission, and a minimum 48 hour PICU length of stay, were eligible. Patients transferred from a neonatal intensive care unit prior to ever being discharged home, already mobilizing well or at baseline functional status at time of screening, with an English language barrier, and prior enrollment into this study were excluded. Measurements The primary outcome was feasibility, as defined by the ability to screen, enroll eligible patients, and execute the study procedures and measurements on participants. Secondary outcomes included functional status at baseline, 3 and 6 months, PICU morbidity and mortality. Functional status was measured using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), and the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth (PEM-CY). Main results Thirty-three patients were enrolled between October 2012 and April 2013. Consent rate was 85%, follow-up rates 93% at 3 months, and 71% at 6 months. We were able to execute the study procedures and measurements, demonstrating feasibility of conducting a future longitudinal study. Functional status deteriorated following critical illness. Recovery appears to be influenced by baseline health or functional status, and severity of illness. Conclusion Longitudinal research is needed to understand how children recover after a critical illness. Our results suggest factors that may influence the recovery trajectory, and were used to inform the methodology, outcomes of interest, and appropriate sample size of a

  9. Prognostic value of FMRI in recovery of hand function in subcortical stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Loubinoux, Isabelle; Dechaumont-Palacin, S; Castel-Lacanal, E; De Boissezon, X; Marque, Philippe; Pariente, Jérémie; Albucher, Jean-François; Berry, Isabelle; Chollet, François

    2007-12-01

    The first objective of the study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal was correlated with motor performance at different stages of poststroke recovery. The second objective was to assess the existence of prognostic factors for recovery in early functional MR images. Eight right-handed patients with pure motor deficit secondary to a first lacunar infarct localized on the pyramidal tract were included. This study concerned moderately impaired patients and recovery of handgrip strength and finger-tapping speed. The fMRI task was a calibrated flexion-extension movement. Ten healthy subjects served as a control group. The intensity of the activation in the "classical" motor network (ipsilesional S1M1, ipsilesional ventral premotor cortex [BA 6], contralesional cerebellum) 20 days after stroke was indicative of the performance (positive correlation). The cluster in M1 was posterior and circumscribed to BA 4p. No area was associated with bad performance (negative correlation). No correlation was found 4 and 12 months after stroke. Prognosis factors were evidenced. The higher early the activation in the ipsilesional M1 (BA 4p), S1, and insula, the better the recovery 1 year after stroke. Although the lesions partly deefferented the primary motor cortex, patients who activated the posterior primary motor cortex early had a better recovery of hand function. This suggests that there is benefit in increasing ipsilesional M1 activity shortly after stroke as a rehabilitative approach in mildly impaired patients. PMID:17389628

  10. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A; Bishop, Logan D C; Kelly, Kevin F; Landes, Christy F

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  11. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions.

  12. Generalized recovery algorithm for 3D super-resolution microscopy using rotating point spread functions

    PubMed Central

    Shuang, Bo; Wang, Wenxiao; Shen, Hao; Tauzin, Lawrence J.; Flatebo, Charlotte; Chen, Jianbo; Moringo, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Kelly, Kevin F.; Landes, Christy F.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy with phase masks is a promising technique for 3D imaging and tracking. Due to the complexity of the resultant point spread functions, generalized recovery algorithms are still missing. We introduce a 3D super-resolution recovery algorithm that works for a variety of phase masks generating 3D point spread functions. A fast deconvolution process generates initial guesses, which are further refined by least squares fitting. Overfitting is suppressed using a machine learning determined threshold. Preliminary results on experimental data show that our algorithm can be used to super-localize 3D adsorption events within a porous polymer film and is useful for evaluating potential phase masks. Finally, we demonstrate that parallel computation on graphics processing units can reduce the processing time required for 3D recovery. Simulations reveal that, through desktop parallelization, the ultimate limit of real-time processing is possible. Our program is the first open source recovery program for generalized 3D recovery using rotating point spread functions. PMID:27488312

  13. Can lifestyle modification affect men’s erectile function?

    PubMed Central

    Hehemann, Marah C.

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  14. Modifying lipid rafts promotes regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Tassew, Nardos G; Mothe, Andrea J; Shabanzadeh, Alireza P; Banerjee, Paromita; Koeberle, Paulo D; Bremner, Rod; Tator, Charles H; Monnier, Philippe P

    2014-08-21

    Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa)-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS. PMID:25127134

  15. Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J.M.; Gurrola, G.B.; Valdivia, H.H.F.; Possani, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The number and types of venom components that affect ion-channel function are reviewed. These are the most important venom components responsible for human intoxication, deserving medical attention, often requiring the use of specific anti-venoms. Special emphasis is given to peptides that recognize Na+-, K+- and Ca++-channels of excitable cells. Knowledge generated by direct isolation of peptides from venom and components deduced from cloned genes, whose amino acid sequences are deposited into databanks are now adays in the order of 1.5 thousands, out of an estimate biodiversity closed to 300,000. Here the diversity of components is briefly reviewed with mention to specific references. Structural characteristic are discussed with examples taken from published work. The principal mechanisms of action of the three different types of peptides are also reviewed. Na+-channel specific venom components usually are modifier of the open and closing kinetic mechanisms of the ion-channels, whereas peptides affecting K+-channels are normally pore blocking agents. The Ryanodine Ca++-channel specific peptides are known for causing sub-conducting stages of the channels conductance and some were shown to be able to internalize penetrating inside the muscle cells. PMID:23891887

  16. Recovery from mivacurium-induced neuromuscular blockade is not affected by anticonvulsant therapy.

    PubMed

    Jellish, W S; Thalji, Z; Brundidge, P K; Tempelhoff, R

    1996-01-01

    Long-term chronic anticonvulsant therapy produces a resistance to the effects of all nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents studied to date. Since the metabolism of mivacurium is unique among the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, the effect of anticonvulsants on its recovery parameters was examined. Forty-five patients were separated into three groups based on the number of chronic anticonvulsant medications the subjects were taking: subjects in group 1, the control group, took no anticonvulsant medication; group 2 subjects took one medication; and group 3 subjects took two medications. Mivacurium, 0.15 mg/kg i.v., was administered after induction of general anesthesia with thiopental sodium, 4-6 mg/kg, and fentanyl 2-4 micrograms/kg i.v. Maintenance anesthesia consisted of N2O in O2. 0.2-0.3% end-tidal isoflurane, and a fentanyl infusion. The evoked compound electromyograph (ECEMG) of the adductor pollicis-brevis muscle was measured for time of onset, T-1 (time at which ECEMG signal reaches 5, 25, 50, and 75% of baseline), TR (TOF ratio), and recovery index. T-1 at 25% was 18.2 +/- 1.8, 20.7 +/- 1.9, and 21.5 +/- 1.4 min for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with TR at 25% being 23.7 +/- 2.3, 26.9 +/- 2.4, and 27.3 +/- 2.3 min. No significant differences were noted in neuromuscular recovery between groups at any time point. These results fail to demonstrate the resistance to the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade of mivacurium that has been observed with other nondepolarizing agents. PMID:8719185

  17. Ambient particulate matter affects cardiac recovery in a Langendorff ischemia model.

    PubMed

    Bagate, Karim; Meiring, James J; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Cassee, Flemming R; Wiegand, Herbert; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Borm, Paul J A

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity among subjects with cardiovascular impairment. We hypothesized that exposure of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats to PM impairs the recovery of cardiovascular performance after coronary occlusion and reperfusion-ischemia. SH rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to saline, standard urban PM (Ottawa dust EHC-93, 10 mg/kg body weight) or endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides LPS, 350 EU/animal) to induce a similar pulmonary inflammation. At 4 h postexposure, hearts were isolated and retrograde perfused in a Langendorff model. The experimental protocol included 35 min of coronary occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion, during which left ventricular developing pressure (LDVP), coronary flow (CF), and heart rate (HR) were measured. Baseline LVDP in particle-instilled SH rats was significantly decreased compared to saline-instilled animals. In addition, after ischemia the recovery of LDVP was much slower in rats pretreated with PM or LPS compared to saline instilled rats. The direct effects of the soluble PM fraction and the role of Zn2+ were also tested cardiomyocytes (H9C2 cells). Both particle-free filtrate and Zn2+ inhibited ATP or ionophore-stimulated calcium influx in cardiomyocytes. This inhibitory effect was related to an effect on calcium channels, as shown with Nifedipine. This study provides evidence that exposure to instillation of PM has reversible acute effects on the recovery of cardiac physiological parameters after ischemia. The effect may be caused by a direct action of soluble metals on calcium homeostasis in heart, but pulmonary inflammation may also play a significant role. PMID:16864554

  18. Plasticity of subcortical pathways promote recovery of skilled hand function in rats after corticospinal and rubrospinal tract injuries.

    PubMed

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Truong, Kevin; Shah, Prithvi K; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2015-04-01

    The corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts are the predominant tracts for controlling skilled hand function. Injuries to these tracts impair grasping but not gross motor functions such as overground locomotion. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not, after damage to both the corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts, other spared subcortical motor pathway can mediate the recovery of skilled hand function. Adult rats received a bilateral injury to the corticospinal tract at the level of the medullar pyramids and a bilateral ablation of the rubrospinal axons at C4. One group of rats received, acutely after injury, two injections of chondroitinase-ABC at C7, and starting at 7days post-injury were enrolled in daily reaching and grasping rehabilitation (CHASE group, n=5). A second group of rats received analogous injections of ubiquitous penicillinase, and did not undergo rehabilitation (PEN group, n=5). Compared to rats in the PEN group, CHASE rats gradually recovered the ability to reach and grasp over 42days after injury. Overground locomotion was mildly affected after injury and both groups followed similar recovery. Since the reticulospinal tract plays a predominant role in motor control, we further investigated whether or not plasticity of this pathway could contribute to the animal's recovery. Reticulospinal axons were anterogradely traced in both groups of rats. The density of reticulospinal processes in both the normal and ectopic areas of the grey ventral matter of the caudal segments of the cervical spinal cord was greater in the CHASE than PEN group. The results indicate that after damage to spinal tracts that normally mediate the control of reaching and grasping in rats other complementary spinal tracts can acquire the role of those damaged tracts and promote task-specific recovery. PMID:25666586

  19. The Role of Species Traits in Mediating Functional Recovery during Matrix Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Andrew D.; Emberson, Rowan M.; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Didham, Raphael K.

    2014-01-01

    Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass effects on rates of dung removal. Community trait composition and biomass of dung beetle communities responded divergently to edge effects and matrix habitat restoration, yielding opposing effects on dung removal. However, functional dispersion—used in this study as a measure of niche complementarity—did not explain a significant amount of variation in dung removal rates across habitat edges. Instead, we demonstrate that the path to functional recovery of these altered ecosystems depends on the trait-mean composition of reassembling communities, over and above purely biomass-dependent processes that would be expected under neutral theory. These results suggest that any ability to manage functional recovery of ecosystems during habitat restoration will demand knowledge of species' roles in ecosystem processes. PMID:25502448

  20. Ryk controls remapping of motor cortex during functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Yu, Ting; Lu, Chin-Chun; Haimovich, Ariela; Tolentino, Kristine; Richman, Alisha; Tury, Anna; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Pessian, Maysam; Jo, Euna; Kolodkin, Alex; Zou, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Limited functional recovery can be achieved through rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury. Eliminating the function of a repulsive Wnt receptor, Ryk, in mice and rats by either conditional knockout in the motor cortex or monoclonal antibody infusion resulted in increased corticospinal axon collateral branches with presynaptic puncta in the spinal cord and enhanced recovery of forelimb reaching and grasping function following a cervical dorsal column lesion. Using optical stimulation, we observed that motor cortical output maps underwent massive changes after injury and that hindlimb cortical areas were recruited to control the forelimb over time. Furthermore, a greater cortical area was dedicated to controlling the forelimb in Ryk conditional knockout mice than in controls (wild-type or heterozygotes). In the absence of weekly task-specific training, recruitment of ectopic cortical areas was greatly reduced and there was no significant functional recovery even in Ryk conditional knockout mice. Our study provides evidence that maximal circuit reorganization and functional recovery can be achieved by combining molecular manipulation and targeted rehabilitation. PMID:27065364

  1. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    PubMed

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  2. Recovery of Adrenal Function in Patients with Glucocorticoids Induced Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Jung, Jung Hwa; Hahm, Jong Ryeal

    2016-01-01

    Background The chronic use of glucocorticoids (GC) suppresses function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and often results in secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI). The present study aimed to determine the recovery rate of adrenal function in patients with secondary AI within 1 to 2 years and to assess the factors predictive of adrenal function recovery. Methods This was a retrospective observational study that enrolled patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI between 2007 and 2013. AI was defined by peak serum cortisol levels <18 µg/dL during a standard-dose short synacthen test (SST). A follow-up SST was performed after 1 to 2 years, and responders were defined as those with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated peak serum cortisol levels ≥18 µg/dL. Results Of the total 34 patients diagnosed with GC-induced secondary AI at first, 20 patients (58.8%) recovered normal adrenal function by the time of the follow-up SST (median follow-up period, 16.5 months). Although the baseline serum ACTH and cortisol levels at the first SST did not differ between responders and non-responders, the incremental cortisol response during the first SST was higher in responders than that of non-responders (7.88 vs. 3.56, P<0.01). Additionally, higher cortisol increments during the first SST were an independent predictive factor of the adrenal function recovery (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.46; P<0.05). Conclusion In the present study, adrenal function recovery was achieved frequently in patients with GC-induced secondary AI within 1 to 2 years. Additionally, an incremental cortisol response at the first SST may be an important predictive factor of adrenal function recovery. PMID:26676337

  3. Integrated Treatment to Achieve Functional Recovery for First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelo; Juarez, Francisco; Ortega, Hector

    2012-01-01

    This study describes an integrated treatment approach that was implemented to enhance functional recovery in first-episode psychotic patients. Patients were randomized to two treatment conditions: either to an integrated treatment approach: pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment, and psychoeducation (experimental group: N = 39) or to medication alone (control group: N = 34). Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of treatment. Functional recovery was assessed according to symptomatic and functional remission. At the end of treatment, experimental patients showed a 94.9% of symptomatic remission compared to 58.8% of the control group. Functional remission was 56.4% for the experimental group and 3.6% for the control group, while 56.4% of the experimental group met both symptomatic and functional remission criteria and were considered recovered compared to 2.9% of the control group. PMID:22970366

  4. Integrating Negative Affect Measures in a Measurement Model: Assessing the Function of Negative Affect as Interference to Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by…

  5. To what extent does urbanisation affect fragmented grassland functioning?

    PubMed

    van der Walt, L; Cilliers, S S; Kellner, K; Du Toit, M J; Tongway, D

    2015-03-15

    Urbanisation creates altered environments characterised by increased human habitation, impermeable surfaces, artificial structures, landscape fragmentation, habitat loss, resulting in different resource loss pathways. The vulnerable Rand Highveld Grassland vegetation unit in the Tlokwe Municipal area, South Africa, has been extensively affected and transformed by urbanisation, agriculture, and mining. Grassland fragments in urban areas are often considered to be less species rich and less functional than in the more untransformed or "natural" exurban environments, and are therefore seldom a priority for conservation. Furthermore, urban grassland fragments are often being more intensely managed than exurban areas, such as consistent mowing in open urban areas. Four urbanisation measures acting as indicators for patterns and processes associated with urban areas were calculated for matrix areas surrounding each selected grassland fragment to quantify the position of each grassland remnant along an urbanisation gradient. The grassland fragments were objectively classified into two classes of urbanisation, namely "exurban" and "urban" based on the urbanisation measure values. Grazing was recorded in some exurban grasslands and mowing in some urban grassland fragments. Unmanaged grassland fragments were present in both urban and exurban areas. Fine-scale biophysical landscape function was determined by executing the Landscape Function Analysis (LFA) method. LFA assesses fine-scale landscape patchiness (entailing resource conserving potential and erosion resistance) and 11 soil surface indicators to produce three main LFA parameters (stability, infiltration, and nutrient cycling), which indicates how well a system is functioning in terms of fine-scale biophysical soil processes and characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urbanisation and associated management practices on fine-scale biophysical landscape function of urban and exurban

  6. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability. PMID:27220264

  7. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the

  8. [Effects of a vitamin B complex on functional recovery after nerve injury (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Mikuni, N; Sakai, Y

    1978-09-01

    Functional recovery after nerve crushing was investigated in the following manner: Under pentobarbital anesthesia the sciatic nerve of the rat was crushed at the level of the hip (proximal crush) or the thigh (distal crush). The recovery processes after the nerve crushing were followed by measuring distances between the first and fifth digits(DBD.1 approximately 5) and between the second and fourth digits (DBD.2 approximately 4) of the hind paw, and by observing changes in "behavior" scored on a scale of 10 according to the degree of behavioral disorder of the hind paw and leg. Results obtained by these methods showed good reproducibility. The DBD values and the scores for behavior recovered significantly faster after weak nerve crushing than after strong crushing, and after distal rather than after proximal crushing. When a segment of the sciatic nerve was resected, there was no recovery. These results suggest that DBD.1 approximately 5, DBD.2 approximately 4, and the behavior observed in these experiments serve as good indices for evaluating the degree of functional recovery after nerve injury in unanesthetized and unrestrained animals. Effects of a preparation of vitamins B1, B6, and B12 (B complex) on these three parameters and on weights of 9 muscles of the hind leg were also studied. These studies showed that the B complex facilitated functional recovery from nerve injury faster than its components, and that on muscle atrophy the B complex had its most effects on the soleus. It was also shown that B1 and B12 by themselves had significant facilitating effects on the functional recovery. PMID:711031

  9. Does Ramadan Fasting Adversely Affect Cognitive Function in Young Females?

    PubMed Central

    Ghayour Najafabadi, Mahboubeh; Rahbar Nikoukar, Laya; Memari, Amir; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Beygi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of Ramadan fasting on cognitive function in 17 female athletes. Data were obtained from participants of two fasting (n = 9) and nonfasting (n = 8) groups at three periods of the study (before Ramadan, at the third week in Ramadan, and after Ramadan). Digit span test (DST) and Stroop color test were employed to assess short-term memory and inhibition/cognitive flexibility at each time point. There were no significant changes for DST and Stroop task 1 in both groups, whereas Stroop task 2 and task 3 showed significant improvements in Ramadan condition (p < 0.05). Interference indices did not change significantly across the study except in post-Ramadan period of fasting group (p < 0.05). Group × week interaction was significant only for error numbers (p < 0.05). Athletes in nonfasting showed a significant decrease in number of errors in Ramadan compared to baseline (p < 0.05). The results suggest that Ramadan fasting may not adversely affect cognitive function in female athletes. PMID:26697263

  10. Functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury: Role of neurotrophin and glutamatergic signaling in phrenic motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Gill, Luther C; Gransee, Heather M; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2016-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts descending neural drive to phrenic motoneurons causing diaphragm muscle (DIAm) paralysis. Recent studies using a well-established model of SCI, unilateral spinal hemisection of the C2 segment of the cervical spinal cord (SH), provide novel information regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of functional recovery after SCI. Over time post-SH, gradual recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral DIAm activity occurs. Recovery of ipsilateral DIAm electromyogram (EMG) activity following SH is enhanced by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool. Delivery of exogenous BDNF either via intrathecal infusion or via mesenchymal stem cells engineered to release BDNF similarly enhance recovery. Conversely, recovery after SH is blunted by quenching endogenous BDNF with the fusion-protein TrkB-Fc in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool or by selective inhibition of TrkB kinase activity using a chemical-genetic approach in TrkB(F616A) mice. Furthermore, the importance of BDNF signaling via TrkB receptors at phrenic motoneurons is highlighted by the blunting of recovery by siRNA-mediated downregulation of TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons and by the enhancement of recovery evident following virally-induced increases in TrkB expression specifically in phrenic motoneurons. BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates synaptic plasticity in various neuronal systems, including glutamatergic pathways. Glutamatergic neurotransmission constitutes the main inspiratory-related, excitatory drive to motoneurons, and following SH, spontaneous neuroplasticity is associated with increased expression of ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in phrenic motoneurons. Evidence for the role of BDNF/TrkB and glutamatergic signaling in recovery of DIAm activity following cervical SCI is reviewed. PMID:26506253

  11. The Crossed Phrenic Phenomenon and Recovery of Function Following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Goshgarian, Harry G.

    2009-01-01

    This review will focus on neural plasticity and recovery of respiratory function after spinal cord injury and feature the “crossed phrenic phenomenon” (CPP) as a model for demonstrating such plasticity and recovery. A very brief summary of the earlier literature on the CPP will be followed by a more detailed review of the more recent studies. Two aspects of plasticity associated with the CPP that have been introduced in the literature recently have been spontaneous recovery of ipsilateral hemidiaphragmatic function following chronic spinal cord injury and drug-induced persistent recovery of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm lasting long after animals have been weaned from drug treatment. The underlying mechanisms for this plasticity and resultant recovery will be discussed in this review. Moreover, two new models involving the CPP have been introduced: a mouse model which now provides for an opportunity to study CPP plasticity at a molecular level using a genetic approach and light-stimulated induction of the CPP accomplished by transfecting mammalian cells with channelrhodopsin. Both models provide an opportunity to sort out the intracellular signaling cascades that may be involved in motor recovery in the respiratory system after spinal cord injury. Finally, the review will examine developmental plasticity of the CPP and discuss how the expression of the CPP changes in neonatal rats as they mature to adults. Understanding the underlying mechanisms behind the spontaneous expression of the crossed phrenic pathway either in the developing animal or after chronic spinal cord injury in the adult animal may provide clues to initiating respiratory recovery sooner to alleviate human suffering and eventually eliminate the leading cause of death in human cases of spinal cord injury. PMID:19539790

  12. Grape polyphenols do not affect vascular function in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Linda A J; Zock, Peter L; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Draijer, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Data suggest that polyphenol-rich products may improve endothelial function and other cardiovascular health risk factors. Grape and wine contain high amounts of polyphenols, but effects of these polyphenols have hardly been investigated in isolation in randomized controlled studies. Our objective in this study was to test the chronic effect of polyphenol-rich solids derived from either a wine grape mix or grape seed on flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Blood pressure and other vascular function measures, platelet function, and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Thirty-five healthy males were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of three 2-wk intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods. The test products, containing 800 mg of polyphenols, were consumed as capsules. At the end of each intervention period, effects were measured after consumption of a low-fat breakfast (~751 kJ, 25% fat) and a high-fat lunch (~3136 kJ, 78% fat). After the low-fat breakfast, the treatments did not significantly affect FMD. The absolute difference after the wine grape solid treatment was -0.4% (95% CI = -1.8 to 0.9; P = 0.77) and after grape seed solids, 0.2% (95% CI = -1.2 to 1.5; P = 0.94) compared with after the placebo treatment. FMD effects after the high-fat lunch and effects on secondary outcomes also showed no consistent differences between both of the grape solids and placebo treatment. In conclusion, consumption of grape polyphenols has no major impact on FMD in healthy men. Future studies should address whether grape polyphenols can improve FMD and other cardiovascular health risk factors in populations with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:20702747

  13. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, P.; Blackburne, H.; Dixon, L.; Dobbs, B.; Eglinton, T.; Ing, A.; Mulder, R.; Porter, R.J.; Wakeman, C.; Frizelle, F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and

  14. Does Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy Affect Cognitive Function?

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P; Blackburne, H; Dixon, L; Dobbs, B; Eglinton, T; Ing, A; Mulder, R; Porter, R J; Wakeman, C; Frizelle, F A

    2015-11-01

    Colonoscopy is a common procedure used in the diagnosis and treatment of a range of bowel disorders. Prior preparation involving potent laxatives is a necessary stage to ensure adequate visualization of the bowel wall. It is known that the sedatives given to most patients during the colonoscopy cause a temporary impairment in cognitive function; however, the potential for bowel preparation to affect cognitive function has not previously been investigated. To assess the effect of bowel preparation for colonoscopy on cognitive function. This was a prospective, nonrandomized controlled study of cognitive function in patients who had bowel preparation for colonoscopy compared with those having gastroscopy and therefore no bowel preparation. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (MMMSE) and selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Individual test scores and changes between initial and subsequent tests were compared between the groups. Age, gender, and weight were also compared. Forty-three colonoscopy and 25 gastroscopy patients were recruited. The 2 groups were similar for age and gender; however, patients having gastroscopy were heavier. MMMSE scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 28.6 and 29.5 (P = 0.24) at baseline, 28.7 and 29.8 (P = 0.32) at test 2, 28.1 and 28.5 (P = 0.76) at test 3. Motor screening scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 349.3 and 354.1 (P = 0.97) at baseline, 307.5 and 199.7 (P = 0.06) at test 2, 212.0 and 183.2 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Spatial working memory scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 14.4 and 6.7 (P = 0.29) at baseline, 9.7 and 4.3 (P = 0.27) at test 2, 10 and 4.5 (P = 0.33) at test 3. Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores for colonoscopy and gastroscopy groups, respectively, were 36.3 and 37.8 (P = 0.84) at baseline, 36.4 and 40.0 (P

  15. Functional lateralization in cingulate cortex predicts motor recovery after basal ganglia stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Chen, Zengai; Su, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Yajing; Xu, Qun; Xu, Jianrong; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) is involved in higher order motor control such as movement planning and execution of complex motor synergies. Neuroimaging study on stroke patients specifically with BG lesions would help to clarify the consequence of BG damage on motor control. In this paper, we performed a longitudinal study in the stroke patients with lesions in BG regions across three motor recovery stages, i.e., less than 2week (Session 1), 1-3m (Session 2) and more than 3m (Session 3). The patients showed an activation shift from bilateral hemispheres during early sessions (<3m) to the ipsilesional cortex in late session (>3m), suggesting a compensation effect from the contralesional hemisphere during motor recovery. We found that the lateralization of cerebellum(CB) for affected hand task correlated with patients' concurrent Fugl-Meyer index (FMI) in Session 2. Moreover, the cingulate cortex lateralization index in Session 2 was shown to significantly correlate with subsequent FMI change between Session 3 and Session 2, which serves as a prognostic marker for motor recovery. Our findings consolidated the close interactions between BG and CB during the motor recovery after stroke. The dominance of activation in contralateral cingulate cortex was associated with a better motor recovery, suggesting the important role of ipsilesional attention modulation in the early stage after BG stroke. PMID:26742641

  16. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  17. A meta‐analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Ezard, Thomas H. G.; Martin, Philip A.; Newton, Adrian C.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old‐growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta‐analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old‐growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional‐group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old‐growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old‐growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old‐growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non‐saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old‐growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  18. Functional Recovery of Older Hip-Fracture Patients after Interdisciplinary Intervention Follows Three Distinct Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Ming-Yueh; Shyu, Yea-Ing L.; Liang, Jersey

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on the trajectories of functional recovery among older patients with hip fracture during 2 years after hospitalization. Design and Methods In a randomized controlled trial with 24-month follow-up, 162 patients [greater than or equal to]60 years were enrolled after hip-fracture…

  19. 3 CFR - Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of Reporting Function Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of May... by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3,...

  20. Recruitment of Polysynaptic Connections Underlies Functional Recovery of a Neural Circuit after Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recruitment of additional neurons to neural circuits often occurs in accordance with changing functional demands. Here we found that synaptic recruitment plays a key role in functional recovery after neural injury. Disconnection of a brain commissure in the nudibranch mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, impairs swimming behavior by eliminating particular synapses in the central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swim motor pattern. However, the CPG functionally recovers within a day after the lesion. The strength of a spared inhibitory synapse within the CPG from Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) to Ventral Swim Interneuron B (VSI) determines the level of impairment caused by the lesion, which varies among individuals. In addition to this direct synaptic connection, there are polysynaptic connections from C2 and Dorsal Swim Interneurons to VSI that provide indirect excitatory drive but play only minor roles under normal conditions. After disconnecting the pedal commissure (Pedal Nerve 6), the recruitment of polysynaptic excitation became a major source of the excitatory drive to VSI. Moreover, the amount of polysynaptic recruitment, which changed over time, differed among individuals and correlated with the degree of recovery of the swim motor pattern. Thus, functional recovery was mediated by an increase in the magnitude of polysynaptic excitatory drive, compensating for the loss of direct excitation. Since the degree of susceptibility to injury corresponds to existing individual variation in the C2 to VSI synapse, the recovery relied upon the extent to which the network reorganized to incorporate additional synapses. PMID:27570828

  1. Recruitment of Polysynaptic Connections Underlies Functional Recovery of a Neural Circuit after Lesion.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Tamvacakis, Arianna N; Katz, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of additional neurons to neural circuits often occurs in accordance with changing functional demands. Here we found that synaptic recruitment plays a key role in functional recovery after neural injury. Disconnection of a brain commissure in the nudibranch mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, impairs swimming behavior by eliminating particular synapses in the central pattern generator (CPG) underlying the rhythmic swim motor pattern. However, the CPG functionally recovers within a day after the lesion. The strength of a spared inhibitory synapse within the CPG from Cerebral Neuron 2 (C2) to Ventral Swim Interneuron B (VSI) determines the level of impairment caused by the lesion, which varies among individuals. In addition to this direct synaptic connection, there are polysynaptic connections from C2 and Dorsal Swim Interneurons to VSI that provide indirect excitatory drive but play only minor roles under normal conditions. After disconnecting the pedal commissure (Pedal Nerve 6), the recruitment of polysynaptic excitation became a major source of the excitatory drive to VSI. Moreover, the amount of polysynaptic recruitment, which changed over time, differed among individuals and correlated with the degree of recovery of the swim motor pattern. Thus, functional recovery was mediated by an increase in the magnitude of polysynaptic excitatory drive, compensating for the loss of direct excitation. Since the degree of susceptibility to injury corresponds to existing individual variation in the C2 to VSI synapse, the recovery relied upon the extent to which the network reorganized to incorporate additional synapses. PMID:27570828

  2. Muscle Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Functional Recovery Following Peripheral Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Spearry, Rachel P.; Leahy, Kendra M.; Robitz, Rachel; Trinh, Dennis S.; Mason, Carter O.; Zurbrugg, Rebekah J.; Batt, Myra K.; Paul, Richard J.; Maclennan, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) administration maintains, protects, and promotes the regeneration of both motor neurons (MNs) and skeletal muscle in a wide variety of models. Expression of CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα), an essential CNTF receptor component, is greatly increased in skeletal muscle following neuromuscular insult. Together the data suggest that muscle CNTFRα may contribute to neuromuscular maintenance, protection, and/or regeneration in vivo. To directly address the role of muscle CNTFRα, we selectively-depleted it in vivo by using a “floxed” CNTFRα mouse line and a gene construct (mlc1f-Cre) that drives the expression of Cre specifically in skeletal muscle. The resulting mice were challenged with sciatic nerve crush. Counting of nerve axons and retrograde tracing of MNs indicated that muscle CNTFRα contributes to MN axonal regeneration across the lesion site. Walking track analysis indicated that muscle CNTFRα is also required for normal recovery of motor function. However, the same muscle CNTFRα depletion unexpectedly had no detected effect on the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself, even though exogenous CNTF has been shown to affect these functions. Similarly, MN survival and lesion-induced terminal sprouting were unaffected. Therefore, muscle CNTFRα is an interesting new example of a muscle growth factor receptor that, in vivo under physiological conditions, contributes much more to neuronal regeneration than to the maintenance or regeneration of the muscle itself. This novel form of muscle–neuron interaction also has implications in the therapeutic targeting of the neuromuscular system in MN disorders and following nerve injury. PMID:23504871

  3. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    PubMed Central

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level. Objective This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP. Design Health facility–based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 348 patient cards. The outcome variable was time to recovery. Descriptive analysis was done using percentages for categorical data and mean/median for continuous variables. A robust method of analyzing time to event data, the Cox proportional-hazard regression, was used. All statistical tests in this study are declared significant at p<0.05. Result 89.1% of children with kwashiorkor and 69.4% of children with marasmus were recovered. Of the total children studied, 22% were readmitted cases. The median time of recovery was 35 days for children with kwashiorkor and 49 days for children with marasmus. Children older than 3 years were 33% less likely to achieve nutritional recovery [adjusted hazard ratio, AHR=0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI (0.46, 0.97)]. Similarly, marasmic children stayed longer on treatment [AHR=0.42, 95% CI (0.32, 0.56)]. However, children who gained Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) ≥ 0.24 mm/day were 59% more likely to recover faster [AHR=1.59, 95% CI (1.23, 2.06)]. Conclusions Close monitoring of weight and MUAC gain to assess nutritional improvement with due emphasis given to children with lower admission weight, children of age 3 years and above and marasmic children will have a positive effect on treatment duration and outcome. PMID:27396484

  4. Organism-Sediment Interactions Govern Post-Hypoxia Recovery of Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Colen, Carl; Rossi, Francesca; Montserrat, Francesc; Andersson, Maria G. I.; Gribsholt, Britta; Herman, Peter M. J.; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda; Ysebaert, Tom; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia represents one of the major causes of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning loss for coastal waters. Since eutrophication-induced hypoxic events are becoming increasingly frequent and intense, understanding the response of ecosystems to hypoxia is of primary importance to understand and predict the stability of ecosystem functioning. Such ecological stability may greatly depend on the recovery patterns of communities and the return time of the system properties associated to these patterns. Here, we have examined how the reassembly of a benthic community contributed to the recovery of ecosystem functioning following experimentally-induced hypoxia in a tidal flat. We demonstrate that organism-sediment interactions that depend on organism size and relate to mobility traits and sediment reworking capacities are generally more important than recovering species richness to set the return time of the measured sediment processes and properties. Specifically, increasing macrofauna bioturbation potential during community reassembly significantly contributed to the recovery of sediment processes and properties such as denitrification, bedload sediment transport, primary production and deep pore water ammonium concentration. Such bioturbation potential was due to the replacement of the small-sized organisms that recolonised at early stages by large-sized bioturbating organisms, which had a disproportionately stronger influence on sediment. This study suggests that the complete recovery of organism-sediment interactions is a necessary condition for ecosystem functioning recovery, and that such process requires long periods after disturbance due to the slow growth of juveniles into adult stages involved in these interactions. Consequently, repeated episodes of disturbance at intervals smaller than the time needed for the system to fully recover organism-sediment interactions may greatly impair the resilience of ecosystem functioning. PMID:23185440

  5. Functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats using polypyrrole/iodine implants and treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Mejia, Laura; Morales, Juan; Cruz, Guillermo J; Olayo, María-Guadalupe; Olayo, Roberto; Díaz-Ruíz, Araceli; Ríos, Camilo; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Torres, Stephanie; Morales-Guadarrama, Axayacatl; Fabela-Sánchez, Omar; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda

    2015-07-01

    Currently, there is no universally accepted treatment for traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI), a pathology that can cause paraplegia or quadriplegia. Due to the complexity of TSCI, more than one therapeutic strategy may be necessary to regain lost functions. Therefore, the present study proposes the use of implants of mesoparticles (MPs) of polypyrrole/iodine (PPy/I) synthesized by plasma for neuroprotection promotion and functional recovery in combination with treadmill training (TT) for neuroplasticity promotion and maintenance of muscle tone. PPy/I films were synthesized by plasma and pulverized to obtain MPs. Rats with a TSCI produced by the NYU impactor were divided into four groups: Vehicle (saline solution); MPs (PPy/I implant); Vehicle-TT (saline solution + TT); and MPs-TT (PPy/I implant + TT). The vehicle or MPs (30 μL) were injected into the lesion site 48 h after a TSCI. Four days later, TT was carried out 5 days a week for 2 months. Functional recovery was evaluated weekly using the BBB motor scale for 9 weeks and tissue protection using histological and morphometric analysis thereafter. Although the MPs of PPy/I increased nerve tissue preservation (P = 0.03) and promoted functional recovery (P = 0.015), combination with TT did not produce better neuroprotection, but significantly improved functional results (P = 0.000) when comparing with the vehicle group. So, use these therapeutic strategies by separately could stimulate specific mechanisms of neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, but when using together they could mainly potentiate different mechanisms of neuronal plasticity in the preserved spinal cord tissue after a TSCI and produce a significant functional recovery. The implant of mesoparticles of polypyrrole/iodine into the injured spinal cord displayed good integration into the nervous tissue without a response of rejection, as well as an increased in the amount of preserved tissue and a better functional recovery than the group without

  6. The optimal recovery of a function from an inaccurate information on its k-plane transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagramyan, Tigran

    2016-06-01

    We consider the optimal recovery of the β th degree of the Laplacian value on a function from the information on its k-plane transform, measured with an error. We present the error of the optimal recovery and the set of optimal methods on classes with the bounded α th degree of the Laplacian, where 0≤slant β \\lt α . As a consequence, we give one inequality for the norms of the degree of the Laplace operator and the k-plane transform. Particular cases include new inversion methods and inequalities for the classical Radon and x-ray transforms.

  7. Resolution of hypophosphatemia is associated with recovery of hepatic function in children with fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Quirós-Tejeira, Rubén E; Molina, Ricardo A; Katzir, Lirona; Lie, Angela; Vargas, Jorge H; Ament, Marvin E; McDiarmid, Sue V; Martín, Martín G

    2005-09-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare but often fatal disease in children. Clinical and laboratory predictors of liver regeneration and recovery, however, have not been well established. We hypothesized that hypophosphatemia may indicate recovery of liver synthetic function in children with FHF. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with FHF who were admitted to UCLA and recovered hepatic function either spontaneously or by liver transplantation (LTx). Serum phosphate (Ph) and prothrombin time or international normalized ratio (INR) were compared over the patient's clinical course. Records of 39 children who spontaneously recovered experienced profound hypophosphatemia that resolved as liver synthetic function improved. Similar patterns were seen in the 84 children who recovered after LTx. We found that hypophosphatemia precedes the recovery of liver synthetic function in children with FHF who recovered with or without transplantation, and that Ph levels return to normal as liver synthetic function improves. These data suggest that hypophosphatemia may be a useful laboratory indicator of recovering liver function in children with FHF. PMID:16101727

  8. Defining recovery from an eating disorder: Conceptualization, validation, and examination of psychosocial functioning and psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Harney, Megan B; Maldonado, Christine R; Lawson, Melissa A; Robinson, D Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2010-03-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a "fully recovered" group (n = 20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n = 15), active eating disorder (n = 53), and healthy controls (n = 67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  9. Defining Recovery from an Eating Disorder: Conceptualization, Validation, and Examination of Psychosocial Functioning and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Harney, Megan B.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma; Tosh, Aneesh

    2009-01-01

    Conceptually, eating disorder recovery should include physical, behavioral, and psychological components, but such a comprehensive approach has not been consistently employed. Guided by theory and recent recovery research, we identified a “fully recovered” group (n=20) based on physical (body mass index), behavioral (absence of eating disorder behaviors), and psychological (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire) indices, and compared them with groups of partially recovered (n=15), active eating disorder (n=53), and healthy controls (n=67). The fully recovered group was indistinguishable from controls on all eating disorder-related measures used, while the partially recovered group was less disordered than the active eating disorder group on some measures, but not on body image. Regarding psychosocial functioning, both the fully and partially recovered groups had psychosocial functioning similar to the controls, but there was a pattern of more of the partially recovered group reporting eating disorder aspects interfering with functioning. Regarding other psychopathology, the fully recovered group was no more likely than the controls to experience current Axis I pathology, but they did have elevated rates of current anxiety disorder. Results suggest that a stringent definition of recovery from an eating disorder is meaningful. Clinical implications and future directions regarding defining eating disorder recovery are discussed. PMID:19945094

  10. GDF10 Is a Signal for Axonal Sprouting and Functional Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Nie, EH; Yin, Y; Benowitz, LI; Tung, S; Vinters, HV; Bahjat, FR; Stenzel-Poore, MP; Kawaguchi, R; Coppola, G; Carmichael, ST

    2016-01-01

    Stroke produces a limited process of neural repair. Axonal sprouting in cortex adjacent to the infarct is part of this recovery process, but the signal that initiates axonal sprouting is not known. Growth and Differentiation Factor 10 (GDF10) is induced in peri-infarct neurons in mouse, non-human primate and human. GDF10 promotes axonal outgrowth in vitro in mouse, rat and human neurons through TGFβRI/II signaling. Using pharmacogenetic gain and loss of function studies, GDF10 produces axonal sprouting and enhanced functional recovery after stroke; knocking down GDF10 blocks axonal sprouting and reduces recovery. RNA-seq from peri-infarct cortical neurons indicates that GDF10 downregulates PTEN and upregulates PI3 kinase signaling and induces specific axonal guidance molecules. Unsupervised genome-wide association analysis of the GDF10 transcriptome shows that it is not related to neurodevelopment but may partially overlap with other CNS injury patterns. GDF10 is a stroke-induced signal for axonal sprouting and functional recovery. PMID:26502261

  11. Hand motor recovery after stroke: tuning the orchestra to improve hand motor function.

    PubMed

    Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2006-03-01

    The motor deficits after stroke are not only the manifestation of the injured brain region, but rather the expression of the ability of the rest of the brain to maintain function. After a lesion in the primary motor cortex, parallel motor circuits might be activated to generate some alternative input to the spinal motoneurons. These parallel circuits may originate from areas such as the contralateral, undamaged primary motor area, bilateral premotor areas, bilateral supplementary motor areas, bilateral somatosensory areas, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Most importantly, the efferent, cortico-spinal output pathways must be preserved for a desired behavioral result. Most of the recovery of function after a stroke may represent actual relearning of the skills with the injured brain. The main neural mechanisms underlying this relearning process after stroke involve shifts of distributed contributions across a specific neural network (fundamentally the network engaged in skill learning in the healthy). If these notions are indeed correct, then neuromodulatory approaches, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, targeting these parallel circuits might be useful to limit injury and promote recovery after a stroke. This paper reviews the stroke characteristics that can predict a good recovery and compensations across brain areas that can be implemented after a stroke to accelerate motor function recovery. PMID:16633016

  12. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or “à la carte” VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life. PMID:25610424

  13. Does the regulation of local excitation-inhibition balance aid in recovery of functional connectivity? A computational account.

    PubMed

    Vattikonda, Anirudh; Surampudi, Bapi Raju; Banerjee, Arpan; Deco, Gustavo; Roy, Dipanjan

    2016-08-01

    Computational modeling of the spontaneous dynamics over the whole brain provides critical insight into the spatiotemporal organization of brain dynamics at multiple resolutions and their alteration to changes in brain structure (e.g. in diseased states, aging, across individuals). Recent experimental evidence further suggests that the adverse effect of lesions is visible on spontaneous dynamics characterized by changes in resting state functional connectivity and its graph theoretical properties (e.g. modularity). These changes originate from altered neural dynamics in individual brain areas that are otherwise poised towards a homeostatic equilibrium to maintain a stable excitatory and inhibitory activity. In this work, we employ a homeostatic inhibitory mechanism, balancing excitation and inhibition in the local brain areas of the entire cortex under neurological impairments like lesions to understand global functional recovery (across brain networks and individuals). Previous computational and empirical studies have demonstrated that the resting state functional connectivity varies primarily due to the location and specific topological characteristics of the lesion. We show that local homeostatic balance provides a functional recovery by re-establishing excitation-inhibition balance in all areas that are affected by lesion. We systematically compare the extent of recovery in the primary hub areas (e.g. default mode network (DMN), medial temporal lobe, medial prefrontal cortex) as well as other sensory areas like primary motor area, supplementary motor area, fronto-parietal and temporo-parietal networks. Our findings suggest that stability and richness similar to the normal brain dynamics at rest are achievable by re-establishment of balance. PMID:27177761

  14. HEAVY PARTICLE IRRADIATION, NEUROCHEMISTRY AND BEHAVIOR: THRESHOLDS, DOSE-RESPONSE CURVES AND RECOVERY OF FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to heavy particles can affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), particularly the dopaminergic system. In turn, the radiation-induced disruption of dopaminergic function affects a variety of behaviors that are dependent upon the integrity of this system, including motor...

  15. Factors Affecting the Retention of Individuals as Important People for Ex-Offenders in Early Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Stone, Ariel; Stevens, Ed; Light, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few studies consider the retention of the individuals (alters) comprising the social networks of people in recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study exploring several possible factors predicting whether alters were retained six months after participants completed treatment. Method The Important Person Inventory was given to 270 ex-offenders (224 men, 46 women) transitioning from treatment to Oxford House residences, Safe Haven therapeutic communities, or to usual aftercare. A 6-month follow-up was completed by 176 participants (137 men, 39 women). Results We found that alters who were related to the participant, did not use drugs, were embedded in smaller networks, and had more frequent contact with the participant were significantly more likely to be retained as important people over 6 months, but found no effects based on alters’ drinking or criminal history. Conclusions Certain characteristics of important people are related to their retention in a social network. Understanding these relationships is essential for creating effective social interventions for addictions. PMID:24521088

  16. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Third quarterly report, [April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a filed that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. The GeoGraphix Exploration System (GES) software package was acquired this quarter and installed. Well logging, formation tops and other data are being loaded into the program. We also acquired and installed GeoGraphix`s well-log evaluation package, QLA2. Miocene tops for the entire Pioneer Anticline were loaded into the GES system and contour maps and 3D surface visualizations were constructed. Fault data have been digitized and will soon be loaded into the GeoGraphix mapping module and combined with formation-top data to produce structure maps which will display all fault traces. The versatile program MatLab can be used to perform time series analysis and to produce spatial displays of data. MatLab now has a 3D volume visualization package. In the coming quarter we will test MatLab using Pioneer data set.

  17. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. FY 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Evaluation of oil and gas properties for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves a high degree of risk, especially when the fields are old and well past their prime. The purpose of this project is to provide the small-to-medium size oil field operator with the tools necessary to do an EOR evaluation of the same quality and sophistication that only large international oil companies have been able to afford to date. This approach utilizes readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. This project will provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for EOR operations utilizing data typically available in a field which has undergone primary development. After reviewing PC-based software from most major vendors, the authors decided that the most effective way to provide a user-friendly, state-of-the-art package to the independent producers who are primary clients is to link the best modules from four different systems: a commercial database, a wireline log analysis program, a mapping program, and a 2D and 3D visualization program, into a flexible, user-friendly unit. This would result in a product that could be used by small oil and gas companies to perform computerized reservoir studies. Progress to date is described.

  18. Extraction of impacted third molars. A longitudinal prospective study on factors that affect postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Capuzzi, P; Montebugnoli, L; Vaccaro, M A

    1994-04-01

    A longitudinal prospective trial was carried out on 146 patients to evaluate which factors can have an effect on postoperative recovery after extraction of impacted third molars or wisdom teeth. The following factors were considered: (1) age, (2) sex, (3) smoking habits, (4) use of the birth control pill, (5) previous history of pericoronitis, (6) degree of difficulty of the extraction, (7) expertise of the surgeon, (8) length of surgery, and (9) antibiotic prophylaxis. The following results were obtained and statistically significant differences were noted with respect to the pain in the context of (1) sex-males noted more pain on the 1st and 3rd days (p < 0.05) compared with females; (2) expertise of the surgeon--patients treated by surgeons with considerable or average expertise reported less pain on the first and third days (p < 0.05) compared with patients treated by surgeons with little expertise; and (3) age--a direct correlation was noted between age and pain (p < 0.05). PMID:8015796

  19. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Self-Run Recovery Homes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ronald; Mortensen, Jennifer; Aase, Darrin; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Jason, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the sustainability rates of 214 self-run substance abuse recovery homes called Oxford Houses (OHs) over a six-year period. We list five factors needed to sustain an OH: affordable housing, residents following OH principles, resident income, institutional support, and community support. Results indicated a high sustainability rate (86.9%) in which 186 OHs remained open and 28 OHs closed. Reasons for houses closing (N = 14) included lack of affordable housing, which we classified as an external factor. Houses that closed because of internal factors (N = 13) included residents who were unable to adhere to OH rules, and insufficient income of residents. No house-level differences for income, sense of community, average lengths of stay, house age, or neighborhood characteristics were found between the houses that closed versus houses that remained open. Because the OH system relies on residents to sustain individual houses located in ordinary residential neighborhoods, these findings suggest that OH sustainability depends on locale, primarily access to affordable housing and adequate job opportunities for residents. PMID:23441023

  20. Role of the Contralesional Hemisphere in Post-Stroke Recovery of Upper Extremity Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, Cathrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of optimal treatment strategies to improve recovery is limited by the incomplete understanding of the neurobiological principles of recovery. Motor cortex (M1) reorganization of the lesioned hemisphere (ipsilesional M1) plays a major role in post-stroke motor recovery and is a primary target for rehabilitation therapy. Reorganization of M1 in the hemisphere contralateral to the stroke (contralesional M1) may, however, serve as an additional source of cortical reorganization and related recovery. The extent and outcome of such reorganization depends on many factors, including lesion size and time since stroke. In the chronic phase post-stroke, contralesional M1 seems to interfere with motor function of the paretic limb in a subset of patients, possibly through abnormally increased inhibition of lesioned M1 by the contralesional M1. In such patients, decreasing contralesional M1 excitability by cortical stimulation results in improved performance of the paretic limb. However, emerging evidence suggests a potentially supportive role of contralesional M1. After infarction of M1 or its corticospinal projections, there is abnormally increased excitatory neural activity and activation in contralesional M1 that correlates with favorable motor recovery. Decreasing contralesional M1 excitability in these patients may result in deterioration of paretic limb performance. In animal stroke models, reorganizational changes in contralesional M1 depend on the lesion size and rehabilitation treatment and include long-term changes in neurotransmitter systems, dendritic growth, and synapse formation. While there is, therefore, some evidence that activity in contralesional M1 will impact the extent of motor function of the paretic limb in the subacute and chronic phase post-stroke and may serve as a new target for rehabilitation treatment strategies, the precise factors that specifically influence its role in the recovery process remain to be defined. PMID:26528236

  1. E2F4 Promotes Neuronal Regeneration and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Shota; Nishimura, Yuhei; Hayakawa, Yuka; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Okabe, Shiko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Mammals exhibit poor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), whereas non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit significant spontaneous recovery after SCI. The mechanisms underlying this difference have not been fully elucidated; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate these mechanisms. Using comparative transcriptome analysis, we demonstrated that genes related to cell cycle were significantly enriched in the genes specifically dysregulated in zebrafish SCI. Most of the cell cycle-related genes dysregulated in zebrafish SCI were down-regulated, possibly through activation of e2f4. Using a larval zebrafish model of SCI, we demonstrated that the recovery of locomotive function and neuronal regeneration after SCI were significantly inhibited in zebrafish treated with an E2F4 inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of e2f4 after SCI may be responsible, at least in part, for the significant recovery in zebrafish. This provides novel insight into the lack of recovery after SCI in mammals and informs potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27242526

  2. Fluoxetine treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Scali, Manuela; Begenisic, Tatjana; Mainardi, Marco; Milanese, Marco; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bonanno, Giambattista; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe condition leading to enduring motor deficits. When lesions are incomplete, promoting spinal cord plasticity might be a useful strategy to elicit functional recovery. Here we investigated whether long-term fluoxetine administration in the drinking water, a treatment recently demonstrated to optimize brain plasticity in several pathological conditions, promotes motor recovery in rats that received a C4 dorsal funiculus crush. We show that fluoxetine administration markedly improved motor functions compared to controls in several behavioral paradigms. The improved functional effects correlated positively with significant sprouting of intact corticospinal fibers and a modulation of the excitation/inhibition balance. Our results suggest a potential application of fluoxetine treatment as a non invasive therapeutic strategy for SCI-associated neuropathologies. PMID:23860568

  3. Advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging of language function recovery after aphasic stroke: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marion; Visch-Brink, Evy G; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke E; van der Lugt, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Two advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging techniques, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), have recently made their way into clinically oriented research and hold great promise to study the brain's adaptive changes of function and structure after aphasic stroke, respectively. Such functional and structural neuroplasticity is thought to underlie the recovery of language function, occurring spontaneously and/or in the context of therapeutic intervention. With fMRI, brain activity can be visualized. Spontaneous brain activity, present in multiple brain networks, is measured with resting-state fMRI and language-related brain activity by having the subject perform a language task during scanning (task-based fMRI). With DTI the major white matter tracts, such as the dorsal and ventral language pathways and the commissural fibers, can be visualized and quantified. Both techniques are entirely noninvasive and thus offer the unique opportunity to perform multiple assessments within the same subject. To gain more insight in functional and structural neuroplasticity after aphasic stroke, advanced magnetic resonance neuroimaging studies in specific patient populations, at several stages after stroke and in the course of language recovery, are needed. Such studies will help to clarify the influence of the many factors that play a role in the recovery of language function and are thus vital to further the development of aphasia therapy. Application of these techniques in aphasic stroke patients, however, is not without challenge. The purpose of this article is to discuss the methodologic challenges of fMRI and DTI in the assessment of language recovery after aphasic stroke. PMID:22202190

  4. Shade treatment affects structure and recovery of invasive C4 African grass Echinochloa pyramidalis.

    PubMed

    López Rosas, Hugo; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Espejel González, Verónica E

    2015-03-01

    Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase is an African grass with C4 photosynthesis, high biomass production, and high vegetative propagation that is tolerant to grazing and able to grow in flooded and dry conditions. Thus, it is highly invasive in tropical freshwater marshes where it is intentionally planted by ranchers to increase cattle production. This invasion is reducing plant biodiversity by increasing the invader's aerial coverage, changing wetland hydrology and causing soil physicochemical changes such as vertical accretion. Reducing the dominance of this species and increasing the density of native wetland species is a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming process. We applied a series of disturbance treatments aimed at eliminating E. pyramidalis and recovering the native vegetation of a partially invaded freshwater marsh. Treatments included physical (cutting, soil disking, transplanting individuals of the key native species Sagittaria lancifolia subsp. media (Micheli) Bogin, and/or reducing light with shade mesh) and/or chemical (spraying Round-Up™ herbicide) disturbances. At the end of the experiment, four of the five treatments used were effective in increasing the cover and biomass of native species and reducing that of E. pyramidalis. The combination of these treatments should be used to generate a proposal for the restoration of tropical wetlands invaded by non-native grasses. A promising treatment is using soil disked to soften the soil and destroy belowground structures such as roots and rhizomes. This treatment would be more promising if combined with the use of shade cloth. If it is desirable not to impact the soil or if there is not enough budget to make an effort to include active restoration disking soil, the use of shade cloth will suffice, although the recovery of native vegetation will be slower. PMID:25859337

  5. Shade treatment affects structure and recovery of invasive C4 African grass Echinochloa pyramidalis

    PubMed Central

    López Rosas, Hugo; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Espejel González, Verónica E

    2015-01-01

    Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc. & Chase is an African grass with C4 photosynthesis, high biomass production, and high vegetative propagation that is tolerant to grazing and able to grow in flooded and dry conditions. Thus, it is highly invasive in tropical freshwater marshes where it is intentionally planted by ranchers to increase cattle production. This invasion is reducing plant biodiversity by increasing the invader's aerial coverage, changing wetland hydrology and causing soil physicochemical changes such as vertical accretion. Reducing the dominance of this species and increasing the density of native wetland species is a difficult, expensive, and time-consuming process. We applied a series of disturbance treatments aimed at eliminating E. pyramidalis and recovering the native vegetation of a partially invaded freshwater marsh. Treatments included physical (cutting, soil disking, transplanting individuals of the key native species Sagittaria lancifolia subsp. media (Micheli) Bogin, and/or reducing light with shade mesh) and/or chemical (spraying Round-Up™ herbicide) disturbances. At the end of the experiment, four of the five treatments used were effective in increasing the cover and biomass of native species and reducing that of E. pyramidalis. The combination of these treatments should be used to generate a proposal for the restoration of tropical wetlands invaded by non-native grasses. A promising treatment is using soil disked to soften the soil and destroy belowground structures such as roots and rhizomes. This treatment would be more promising if combined with the use of shade cloth. If it is desirable not to impact the soil or if there is not enough budget to make an effort to include active restoration disking soil, the use of shade cloth will suffice, although the recovery of native vegetation will be slower. PMID:25859337

  6. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  7. Mechanisms of recovery of visual function in adult amblyopia through a tailored action video game

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Nahum, Mor; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a deficit in vision that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. It was long thought to develop into a permanent deficit, unless properly treated before the end of the sensitive period for visual recovery. However, a number of studies now suggest that adults with long-standing amblyopia may at least partially recover visual acuity and stereopsis following perceptual training. Eliminating or reducing interocular suppression has been hypothesized to be at the root of these changes. Here we show that playing a novel dichoptic video game indeed results in reduced suppression, improved visual acuity and, in some cases, improved stereopsis. Our relatively large cohort of adults with amblyopia, allowed us, for the first time, to assess the link between visual function recovery and reduction in suppression. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between decreased suppression and improved visual function. This finding challenges the prevailing view and suggests that while dichoptic training improves visual acuity and stereopsis in adult amblyopia, reduced suppression is unlikely to be at the root of visual recovery. These results are discussed in the context of their implication on recovery of amblyopia in adults. PMID:25719537

  8. Binge Ethanol Prior to Traumatic Brain Injury Worsens Sensorimotor Functional Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vaagenes, Ian C.; Tsai, Shih-Yen; Ton, Son T.; Husak, Vicki A.; McGuire, Susan O.; O’Brien, Timothy E.; Kartje, Gwendolyn L.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have a high blood alcohol level at the time of injury. Furthermore, drinking alcohol in a binge-like pattern is now recognized as a national problem, leading to a greater likelihood of being injured. Our objective was to determine the consequences of a binge paradigm of alcohol intoxication at the time of TBI on long-term functional outcome using a sensitive test of sensorimotor function. We trained adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats on the skilled forelimb reaching task and then administered a single binge dose of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) or saline for three consecutive days (for a total of 3 doses). One hour after the final ethanol dose, rats underwent a TBI to the sensorimotor cortex corresponding to the preferred reaching forelimb. Animals were then tested for seven weeks on the skilled forelimb reaching task to assess the profile of recovery. We found that the group given ethanol prior to TBI displayed a slower recovery curve with a lower recovery plateau as compared to the control group. Therefore, even a relatively short (3 day) episode of binge alcohol exposure can negatively impact long-term recovery from a TBI, underscoring this significant public health problem. PMID:25768795

  9. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event. PMID:25627452

  10. COMPRESSION SOCKS AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MARATHON RUNNING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen; Harris, Gregory

    2014-09-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running.Athletes (n=33, age = 38.5 ±7.2yrs) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomised into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks prior and 2 weeks following each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant.33 participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks following the marathon increased by 2.6% (52s ±103s). In the placebo group run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62s ±130s). P=0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared to placebo.The wearing of below knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks following the event. PMID:25187242

  11. The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on functional recovery from myocardial stunning in propofol-anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Rolf, N; Meissner, A; Van Aken, H; Weber, T P; Hammel, D; Möllhoff, T

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on myocardial stunning during propofol anesthesia. Six dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). Myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Experiments were performed on separate days with 1) 10 min of left anterior descending artery (LAD) ischemia during propofol anesthesia without TEA, and 2) 10 min of LAD ischemia during propofol anesthesia with TEA. WTF was measured as baseline (BL) prior to propofol anesthesia and at predetermined time points until complete recovery from stunning. Propofol anesthesia caused a significant decrease of WTF in the LAD-perfused myocardium (LAD-WTF) compared to BL in awake animals. LAD ischemia led to a further significant decrease of LAD-WTF. There were no significant differences in LAD-WTF between the two experimental conditions at any of the time points measured. TEA did not change subendocardial blood flow in nonischemic myocardium. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/normal zone blood flow ratio were affected by TEA. After myocardial ischemia during propofol anesthesia TEA does not affect functional recovery of stunned myocardium in dogs. PMID:9085946

  12. Proposal for a recovery prediction method for patients affected by acute mediastinitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An attempt to find a prediction method of death risk in patients affected by acute mediastinitis. There is not such a tool described in available literature for that serious disease. Methods The study comprised 44 consecutive cases of acute mediastinitis. General anamnesis and biochemical data were included. Factor analysis was used to extract the risk characteristic for the patients. The most valuable results were obtained for 8 parameters which were selected for further statistical analysis (all collected during few hours after admission). Three factors reached Eigenvalue >1. Clinical explanations of these combined statistical factors are: Factor1 - proteinic status (serum total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin level), Factor2 - inflammatory status (white blood cells, CRP, procalcitonin), and Factor3 - general risk (age, number of coexisting diseases). Threshold values of prediction factors were estimated by means of statistical analysis (factor analysis, Statgraphics Centurion XVI). Results The final prediction result for the patients is constructed as simultaneous evaluation of all factor scores. High probability of death should be predicted if factor 1 value decreases with simultaneous increase of factors 2 and 3. The diagnostic power of the proposed method was revealed to be high [sensitivity =90%, specificity =64%], for Factor1 [SNC = 87%, SPC = 79%]; for Factor2 [SNC = 87%, SPC = 50%] and for Factor3 [SNC = 73%, SPC = 71%]. Conclusion The proposed prediction method seems a useful emergency signal during acute mediastinitis control in affected patients. PMID:22574625

  13. Stimulus electrodiagnosis and motor and functional evaluations during ulnar nerve recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Luciane F. R. M.; Oliveira, Nuno M. L.; Pelet, Danyelle C. S.; Cunha, Agnes F. S.; Grecco, Marco A. S.; Souza, Luciane A. P. S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Distal ulnar nerve injury leads to impairment of hand function due to motor and sensorial changes. Stimulus electrodiagnosis (SE) is a method of assessing and monitoring the development of this type of injury. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most sensitive electrodiagnostic parameters to evaluate ulnar nerve recovery and to correlate these parameters (Rheobase, Chronaxie, and Accommodation) with motor function evaluations. METHOD: A prospective cohort study of ten patients submitted to ulnar neurorrhaphy and evaluated using electrodiagnosis and motor assessment at two moments of neural recovery. A functional evaluation using the DASH questionnaire (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) was conducted at the end to establish the functional status of the upper limb. RESULTS: There was significant reduction only in the Chronaxie values in relation to time of injury and side (with and without lesion), as well as significant correlation of Chronaxie with the motor domain score. CONCLUSION: Chronaxie was the most sensitive SE parameter for detecting differences in neuromuscular responses during the ulnar nerve recovery process and it was the only parameter correlated with the motor assessment. PMID:26786072

  14. Increasing functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex during the course of recovery from Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Chuanfu; Park, Kyungmo; Lu, Guangming; Mohamed, Abdalla Z; Wu, Hongli; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Linying; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Bensheng

    2015-01-01

    Bell's palsy (BP), a unilateral and idiopathic palsy of the facial nerve, is a common disorder generally followed by a good natural recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the recovery process of BP. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers and 67 patients were studied by functional MRI (fMRI). The seed regions of bilateral ACC were first extracted from the task-state fMRI data of healthy participants performing the task of mouth opening and closing. The connectivity of bilateral ACC was calculated from resting-state fMRI data of patients in whom only resting-state fMRI data were collected. The correlation between the strength of ACC's connectivity with the duration (time course of disease) was computed by analysis of covariance. It was found that the functional connectivity of the ACC ipsilateral to the lesioned side was enforced as the duration increased. The enforced brain areas included the sensorimotor areas and the ACC contralateral to the palsy. It was suggested that enforced functional connectivity of ACC might be related to cortical reorganization, which is important in the process of BP recovery. PMID:25426823

  15. Dexamethasone enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  16. Dexamethasone Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinhong; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is currently used for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, but its mechanisms of action are not completely understood. Inflammation/immune response at the site of nerve lesion is known to be an essential trigger of the pathological changes that have a critical impact on nerve repair and regeneration. In this study, we observed the effects of various doses of dexamethasone on the functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Motor functional recovery was monitored by walking track analysis and gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio. The myelinated axon number was counted by morphometric analysis. Rats administered dexamethasone by local intramuscular injection had a higher nerve function index value, increased gastrocnemius muscle mass ratio, reduced Wallerian degeneration severity, and enhanced regenerated myelinated nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for CD3 expression, which is a marker for T-cell activation, and infiltration in the sciatic nerve. Dexamethasone-injected rats had fewer CD3-positive cells compared to controls. Furthermore, we found increased expression of GAP-43, which is a factor associated with development and plasticity of the nervous system, in rat nerves receiving dexamethasone. These results provide strong evidence that dexamethasone enhances sciatic nerve regeneration and function recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through immunosuppressive and potential neurotrophic effects. PMID:25839037

  17. Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation to Drive Neural Plasticity and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Ethier, C.; Gallego, J.A.; Miller, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient’s voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to matched the details of the patient’s voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  18. Brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation to drive neural plasticity and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Ethier, C; Gallego, J A; Miller, L E

    2015-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient's voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to match the details of the patient's voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  19. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  20. Stimulation of autophagy promotes functional recovery in diabetic rats with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kai-liang; Zhou, Yi-fei; Wu, Kai; Tian, Nai-feng; Wu, Yao-sen; Wang, Yong-li; Chen, De-heng; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Xiang-yang; Xu, Hua-zi; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in diabetic rats after spinal cord injury (SCI), also we determined the role of autophagy in diabetes-aggravated neurological injury in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that diabetes decreased the survival of neurons, promoted astrocytes proliferation, increased inflammatory cells infiltration and inhibited functional recovery after SCI. Diabetes was shown to confer increased activation of apoptotic pathways, along with an increase in autophagy; similar effects were also observed in vitro in neuronal PC12 cells. Treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy activator, partially abolished the adverse effect of diabetes, suggesting that diabetes may enhance neurological damage and suppress locomotor recovery after SCI, in addition to its effects on apoptosis and autophagy. In contrast, further stimulation of autophagy improved neurological function via inhibition of apoptosis. These results explained how diabetes exacerbates SCI in cellular level and suggested autophagy stimulation to be a new therapeutic strategy for diabetic SCI. PMID:26597839

  1. Carvacrol together with TRPC1 elimination improve functional recovery after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Peters, Maximilian; Trembovler, Victoria; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Parnas, Moshe; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Minke, Baruch; Shohami, Esther

    2012-12-10

    Death of Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex process arising from a combination of factors, many of which are still unknown. It has been found that inhibition of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitutes an effective strategy for preventing death of CNS neurons following TBI. TRP channels are classified into seven related subfamilies, most of which are Ca(2+) permeable and involved in many cellular functions, including neuronal cell death. We hypothesized that TRP channels of the TRPC subfamily may be involved in post-TBI pathophysiology and that the compound 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol (carvacrol), by inhibition of TRP channels, may exert neuroprotective effect after TBI. To test these suppositions, carvacrol was given to mice after TBI and its effect on their functional recovery was followed for several weeks. Our results show that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by application of carvacrol. To better define the type of the specific channel involved, the effect of carvacrol on the extent and speed of recovery after TBI was compared among mice lacking TRPC1, TRPC3, or TRPC5, relative to wild type controls. We found that neurological recovery after TBI was significantly enhanced by combining carvacrol with TRPC1 elimination, but not by the absence of TRPC3 or TRPC5, showing a synergistic effect between carvacrol application and TRPC1 elimination. We conclude that TRPC1-sensitive mechanisms are involved in TBI pathology, and that inhibition of this channel by carvacrol enhances recovery and should be considered for further studies in animal models and humans. PMID:22994850

  2. Plasminogen deficiency causes reduced corticospinal axonal plasticity and functional recovery after stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongwu; Li, Yi; Qian, Jianyong; Cui, Yisheng; Chopp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurite outgrowth and neurological recovery post stroke. tPA converts the zymogen plasminogen (Plg) into plasmin. In this study, using plasminogen knockout (Plg-/-) mice and their Plg-native littermates (Plg+/+), we investigated the role of Plg in axonal remodeling and neurological recovery after stroke. Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice (n = 10/group) were subjected to permanent intraluminal monofilament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the corticospinal tract (CST). Animals were euthanized 4 weeks after stroke. Neurite outgrowth was also measured in primary cultured cortical neurons harvested from Plg+/+ and Plg-/- embryos. In Plg+/+ mice, the motor functional deficiency after stroke progressively recovered with time. In contrast, recovery in Plg-/- mice was significantly impaired compared to Plg+/+ mice (p<0.01). BDA-positive axonal density of the CST originating from the contralesional cortex in the denervated side of the cervical gray matter was significantly reduced in Plg-/- mice compared with Plg+/+ mice (p<0.05). The behavioral outcome was highly correlated with the midline-crossing CST axonal density (R2>0.82, p<0.01). Plg-/- neurons exhibited significantly reduced neurite outgrowth. Our data suggest that plasminogen-dependent proteolysis has a beneficial effect during neurological recovery after stroke, at least in part, by promoting axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord. PMID:24732409

  3. Promoting plasticity in the spinal cord with chondroitinase improves functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Galtrey, Clare M; Asher, Richard A; Nothias, Fatiha; Fawcett, James W

    2007-04-01

    Functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair in humans is often disappointing. A major reason for this is the inaccuracy of re-innervation of muscles and sensory structures. We hypothesized that promoting plasticity in the spinal cord, through digestion of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), might allow the CNS to compensate for inaccurate peripheral re-innervation and improve functional recovery. The median and ulnar nerves were injured and repaired to produce three grades of inaccuracy of peripheral re-innervation by (i) crush of both nerves; (ii) correct repair of median to median and ulnar to ulnar; and (iii) crossover of the median and ulnar nerves. Mapping of the motor neuron pool of the flexor carpi radialis muscle showed precise re-innervation after nerve crush, inaccurate regeneration after correct repair, more inaccurate after crossover repair. Recovery of forelimb function, assessed by skilled paw reaching, grip strength and sensory testing varied with accuracy of re-innervation. This was not due to differences in the number of regenerated axons. Single injections of ChABC into the spinal cord led to long-term changes in the extracellular matrix, with hyaluronan and neurocan being removed and not fully replaced after 8 weeks. ChABC treatment produce increased sprouting visualized by MAP1BP staining and improved functional recovery in skilled paw reaching after correct repair and in grip strength after crossover repair. There was no hyperalgesia. Enhanced plasticity in the spinal cord, therefore, allows the CNS to compensate for inaccurate motor and sensory re-innervation of the periphery, and may be a useful adjunct therapy to peripheral nerve repair. PMID:17255150

  4. Hydrogen-rich saline promotes motor functional recovery following peripheral nerve autografting in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YONG-GUANG; SHENG, QING-SONG; WANG, ZHI-JUN; LV, LI; ZHAO, WEI; CHEN, JIAN-MEI; XU, HAO

    2015-01-01

    Despite the application of nerve grafts and considerable microsurgical innovations, the functional recovery across a long peripheral nerve gap is generally partial and unsatisfactory. Thus, additional strategies are required to improve nerve regeneration across long nerve gaps. Hydrogen possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be neuroprotective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury; however, such a possibility has not been experimentally tested in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of hydrogen-rich saline in promoting nerve regeneration after 10-mm sciatic nerve autografting in rats. The rats were randomly divided into two groups and intraperitoneally administered a daily regimen of 5 ml/kg hydrogen-rich or normal saline. Axonal regeneration and functional recovery were assessed through a combination of behavioral analyses, electrophysiological evaluations, Fluoro-Gold™ retrograde tracings and histomorphological observations. The data showed that rats receiving hydrogen-rich saline achieved better axonal regeneration and functional recovery than those receiving normal saline. These findings indicated that hydrogen-rich saline promotes nerve regeneration across long gaps, suggesting that hydrogen-rich saline could be used as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injury therapy. PMID:26622383

  5. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-ming; Shen, Zhao-liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-mei

    2016-01-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14–42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function. PMID:27482228

  6. Exercise promotes motor functional recovery in rats with corticospinal tract injury: anti-apoptosis mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ting-ting; Yang, Xiao-yu; Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Liu, Jian; Qi, Zhi-ping

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that exercise interventions can improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, we established a unilateral corticospinal tract injury model in rats by pyramidotomy, and used a single pellet reaching task and horizontal ladder walking task as exercise interventions postoperatively. Functional recovery of forelimbs and forepaws in the rat models was noticeably enhanced after the exercises. Furthermore, TUNEL staining revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in the spinal cord of exercised rats, and western blot analysis showed that spinal cord expression of the apoptosis-related protein caspase-3 was significantly lower, and the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly higher, while the expression of Bax was not signifiantly changed after exercise, compared with the non-exercised group. Expression of these proteins decreased with time after injury, towards the levels observed in sham-operated rats, however at 4 weeks postoperatively, caspase-3 expression remained significantly greater than in sham-operated rats. The present findings indicate that a reduction in apoptosis is one of the mechanisms underlying the improvement of functional recovery by exercise interventions after corticospinal tract injury. PMID:26170828

  7. Atorvastatin activates autophagy and promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuang; Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Shen, Zhao-Liang; Gao, Kai; Chang, Liang; Guo, Yue; Li, Zhuo; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ai-Mei

    2016-06-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering medication, provides neuroprotective effects, although the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Our previous studies confirmed activated autophagy following spinal cord injury, which was conducive to recovery of neurological functions. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could also activate autophagy after spinal cord injury, and subsequently improve recovery of neurological functions. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established based on the Allen method. Atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 1 and 2 days after spinal cord injury. At 7 days post-injury, western blot assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining results showed increased Beclin-1 and light chain 3B gene and protein expressions in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group. Additionally, caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression was decreased, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced. Compared with the spinal cord injury + saline group, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale scores significantly increased in the spinal cord injury + atorvastatin group at 14-42 days post-injury. These findings suggest that atorvastatin activated autophagy after spinal cord injury, inhibited apoptosis, and promoted recovery of neurological function. PMID:27482228

  8. Does labelling a rare cancer diagnosis 'good' affect the patient's experience of treatment and recovery?

    PubMed

    Ridgway, E; Grose, J; Charles, A; Hewett, J; Jarvis, M; Benjamin, S

    2016-05-01

    Doctors sometimes tell patients with rare but highly treatable cancers that they have 'good' cancer which some patients have found unhelpful, but this has been little explored. The aim of this study was to explore how patients reacted to being told they had a 'good' cancer. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 25 people with rare but prognostically favourable cancers who had received treatment at two hospitals within a cancer network. Results showed that despite good treatment outcomes, patients are still very shocked to hear the word cancer and react in similar ways to those with other forms of cancer. The potential effects of treatment should be recognised as having a detrimental effect on patient well-being whatever the prognosis. We should therefore avoid using 'good' and 'cancer' in the same sentence. In addition, the impact on all family members should not be underestimated. The data can be used to improve clinical practice and improve support for people affected by cancer. PMID:25335904

  9. Consumer return chronology alters recovery trajectory of stream ecosystem structure and function following drought.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Justin N; Gido, Keith B; Dodds, Walter K; Bertrand, Katie N; Whiles, Matt R

    2010-04-01

    Consumers are increasingly being recognized as important drivers of ecological succession, yet it is still hard to predict the nature and direction of consumer effects in nonequilibrium environments. We used stream consumer exclosures and large outdoor mesocosms to study the impact of macroconsumers (i.e., fish and crayfish) on recovery of intermittent prairie streams after drying. In the stream, macroconsumers altered system recovery trajectory by decreasing algal and macroinvertebrate biomass, primary productivity, and benthic nutrient uptake rates. However, macroconsumer influence was transient, and differences between exclosures and controls disappeared after 35 days. Introducing and removing macroconsumers after 28 days resulted mainly in changes to macroinvertebrates. In mesocosms, a dominant consumer (the grazing minnow Phoxinus erythrogaster) reduced macroinvertebrate biomass but had little effect on algal assemblage structure and ecosystem rates during recovery. The weak effect of P. erythrogaster in mesocosms, in contrast to the strong consumer effect in the natural stream, suggests that both timing and diversity of returning consumers are important to their overall influence on stream recovery patterns. Although we found that consumers significantly altered ecosystem structure and function in a system experiencing rapid changes in abiotic and biotic factors following disturbance, consumer effects diminished over time and trajectories converged to similar states with respect to primary producers, in spite of differences in consumer colonization history. Thus, consumer impacts can be substantial in recovering ecosystems and are likely to be dependent on the disturbance regime and diversity of the consumer community. PMID:20462119

  10. Interhemispheric Cerebral Blood Flow Balance during Recovery of Motor Hand Function after Ischemic Stroke—A Longitudinal MRI Study Using Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Missimer, John; Schroth, Gerhard; Hess, Christian W.; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Wang, Danny J. J.; Weder, Bruno; Federspiel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Unilateral ischemic stroke disrupts the well balanced interactions within bilateral cortical networks. Restitution of interhemispheric balance is thought to contribute to post-stroke recovery. Longitudinal measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes might act as surrogate marker for this process. Objective To quantify longitudinal CBF changes using arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL) and interhemispheric balance within the cortical sensorimotor network and to assess their relationship with motor hand function recovery. Methods Longitudinal CBF data were acquired in 23 patients at 3 and 9 months after cortical sensorimotor stroke and in 20 healthy controls using pulsed ASL. Recovery of grip force and manual dexterity was assessed with tasks requiring power and precision grips. Voxel-based analysis was performed to identify areas of significant CBF change. Region-of-interest analyses were used to quantify the interhemispheric balance across nodes of the cortical sensorimotor network. Results Dexterity was more affected, and recovered at a slower pace than grip force. In patients with successful recovery of dexterous hand function, CBF decreased over time in the contralesional supplementary motor area, paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex and superior precuneus, and interhemispheric balance returned to healthy control levels. In contrast, patients with poor recovery presented with sustained hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor cortices encompassing the ischemic tissue, and CBF remained lateralized to the contralesional hemisphere. Conclusions Sustained perfusion imbalance within the cortical sensorimotor network, as measured with task-unrelated ASL, is associated with poor recovery of dexterous hand function after stroke. CBF at rest might be used to monitor recovery and gain prognostic information. PMID:25191858

  11. Treating to target in major depressive disorder: response to remission to functional recovery.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Roger S; Lee, Yena; Mansur, Rodrigo B

    2015-12-01

    Treating to target in chronic diseases [e.g. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)] fosters precision, consistency, and appropriateness of treatment selection and sequencing. Therapeutic target definitions/endpoints in MDD should satisfy patient-, provider-, and societal expectations. Functional recovery in depression and return to both physical and mental health are the overarching therapeutic objectives. Treating to target in MDD implies multidimensional symptomatic remission, with a particular emphasis on cognitive function and aspects of positive mental health. Several atypical antipsychotic agents (i.e. brexpiprazole, aripiprazole, quetiapine) are FDA-approved as augmentation agents in MDD. Vortioxetine, duloxetine, and psychostimulants have evidence of independent, direct, and robust effects on cognitive function in MDD. Vortioxetine is the only agent that demonstrates efficacy across multiple cognitive domains in MDD associated with functional recovery. Measurement-based care, health information technology/systems, and integrated care models (e.g. medical homes) provide requisite tools and health environments for optimal health outcomes in MDD. Achieving remission in MDD does not equate to health. Return to positive mental health as well as full functioning provide the impetus to pivot away from traditional provider-defined outcomes toward an inclusive perspective involving patient- and society-defined outcomes (i.e. optimization of human capital). As in other chronic diseases, treating to target (e.g. cognitive function) further increases the probability of achieving optimal health outcomes. PMID:26683526

  12. Cortical effect and functional recovery by the electromyography-triggered neuromuscular stimulation in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwa Kyung; Cho, Sang Hyun; Jeon, Hye-seon; Lee, Young-Hee; Song, Jun Chan; Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Chu-Hee; Kwon, Yong Hyun

    2008-09-19

    We investigated the effect of electromyography (EMG)-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES; EMG-stim) on functional recovery of the hemiparetic hand and the related cortical activation pattern in chronic stroke patients. We enrolled 14 stroke patients, who were randomly assigned to the EMG-stim (n=7) or the control groups (n=7). The EMG-stim was applied to the wrist extensor of the EMG-stim group for two sessions (30 min/session) a day, five times per week for 10 weeks. Four functional tests (box and block, strength, the accuracy index, and the on/offset time of muscle contraction) and functional MRI (fMRI) were performed before and after treatment. fMRI was measured at 1.5 T in parallel with timed finger flexion-extension movements at a fixed rate. Following treatment, the EMG-stim group showed a significant improvement in all functional tests. The main cortical activation change with such functional improvement was shifted from the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC) to the contralateral SMC. We demonstrated that 10-week EMG-stim can induce functional recovery and change of cortical activation pattern in the hemiparetic hand of chronic stroke patients. PMID:18644424

  13. N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  14. N-acetylcysteineamide Preserves Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Improves Functional Recovery Following Spinal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Goldstein, Glenn A.; VanRooyen, Jenna L.; Yonutas, Heather M.; Eldahan, Khalid C.; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either Vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg) at 15min and 6hrs post-injury. After 24hr the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300 mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300 mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6 weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  15. Androgen induced acceleration of functional recovery after rat sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd J.; Khan, Talat; Jones, Kathryn J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Testosterone (T) treatment accelerates recovery from facial paralysis after facial nerve crush in hamsters. In this study, we extended those studies to another injury model and asked the following question: Will T treatment accelerate recovery from lower limb paralysis following sciatic nerve crush in the rat? METHODS: Castrated adult male rats received a right side sciatic nerve crush at the level of the sciatic notch, with the left side serving as control. Half the animals received a subcutaneous implant of a propionated form of T (TP), the others were sham-implanted. Weekly testing using the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI), a quantitative measure of locomotion, was done for 7 weeks postoperative (wpo). RESULTS: Between 3 and 5 weeks post-op, the average SFI score of the TP-treated group was higher than controls. This difference was significant at 4 wpo, indicating an accelerated degree of functional recovery. At these timepoints, the differences were attributable to the footprint or paw length and associated with calf muscle reinnervation rather than the toespreading component associated with intrinsic foot muscle rein-nervation. Beyond 5 wpo, there were no differences in the SFI scores. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that, as with facial nerve regeneration in the hamster, testosterone accelerates functional recovery from hind limb paralysis following sciatic nerve injury in the rat. While the responses of spinal motoneurons to injury can differ from those of cranial motoneurons, in this case it appears that they share a similar response to the trophic actions of androgen. This is important in the context of designing therapeutic strategies for dealing with direct trauma to motoneurons resulting from both peripheral and central nervous system trauma, such as spinal cord injury. PMID:12671219

  16. The role of recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in desiccation tolerance of pea seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Møller, Ian M; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial repair is of fundamental importance for seed germination. When mature orthodox seeds are imbibed and germinated, they lose their desiccation tolerance in parallel. To gain a better understanding of this process, we studied the recovery of mitochondrial structure and function in pea (Pisum sativum cv. Jizhuang) seeds with different tolerance to desiccation. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the embryo axes of control and imbibed-dehydrated pea seeds after (re-)imbibition for various times. Recovery of mitochondrial structure and function occurred both in control and imbibed-dehydrated seed embryo axes, but at different rates and to different maximum levels. The integrity of the outer mitochondrial membrane reached 96% in all treatments. However, only the seeds imbibed for 12 h and then dehydrated recovered the integrity of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and State 3 (respiratory state in which substrate and ADP are present) respiration (with NADH and succinate as substrate) to the control level after re-imbibition. With increasing imbibition time, the degree to which each parameter recovered decreased in parallel with the decrease in desiccation tolerance. The tolerance of imbibed seeds to desiccation increased and decreased when imbibed in CaCl(2) and methylviologen solution, respectively, and the recovery of the IMM integrity similarly improved and weakened in these two treatments, respectively. Survival of seeds after imbibition-dehydration linearly increased with the increase in ability to recover the integrity of IMM and State 3 respiration, which indicates that recovery of mitochondrial structure and function during germination has an important role in seed desiccation tolerance. PMID:21910735

  17. Pyridoxamine reduces postinjury fibrosis and improves functional recovery after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Skrypnyk, Nataliya I; Voziyan, Paul; Yang, Haichun; de Caestecker, Christian R; Theberge, Marie-Claude; Drouin, Mathieu; Hudson, Billy; Harris, Raymond C; de Caestecker, Mark P

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and independent risk factor for death and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite promising preclinical data, there is no evidence that antioxidants reduce the severity of injury, increase recovery, or prevent CKD in patients with AKI. Pyridoxamine (PM) is a structural analog of vitamin B6 that interferes with oxidative macromolecular damage via a number of different mechanisms and is in a phase 3 clinical efficacy trial to delay CKD progression in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated as one of the main drivers of renal injury after AKI, the ability of PM to interfere with multiple aspects of oxidative damage may be favorable for AKI treatment. In these studies we therefore evaluated PM treatment in a mouse model of AKI. Pretreatment with PM caused a dose-dependent reduction in acute tubular injury, long-term postinjury fibrosis, as well as improved functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion AKI (IR-AKI). This was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in the oxidative stress marker isofuran-to-F2-isoprostane ratio, indicating that PM reduces renal oxidative damage post-AKI. PM also reduced postinjury fibrosis when administered 24 h after the initiating injury, but this was not associated with improvement in functional recovery after IR-AKI. This is the first report showing that treatment with PM reduces short- and long-term injury, fibrosis, and renal functional recovery after IR-AKI. These preclinical findings suggest that PM, which has a favorable clinical safety profile, holds therapeutic promise for AKI and, most importantly, for prevention of adverse long-term outcomes after AKI. PMID:27194713

  18. Recovery of gastrointestinal function with thoracic epidural vs. systemic analgesia following gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Shi, W-Z; Miao, Y-L; Yakoob, M Y; Cao, J-B; Zhang, H; Jiang, Y-G; Xu, L-H; Mi, W-D

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically assess the effect of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) vs. systemic analgesia (SA) on the recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) function in patients following GI surgery. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify randomized controlled trials of adult patients undergoing GI surgery, comparing the effect of two postoperative analgesia regimens. Patients postoperatively receiving local anesthesia-based TEA with or without opioids were compared to patients receiving opioid-based SA. The outcomes considered were times to GI function recovery, GI complications, and specific side effects. Twelve studies with 331 patients in the TEA group and 319 in the SA group were included. Compared to SA, TEA improved the GI recovery after GI procedures by shortening the time to first passage of flatus by 31.3 h, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): -33.2 to -29.4, P < 0.01; and shortening the time to first passage of stool by 24.1 h, 95% CIs: -27.2 to -20.9, P < 0.001. There was no difference between the groups in the incidence of anastomotic leakage and ileus. The occurrence of postoperative hypotension was relatively higher in the TEA group, risk ratio: 7.9, 95% CIs: 2.4 to 26.5, P = 0.001; other side effects (such as pruritus and vomiting) were similar in the two groups. There is evidence that TEA (compared to SA) improves the recovery of GI function after GI procedures without any increased risk of GI complications. To further confirm these effects, larger, better quality randomized controlled trials with standard outcome measurements are needed. PMID:25060245

  19. Structural and functional alterations to rat medial prefrontal cortex following chronic restraint stress and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Goldwater, Deena S.; Pavlides, Constantine; Hunter, Richard G.; Bloss, Erik B.; Hof, Patrick R.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic stress has been shown in animal models to result in altered dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). It has been hypothesized that the stress-induced dendritic retractions and spine loss lead to disrupted connectivity that results in stress-induced functional impairment of mPFC. While these alterations were initially viewed as a neurodegenerative event, it has recently been established that stress induced dendritic alterations are reversible if animals are given time to recover from chronic stress. However, whether spine growth accompanies dendritic extension remains to be demonstrated. It is also not known if recovery-phase dendritic extension allows for re-establishment of functional capacity. The goal of this study, therefore, was to characterize the structural and functional effects of chronic stress and recovery on the infralimbic (IL) region of the rat mPFC. We compared neuronal morphology of layer V IL pyramidal neurons from animals subjected to 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) to those that experienced CRS followed by a 21 day recovery period. Layer V pyramidal cell functional capacity was assessed by intra-IL long-term potentiation (LTP) both in the absence and presence of SKF38393, a dopamine receptor partial agonist and a known PFC LTP modulator. We found that stress-induced IL apical dendritic retraction and spine loss co-occur with receptor-mediated impairments to catecholaminergic facilitation of synaptic plasticity. We also found that while post-stress recovery did not reverse distal dendritic retraction, it did result in over-extension of proximal dendritic neuroarchitecture and spine growth as well as a full reversal of CRS-induced impairments to catecholaminergic-mediated synaptic plasticity. Our results support the hypothesis that disease-related PFC dysfunction is a consequence of network disruption secondary to altered structural and functional plasticity and that circuitry

  20. Simple functionalization strategies for enhancing nanoparticle separation and recovery with asymmetric flow field flow fractionation.

    PubMed

    Mudalige, Thilak K; Qu, Haiou; Sánchez-Pomales, Germarie; Sisco, Patrick N; Linder, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    Due to the increasing use of engineered nanomaterials in consumer products, regulatory agencies and other research organizations have determined that the development of robust, reliable, and accurate methodologies to characterize nanoparticles in complex matrices is a top priority. Of particular interest are methods that can separate and determine the size of nanomaterials in samples that contain polydisperse and/or multimodal nanoparticle populations. Asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (AF4) has shown promise for the separation of nanoparticles with wide size range distributions; however, low analyte recoveries and decreased membrane lifetimes, due to membrane fouling, have limited its application. Herein, we report straightforward strategies to minimize membrane fouling and improve nanoparticle recovery by functionalizing the surface of the nanoparticles, as well as that of the AF4 membranes. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) were stabilized through functionalization with a phosphine molecule, whereas the surface of the membranes was coated with a negatively charged polystyrenesulfonate polymer. Improved nanoparticle separation, recoveries of 99.1 (±0.5) %, and a detection limit of 6 μg/kg were demonstrated by analyzing AuNP reference materials of different sizes (e.g., 10, 30, and 60 nm), obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Furthermore, the stability of the polymer coating and its specificity toward minimizing membrane fouling were demonstrated. PMID:25556296

  1. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. PMID:26036174

  2. Accidental bilateral Q-switched neodymium laser exposure: treatment and recovery of visual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Dunlap, Weldon; Scales, David K.; Lund, David J.; Ness, James W.

    1998-05-01

    A 21 year old female was accidentally exposed in both eyes when she looked into the 10 cm exit aperture of a military laser designator emitting 1064 nm q-switched (30 ns) pulses at a 10 pulse per second rate. Steroid therapy (methylprednisolone sodium succinate) was initiated within 6 hours post exposure. Initial ophthalmoscopic observation revealed small contained macular hemorrhages in each eye. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed minimal leakage. Visual acuity was 20/100 and 20/60 in OD and OS respectively. Contrast sensitivity in both eyes was depressed across all spatial frequencies by more than 1.5 log units. At four weeks post exposure, no significant macular scarring was apparent and visual acuity returned to 20/25 in both eyes. Contrast sensitivity had improved to normal levels with a peak at 3 cycles/degree. At one year post exposure, visual acuity was 20/13 in both eyes and measures of contrast sensitivity were within normal limits. During the course of recovery, the patient's fixation shifted from a slightly superior temporal site back to the central foveal region. The foveal lesion sites were still evident by ophthalmoscopy and Amsler grid measurements but were deemed functional when the patient placed small targets generated by the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in the lesion site for discrimination. This outcome indicates remarkable recovery of visual function and suggests that early administration of steroids may assist in preserving the natural neural recovery process of the photoreceptor matrix by minimizing intraretinal scar formation.

  3. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Promotes Functional Recovery in Primates after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Kazuya; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Yamane, Jun-ichi; Toyota, Fumika; Hikishima, Keigo; Nomura, Tatsuji; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Aoki, Masashi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:22140459

  4. Association of home care needs and functional recovery among community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chu; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Te; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Wang, Ruey-Hsia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the home care needs and task difficulty of community-dwelling aged hip fracture and the association of functional recovery with care received. A cohort of hip fracture patients admitted to orthopedic wards for surgery was collected from August 2009 to December 2010. Patients transferred to long-term care facilities after surgery were excluded. Functional status (feeding, clothing, grooming, bathing, getting in/out of bed, walking, toileting, standing up/sitting down, and walking up/down stairs) and task difficulty for caregivers were recorded at discharge, one week and one month after discharge. In total, 116 patients (mean age: 79.4 ± 8.5 years, 51.7% males) were enrolled. The mean age of primary caregivers was 53.4 ± 14.2 years, and most were daughters or sons (54.3%), spouses (34.5%) or foreign workers (11.0%). The most common care needs were wound care (95.7%), medical visits (94.8%), cleaning and maintaining living quarters (92.2%) and vigilance to ensure patient safety (92.2%). The care needs and task difficulty significantly correlated with physical function before, one week and one month after discharge (r=-0.530, p<0.001; r=-0.326, p=0.001; r=-0.432, p<0.001; r=-0.684, p<0.001; and r=-0.475, p<0.001, respectively). The complex and taxing home care needs of community-dwelling elderly hip fracture patients were significantly associated with functional recovery. Comprehensive geriatric assessment and related special medical services may greatly help caregivers and promote the practice of aging in place. Further study is needed to develop appropriate caregiver education to promote the functional recovery of elderly hip fracture patients at home. PMID:23746577

  5. Concomitant gastroparesis negatively affects children with functional gallbladder disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis and biliary dyskinesia (BD) occur in children, and if so, to determine whether concomitant gastroparesis affects clinical outcome in children with BD. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children with BD (ejecti...

  6. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kathryn A.; Lunny, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is “a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.” Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) at maturity. Methods. Female rats (25 days old) were assigned to a control (C) group (n = 45) that received saline injections (.2 cc) or an experimental group (GnRH-a) (n = 45) that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose) for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a). The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R) (n = 15) and (G-R) (n = 15)). The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX) at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX) (n = 15) and (G-OVX) (n = 15). After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control) X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX)) was computed. Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72%) and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19%) following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  7. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R; Mitchell, Kathryn A; Lunny, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Osteoporosis is "a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences." Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) at maturity. Methods. Female rats (25 days old) were assigned to a control (C) group (n = 45) that received saline injections (.2 cc) or an experimental group (GnRH-a) (n = 45) that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose) for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a). The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R) (n = 15) and (G-R) (n = 15)). The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX) at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX) (n = 15) and (G-OVX) (n = 15). After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control) X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX)) was computed. Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72%) and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19%) following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  8. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1), carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1) Placebo (flavoured water) [PLA], (2) 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3) 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086). During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1) recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091) and 48 h (P = 0.177), respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions. PMID:20157419

  9. Factors affecting recovery and quality of oocytes for bovine embryo production in vitro using ovum pick-up technology.

    PubMed

    Ward, F A; Lonergan, P; Enright, B P; Boland, M P

    2000-08-01

    In Experiment 1, different vacuum pressures (30, 50, 70 and 90 mm Hg) were used to aspirate 4156 bovine follicles in vitro, to assess their effect on flow rate and the recovery, morphology and blastocyst formation of the recovered oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were classified according to the morphology of the cumulus cells. Data were analyzed using Chi Square analysis. Overall recovery rate declined as the aspiration pressure increased above 50 mm Hg (P<0.05). The recovery rate of Grade 1 oocytes decreased significantly (P<0.05) as the vacuum pressure increased with a corresponding increase in the number of denuded oocytes recovered (P<0.05). The blastocyst yield, expressed as a percentage of recovered COCs decreased significantly as the aspiration pressure increased beyond 50 mm Hg (P<0.05). In Experiment 2, the holding media (hepes- or bicarbonate-buffered TCM 199) and holding time (1 h or 5 h) did not affect the blastocyst formation of the oocytes (P>0.05). In Experiment 3, it was found that individual culture of the oocyte during fertilization or culture had a detrimental effect on the oocytes blastocyst formation (8.8% to 16% blastocyst yield on Day 8) when compared to control (31.3%). In Experiment 4, groups of 5, 10 and 25 oocytes were compared with singly cultured oocytes. There were no significant differences (P<0.05) in the blastocyst formation rate among groups of 5, 10, or 25 oocytes, but there was a significant difference between oocytes processed in groups and those processed individually. In Experiment 5, when groups of 10 oocytes were cultured in different drop sizes, there was no significant difference in cleavage rates between oocytes cultured in 100 microL (85.0%, n = 280) and in 10 microL (86.8%, n = 280) of media, but culture in 50 microL (79.3%, n = 280) resulted in cleavage rates significantly lower (P<0.05) than culture in 10 microL drops. There was no significant difference in the blastocyst formation. However there was a

  10. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  11. Mammalian cadherins DCHS1-FAT4 affect functional cerebral architecture.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; von der Hagen, Maja; Di Donato, Nataliya

    2016-06-01

    Cortical development is a complex process where a multitude of factors, including cadherins, plays an important role and where disruptions are known to have far reaching effects in neural development and cortical patterning. Cadherins play a central role in structural left-right differentiation during brain and body development, but their effect on a functional level remains elusive. We addressed this question by examining functional cerebral asymmetries in a patient with Van Maldergem Syndrome (VMS) (MIM#601390), which is caused by mutations in DCHS1-FAT4 cadherins, using a dichotic listening task. Using neurophysiological (EEG) data, we show that when key regulators during mammalian cerebral cortical development are disrupted due to DCHS1-FAT4 mutations, functional cerebral asymmetries are stronger. Basic perceptual processing of biaurally presented auditory stimuli was unaffected. This suggests that the strength and emergence of functional cerebral asymmetries is a direct function of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. Moreover, these results support the recent assumption that the molecular mechanisms establishing early left-right differentiation are an important factor in the ontogenesis of functional lateralization. PMID:25930014

  12. SUMO1 Affects Synaptic Function, Spine Density and Memory.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Lee, Linda; Knock, Erin; Srikumar, Tharan; Sakurai, Mikako; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; Katayama, Taiichi; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Raught, Brian; Arancio, Ottavio; Fraser, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional consequences of their SUMOylation. A high-expressing line was examined which displayed elevated levels of mono-SUMO1 and increased high molecular weight conjugates in all brain regions. Immunoprecipitation of SUMOylated proteins from total brain extract and proteomic analysis revealed ~95 candidate proteins from a variety of functional classes, including a number of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins. SUMO1 modification of synaptotagmin-1 was found to be elevated as compared to non-transgenic mice. This observation was associated with an age-dependent reduction in basal synaptic transmission and impaired presynaptic function as shown by altered paired pulse facilitation, as well as a decrease in spine density. The changes in neuronal function and morphology were also associated with a specific impairment in learning and memory while other behavioral features remained unchanged. These findings point to a significant contribution of SUMO1 modification on neuronal function which may have implications for mechanisms involved in mental retardation and neurodegeneration. PMID:26022678

  13. Citalopram Enhances Neurovascular Regeneration and Sensorimotor Functional Recovery after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Espinera, Alyssa R.; Ogle, Molly E.; Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) after stroke enhances motor functional recovery; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. We hypothesized that daily administration of the clinical drug citalopram would produce these functional benefits via enhancing neurovascular repair in the ischemic peri-infarct region. To test this hypothesis, focal ischemic stroke was induced in male C57/B6 mice by permanent ligation of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery to the barrel cortex and 7-min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 24 hrs after stroke and daily thereafter. To label proliferating cells, bromo-deoxyuridine was injected daily beginning 3 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical and functional assays were performed to elucidate citalopram-mediated cellular and sensorimotor changes after stroke. Citalopram treatment had no significant effect on infarct formation or edema 3 days after stroke; however, citalopram-treated mice had better functional recovery than saline-treated controls 3 and 14 days after stroke in the adhesive removal test. Increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor was detected in the peri-infarct region 7 days after stroke in citalopram-treated animals. The number of proliferating neural progenitor cells and the distance of neuroblast migration from the sub-ventricular zone towards the ischemic cortex were significantly greater in citalopram-treated mice at 7 days after stroke. Immunohistochemical staining and co-localization analysis showed that citalopram-treated animals generated more new neurons and microvessels in the peri-infarct region 21 and 28 days after stroke. Taken together, these results suggest that citalopram promotes post-stroke sensorimotor recovery likely via enhancing neurogenesis, neural cell migration and the microvessel support in the peri-infarct region of

  14. The Impact of Acute Phase Domain-Specific Cognitive Function on Post-stroke Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihong; Lee, Gangpyo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the cognitive function in the acute stage evaluated by domain-specific neuropsychological assessments would be an independent predictor of functional outcome after stroke. Methods Forty patients underwent 4 domain-specific neuropsychological examinations about 3 weeks after the onset of stroke. The tests included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the construction recall test (CRT), the construction praxis test (CPT), and the verbal fluency test (VFT). The Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) at 3 months and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months were investigated as functional outcome after stroke. Functional improvement was assessed using the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months and subjects were dichotomized into 'good status' and 'poor status' according to mRS at 6 months. The domain-specific cognitive function along with other possible predictors for functional outcome was examined using regression analysis. Results The z-score of CPT (p=0.044) and CRT (p<0.001) were independent predictors for functional improvement measured by the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months after stroke. The z-score of CPT (p=0.049) and CRT (p=0.048) were also independent predictors of functional status at post-stroke 6 months assessed by mRS. Conclusion Impairment in visuospatial construction and memory within one month after stroke can be an independent prognostic factor of functional outcome. Domain-specific neuropsychological assessments could be considered in patients with stroke in the acute phase to predict long-term functional outcome. PMID:27152270

  15. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. Results A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. Conclusion These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. PMID:22993530

  16. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  17. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Duregotti, Elisa; Zanetti, Giulia; Scorzeto, Michele; Megighian, Aram; Montecucco, Cesare; Pirazzini, Marco; Rigoni, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and some animal neurotoxins (β-Bungarotoxin, β-Btx, from elapid snakes and α-Latrotoxin, α-Ltx, from black widow spiders) are pre-synaptic neurotoxins that paralyse motor axon terminals with similar clinical outcomes in patients. However, their mechanism of action is different, leading to a largely-different duration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade. BoNTs induce a long-lasting paralysis without nerve terminal degeneration acting via proteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins, whereas animal neurotoxins cause an acute and complete degeneration of motor axon terminals, followed by a rapid recovery. In this study, the injection of animal neurotoxins in mice muscles previously paralyzed by BoNT/A or /B accelerates the recovery of neurotransmission, as assessed by electrophysiology and morphological analysis. This result provides a proof of principle that, by causing the complete degeneration, reabsorption, and regeneration of a paralysed nerve terminal, one could favour the recovery of function of a biochemically- or genetically-altered motor axon terminal. These observations might be relevant to dying-back neuropathies, where pathological changes first occur at the neuromuscular junction and then progress proximally toward the cell body. PMID:26670253

  18. Structural and functional shifts in zoobenthos induced by organic enrichment — Implications for community recovery potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villnäs, A.; Perus, J.; Bonsdorff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat change induced by organic enrichment is a growing concern for the sustainability of benthic communities in coastal aquatic environments. This case study describes the spatial and temporal response patterns and the recovery potential of low-diversity benthic communities to organic enrichment at two fish farm locations, during the rearing periods (15 and 20 years, respectively) and the following recovery periods (2 years). The spatial extent of disturbance differed depending on the hydromorphological characteristics of the rearing sites, but degraded macrobenthic communities close to both fish farms were recorded soon after the activity started. Continued organic enrichment resulted in high species turnover-rates and in an altered benthic community composition at both locations. After fish farm abatement, a partial recovery was detected in species richness, but abundance and biomass values were reduced and changes in structural composition remained. Alterations in benthic biological traits were observed at both fish farm locations, implying that organic enrichment might cause changes in benthic community function within low-diversity benthic communities.

  19. Can Particulate Pollution Affect Lung Function in Healthy Adults?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accompanying editorial to paper from Harvard by Rice et al. entitled "Long-Term Exposure to Traffic Emissions and Fine Particulate Matter and Lung Function Decline in the Framingham Heart StudyBy almost any measure the Clean Air Act and its amendments has to be considered as one...

  20. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. PMID:26325197

  1. Chemical Modifications that Affect Nutritional and Functional Properties of Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, T.; Kester, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical alterations of selected amino acids resulting from environmental effects (photooxidations, pH extremes, thermally induced effects). Also dicusses use of intentional chemical derivatizations of various functional groups in amino acid residue side chains and how recombinant DNA techniques might be useful in structure/function…

  2. Effect of melatonin on the functional recovery from experimental traumatic compression of the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Schiaveto-de-Souza, A.; da-Silva, C.A.; Defino, H.L.A.; Bel, E.A.Del

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is an extremely severe condition with no available effective therapies. We examined the effect of melatonin on traumatic compression of the spinal cord. Sixty male adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated animals and animals with 35 and 50% spinal cord compression with a polycarbonate rod spacer. Each group was divided into two subgroups, each receiving an injection of vehicle or melatonin (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 5 min prior to and 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after injury. Functional recovery was monitored weekly by the open-field test, the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale and the inclined plane test. Histological changes of the spinal cord were examined 35 days after injury. Motor scores were progressively lower as spacer size increased according to the motor scale and inclined plane test evaluation at all times of assessment. The results of the two tests were correlated. The open-field test presented similar results with a less pronounced difference between the 35 and 50% compression groups. The injured groups presented functional recovery that was more evident in the first and second weeks. Animals receiving melatonin treatment presented more pronounced functional recovery than vehicle-treated animals as measured by the motor scale or inclined plane. NADPH-d histochemistry revealed integrity of the spinal cord thoracic segment in sham-operated animals and confirmed the severity of the lesion after spinal cord narrowing. The results obtained after experimental compression of the spinal cord support the hypothesis that melatonin may be considered for use in clinical practice because of its protective effect on the secondary wave of neuronal death following the primary wave after spinal cord injury. PMID:23579633

  3. Electrical stimulation accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in delayed peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinghui; Zhang, Yongguang; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of brief electrical stimulation (ES; 3 V, 20 Hz, 20 min) in improving functional recovery in delayed nerve injury repair (DNIR). The sciatic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats was transected, and the repair of nerve injury was delayed for different time durations (2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks). Brief depolarizing ES was applied to the proximal nerve stump when the transected nerve stumps were bridged with a hollow nerve conduit (5 mm in length) after delayed periods. We found that the diameter and number of regenerated axons, the thickness of myelin sheath, as well as the number of Fluoro-Gold retrograde-labeled motoneurons and sensory neurons were significantly increased by ES, suggesting that brief ES to proximal nerve stumps is capable of promoting nerve regeneration in DNIR with different delayed durations, with the longest duration of 24 weeks. In addition, the amplitude of compound muscle action potential (gastrocnemius muscle) and nerve conduction velocity were also enhanced, and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy was partially reversed by brief ES, indicating that brief ES to proximal nerve stump was able to improve functional recovery in DNIR. Furthermore, brief ES was capable of increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the spinal cord in DNIR, suggesting that BDNF-mediated neurotrophin signaling might be one of the contributing factors to the beneficial effect of brief ES on DNIR. In conclusion, the present findings indicate the potential of using brief ES as a useful method to improve functional recovery for delayed repair of peripheral nerve lesions. PMID:24118464

  4. The effect of claustrum lesions on human consciousness and recovery of function.

    PubMed

    Chau, Aileen; Salazar, Andres M; Krueger, Frank; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Crick and Koch proposed that the claustrum plays a crucial role in consciousness. Their proposal was based on the structure and connectivity of the claustrum that suggested it had a role in coordinating a set of diverse brain functions. Given the few human studies investigating this claim, we decided to study the effects of claustrum lesions on consciousness in 171 combat veterans with penetrating traumatic brain injuries. Additionally, we studied the effects of claustrum lesions and loss of consciousness on long-term cognitive abilities. Claustrum damage was associated with the duration, but not frequency, of loss of consciousness, indicating that the claustrum may have an important role in regaining, but not maintaining, consciousness. Total brain volume loss, but not claustrum lesions, was associated with long-term recovery of neurobehavioral functions. Our findings constrain the current understanding of the neurobehavioral functions of the claustrum and its role in maintaining and regaining consciousness. PMID:26186439

  5. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence

    PubMed Central

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R.; Baker, Fiona C.; Sugarbaker, David S.; Colrain, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4-month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  6. Factors Associated With Neurological Recovery of Brainstem Function Following Postoperative Conformal Radiation Therapy for Infratentorial Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Chitti, Ramana M.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Khan, Raja B.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with incomplete neurological recovery in pediatric patients with infratentorial ependymoma treated with postoperative conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods: The study included 68 patients (median age +- standard deviation of 2.6 +- 3.8 years) who were followed for 5 years after receiving CRT (54-59.4 Gy) and were assessed for function of cranial nerves V to VII and IX to XII, motor weakness, and dysmetria. The mean (+- standard deviation) brainstem dose was 5,487 (+-464) cGy. Patients were divided into four groups representing those with normal baseline and follow-up, those with abnormal baseline and full recovery, those with abnormal baseline and partial or no recovery, and those with progressive deficits at 12 (n = 62 patients), 24 (n = 57 patients), and 60 (n = 50 patients) months. Grouping was correlated with clinical and treatment factors. Results: Risk factors (overall risk [OR], p value) associated with incomplete recovery included gender (male vs. female, OR = 3.97, p = 0.036) and gross tumor volume (GTV) (OR/ml = 1.23, p = 0.005) at 12 months, the number of resections (>1 vs. 1; OR = 23.7, p = 0.003) and patient age (OR/year = 0.77, p = 0.029) at 24 months, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting (Yes vs. No; OR = 21.9, p = 0.001) and GTV volume (OR/ml = 1.18, p = 0.008) at 60 months. An increase in GTV correlated with an increase in the number of resections (p = 0.001) and CSF shunting (p = 0.035); the number of resections correlated with CSF shunting (p < 0.0001), and male patients were more likely to undergo multiple tumor resections (p = 0.003). Age correlated with brainstem volume (p < 0.0001). There were no differences in outcome based on the absolute or relative volume of the brainstem that received more than 54 Gy. Conclusions: Incomplete recovery of brainstem function after CRT for infratentorial ependymoma is related to surgical morbidity and the volume and the extent of tumor.

  7. Cardiac autonomic function during sleep: effects of alcohol dependence and evidence of partial recovery with abstinence.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R; Baker, Fiona C; Sugarbaker, David S; Colrain, Ian M

    2015-06-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with the development of cardiac and peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which recovery in ANS function could be demonstrated over the first 4 months of abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (7 women) were studied on three occasions: within a month of detoxification, at approximately 2 months post-detox, and at 4 months post-detox. Thirteen control subjects (6 women) were also studied on three occasions with inter-study intervals matching those of the alcoholics. Six alcoholics relapsed, 48.7 ± 27.9 days following the initial PSG session. ANS function was assessed in the first part of stable non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frequency-domain power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) produced variables including: heart rate (HR), total power (TP; an index representing total HR variability), High Frequency power (HFa; an index reflecting cardiac vagal modulation), HF proportion of total power (HFprop sympathovagal balance), and HF peak frequency (HFpf; an index reflecting respiration rate). Overall, high total and high frequency variability and low sympathovagal balance and myocardial contractility are considered as desired conditions to promote cardiovascular health. At initial assessment, alcoholics had a higher HR (p < 0.001) and respiratory rate (p < 0.01), and lower vagal activity (HFa; p < 0.01) than controls. Alcoholics showed evidence of recovery in HR (p = 0.039) and HFa (p = 0.031) with 4 months of abstinence. Alcoholics with higher TP at the initial visit showed a greater improvement in TP from the initial to the 4 month follow-up session (r = 0.75, p < 0.05). Alcoholics showed substantial recovery in HR and vagal modulation of HRV with 4 months of abstinence, with evidence that the extent of recovery in HRV may be partially determined by the extent of alcohol dependence-related insult to the cardiac ANS system. These data support other studies

  8. Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry; Fechter, Laurence D

    2011-08-17

    This study tested the hypothesis that hydrophilic chemotypes of the medicinal vine Uncaria tomentosa (UT) would facilitate recovery of sensorineural functions following exposure to a damaging level of noise. The particular chemotypes investigated were carboxy alkyl esters (CAE) which are known to exhibit multifunctional cytoprotective properties that include: enhanced cellular DNA repair, antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Long-Evans rats were divided into four treatment groups: vehicle-control, noise-only, CAE-only and CAE+noise. The noise exposure was an 8kHz octave band of noise at 105dB SPL for 4h. Outer hair cell (OHC) function was measured with the cubic 2f(1)-f(2) distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) at the start of the study (baseline) and at time-points that corresponded to 1day, 1week and 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine within-group effects. Compound action potentials to puretone stimuli were recorded from the VIIIth craniofacial nerve at 4weeks post-noise exposure to determine between-group effects. Additionally, cytocochleograms were constructed for each row of OHCs from each group. Noise exposure produced significant sensorineural impairments. However, CAE treatment facilitated almost complete recovery of OHC function and limited the magnitude of cell loss. The loss of neural sensitivity to puretone stimuli was inhibited with CAE treatment. Therefore, it appears that the multifunctional cytoprotective capacity of CAE from UT may generalize to otoprotection from acoustic over-exposure. PMID:21762882

  9. Polysialic Acid Glycomimetic Promotes Functional Recovery and Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehanna, Ali; Jakovcevski, Igor; Acar, Ayşe; Xiao, Meifang; Loers, Gabriele; Rougon, Geneviève; Irintchev, Andrey; Schachner, Melitta

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration after injury of the central nervous system is poor due to the abundance of molecules inhibiting axonal growth. Here we pursued to promote regeneration after thoracic spinal cord injury in young adult C57BL/6J mice using peptides which functionally mimic polysialic acid (PSA) and human natural killer cell-1 (HNK-1) glycan, carbohydrate epitopes known to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro. Subdural infusions were performed with an osmotic pump, over 2 weeks. When applied immediately after injury, the PSA mimetic and the combination of PSA and HNK-1 mimetics, but not the HNK-1 mimetic alone, improved functional recovery as assessed by locomotor rating and video-based motion analysis over a 6-week observation period. Better outcome in PSA mimetic-treated mice was associated with higher, as compared with control mice, numbers of cholinergic and glutamatergic terminals and monaminergic axons in the lumbar spinal cord, and better axonal myelination proximal to the injury site. In contrast to immediate post-traumatic application, the PSA mimetic treatment was ineffective when initiated 3 weeks after spinal cord injury. Our data suggest that PSA mimetic peptides can be efficient therapeutic tools improving, by augmenting plasticity, functional recovery when applied during the acute phase of spinal cord injury. PMID:19826404

  10. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  11. SLE-associated risk factors affect DC function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoungsun; Kim, Sun Jung; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Numerous risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have now been identified. Analysis of the expression of genes with risk alleles in cells of hematopoietic origin demonstrates them to be most abundantly expressed in B cells and dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that these cell types may be the drivers of the inflammatory changes seen in SLE. DCs are of particular interest as they act to connect the innate and the adaptive immune response. Thus, DCs can transform inflammation into autoimmunity, and autoantibodies are the hallmark of SLE. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of tolerance that maintain DCs in a non-activated, non-immunogenic state. We demonstrate, using examples from our own studies, how alterations in DC function stemming from either DC-intrinsic abnormalities or DC-extrinsic regulators of function can predispose to autoimmunity. PMID:26683148

  12. RIGHT HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN NORMALS, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Roy, Amal; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Davis, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    The happy-sad chimeric faces test has been established as a useful test of right hemispheric function. It is known to elicit a left hemifacial bias (LHF bias) in right handed subjects. 41 normals and 19 manic, depressive and schizophrenic patients each were tested. All subjects were strictly right handed. Normals and depressives showed significant LHF bias. Monies and schizophrenics did not show significant LHF Bias. This suggests right hemispheric dysfunction in both mania and schizophrenia. PMID:21584135

  13. Nuclear cyclophilins affect spliceosome assembly and function in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, B.M.; Coates, Miranda N.; Jackson, S. RaElle; Jurica, Melissa S.; Davis, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophilins are ubiquitously expressed proteins that bind to prolines and can catalyse cis/trans isomerization of proline residues. There are 17 annotated members of the cyclophilin family in humans, ubiquitously expressed and localized variously to the cytoplasm, nucleus or mitochondria. Surprisingly, all eight of the nuclear localized cyclophilins are found associated with spliceosomal complexes. However, their particular functions within this context are unknown. We have therefore adapted three established assays for in vitro pre-mRNA splicing to probe the functional roles of nuclear cyclophilins in the context of the human spliceosome. We find that four of the eight spliceosom-associated cyclophilins exert strong effects on splicing in vitro. These effects are dose-dependent and, remarkably, uniquely characteristic of each cyclophilin. Using both qualitative and quantitative means, we show that at least half of the nuclear cyclophilins can act as regulatory factors of spliceosome function in vitro. The present work provides the first quantifiable evidence that nuclear cyclophilins are splicing factors and provides a novel approach for future work into small molecule-based modulation of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:25967372

  14. Prenatal Drug Exposure Affects Neonatal Brain Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Salzwedel, Andrew P.; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala–frontal, insula–frontal, and insula–sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala–frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  15. Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Salzwedel, Andrew P; Grewen, Karen M; Vachet, Clement; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Gao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention. PMID:25855194

  16. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica Affects Intestinal Barrier Function in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Hering, Nina A; Fromm, Anja; Kikhney, Judith; Lee, In-Fah M; Moter, Annette; Schulzke, Jörg D; Bücker, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Infection with Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute diarrhea in early childhood. A mouse infection model presents new findings on pathological mechanisms in the colon. Symptoms involve diarrhea with watery feces and weight loss that have their functional correlates in decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein permeability. Y. enterocolitica was present within the murine mucosa of both ileum and colon. Here, the bacterial insult was of focal nature and led to changes in tight junction protein expression and architecture. These findings are in concordance with observations from former cell culture studies and suggest a leak flux mechanism of diarrhea. PMID:26621910

  18. Counseling the post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery: high predictiveness of current status

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Kent, Matthew; Mulhall, John; Sandhu, Jaspreet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop prediction models to help counsel post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery. Methods The study included 2162 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy at a major cancer center who reported urinary and erectile function at one year or at two years and at least 1 prior follow-up at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months. We created logistic regression models predicting function at one or two years on the basis of function at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (2 years only), with the additional predictors of age, stage, grade, PSA, nerve-sparing status and baseline functional score. Results No variable other than current functional score had a consistent, statistically significant relationship with outcome. The area-under-the-curves for predicting function at 2 years based on current function alone at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were, respectively, 0.796, 0.831, 0.882, and 0.885 for erectile function and 0.789, 0.862, 0.869 and 0.876 for urinary function. Patients using one pad at 6 months had only a 50% probability of being pad free at 2 years; this dropped to 36% for patients using 2 pads. This suggests that there is an opportunity for early identification and possible referral of patients likely to have long-term urinary dysfunction. Conclusions Assessment of urinary and erectile function in the first post-operative year is strongly predictive of long-term outcome and can guide patient counseling and decisions about rehabilitative treatments. PMID:24824411

  19. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-01

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. PMID:25979518

  20. Repeated high-intensity interval exercise shortens the positive effect on executive function during post-exercise recovery in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Takeuchi, Tatsuya; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Isaka, Tadao; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    A single bout of aerobic exercise improves executive function (EF), but only for a short period. Compared with a single bout of aerobic exercise, we recently found that high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could maintain a longer improvement in EF. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of different exercise modes on the modifications of EF remains unclear. The purpose of the current investigation was to test our hypothesis that the amount of exercise-induced lactate production and its accumulation affects human brain function during and after exercise, thereby affecting post-exercise EF. Ten healthy male subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise. The HIIE protocol consisted of four 4-min bouts at 90% peak VO2 with a 3-min active recovery period at 60% peak VO2. The amount of lactate produced during exercise was manipulated by repeating the HIIE twice with a resting period of 60min between the 1st HIIE and 2nd HIIE. To evaluate EF, a color-word Stroop task was performed, and reverse-Stroop interference scores were obtained. EF immediately after the 1st HIIE was significantly improved compared to that before exercise, and the improved EF was sustained during 40min of the post-exercise recovery. However, for the 2nd HIIE, the improved EF was sustained for only 10min of the post-exercise recovery period, despite the performance of the same exercise. In addition, during and following HIIE, the glucose and lactate accumulation induced by the 2nd HIIE was significantly lower than that induced by the 1st HIIE. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between lactate and EF by plotting the changes in lactate levels against changes in EF from pre-exercise during the late phase of post-exercise recovery. These findings suggested the possibility that repeated bouts of HIIE, which decreases lactate accumulation, may dampen the positive effect of exercise on EF during the post-exercise recovery. PMID:27060507

  1. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  2. Functional and Transcriptomic Recovery of Infarcted Mouse Myocardium Treated with Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lachtermacher, Stephan; Esporcatte, Bruno L. B.; da Silva de Azevedo Fortes, Fábio; Rocha, Nazareth Novaes; Montalvão, Fabrício; Costa, Patricia C.; Belem, Luciano; Rabischoffisky, Arnaldo; Neto, Hugo C. C. Faria; Vasconcellos, Rita; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Spray, David C.; Thomas, Neil M.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; de Carvalho, Antonio C. Campos

    2011-01-01

    Although bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMNC) have been extensively used in cell therapy for cardiac diseases, little mechanistic information is available to support reports of their efficacy. To address this shortcoming, we compared structural and functional recovery and associated global gene expression profiles in post-ischaemic myocardium treated with BMNC transplantation. BMNC suspensions were injected into cardiac scar tissue 10 days after experimental myocardial infarction. Six weeks later, mice undergoing BMNC therapy were found to have normalized antibody repertoire and improved cardiac performance measured by ECG, treadmill exercise time and echocardiography. After functional testing, gene expression profiles in cardiac tissue were evaluated using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Expression of more than 18% of the 11981 quantified unigenes was significantly altered in the infarcted hearts. BMNC therapy restored expression of 2099 (96.2%) of the genes that were altered by infarction but led to altered expression of 286 other genes, considered to be a side effect of the treatment. Transcriptional therapeutic efficacy, a metric calculated using a formula that incorporates both recovery and side effect of treatment, was 73%. In conclusion, our results confirm a beneficial role for bone marrow-derived cell therapy and provide new information on molecular mechanisms operating after BMNC transplantation on post ischemic heart failure in mice. PMID:21671060

  3. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. PMID:26988072

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model.

    PubMed

    Urt, Antônio Filho; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; David, Natan de; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF. PMID:27275667

  5. Physiological, Sensory, and Functional Measures in a Model of Wrist Muscle Injury and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lindsay; Brant, Aron; Enns, Deborah; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of muscle rehabilitation modalities, it is first necessary to develop a model to test measures that would assess physiological, sensory, and functional muscle recovery. This study attempted to develop such a model for wrist injury. Subjects: Healthy male and female adults (n = 25). Methods: Subjects performed wrist muscle damage assessment, soreness, discomfort, difficulty, and functional motor task tests before and 1, 2, and 7 days after eccentric wrist muscle contractions. Wrist-related motor task tests, including the perception of discomfort and difficulty during performance, were also conducted. Results: At 24 hours post–eccentric exercises, wrist extension and flexion force declined (p < 0.05) and soreness (p < 0.05) and circumference (p < 0.05) increased; all returned to normal by 7 days post-exercise. At 24 and 48 hours post-exercise, perception of discomfort and difficulty was elevated during performance of motor tasks (p < 0.05). The completion speed of motor tasks was unaffected at any time post–eccentric exercise (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Loss of wrist muscle force, increased soreness, task discomfort, and difficulty were noted following eccentric exercise. However, subjects appeared able to compensate, such that the speed of completion of motor tasks was not slowed. Longer or more specific motor tasks may be necessary to mimic real work performance decrement and recovery. PMID:20145740

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model

    PubMed Central

    Urt-Filho, Antônio; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Pesarini, João Renato; de David, Natan; Cantero, Wilson de Barros; Falcão, Gustavo; Marks, Guido; Antoniolli-Silva, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute renal failure (ARF) is an extremely important public health issue in need of novel therapies. The present study aimed to evaluate the capacity of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy to promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in a preclinical model. Wistar rats were used as the experimental model, and our results show that cisplatin (5mg/kg) can efficiently induce ARF, as measured by changes in biochemical (urea and creatinine) and histological parameters. MSC therapy performed 24h after the administration of chemotherapy resulted in normalized plasma urea and creatinine levels 30 and 45d after the onset of kidney disease. Furthermore, MSC therapy significantly reduced histological changes (intratubular cast formation in protein overload nephropathy and tubular hydropic degeneration) in this ARF model. Thus, considering that current therapies for ARF are merely palliative and that MSC therapy can promote the improvement and recovery of renal function in this model system, we suggest that innovative/alternative therapies involving MSCs should be considered for clinical studies in humans to treat ARF. PMID:27275667

  7. Clinical characteristics of functional recovery after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in Japanese octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Tobita, Ryo; Iwata, Kentaro; Kamisaka, Kenta; Yuguchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Masayuki; Oura, Keisuke; Morisawa, Tomoyuki; Ohhashi, Satoko; Kumamaru, Megumi; Hanafusa, Yusuke; Kato, Michitaka; Saitoh, Masakazu; Sakurada, Koji; Takahashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to elucidate characteristics of postoperative physical functional recovery in octogenarians undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. [Subjects and Methods] This was a multi-center, retrospective study. Nine hundred and twenty-seven elective isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgeries were evaluated (746 males and 181 females, mean age: 68.6 years, range: 31–86 years). Participants were stratified according to age < 80 years (n = 840; mean age, 67.1; range, 31–79) or > 80 years (n = 87; mean age, 82.2; range, 80–86). Patient characteristics and postoperative physical functional recovery outcomes were compared between groups. [Results] There was no significant difference between groups when considering the postoperative day at which patients could sit on the edge of the bed, stand at bedside, or walk around the bed. The postoperative day at which patients could walk 100 m independently was later in octogenarians, when compared with non-octogenarians (6.1 ± 3.2 days vs. 4.9 ± 3.9 days). In octogenarians, the percentage of patients who could walk 100 m independently within 8 days after surgery was 79.5%. [Conclusion] A postoperative target time in octogenarians for independent walking, following coronary artery bypass grafting, can be set at approximately 6 days. PMID:27065553

  8. In vivo imaging of functional disruption, recovery and alteration in rat olfactory circuitry after lesion.

    PubMed

    Cross, Donna J; Flexman, Jennifer A; Anzai, Yoshimi; Morrow, Thomas J; Maravilla, Kenneth R; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2006-09-01

    Compensatory changes following disruption of neuronal circuitry have been indicated by previous imaging studies of stroke and other brain injury, but evidence of the pathways involved in such dynamic changes has not been shown in vivo. We imaged rats before and after lesion-induced disruption of the lateral olfactory tract to investigate the subsequent recovery and/or reorganization of functional neuronal circuitry. Serial magnetic resonance imaging was performed following intranasal administration of a paramagnetic track tracer Mn(2+). Images were analyzed using statistical mapping techniques in the stereotactic coordinate system. At 1 week post-lesion, Mn(2+) transport caudal to lesion was reduced as expected, and more importantly, increased transport through the anterior commissure was seen. At 4 weeks post-lesion, there was recovery of transport caudal to lesion, and increased transport through the anterior commissure extended to the contralateral olfactory cortex. Correlation analysis of regional Mn(2+) transport indicated that contralateral enhancement was not simply due to septal window spillover. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo evidence of compensatory changes in functional neuronal activity to a contralateral pathway through the commissure following brain injury. PMID:16859928

  9. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  10. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(−/−) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  11. Mevalonate availability affects human and rat resistance vessel function.

    PubMed Central

    Roullet, J B; Xue, H; Roullet, C M; Fletcher, W S; Cipolla, M J; Harker, C T; McCarron, D A

    1995-01-01

    Previous data in rat conductance vessels indicated that cellular mevalonate contributes to vascular tone and systemic blood pressure control. Using exogenous mevalonate (M) or lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (L), we characterized the role of mevalonate availability in resistance artery function, both in experimental animals and humans. Rat mesenteric artery resistance vessels (MARV, n = 9) were incubated for 48 h with either L, M, L + M, or vehicle (V) and tested for reactivity to NE, serotonin, acetylcholine, atrial natriuretic peptide, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Lovastatin increased sensitivity to NE (P < 0.03) and serotonin (P < 0.003), and significantly impaired the response to all three vasodilators. These effects were reversed by co-incubation with mevalonate. Mevalonate alone had no effect. In separate experiments, intravascular free Ca2+ concentration (ivfCa2+) was determined in fura-2AM loaded MARV. Basal ivfCa2+ was increased after a 48-h exposure to L (52.7 +/- 4.6 nM, L, vs. 29.7 +/- 2.4 nM, V, n = 12, P < 0.003), as were ivfCa2+ levels following stimulation with low (100 nM) NE concentrations. Similar ivfCa2+ concentrations were achieved during maximum contraction with NE (10 mM) in both groups. Human resistance arteries of human adipose tissue were also studied. Lovastatin increased the sensitivity to NE (ED50 = 372 +/- 56 nM, V, and 99 +/- 33 nM, L, P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the relaxation to acetylcholine and SNP of human vessels. We conclude that mevalonate availability directly contribute to resistance vessel function and vascular signal transduction systems in both experimental animals and humans. The study calls for the identification of non-sterol, mevalonate-derived vasoactive metabolites, and suggests that disorders of the mevalonate pathway can alter vascular tone and cause hypertension. PMID:7615793

  12. NT3-chitosan elicits robust endogenous neurogenesis to enable functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Aifeng; Duan, Hongmei; Zhang, Sa; Hao, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) hold the key to neural regeneration through proper activation, differentiation, and maturation, to establish nascent neural networks, which can be integrated into damaged neural circuits to repair function. However, the CNS injury microenvironment is often inhibitory and inflammatory, limiting the ability of activated NSCs to differentiate into neurons and form nascent circuits. Here we report that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-coupled chitosan biomaterial, when inserted into a 5-mm gap of completely transected and excised rat thoracic spinal cord, elicited robust activation of endogenous NSCs in the injured spinal cord. Through slow release of NT3, the biomaterial attracted NSCs to migrate into the lesion area, differentiate into neurons, and form functional neural networks, which interconnected severed ascending and descending axons, resulting in sensory and motor behavioral recovery. Our study suggests that enhancing endogenous neurogenesis could be a novel strategy for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:26460015

  13. Brain-computer interface with somatosensory feedback improves functional recovery from severe hemiplegia due to chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Takashi; Shindo, Keiichiro; Kawashima, Kimiko; Ota, Naoki; Ito, Mari; Ota, Tetsuo; Mukaino, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Akio; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has a great potential for motor rehabilitation in stroke patients with severe hemiplegia. However, key elements in BCI architecture for functional recovery has yet to be clear. We in this study focused on the type of feedback to the patients, which is given contingently to their motor-related EEG in a BCI context. The efficacy of visual and somatosensory feedbacks was compared by a two-group study with the chronic stroke patients who are suffering with severe motor hemiplegia. Twelve patients were asked an attempt of finger opening in the affected side repeatedly, and the event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG of alpha and beta rhythms was monitored over bilateral parietal regions. Six patients were received a simple visual feedback in which the hand open/grasp picture on screen was animated at eye level, following significant ERD. Six patients were received a somatosensory feedback in which the motor-driven orthosis was triggered to extend the paralyzed fingers from 90 to 50°. All the participants received 1-h BCI treatment with 12–20 training days. After the training period, while no changes in clinical scores and electromyographic (EMG) activity were observed in visual feedback group after training, voluntary EMG activity was newly observed in the affected finger extensors in four cases and the clinical score of upper limb function in the affected side was also improved in three participants in somatosensory feedback group. Although the present study was conducted with a limited number of patients, these results imply that BCI training with somatosensory feedback could be more effective for rehabilitation than with visual feedback. This pilot trial positively encouraged further clinical BCI research using a controlled design. PMID:25071543

  14. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  15. The Asparaginyl Endopeptidase Legumain Is Essential for Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Khatri, Harsh P.; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating severed axons and regaining locomotor function after spinal cord injury. A key factor for this regenerative capacity is the innate ability of neurons to re-express growth-associated genes and regrow their axons after injury in a permissive environment. By microarray analysis, we have previously shown that the expression of legumain (also known as asparaginyl endopeptidase) is upregulated after complete transection of the spinal cord. In situ hybridization showed upregulation of legumain expression in neurons of regenerative nuclei during the phase of axon regrowth/sprouting after spinal cord injury. Upregulation of Legumain protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, upregulation of legumain expression was also observed in macrophages/microglia and neurons in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site after injury. The role of legumain in locomotor function after spinal cord injury was tested by reducing Legumain expression by application of anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides. Using two independent anti-sense morpholinos, locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth were impaired when compared with a standard control morpholino. We conclude that upregulation of legumain expression after spinal cord injury in the adult zebrafish is an essential component of the capacity of injured neurons to regrow their axons. Another feature contributing to functional recovery implicates upregulation of legumain expression in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site. In conclusion, we established for the first time a function for an unusual protease, the asparaginyl endopeptidase, in the nervous system. This study is also the first to demonstrate the importance of legumain for repair of an injured adult central nervous system of a spontaneously regenerating vertebrate and is expected to yield insights into its potential in nervous system regeneration in mammals. PMID:24747977

  16. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  17. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  18. Functional TLR5 genetic variants affect human colorectal cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Klimosch, Sascha N; Försti, Asta; Eckert, Jana; Knezevic, Jelena; Bevier, Melanie; von Schönfels, Witigo; Heits, Nils; Walter, Jessica; Hinz, Sebastian; Lascorz, Jesus; Hampe, Jochen; Hartl, Dominik; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Hemminki, Kari; Schafmayer, Clemens; Weber, Alexander N R

    2013-12-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, including colorectal cancer cells, but little is known about the functional relevance of these immune regulatory molecules in malignant settings. Here, we report frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the TLR downstream effector molecules MyD88 and TIRAP that are associated with altered survival in a large cohort of Caucasian patients with colorectal cancer (n = 613). MYD88 rs4988453, a SNP that maps to a promoter region shared with the acetyl coenzyme-A acyl-transferase-1 (ACAA1), was associated with decreased survival of patients with colorectal cancer and altered transcriptional activity of the proximal genes. In the TLR5 gene, rs5744174/F616L was associated with increased survival, whereas rs2072493/N592S was associated with decreased survival. Both rs2072493/N592S and rs5744174/F616L modulated TLR5 signaling in response to flagellin or to different commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Notably, we observed a reduction in flagellin-induced p38 phosphorylation, CD62L shedding, and elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β mRNA in human primary immune cells from TLR5 616LL homozygote carriers, as compared with 616FF carriers. This finding suggested that the well-documented effect of cytokines like IL-6 on colorectal cancer progression might be mediated by TLR5 genotype-dependent flagellin sensing. Our results establish an important link between TLR signaling and human colorectal cancer with relevance for biomarker and therapy development. PMID:24154872

  19. FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MOTOR CORTEX LESIONS IN NON-HUMAN PRIMATES: EXPERIMENTAL IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN STROKE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Warren G.; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Morecraft, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses selected classical works and contemporary research on recovery of contralesional fine hand motor function following lesions to motor areas of the cerebral cortex in non-human primates. Findings from both the classical literature and contemporary studies show that lesions of cortical motor areas induce paresis initially, but are followed by remarkable recovery of fine hand/digit motor function that depends on lesion size and post-lesion training. Indeed, in recent work where considerable quantification of fine digit function associated with grasping and manipulating small objects has been observed, very favorable recovery is possible with minimal forced use of the contralesional limb. Studies of the mechanisms underlying recovery have shown that following small lesions of the digit areas of primary motor cortex (M1), there is expansion of the digit motor representations into areas of M1 that did not produce digit movements prior to the lesion. However, after larger lesions involving the elbow, wrist and digit areas of M1, no such expansion of the motor representation was observed, suggesting that recovery was due to other cortical or subcortical areas taking over control of hand/digit movements. Recently, we showed that one possible mechanism of recovery after lesion to the arm areas of M1 and lateral premotor cortex is enhancement of corticospinal projections from the medially located supplementary motor area (M2) to spinal cord laminae containing neurons which have lost substantial input from the lateral motor areas and play a critical role in reaching and digit movements. Because human stroke and brain injury patients show variable, and usually poorer, recovery of hand motor function than that of nonhuman primates after motor cortex damage, we conclude with a discussion of implications of this work for further experimentation to improve recovery of hand function in human stroke patients. PMID:21960307

  20. Vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training enhances recovery of forelimb function after ischemic stroke in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Hays, Seth A; Ruiz, Andrea; Bethea, Thelma; Khodaparast, Navid; Carmel, Jason B; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Advanced age is associated with a higher incidence of stroke and worse functional outcomes. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential method to improve recovery after brain injury but to date has only been evaluated in young rats. Here, we evaluated whether VNS paired with rehabilitative training would improve recovery of forelimb function after ischemic lesion of the motor cortex in rats 18 months of age. Rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated, quantitative measure of volitional forelimb strength. Once proficient, rats received an ischemic lesion of the motor cortex and underwent rehabilitative training paired with VNS for 6 weeks. VNS paired with rehabilitative training significantly enhances recovery of forelimb function after lesion. Rehabilitative training without VNS results in a 34% ± 19% recovery, whereas VNS paired with rehabilitative training yields a 98% ± 8% recovery of prelesion of forelimb function. VNS does not significantly reduce lesion size. These findings demonstrate that VNS paired with rehabilitative training enhances motor recovery in aged subjects in a model of stroke and may suggest that VNS therapy may effectively translate to elderly stroke patients. PMID:27255820

  1. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress.

    PubMed

    van Meeteren, N L; Brakkee, J H; Helders, P J; Wiegant, V M; Gispen, W H

    1997-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min shock box session where rats received three electric footshocks each session (0.5 sec, 1 mA). Reduced body weight gain, adrenal gland hypertrophy, and thymus involution indicated that the stress rats were chronically stressed. Evaluation of sensorimotor function revealed significant differences in recovery between control and stress groups. Correlational analysis of individual stress rats indicated that recovery of the walking pattern was negatively correlated with adrenal gland and medulla enlargement, thymus involution, and plasma levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone 45 min following the final stress session. In control rats, the index of sciatic nerve function (SF index, expressed as the difference between the injured paw and the intact contralateral paw as a percentage) was significantly correlated with adrenal medulla weight only. The present study reveals that chronic intermittent footshock stress impedes sensorimotor recovery following a sciatic nerve crush lesion and that the consequences of chronic intermittent stress are individually determined. We suggest that the quality of functional locomotor recovery after nerve crush lesion is related to the adaptive capacity or coping style of the individual rat. PMID:9210522

  2. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  3. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  4. Functionalization of micromodels with kaolinite for investigation of low salinity oil-recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen; Kovscek, Anthony R

    2015-08-21

    Sandstone formations are ubiquitous in both aquifers and petroleum reservoirs, of which clay is a major constituent. The release of clay particles from pore surfaces as a result of reduced injection fluid salinity can greatly modify the recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface formations by shifting the wettability properties of the rock. In this paper we demonstrate a microfluidic approach whereby kaolinite is deposited into a two-dimensional microfluidic network (micromodel) to enable direct pore-scale, real-time visualization of fluid-solid interactions with representative pore-geometry and realistic surface interactions between the reservoir fluids and the formation rock. Structural characterization of deposited kaolinite particles agrees well with natural modes of occurrence in Berea sandstones; hence, the clay deposition method developed in this work is validated. Specifically, more than 90% of the deposited clay particles formed pore-lining structures and the remainder formed pore bridging structures. Further, regions of highly concentrated clay deposition likely leading to so-called Dalmatian wetting properties were found throughout the micromodel. Two post-deposition treatments are described whereby clay is adhered to the silicon surface reversibly and irreversibly resulting in microfluidic systems that are amenable to studies on (i) the fundamental mechanisms governing the increased oil recovery during low salinity waterfloods and (ii) the effect of a mixed-wet surface on oil recovery, respectively. The reversibly functionalized platform is used to determine the conditions at which stably adhered clay particles detach. Specifically, injection brine salinity below 6000 ppm of NaCl induced kaolinite particle release from the silicon surface. Furthermore, when applied to an aged system with crude oil, the low salinity waterflood recovered an additional 14% of the original oil in place compared to waterflooding with the formation brine. PMID:26151880

  5. Degradation of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans Potentiates Transplant-Mediated Axonal Remodeling and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung G.; Dai, Hai-Ning; Lynskey, James V.; Mcatee, Marietta; Bregman, Barbara S.

    2008-01-01

    Transplantation of growth-permissive cells or tissues was used to bridge a lesion cavity and induce axonal growth in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Axonal interactions between host and transplant may be affected by upregulation of inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) following various transplantation strategies. The extent of axonal growth and functional recovery after transplantation of embryonic spinal cord tissue decreases in adult compared to neonatal host. We hypothesized that CSPGs contribute to the decrease in the extent to which transplant supports axonal remodeling and functional recovery. Expression of CSPGs increased after overhemisection SCI in adult rats but not in neonates. Embryonic spinal cord transplant was surrounded by CSPGs deposited in host cord, and the interface between host and transplant seemed to contain a large amount of CSPGs. Intrathecally delivered chondroitinase ABC (C'ase) improved recovery of distal forelimb usage and skilled motor behavior after C4 overhemisection injury and transplantation in adults. This behavioral recovery was accompanied by an increased amount of raphespinal axons growing into the transplant, and raphespinal innervation to the cervical motor region was promoted by C'ase plus transplant. Moreover, C'ase increased the number of transplanted neurons that grew axons to the host cervical enlargement, suggesting that degradation of CSPGs supports remodeling not only of host axons but also axons from transplanted neurons. Our results suggest that CSPGs constitute an inhibitory barrier to prevent axonal interactions between host and transplant in adults, and degradation of the inhibitory barrier can potentiate transplant-mediated axonal remodeling and functional recovery after SCI. PMID:16705682

  6. Channel morphodynamics and habitat recovery in a river reach affected by gravel-mining (River Ésera, Ebro basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Tarazon, J. A.; Lobera, G.; Andrés-Doménech, I.; Martínez-Capel, F.; Muñoz-Mas, R.; Vallés, F.; Tena, A.; Vericat, D.; Batalla, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Physical processes in rivers are the result of the interaction between flow regime and hydraulics, morphology, sedimentology and sediment transport. The frequency and magnitude of physical disturbance (i.e. bed stability) control habitat integrity and, consequently, ecological diversity of a particular fluvial system. Most rivers experience human-induced perturbations that alter such hydrosedimentary equilibrium, thus affecting the habitat of aquatic species. A dynamic balance may take long time to be newly attained. Within this context, gravel mining is well known to affect channel characteristics mostly at the local scale, but its effect may also propagate downstream and upstream. Sedimentary forms are modified during extraction and habitat features are reduced or even eliminated. Effects tend to be most acute in contrasted climatic environments, such as the Mediterranean areas, in which climatic and hydrological variability maximises effects of impacts and precludes short regeneration periods. Present research focuses on the evolution of a river reach, which has experienced an intense gravel extraction. The selected area is located in the River Ésera (Ebro basin), where interactions between morphodynamics and habitat recovery are examined. Emphasis is put on monitoring sedimentary, morphological and hydraulic variables to later compare pre (t0) and post (t1, t2... tn) extraction situations. Methodology for all time monitoring steps (i.e. ti) includes: i) characterization of grain size distribution at all of the different hydromorphological units within the reach; ii) description of channel morphology (together with changes before and after floods) by means of close-range aerial photographs, which are taken with a digital camera attached to a 1m3 helium balloon (i.e. BLIMP); and iii) determination of flow parameters from 2D hydraulic modelling that is based on detailed topographical data obtained from Leica® GNSS/GPS and robotic total station, and River

  7. Watering, fertilization, and slurry inoculation promote recovery of biological crust function in degraded soils.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Martín, Noelia; Díez, Beatriz; López-Poma, Rosario; Santos, Fernando; Luque, Ignacio; Cortina, Jordi

    2006-10-01

    Biological soil crusts are very sensitive to human-induced disturbances and are in a degraded state in many areas throughout their range. Given their importance in the functioning of arid and semiarid ecosystems, restoring these crusts may contribute to the recovery of ecosystem functionality in degraded areas. We conducted a factorial microcosm experiment to evaluate the effects of inoculation type (discrete fragments vs slurry), fertilization (control vs addition of composted sewage sludge), and watering frequency (two vs five times per week) on the cyanobacterial composition, nitrogen fixation, chlorophyll content, and net CO2 exchange rate of biological soil crusts inoculated on a semiarid degraded soil from SE Spain. Six months after the inoculation, the highest rates of nitrogen fixation and chlorophyll a content were found when the biological crusts were inoculated as slurry, composted sewage sludge was added, and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Net CO2 exchange rate increased when biological crusts were inoculated as slurry and the microcosms were watered five times per week. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and phylogenetic analyses indicated that most of the cyanobacterial species already present in the inoculated crust had the capability to spread and colonize the surface of the surrounding soil. These analyses showed that cyanobacterial communities were less diverse when the microcosms were watered five times per week, and that watering frequency (followed in importance by the addition of composted sewage sludge and inoculation type) was the treatment that most strongly influenced their composition. Our results suggest that the inoculation of biological soil crusts in the form of slurry combined with the addition of composted sewage sludge could be a suitable technique to accelerate the recovery of the composition and functioning of biological soil crusts in drylands. PMID:16710791

  8. Surface functionalized nanostructured ceramic sorbents for the effective collection and recovery of uranium from seawater.

    PubMed

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Pittman, Jonathan W; Warner, Marvin G; Nell, Kara M; Clubb, Donald C; Gill, Gary A; Addleman, R Shane

    2016-07-28

    The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a nearly limitless fuel supply for nuclear energy. We evaluated the use of functionalized nanostructured sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Extraction of trace minerals from seawater and brines is challenging due to the high ionic strength of seawater, low mineral concentrations, and fouling of surfaces over time. We demonstrate that rationally assembled sorbent materials that integrate high affinity surface chemistry and high surface area nanostructures into an application relevant micro/macro structure enables collection performance that far exceeds typical sorbent materials. High surface area nanostructured silica with surface chemistries composed of phosphonic acid, phosphonates, 3,4 hydroxypyridinone, and EDTA showed superior performance for uranium collection. A few phosphorous-based commercial resins, specifically Diphonix and Ln Resin, also performed well. We demonstrate an effective and environmentally benign method of stripping the uranium from the high affinity sorbents using inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions. The cyclic use of preferred sorbents and acidic reconditioning of materials was shown to improve performance. Composite thin films composed of the nanostructured sorbents and a porous polymer binder are shown to have excellent kinetics and good capacity while providing an effective processing configuration for trace mineral recovery from solutions. Initial work using the composite thin films shows significant improvements in processing capacity over the previously reported sorbent materials. PMID:27184739

  9. Functional motor recovery is improved due to local placement of GDNF microspheres after delayed nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew D; Gordon, Tessa; Kemp, Stephen W P; Liu, Edward H; Kim, Howard; Shoichet, Molly S; Borschel, Gregory H

    2013-05-01

    The majority of bioengineering strategies to promote peripheral nerve regeneration after injury have focused on therapies to bridge large nerve defects while fewer therapies are being developed to treat other nerve injuries, such as nerve transection. We constructed delivery systems using fibrin gels containing either free GDNF or polylactide-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres with GDNF to treat delayed nerve repair, where ELISA verified GDNF release. We determined the formulation of microspheres containing GDNF that optimized nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model of delayed nerve repair. Experimental groups underwent delayed nerve repair and treatment with GDNF microspheres in fibrin glue at the repair site or control treatments (empty microspheres or free GDNF without microspheres). Contractile muscle force, muscle mass, and MUNE were measured 12 weeks following treatment, where GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation) were superior compared to either no GDNF or short-term release of free GDNF to nerve. Nerve histology distal to the repair site demonstrated increased axon counts and fiber diameters due to GDNF microspheres (2 weeks formulation). GDNF microspheres partially reversed the deleterious effects of chronic nerve injury, and recovery was slightly favored with the 2 weeks formulation compared to the 4 weeks formulation. PMID:23239194

  10. Local Administration of AAV-BDNF to Subventricular Zone Induces Functional Recovery in Stroke Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Tseng, Kuan-Yin; Shen, Hui; Harvey, Brandon K.; Airavaara, Mikko; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV‐BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP was injected into the left SVZ region of adult rats at 14 days prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). SVZ tissues were collected from the brain and placed in Metrigel cultures 1 day after MCAo. Treatment with AAV-BDNF significantly increased the migration of SVZ cells in the stroke brain in vitro. In another set of animals, AAV-GFP was co-injected with AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP to label cells in left SVZ prior to right MCAo. Local administration of AAV-BDNF significantly enhanced recovery of locomotor function and migration of GFP-positive cells from the SVZ toward the lesioned hemisphere in stroke rats. Our data suggest that focal administration of AAV-BDNF to the SVZ increases behavioral recovery post stroke, possibly through the enhancement of migration of cells from SVZ in stroke animals. Regional manipulation of BDNF expression through AAV may be a novel approach for neurorepair in stroke brains. PMID:24312581

  11. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Mitochondrial Function Correlated with Remarkable Tissue Sparing and Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 hr after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 hrs after injury. Here we report that following more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the “central pattern generator”), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hindlimb function. While control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hindlimb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps one month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely “promotes” neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

  12. Anterior thalamic nuclei lesions and recovery of function: Relevance to cognitive thalamus.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple-Alford, John C; Harland, Bruce; Loukavenko, Elena A; Perry, Brook; Mercer, Stephanie; Collings, David A; Ulrich, Katharina; Abraham, Wickliffe C; McNaughton, Neil; Wolff, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and their neural connections is the most consistent neuropathology associated with diencephalic amnesia. ATN lesions in rats produce memory impairments that support a key role for this region within an extended hippocampal system of complex overlapping neural connections. Environmental enrichment is a therapeutic tool that produces substantial, although incomplete, recovery of memory function after ATN lesions, even after the lesion-induced deficit has become established. Similarly, the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin, also counters the negative effects of ATN lesions. ATN lesions substantially reduce c-Fos expression and spine density in the retrosplenial cortex, and reduce spine density on CA1 neurons; only the latter is reversed by enrichment. We discuss the implications of this evidence for the cognitive thalamus, with a proposal that there are genuine interactions among different but allied thalamo-cortical systems that go beyond a simple summation of their separate effects. PMID:25637779

  13. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S.; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E.; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  14. A functional analysis of verbal delay in preschool children: Implications for prevention and total recovery

    PubMed Central

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Delays in acquiring age-appropriate verbal repertoires in preschool children with no known organic etiology may be explained by defective or absent behavior-environmental contingencies. This paper presents six possible behavioral paradigms that describe verbal episodes between parents and their preschool children and how these interactions may inhibit or prevent the acquisition of verbal behavior. These paradigms are contrasted with parent-child interactions that typically result in age-appropriate verbal repertoires. Identifying the reinforcement contingencies that produce delays in acquisition of verbal behavior could lead to the development of more effective behavioral programs for remediating nonorganic language delay. Recommendations for prevention, treatment and total recovery from functional verbal delay and associated mental retardation are presented. The relation between contingency-shaped and rule-governed behavior in the shaping of verbal behavior is discussed. PMID:22477077

  15. Two is More Than One: How to Combine Brain Stimulation Rehabilitative Training for Functional Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Koganemaru, Satoko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that non-invasive brain stimulation has an additional effect in combination with rehabilitative therapy to enhance functional recovery than either therapy alone. The combination enhances use-dependent plasticity induced by repetitive training. The neurophysiological mechanism of the effects of this combination is based on associative plasticity. However, these effects were not reported in all cases. We propose a list of possible strategies to achieve an effective association between rehabilitative training with brain stimulation for plasticity: (1) control of temporal aspect between stimulation and task execution; (2) the use of a shaped task for the combination; (3) the appropriate stimulation of neuronal circuits where use-dependent plastic changes occur; and (4) phase synchronization between rhythmically patterned brain stimulation and task-related patterned activities of neurons. To better utilize brain stimulation in neuro-rehabilitation, it is important to develop more effective techniques to combine them. PMID:26617497

  16. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  17. Enhanced regeneration and functional recovery after spinal root avulsion by manipulation of the proteoglycan receptor PTPσ

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Wong, Connie; Li, Wen; Ruven, Carolin; He, Liumin; Wu, Xiaoli; Lang, Bradley T.; Silver, Jerry; Wu, Wutian

    2015-01-01

    Following root avulsion, spinal nerves are physically disconnected from the spinal cord. Severe motoneuron death and inefficient axon regeneration often result in devastating motor dysfunction. Newly formed axons need to extend through inhibitory scar tissue at the CNS-PNS transitional zone before entering into a pro-regenerative peripheral nerve trajectory. CSPGs are dominant suppressors in scar tissue and exert inhibition via neuronal receptors including PTPσ. Previously, a small peptide memetic of the PTPσ wedge region named ISP (Intracellular Sigma Peptide) was generated, and its capabilities to target PTPσ and relieve CSPG inhibition were validated. Here, we demonstrate that after ventral root avulsion and immediate re-implantation, modulation of PTPσ by systemic delivery of ISP remarkably enhanced regeneration. ISP treatment reduced motoneuron death, increased the number of axons regenerating across scar tissue, rebuilt healthy neuromuscular junctions and enhanced motor functional recovery. Our study shows that modulation of PTPσ is a potential therapeutic strategy for root avulsion. PMID:26464223

  18. Metaplasticity and behavior: how training and inflammation affect plastic potential within the spinal cord and recovery after injury

    PubMed Central

    Grau, James W.; Huie, J. Russell; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Huang, Yung-Jen; Turtle, Joel D.; Strain, Misty M.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Miranda, Rajesh M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Garraway, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that spinal circuits have the capacity to adapt in response to training, nociceptive stimulation and peripheral inflammation. These changes in neural function are mediated by physiological and neurochemical systems analogous to those that support plasticity within the hippocampus (e.g., long-term potentiation and the NMDA receptor). As observed in the hippocampus, engaging spinal circuits can have a lasting impact on plastic potential, enabling or inhibiting the capacity to learn. These effects are related to the concept of metaplasticity. Behavioral paradigms are described that induce metaplastic effects within the spinal cord. Uncontrollable/unpredictable stimulation, and peripheral inflammation, induce a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinal learning. Conversely, exposure to controllable or predictable stimulation engages a form of adaptive plasticity that counters these maladaptive effects and enables learning. Adaptive plasticity is tied to an up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Maladaptive plasticity is linked to processes that involve kappa opioids, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor, glia, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Uncontrollable nociceptive stimulation also impairs recovery after a spinal contusion injury and fosters the development of pain (allodynia). These adverse effects are related to an up-regulation of TNF and a down-regulation of BDNF and its receptor (TrkB). In the absence of injury, brain systems quell the sensitization of spinal circuits through descending serotonergic fibers and the serotonin 1A (5HT 1A) receptor. This protective effect is blocked by surgical anesthesia. Disconnected from the brain, intracellular Cl- concentrations increase (due to a down-regulation of the cotransporter KCC2), which causes GABA to have an excitatory effect. It is suggested that BDNF has a restorative effect because it up-regulates KCC2 and re-establishes GABA-mediated inhibition

  19. Uncoupling PSD-95 interactions leads to rapid recovery of cortical function after focal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Srejic, Luka R; Hutchison, William D; Aarts, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Since the most significant ischemic sequelae occur within hours of stroke, it is necessary to understand how neuronal function changes during this time. While histologic and behavioral models show the extent of stroke-related damage, only in vivo recordings can illustrate changes in brain activity during stroke and validate effectiveness of neuroprotective compounds. Spontaneous and evoked field potentials (fEPs) were recorded in the deep layers of the cortex with a linear microelectrode array for 3 hours after focal stroke in anesthetized rats. Tat-NR2B9c peptide, which confers neuroprotection by uncoupling the PSD-95 protein from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), was administered 5 minutes before ischemia. Evoked field potentials were completely suppressed within 3 minutes of infarct in all ischemic groups. Evoked field potential recovery after stroke in rats treated with Tat-NR2B9c (83% of baseline) was greater compared with stroke-only (61% of baseline) or control peptide (Tat-NR2B-AA; 67% of baseline) groups (P<0.001). Electroencephalography (EEG) power was higher in Tat-NR2B9c-treated animals at both 20 minutes and 1 hour (50% and 73% of baseline, respectively) compared with stroke-only and Tat-NR2B-AA-treated rats (P<0.05). Tat-NR2B9c significantly reduces stroke-related cortical dysfunction as evidenced by greater recovery of fEPs and EEG power; illustrating the immediate effects of the compound on poststroke brain function. PMID:24022623

  20. Short-term galvanic vestibular stimulation promotes functional recovery and neurogenesis in unilaterally labyrinthectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Moslem; Lotfi, Yones; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Hooshmandi, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Current experimental research on the therapeutic effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has mainly focused on neurodegenerative disorders. However, it primarily stimulates the vestibular nuclei and could be potentially effective in modulating imbalance between them in the case of unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Fifty male Wistar rats (180-220g) were used in 5 groups of 10: intact, sham, right-UL (RUL; without intervention), and two other right-UL groups with GVS intervention [one group treated with low rate GVS (GVS.LF; 6-7Hz), and the other treated with high rate GVS (GVS.HF; 17-18Hz)]. The UL models were prepared by intratympanic injection of sodium arsanilate. GVS protocols were implemented 30min/day and continued for 14 days via ring-shaped copper electrodes inserted subcutaneously over each mastoid. Functional recovery was assessed by several postural tests including support surface area, landing and air-righting reflexes, and rotarod procedure. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed on ipsi- and contra-lesional medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and Ki67, as markers of cell proliferation. Behavioral evaluations showed significant functional recovery of GVS-treated groups compared to RUL group. The percent of marked cells with BrdU and Ki67 were significantly higher in the ipsilesional MVN of both GVS-treated groups compared with other groups. Our findings confirmed the effectiveness of GVS-intervention in accelerating static and dynamic vestibular compensation. This could be explained by the cell proliferation in ipsilesional MVN cells and rapid rebalancing of the VNs and the modulation of their motor outputs. Therefore, GVS could be promising for rehabilitating patients with unilateral vestibular weakness. PMID:27444558

  1. Acetyl salicylic acid locally enhances functional recovery after sciatic nerve transection in rat.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Amini, Keyvan; Abdollahi-Pirbazari, Mehdi; Yousefi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Local effect of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) on peripheral nerve regeneration was studied using a rat sciatic nerve transection model. Forty-five male healthy White Wistar rats were divided into three experimental groups (n = 15), randomly: Sham-operation (SHAM), control (SIL), and ASA-treated (SIL/ASA) groups. In SHAM group after anesthesia left sciatic nerve was exposed through a gluteal muscle incision and after homeostasis the muscle was sutured. In SIL group the left sciatic nerve was exposed the same way and transected proximal to tibio-peroneal bifurcation leaving a 10-mm gap. Proximal and distal stumps were each inserted into a silicone tube and filled with 10 μl phosphate buffered solution. In SIL/ASA group defect was bridged using a silicone tube filled with 10 μl acetyl salisylic acid (0.1 mg/ml). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and were studied 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically by factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni test for pair-wise comparisons. Functional study confirmed faster and better recovery of regenerated axons in SIL/ASA than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Gastrocnemius muscle mass in SIL/ASA was significantly more than in SIL group. Morphometric indices of regenerated fibers showed that the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers in SIL/ASA were significantly higher than in control group. In immuohistochemistry, location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ASA was clearly more positive than in SIL group. Response to local treatment of ASA demonstrates that it influences and improves functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:24140781

  2. CITED4 induces physiologic hypertrophy and promotes functional recovery after ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Bezzerides, Vassilios J.; Platt, Colin; Lerchenmüller, Carolin; Paruchuri, Kaavya; Oh, Nul Loren; Xiao, Chunyang; Cao, Yunshan; Mann, Nina; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise mediates its multiple cardiac benefits are only partly understood. Prior comprehensive analyses of the cardiac transcriptional components and microRNAs dynamically regulated by exercise suggest that the CBP/p300-interacting protein CITED4 is a downstream effector in both networks. While CITED4 has documented functional consequences in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro, nothing is known about its effects in the adult heart. To investigate the impact of cardiac CITED4 expression in adult animals, we generated transgenic mice with regulated, cardiomyocyte-specific CITED4 expression. Cardiac CITED4 expression in adult mice was sufficient to induce an increase in heart weight and cardiomyocyte size with normal systolic function, similar to the effects of endurance exercise training. After ischemia-reperfusion, CITED4 expression did not change initial infarct size but mediated substantial functional recovery while reducing ventricular dilation and fibrosis. Forced cardiac expression of CITED4 also induced robust activation of the mTORC1 pathway after ischemic injury. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 abrogated CITED4’s effects in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data establish CITED4 as a regulator of mTOR signaling that is sufficient to induce physiologic hypertrophy at baseline and mitigate adverse ventricular remodeling after ischemic injury. PMID:27430023

  3. Intraoperative Neural Response Telemetry and Neural Recovery Function: a Comparative Study between Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Bettina; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio; Wiemes, Gislaine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can also measure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRT or for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. PMID:25992145

  4. Intraspinal Delivery of Polyethylene Glycol-coated Gold Nanoparticles Promotes Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Papastefanaki, Florentia; Jakovcevski, Igor; Poulia, Nafsika; Djogo, Nevena; Schulz, Florian; Martinovic, Tamara; Ciric, Darko; Loers, Gabrielle; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Matsas, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Failure of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate effectively after injury leads to mostly irreversible functional impairment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are promising candidates for drug delivery in combination with tissue-compatible reagents, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG administration in CNS injury models has received interest for potential therapy, but toxicity and low bioavailability prevents clinical application. Here we show that intraspinal delivery of PEG-functionalized 40-nm-AuNPs at early stages after mouse spinal cord injury is beneficial for recovery. Positive outcome of hind limb motor function was accompanied by attenuated inflammatory response, enhanced motor neuron survival, and increased myelination of spared or regrown/sprouted axons. No adverse effects, such as body weight loss, ill health, or increased mortality were observed. We propose that PEG-AuNPs represent a favorable drug-delivery platform with therapeutic potential that could be further enhanced if PEG-AuNPs are used as carriers of regeneration-promoting molecules. PMID:25807288

  5. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J R; Meek, M F; Robinson, P H; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted of non-operated control rats. The withdrawal reflex, elicited by an electric stimulus, was used to evaluate the recovery of sensory nerve function. To investigate motor nerve recovery we analyzed the walking pattern. Three different methods were used to obtain data for footprint analysis: photographic paper with thickened film developer on the paws, normal white paper with finger paint, and video recordings. The footprints were used to calculate the sciatic function index (SFI). From the video recordings, we also analyzed stepcycles. The withdrawal reflex is a convenient and reproducible test for the evaluation of global sensory nerve recovery. Recording walking movements on video and the analysis of footplacing is a perfect although time-consuming method for the evaluation of functional aspects of motor nerve recovery. PMID:10720672

  6. Arm function after stroke. An evaluation of grip strength as a measure of recovery and a prognostic indicator.

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, A; Tinson, D; Bradley, L; Hewer, R L

    1989-01-01

    The value of strength of voluntary grip as an indicator of recovery of arm function was assessed by testing 38 recent stroke patients using a sensitive electronic dynamometer, and comparing the results with those from five other arm movement and function tests (Motricity Index, Motor Club Assessment, Nine Hole Peg Test, and Frenchay Arm Test). This procedure allowed measurement of grip in a large proportion of patients, and strength correlated highly with performance on the other tests. Measuring grip over a six month follow up period was a sensitive method of charting intrinsic neurological recovery. The presence of voluntary grip at one month indicates that there will be some functional recovery at six months. PMID:2592969

  7. The potential for utilizing the "mirror neurone system" to enhance recovery of the severely affected upper limb early after stroke: a review and hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Valerie M; Clark, Christopher A; Miller, J Simon G; Baron, Jean-Claude; Markus, Hugh S; Tallis, Raymond C

    2005-03-01

    Recovery of upper limb movement control after stroke might be enhanced by repetitive goal-directed functional activities. Providing such activity is challenging in the presence of severe paresis. A possible new approach is based on the discovery of mirror neurons in the monkey cortical area F5, which are active both in observing and executing a movement. Indirect evidence for a comparable human "mirror neurone system" is provided by functional imaging. The primary motor cortex, the premotor cortex, other brain areas, and muscles appropriate for the action being observed are probably activated in healthy volunteers observing another's movement. These findings raise the hypothesis that observation of another's movement might train the movement execution system of stroke patients who have severe paresis to bring them to the point at which they could actively participate in rehabilitation consisting of goal-directed activities. The point of providing an observation therapy would be to facilitate the voluntary production of movement; therefore, the condition of interest would be observation with intent to imitate. However, there is as yet insufficient evidence to enable the testing of this hypothesis in stroke patients. Studies in normal subjects are needed to determine which brain sites are activated in response to observation with intent to imitate. Studies in stroke subjects are needed to determine how activation is affected after damage to different brain areas. The information from such studies should aid identification of those stroke patients who might be most likely to benefit from observation to imitate and therefore guide phase I clinical studies. PMID:15673838

  8. Causal Link between the Cortico-Rubral Pathway and Functional Recovery through Forced Impaired Limb Use in Rats with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Akimasa; Isa, Kaoru; Umeda, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Kenta; Hida, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation is believed to induce use-dependent plasticity in the injured nervous system; however, its causal relationship to functional recovery is unclear. Here, we performed systematic analysis of the effects of forced use of an impaired forelimb on the recovery of rats after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forced limb use (FLU) group rats exhibited better recovery of skilled forelimb functions and their cortical motor area with forelimb representation was restored and enlarged on the ipsilesional side. In addition, abundant axonal sprouting from the reemerged forelimb area was found in the ipsilateral red nucleus after FLU. To test the causal relationship between the plasticity in the cortico-rubral pathway and recovery, loss-of-function experiments were conducted using a double-viral vector technique, which induces selective blockade of the target pathway. Blockade of the cortico-rubral tract resulted in deficits of the recovered forelimb function in FLU group rats. These findings suggest that the cortico-rubral pathway is a substrate for recovery induced by intensive rehabilitation after ICH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The research aimed at determining the causal linkage between reorganization of the motor pathway induced by intensive rehabilitative training and recovery after stroke. We clarified the expansion of the forelimb representation area of the ipsilesional motor cortex by forced impaired forelimb use (FLU) after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH) in rats. Anterograde tracing showed robust axonal sprouting from the forelimb area to the red nucleus in response to FLU. Selective blockade of the cortico-rubral pathway by the novel double-viral vector technique clearly revealed that the increased cortico-rubral axonal projections had causal linkage to the recovery of reaching movements induced by FLU. Our data demonstrate that the cortico-rubral pathway is responsible for the

  9. Primed Physical Therapy Enhances Recovery of Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Ackerley, Suzanne J; Byblow, Winston D; Barber, P Alan; MacDonald, Hayley; McIntyre-Robinson, Andrew; Stinear, Cathy M

    2016-05-01

    Background Recovery of upper limb function is important for regaining independence after stroke.Objective To test the effects of priming upper limb physical therapy with intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a form of noninvasive brain stimulation.Methods Eighteen adults with first-ever chronic monohemispheric subcortical stroke participated in this randomized, controlled, triple-blinded trial. Intervention consisted of priming with real or sham iTBS to the ipsilesional primary motor cortex immediately before 45 minutes of upper limb physical therapy, daily for 10 days. Changes in upper limb function (Action Research Arm Test [ARAT]), upper limb impairment (Fugl-Meyer Scale), and corticomotor excitability, were assessed before, during, and immediately, 1 month and 3 months after the intervention. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired before and at one month after the intervention.Results Improvements in ARAT were observed after the intervention period when therapy was primed with real iTBS, but not sham, and were maintained at 1 month. These improvements were not apparent halfway through the intervention, indicating a dose effect. Improvements in ARAT at 1 month were related to balancing of corticomotor excitability and an increase in ipsilesional premotor cortex activation during paretic hand grip.Conclusions Two weeks of iTBS-primed therapy improves upper limb function at the chronic stage of stroke, for at least 1 month postintervention, whereas therapy alone may not be sufficient to alter function. This indicates a potential role for iTBS as an adjuvant to therapy delivered at the chronic stage. PMID:26180053

  10. Predicting the accuracy of facial affect recognition: the interaction of child maltreatment and intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Noll, Jennie G

    2013-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying levels of intellectual functioning. A sample of maltreated (n=50) and nonmaltreated (n=56) adolescent females, 14 to 19 years of age, was recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed demographic and study-related questionnaires and interviews to control for potential psychological and psychiatric confounds such as symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, negative affect, and difficulties in emotion regulation. Participants also completed an experimental paradigm that recorded responses to facial affect displays starting in a neutral expression and changing into a full expression of one of six emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, or surprise. Hierarchical multiple regression assessed the incremental advantage of evaluating the interaction between child maltreatment and intellectual functioning. Results indicated that the interaction term accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in the accurate identification of facial affect after controlling for relevant covariates and main effects. Specifically, maltreated females with lower levels of intellectual functioning were least accurate in identifying facial affect displays, whereas those with higher levels of intellectual functioning performed as well as nonmaltreated females. These results suggest that maltreatment and intellectual functioning interact to predict the recognition of facial affect, with potential long-term consequences for the interpersonal functioning of maltreated females. PMID:23036371

  11. Anatomical and functional recovery following spinal cord transection in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, I; Oppenheim, R W; O'Brien, M; Shneiderman, A

    1990-09-01

    Following complete transection of the thoracic spinal cord at various times during embryonic development, chick embryos and posthatched animals exhibited various degrees of anatomical and functional recovery depending upon the age of injury. Transection on embryonic day 2 (E2), when neurogenesis is still occurring and before descending or ascending fiber tracts have formed, produced no noticeable behavioral or anatomical deficits. Embryos hatched on their own and were behaviorally indistinguishable from control hatchlings. Similar results were found following transection on E5, an age when neurogenesis is complete and when ascending and descending fiber tracts have begun to project through the thoracic region. Within 48 h following injury on E5, large numbers of nerve fibers were observed growing across the site of transection. By E8, injections of horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) administered caudal to the lesion, retrogradely labelled rostral spinal and brainstem neurons. Embryos transected on E5 were able to hatch and could stand and locomote posthatching in a manner that was indistinguishable from controls. Following spinal cord transections on E10, anatomical recovery of the spinal cord at the site of injury was not quite as complete as after E5 transection. Nonetheless, anatomical continuity was restored at the site of injury, axons projected across this region, and rostral spinal and brainstem neurons could be retrogradely labelled following HRP injections administered caudal to the lesion. At least part of this anatomical recovery may be mediated by the regeneration or regrowth of lesioned axons. Although none of the embryos transected on E10 that survived to hatching were able to hatch on their own, because several sham-operated embryos were also unable to hatch, we do not attribute this deficit to the spinal transection. When E10-transected embryos were aided in escaping from the shell, they were able to support their own weight, could stand, and locomote

  12. Chronic behavioral testing after focal ischemia in the mouse: functional recovery and the effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Blizzard, Kathleen K; Zeng, Zhiyuan; DeVries, A Courtney; Hurn, Patricia D; McCullough, Louise D

    2004-05-01

    Several useful behavioral tests exist for measuring behavioral recovery after ischemia in higher-order animals and rats. With the increasing use of mice in focal stroke research, simple, reliable, and reproducible behavioral testing has become a priority. As neuroprotective agents are tested, long-term outcome must be assessed, especially in studies focused on neuronal plasticity and regeneration after ischemia. Our laboratory and others have previously shown that estrogen (E2) is neuroprotective in rodent stroke paradigms. We examined a battery of behavioral tests in male and female mice subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to determine the most sensitive tests for detecting sensorimotor dysfunction after stroke, and to determine the functional significance of E2-mediated neuroprotection. Only two tests, the corner test and the cylinder test, were able to differentiate between groups (sham and stroke) after several days of repeated testing. The cylinder test was sensitive to the neuroprotective/neurorestorative effects of E2, but 2 weeks after stroke, the cylinder test was unable to distinguish between sham and stroke animals treated with E2. In contrast, the corner test was able to differentiate stroke and sham animals even 6 weeks after stroke, but did not distinguish animals treated with E2 vs. vehicle. These tests provide a simple, rapid, reliable assessment of sensorimotor dysfunction in the mouse after focal ischemia. Hormonal status influences speed of recovery on cylinder testing in animals of both genders. This suggests that a short battery of tests including the neurological score, cylinder, and corner test may be adequate to rapidly and repeatedly assess sensorimotor dysfunction in mice of both genders. PMID:15081592

  13. Rewiring the Brain: Potential Role of the Premotor Cortex in Motor Control, Learning, and Recovery of Function Following Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kantak, Shailesh S.; Stinear, James W.; Buch, Ethan R.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2016-01-01

    The brain is a plastic organ with a capability to reorganize in response to behavior and/or injury. Following injury to the motor cortex or emergent corticospinal pathways, recovery of function depends on the capacity of surviving anatomical resources to recover and repair in response to task-specific training. One such area implicated in poststroke reorganization to promote recovery of upper extremity recovery is the premotor cortex (PMC). This study reviews the role of distinct subdivisions of PMC: dorsal (PMd) and ventral (PMv) premotor cortices as critical anatomical and physiological nodes within the neural networks for the control and learning of goal-oriented reach and grasp actions in healthy individuals and individuals with stroke. Based on evidence emerging from studies of intrinsic and extrinsic connectivity, transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional neuroimaging, and experimental studies in animals and humans, the authors propose 2 distinct patterns of reorganization that differentially engage ipsilesional and contralesional PMC. Research directions that may offer further insights into the role of PMC in motor control, learning, and poststroke recovery are also proposed. This research may facilitate neuroplasticity for maximal recovery of function following brain injury. PMID:21926382

  14. Angiopoietin-1 preconditioning enhances survival and functional recovery of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian-bao; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui-qiang; Zhu, Mei-fei; Hu, Xin-yang; Wang, Ya-ping; Jiang, Zhi; Xu, Yin-chuan; Xiang, Mei-xiang; Wang, Jian-an

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for ischemic heart diseases. However, poor cell survival after transplantation greatly limits the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) preconditioning on MSC survival and subsequent heart function improvement after transplantation. Methods: MSCs were cultured with or without 50 ng/ml Ang1 in complete medium for 24 h prior to experiments on cell survival and transplantation. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Hoechst staining were applied to evaluate MSC survival after serum deprivation in vitro, while cell survival in vivo was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUPT nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay 24 and 72 h after transplantation. Heart function and infarct size were measured four weeks later by small animal echocardiography and Masson’s trichrome staining, respectively. Results: Ang1 preconditioning induced Akt phosphorylation and increased expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. In comparison with non-preconditioned MSCs, Ang1-preconditioned cell survival was significantly increased while the apoptotic rate decreased in vitro. However, the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor, LY294002, abrogated the protective effect of Ang1 preconditioning. After transplantation, the Ang1-preconditioned-MSC group showed a lower death rate, smaller infarct size, and better heart functional recovery compared to the non-preconditioned-MSC group. Conclusions: Ang1 preconditioning enhances MSC survival, contributing to further improvement of heart function. PMID:22843181

  15. Testing a Family-centered Intervention to Promote Functional and Cognitive Recovery in Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Boltz, Marie; Resnick, Barbara; Chippendale, Tracy; Galvin, James

    2016-01-01

    A comparative trial using repeated measures design evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of the Family-centered Function-focused Care (Fam-FFC) intervention intended to promote functional recovery in the hospitalized older adult. A three component intervention (1) environmental assessment/ modification, 2) staff education, 3) family/patient education and partnership in care planning with post-acute follow-up) was implemented by a family-centered resource nurse and a facility champion. Control units were exposed to function-focused care education only. Ninety-seven dyads of medical patients age 65 and older and family caregivers (FCGs) were recruited from three medical units of a community teaching hospital. The majority of patients were female (53%); white (89%), married (51%) or widowed (40%), with a mean age of 80.8 (± 7.5). The majority of FCGs were married (78%) daughters (34%), followed by female spouses/partners (31%), in the age range of 46–65 (38%). Outcomes for patients included: functional outcomes (ADL and walking performance, gait, balance), and delirium severity and duration. FCG outcomes included preparedness for caregiving, anxiety, depression, role strain, and mutuality. The intervention group demonstrated less severity and duration of delirium, and better ADL and walking performance, but not gait/balance as compared to the control group. FCG who participated in Fam-FFC showed a significant increase in preparedness for caregiving, less anxiety and less depression from admission to two months post-discharge, but no significant differences in strain and mutuality, as compared to FCG in the control group. Fam-FFC is feasible and has the potential to improve outcomes for hospitalized older adults and family caregivers. PMID:25481973

  16. Intramyocardial stem cell injection in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: Functional recovery and reverse remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adam R.; Trachtenberg, Barry; Velazquez, Darcy L.; McNiece, Ian; Altman, Peter; Rouy, Didier; Mendizabal, Adam M.; Pattany, Pradip M.; Lopera, Gustavo A.; Fishman, Joel; Zambrano, Juan P.; Heldman, Alan W.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Transcatheter, intramyocardial injections of bone marrow derived cell therapy produces reverse remodeling in large animal models of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Objective We used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with LV dysfunction related to remote myocardial infarction (MI) to test the hypothesis that bone marrow progenitor cell injection cause functional recovery of scarred myocardium and reverse remodeling. Methods and Results Eight patients (age 57.2±13.3) received transendocardial, intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells (mononuclear or mesenchymal stem cells) in LV scar and border zone. All patients tolerated the procedure with no serious adverse events. CMR at 1-year demonstrated a decrease in end-diastolic volume (208.7±20.4 vs. 167.4±7.32mL; p=0.03), a trend towards decreased end-systolic volume (142.4±16.5 vs. 107.6±7.4mL; p=0.06), decreased infarct size (p<0.05), and improved regional LV function by peak Ecc in the treated infarct zone (-8.1±1.0 vs. -11.4±1.3; p=0.04). Improvements in regional function were evident at 3 months, while the changes in chamber dimensions were not significant until 6 months. Improved regional function in the infarct zone strongly correlated with reduction of EDV (r2=0.69, p=0.04) and ESV (r2=0.83, p=0.01). Conclusions These data suggest that transcatheter, intramyocardial injections of autologous bone marrow progenitor cells improve regional contractility of a chronic myocardial scar and these changes predict subsequent reverse remodeling. The findings support the potential clinical benefits of this new treatment strategy and ongoing randomized clinical trials. PMID:21415390

  17. Recovery of Vibratory Function After Vocal Fold Microflap in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Mitchell, Joshua R.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to evaluate the return of vibratory function and restoration of vibration amplitude and symmetry after vocal fold microflap surgery. Study Design Prospective in vivo animal model. Methods Microflap surgery was performed on 30 New Zealand white breeder rabbits. The left vocal fold received a 3-mm epithelial incision and mucosal elevation, while the contralateral vocal fold was left intact to serve as an internal control. Quantitative analysis of amplitude ratio and lateral phase difference were measured using high-speed laryngeal imaging at a frame rate of 10,000 frames per second from animals undergoing evoked phonation on postoperative days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. Results Quantitative measures revealed a significantly reduced amplitude ratio and lateral phase difference on day 0 after microflap. These impairments of vibratory function on day 0 were associated with separation of the vocal fold’s bodycover layer. Amplitude ratio increased significantly by day 3 after microflap, with further increases in vibration amplitude on days 5 and 7. While the amplitude ratio improved significantly on day 3, lateral phase difference decreased significantly on day 3, and returned to normal on days 5 and 7. Conclusions High-speed laryngeal imaging was used to investigate the natural time course of postmicroflap recovery of vibratory function. Results revealed the restoration of vibration amplitude and lateral phase difference by days 3 to 7 after microflap. The time period of improved vibratory function observed in this study coincides with the end of the well-documented inflammatory phase of vocal fold wound repair. PMID:23901003

  18. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and

  19. Motor cortex electrical stimulation augments sprouting of the corticospinal tract and promotes recovery of motor function

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Martin, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal system—with its direct spinal pathway, the corticospinal tract (CST) – is the primary system for controlling voluntary movement. Our approach to CST repair after injury in mature animals was informed by our finding that activity drives establishment of connections with spinal cord circuits during postnatal development. After incomplete injury in maturity, spared CST circuits sprout, and partially restore lost function. Our approach harnesses activity to augment this injury-dependent CST sprouting and to promote function. Lesion of the medullary pyramid unilaterally eliminates all CST axons from one hemisphere and allows examination of CST sprouting from the unaffected hemisphere. We discovered that 10 days of electrical stimulation of either the spared CST or motor cortex induces CST axon sprouting that partially reconstructs the lost CST. Stimulation also leads to sprouting of the cortical projection to the magnocellular red nucleus, where the rubrospinal tract originates. Coordinated outgrowth of the CST and cortical projections to the red nucleus could support partial re-establishment of motor systems connections to the denervated spinal motor circuits. Stimulation restores skilled motor function in our animal model. Lesioned animals have a persistent forelimb deficit contralateral to pyramidotomy in the horizontal ladder task. Rats that received motor cortex stimulation either after acute or chronic injury showed a significant functional improvement that brought error rate to pre-lesion control levels. Reversible inactivation of the stimulated motor cortex reinstated the impairment demonstrating the importance of the stimulated system to recovery. Motor cortex electrical stimulation is an effective approach to promote spouting of spared CST axons. By optimizing activity-dependent sprouting in animals, we could have an approach that can be translated to the human for evaluation with minimal delay. PMID:24994971

  20. Enhanced Functional Recovery in MRL/MpJ Mice after Spinal Cord Dorsal Hemisection

    PubMed Central

    Thuret, Sandrine; Thallmair, Michaela; Horky, Laura L.; Gage, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult MRL/MpJ mice have been shown to possess unique regeneration capabilities. They are able to heal an ear-punched hole or an injured heart with normal tissue architecture and without scar formation. Here we present functional and histological evidence for enhanced recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI) in MRL/MpJ mice. A control group (C57BL/6 mice) and MRL/MpJ mice underwent a dorsal hemisection at T9 (thoracic vertebra 9). Our data show that MRL/MpJ mice recovered motor function significantly faster and more completely. We observed enhanced regeneration of the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, we observed a reduced astrocytic response and fewer micro-cavities at the injury site, which appear to create a more growth-permissive environment for the injured axons. Our data suggest that the reduced astrocytic response is in part due to a lower lesion-induced increase of cell proliferation post-SCI, and a reduced astrocytic differentiation of the proliferating cells. Interestingly, we also found an increased number of proliferating microglia, which could be involved in the MRL/MpJ spinal cord repair mechanisms. Finally, to evaluate the molecular basis of faster spinal cord repair, we examined the difference in gene expression changes in MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6 mice after SCI. Our microarray data support our histological findings and reveal a transcriptional profile associated with a more efficient spinal cord repair in MRL/MpJ mice. PMID:22348029

  1. Inhibition of LINGO-1 promotes functional recovery after experimental spinal cord demyelination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yi Ping; Pepinsky, Blake; Huang, Guanrong; Shields, Lisa B E; Shields, Christopher B; Mi, Sha

    2015-04-01

    Blocking LINGO-1 has been shown to enhance remyelination in the rat lysolecithin-induced focal spinal cord demyelination model. We used transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials (tcMMEPs) to assess the effect of blocking LINGO-1 on recovery of axonal function in a mouse lysolecithin model at 1, 2 and 4weeks after injury. The role of LINGO-1 was assessed using LINGO-1 knockout (KO) mice and in wild-type mice after intraperitoneal administration of anti-LINGO-1 antagonist monoclonal antibody (mAb3B5). Response rates (at 2 and 4weeks) and amplitudes (at 4weeks) were significantly increased in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. The latency of potentials at 4weeks was significantly shorter in mAb3B5-treated mice compared with controls. Lesion areas in LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice were reduced significantly compared with matched controls. The number of remyelinated axons within the lesions was increased and the G-ratios of the axons were decreased in both LINGO-1 KO and mAb3B5-treated mice compared with matched controls. These data provide morphometric and functional evidence of enhancement of remyelination associated with antagonism of LINGO-1. PMID:25681574

  2. Recovery of Olfactory Function in Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction Patients after Acupuncture Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Pang, Zhihui; Yu, Hongmeng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of traditional Chinese acupuncture (TCA) in postviral olfactory dysfunction (PVOD) patients who were refractory to standardized treatment and to compare the results with the impact observed in an observation group. Methods. Fifty patients who presented to the outpatient clinic with PVOD and were refractory to standardized treatment were included: 25 were treated with TCA and 25 patients were simply observed. A subjective olfactory test was performed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The effects of TCA were compared with the results obtained in the observation group. Results. Improved olfactory function was observed in eleven patients treated with TCA compared with four patients in the observation group. This study revealed significantly improved olfactory function outcomes in patients who underwent acupuncture compared with the observation group. No significant differences in olfaction recovery were found according to age, gender, or duration of disease between the two groups; however, hyposmic patients recovered at a higher rate than anosmic patients. Conclusion. TCA may aid the treatment of PVOD patients who are refractory to drugs or other therapies. PMID:27034689

  3. Environmental Experience Modulates Ischemia-Induced Amyloidogenesis and Enhances Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rogozinska, Magdalena; Woods, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined whether ischemia-induced amyloidogenesis could be modulated by environmental “experience,” and whether this modulation is associated with improved cognitive functioning. Rats were subjected to either global ischemia or sham surgery and then were randomly assigned to either enriched environment housing (EE) or socially paired housing (controls). After 14 days of differential environmental housing, the rats were tested in the water maze. Our results show decreased C-terminal fragments of the β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and decreased amyloid beta (Aβ) load in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. In addition, Aβ oligomerization was significantly decreased in the ischemic EE animals compared to the ischemic control rats. Further, significantly increased levels of neprilysin, but not insulin-degrading enzyme, amyloid-degrading enzymes, were seen in the ischemic EE rats compared to the ischemic control animals. Behavioral analyses showed that ischemic EE rats performed significantly better on the memory task compared to the ischemic control group. These results suggest that use of multi-sensory environmental enrichment following cerebral ischemia may reduce the accumulation of Aβ peptide in the more pathologic oligomeric form, and consequently may enhance functional recovery. PMID:19271963

  4. Plasminogen activator induction facilitates recovery of respiratory function following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kenneth H; Seeds, Nicholas W

    2008-01-01

    The possibility that plasminogen activator (PA) plays a role in synaptic plasticity was explored in the spinal cord during the crossed phrenic phenomenon (CPP), where respiratory functional plasticity develops following spinal cord injury. Synaptic remodeling on phrenic motorneurons occurs during the characteristic delay period following spinal cord injury before CPP recovery of respiratory function. The molecular mechanisms underlying this plasticity are not well-defined. During the critical 1-2 h delay period required for this synaptic plasticity following a C2 hemisection in mice, uPA and tPA mRNAs are rapidly induced in C4-5 ventral spinal cord neurons in the ipsilateral phrenic motor nucleus (PMN), as are uPA and tPA protein levels. A role for uPA in CPP spinal cord plasticity is confirmed by the impaired ability of uPA knockout mice to acquire a good CPP response by 6 h post-hemisection and their lack of structural remodeling of PMN synapses that underlies development of the CPP response. PMID:18042398

  5. Oct4-induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells enhance functional recovery in spinal cord injury model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Beom; Lee, Hyunah; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Hwang, Kyujin; Nam, Donggyu; Park, Myung Rae; Zaehres, Holm; Park, Kook In; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2015-12-01

    The generation of patient-specific oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) holds great potential as an expandable cell source for cell replacement therapy as well as drug screening in spinal cord injury or demyelinating diseases. Here, we demonstrate that induced OPCs (iOPCs) can be directly derived from adult mouse fibroblasts by Oct4-mediated direct reprogramming, using anchorage-independent growth to ensure high purity. Homogeneous iOPCs exhibit typical small-bipolar morphology, maintain their self-renewal capacity and OPC marker expression for more than 31 passages, share high similarity in the global gene expression profile to wild-type OPCs, and give rise to mature oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Notably, transplanted iOPCs contribute to functional recovery in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model without tumor formation. This study provides a simple strategy to generate functional self-renewing iOPCs and yields insights for the in-depth study of demyelination and regenerative medicine. PMID:26497893

  6. Heat acclimation provides sustained improvement in functional recovery and attenuates apoptosis after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Umscheif, Gali; Umschwief, Gali; Shein, Na'ama A; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Trembovler, Victoria; Horowitz, Michal; Shohami, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) offers functional neuroprotection in mice after traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study further characterizes endogenous neuroprotection acquired by HA (34+/-1 degrees C, 30 d) after TBI. We establish here the ability of HA to induce sustained functional benefits and to reduce activation of apoptotic pathways. Neurobehavioral recovery, assessed by the Neurological Severity Score, was greater in HA mice up to 8 days after injury as compared with normothermic controls (P<0.05) and lesion volume was also smaller in the HA group (P<0.05). Reduced apoptotic cell death in HA mice was confirmed using caspase-3 activity measurements and immunohistochemistry. To investigate the underlying molecular pathways, expression levels of intrinsic apoptotic pathway-related proteins were examined. HA mice displayed higher mitochondrial levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL, accompanied by lower proapoptotic Bad levels and decreased cytochrome c release, suggesting a higher apoptotic threshold. Taken together with our previous reports, indicating increased Akt phosphorylation and antioxidative capacity, alongside with reduced tumor necrosis alpha levels after TBI in HA animals, the current results support the involvement of an antiapoptotic effect in HA-induced neuroprotection. Current results warrant further study as TBI-induced apoptosis may persist over weeks after injury, possibly providing a target for belated therapeutic intervention. PMID:19904288

  7. Acute Delivery of EphA4-Fc Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Spanevello, Mark Damien; Tajouri, Sophie Ines; Mirciov, Cornel; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Pearse, Martin John; Fabri, Louis Jerry; Owczarek, Catherine Mary; Hardy, Matthew Philip; Bradford, Rebecca Anne; Ramunno, Melanie Louise; Turnley, Ann Maree; Ruitenberg, Marc Jan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Blocking the action of inhibitory molecules at sites of central nervous system injury has been proposed as a strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery. We have previously shown that genetic deletion or competitive antagonism of EphA4 receptor activity promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery in a mouse model of lateral hemisection spinal cord injury. Here we have assessed the effect of blocking EphA4 activation using the competitive antagonist EphA4-Fc in a rat model of thoracic contusive spinal cord injury. Using a ledged tapered balance beam and open-field testing, we observed significant improvements in recovery of locomotor function after EphA4-Fc treatment. Consistent with functional improvement, using high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging at 16.4T, we found that rats treated with EphA4-Fc had a significantly increased cross-sectional area of the dorsal funiculus caudal to the injury epicenter compared with controls. Our findings indicate that EphA4-Fc promotes functional recovery following contusive spinal cord injury and provides further support for the therapeutic benefit of treatment with the competitive antagonist in acute cases of spinal cord injury. PMID:23557244

  8. Synergistic effects of low-level laser and mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery in rats with crushed sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Chia; Wang, John; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been proposed to exert beneficial effects on peripheral nerve regeneration after a peripheral nerve injury, but the functional recovery in the denervated limb is still limited. In this study, we used low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct therapy for MSC transplantation on the functional recovery of crushed sciatic nerve in rats. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in 48 Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the unilateral sciatic nerve, using a vessel clamp. The animals with crushed injury were randomly divided into four groups: control group, with no treatment; MSC group, treated with MSC alone; LLLT group, treated with LLLT alone; and MSCLLLT group, treated with a combination of MSC and LLLT. The sciatic function index (SFI), vertical activity of locomotion (VA) and ankle angle (AA) of rats were examined for functional assessments after treatment. Electrophysiological, morphological and S100 immunohistochemical studies were also conducted. The MSCLLLT group showed a greater recovery in SFI, VA and AA, with significant difference from MSC, LLLT and control groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, markedly enhanced electrophysiological function and expression of S100 immunoreactivity, as well as fewer inflammatory cells and less vacuole formation were also demonstrated after nerve crush injury in the MSCLLLT group when compared with the groups receiving a single treatment (p < 0.05). MSC transplantation combined with LLLT could achieve better results in functional recovery than a conventional treatment of MSC or LLLT alone. LLLT has a synergistic effect in providing greater functional recovery with MSC transplantation after nerve crush injury. PMID:23468370

  9. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  10. Salmon fibrin treatment of spinal cord injury promotes functional recovery and density of serotonergic innervation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Kelli G; Dickson, Amanda R; Marchenko, Steve A; Yee, Kelly M; Emery, Pauline N; Laidmåe, Ivo; Uibo, Raivo; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Steward, Oswald; Flanagan, Lisa A

    2012-05-01

    The neural degeneration caused by spinal cord injury leaves a cavity at the injury site that greatly inhibits repair. One approach to promoting repair is to fill the cavity with a scaffold to limit further damage and encourage regrowth. Injectable materials are advantageous scaffolds because they can be placed as a liquid in the lesion site then form a solid in vivo that precisely matches the contours of the lesion. Fibrin is one type of injectable scaffold, but risk of infection from blood borne pathogens has limited its use. We investigated the potential utility of salmon fibrin as an injectable scaffold to treat spinal cord injury since it lacks mammalian infectious agents and encourages greater neuronal extension in vitro than mammalian fibrin or Matrigel®, another injectable material. Female rats received a T9 dorsal hemisection injury and were treated with either salmon or human fibrin at the time of injury while a third group served as untreated controls. Locomotor function was assessed using the BBB scale, bladder function was analyzed by measuring residual urine, and sensory responses were tested by mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs). Histological analyses quantified the glial scar, lesion volume, and serotonergic fiber density. Rats that received salmon fibrin exhibited significantly improved recovery of both locomotor and bladder function and a greater density of serotonergic innervation caudal to the lesion site without exacerbation of pain. Rats treated with salmon fibrin also exhibited less autophagia than those treated with human fibrin, potentially pointing to amelioration of sensory dysfunction. Glial scar formation and lesion size did not differ significantly among groups. The pattern and timing of salmon fibrin's effects suggest that it acts on neuronal populations but not by stimulating long tract regeneration. Salmon fibrin clearly has properties distinct from those of mammalian fibrin and is a beneficial injectable scaffold for treatment

  11. Impaired Cerebrovascular Function in Coronary Artery Disease Patients and Recovery Following Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Anazodo, Udunna C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, Neville; Ssali, Tracy; Wang, Danny J. J.; St. Lawrence, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) poses a risk to the cerebrovascular function of older adults and has been linked to impaired cognitive abilities. Using magnetic resonance perfusion imaging, we investigated changes in resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to hypercapnia in 34 CAD patients and 21 age-matched controls. Gray matter volume (GMV) images were acquired and used as a confounding variable to separate changes in structure from function. Compared to healthy controls, CAD patients demonstrated reduced CBF in the superior frontal, anterior cingulate (AC), insular, pre- and post-central gyri, middle temporal, and superior temporal regions. Subsequent analysis of these regions demonstrated decreased CVR in the AC, insula, post-central and superior frontal regions. Except in the superior frontal and precentral regions, regional reductions in CBF and CVR were identified in brain areas where no detectable reductions in GMV were observed, demonstrating that these vascular changes were independent of brain atrophy. Because aerobic fitness training can improve brain function, potential changes in regional CBF were investigated in the CAD patients after completion of a 6-months exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program. Increased CBF was observed in the bilateral AC, as well as recovery of CBF in the dorsal aspect of the right AC, where the magnitude of increased CBF was roughly equal to the reduction in CBF at baseline compared to controls. These exercise-related improvements in CBF in the AC is intriguing given the role of this area in cognitive processing and regulation of cardiovascular autonomic control. PMID:26779011

  12. Differentiated adipose-derived stem cells promote the recovery of nociceptor function in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Tomita, Koichi; Kiya, Koichiro; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2016-10-19

    The loss of nociceptive function in the skin because of trauma or surgery can impair the quality of life. The recovery of nociceptor function is mediated by two different axonal responses: nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent collateral sprouting of undamaged nerves and NGF-independent regeneration of damaged nerves. We reported previously that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can transdifferentiate into Schwann cell (SC)-like cells (dASCs) and that transplantation of dASCs increases axonal density in skin flaps. In the present study, we used an animal model that allowed for the individual assessment of collateral sprouting and regeneration. In-vitro differentiation of ASCs to dASCs significantly increased the production of NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to levels comparable with SCs. In-vivo experiments showed that dASC and SC transplantation significantly increased the area of the mechano-nociceptive field in both collateral sprouting and regeneration models, whereas ASC transplantation exerted no significant effect. Antibody blocking experiment showed that these effects of dASC transplantation in the regeneration model were partly mediated by BDNF. Interestingly, the final areas of nociceptive fields between the two experimental models did not differ significantly for any treatment condition. These results indicate that dASC transplantation differentially facilitates collateral sprouting and axonal regeneration by delivering NGF and other neurotrophic factors (e.g. BDNF), respectively. Although there is a limit to nociceptive field enlargement irrespective of axonal response, dASC transplantation could present a new approach for improving nociceptive function in denervated skin. PMID:27513202

  13. Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Fu, Yu; Gao, Hui; Zhao, Zhimei; Zhao, Liying; Han, Bing

    2014-10-01

    The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W.

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

  15. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  16. Localized and Sustained Delivery of Erythropoietin from PLGA Microspheres Promotes Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Jianheng; Zhang, Licheng; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve injury recovery. Though daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO during a long period of time was effective, it was a tedious procedure. In addition, only limited amount of EPO could reach the injury sites by general administration, and free EPO is easily degraded in vivo. In this study, we encapsulated EPO in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Both in vitro and in vivo release assays showed that the EPO-PLGA microspheres allowed sustained release of EPO within a period of two weeks. After administration of such EPO-PLGA microspheres, the peripheral nerve injured rats had significantly better recovery compared with those which received daily intraperitoneal injection of EPO, empty PLGA microspheres, or saline treatments. This was supported by the functional, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations of the recovery done at week 8 postoperatively. We conclude that sustained delivery of EPO could be achieved by using EPO-PLGA microspheres, and such delivery method could further enhance the recovery function of EPO in nerve injury recovery. PMID:25821803

  17. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  18. Positive Affect in the Midst of Distress: Implications for Role Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Acree, Michael; Folkman, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been shown to deplete the self-regulation resources hypothesized to facilitate effective role functioning. However, recent research suggests that positive affect may help to replenish these vital self-regulation resources. Based on revised Stress and Coping theory and the Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotion, three studies provide evidence of the potential adaptive function of positive affect in the performance of roles for participants experiencing stress. Participants were students (Study 1), caregivers of ill children (Study 2), and individuals recently diagnosed with HIV (Study 3). In cross sectional analyses, using role functioning as an indicator of self-regulation performance, we found that positive affect was significantly correlated with better self regulation performance, independent of the effects of negative affect. The effects were not as strong longitudinally, however, and there was little evidence of a reciprocal association between increases in positive affect and improvements in role functioning over time. The results provide some modest support for hypotheses stemming from the Broaden and Build model of positive emotion and revised Stress and Coping theory, both of which argue for unique adaptive functions of positive affect under stressful conditions. PMID:23175617

  19. Knockdown of Nogo gene by short hairpin RNA interference promotes functional recovery of spinal cord injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Min; Luo, Yun-Gang; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The specific myelin component Nogo protein is one of the major inhibitory molecules of spinal cord axonal outgrowth following spinal cord injury. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of silencing Nogo protein with shRNA interference on the promotion of functional recovery in a rat model with spinal cord hemisection. Nogo-A short hairpin RNAs (Nogo shRNAs) were constructed and transfected into rats with spinal cord hemisection by adenovirus-mediated transfection. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of Nogo-A and Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43). In addition, Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) scores were used to assess the functional recovery of rats following spinal cord injury. The results demonstrated that expression of the Nogo‑A gene was observed to be downregulated following transfection and GAP‑43 expression was observed to increase. The BBB scores were increased following treatment with Nogo shRNAs, indicating functional recovery of the injured nerves. Thus, Nogo-A shRNA interference can knockdown Nogo gene expression and upregulate GAP-43 to promote the functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats. This finding may advance progress toward assisting the regeneration of injured neurons through the use of Nogo-A shRNA. PMID:27035338

  20. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  1. Mutual connectivity analysis (MCA) using generalized radial basis function neural networks for nonlinear functional connectivity network recovery in resting-state functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Zainul; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the applicability of a computational framework, called mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), for directed functional connectivity analysis in both synthetic and resting-state functional MRI data. This framework comprises of first evaluating non-linear cross-predictability between every pair of time series prior to recovering the underlying network structure using community detection algorithms. We obtain the non-linear cross-prediction score between time series using Generalized Radial Basis Functions (GRBF) neural networks. These cross-prediction scores characterize the underlying functionally connected networks within the resting brain, which can be extracted using non-metric clustering approaches, such as the Louvain method. We first test our approach on synthetic models with known directional influence and network structure. Our method is able to capture the directional relationships between time series (with an area under the ROC curve = 0.92 +/- 0.037) as well as the underlying network structure (Rand index = 0.87 +/- 0.063) with high accuracy. Furthermore, we test this method for network recovery on resting-state fMRI data, where results are compared to the motor cortex network recovered from a motor stimulation sequence, resulting in a strong agreement between the two (Dice coefficient = 0.45). We conclude that our MCA approach is effective in analyzing non-linear directed functional connectivity and in revealing underlying functional network structure in complex systems.

  2. In Hospital and 3-Month Mortality and Functional Recovery Rate in Patients Treated for Hip Fracture by a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, Carlo; Buzzi, Roberto; Campanacci, Domenico; Boccacini, Alberto; Cartei, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Belardinelli, Andrea; Matarrese, Daniela; Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Gusinu, Roberto; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical comorbidities affect outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture. This study was designed to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a hip-fracture unit led by an internal medicine specialist. Methods In-hospital and 3-month outcomes in patients with hip fracture were prospectively evaluated in 121 consecutive patients assessed before and followed after surgery by a multidisciplinary team led by internal medicine specialist; 337 consecutive patients were recalled from ICD-9 discharge records and considered for comparison regarding in-hospital mortality. Results In the intervention period, patients treated within 48 hours were 54% vs. 26% in the historical cohort (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality remained stable at about 2.3 per 1000 person-days. At 3 months, 10.3% of discharged patients had died, though less than 8% of patients developed postoperative complications (mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure). The presence of more than 2 major comorbidities and the loss of 3 or more BADL were independent predictors of death. 50/105 patients recovered previous functional capacity, but no independent predictor of functional recovery could be identified. Mean length of hospital stay significantly decreased in comparison to the historical cohort (13.6± 4.7 vs 17 ± 5 days, p = 0.0001). Combined end-point of mortality and length of hospitalization < 12 days was significantly lower in study period (27 vs 34%, p <0.0132). Conclusions Identification and stabilization of concomitant clinical problems by internal medicine specialists may safely decrease time to surgery in frail subjects with hip fracture. Moreover, integrated perioperative clinical management may shorten hospital stay with no apparent increase in in-hospital mortality and ultimately improve the outcome. These results are to be confirmed by a larger study presently ongoing at our institution. PMID:27389193

  3. Recovery of brain function after cardiac arrest, case report and review.

    PubMed

    Nekoui, A; Tresierra, del Carmen Escalante; Abdolmohammadi, S; Charbonneau, S; Blaise, G

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia during cardiac arrest is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in survival victims. To reduce cerebral damage, studies focus on finding effective treatments during the resuscitation period. Our report focuses on a 36-year-old police officer who had had two cardiac arrests (one at home and one at the hospital). After acute treatment, his cardiac and brain functions recovered impressively. Neuropsychological results were normal except for mild anomia. He also reported some retrograde memory loss. Surprisingly, he also reported an improvement in a very specific capacity, his episodic memory. We here review the possible causes and mechanisms that may have affected his memory abilities. PMID:27363214

  4. Required distribution of noise sources for Green's function recovery in diffusive fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsalsadati, S.; Weiss, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    In the most general sense, noise is the part of the signal of little or no interest, due to a multitude of reasons such as operator error, imperfect instrumentation, experiment design, or inescapable background interference. Considering the latter, it has been shown that Green's function can be extracted from cross-correlation of the ambient, diffusive wavefields arising from background random noise sources. Pore pressure and low-frequency electromagnetic induction are two such examples of diffusive fields. In theory, applying Green's function method in geophysical exploration requires infinity of volumetrically distributed sources; however, in the real world the number of noise sources in an area is limited, and furthermore, unevenly distributed in time, space and spectral content. Hence, quantification of the requisite noise sources that enable us to calculate Green's function acceptably well remains an open research question. The purpose of this study is to find the area of noise sources that contribute most to the Green's function estimation in diffusive systems. We call such a region the Volume of Relevance (VoR). Our analysis builds upon recent work in 1D homogeneous system where it was shown that sources located between two receivers positions are the most important ones for the purpose of Green's function recovery. Our results confirm the previous finding but we also examine the effect of heterogeneity, dimensionality and receiver location in both 1D and 2D at a fixed frequency. We demonstrate that for receivers located symmetrically across an interface between regions of contrasting diffusivity, the VoR rapidly shifts from one side of the interface to the other, and back again, as receiver separation increases. We also demonstrate that where the receiver pair is located on the interface itself, the shifting is less rapid, and for moderate to high diffusivity contrasts, the VoR remains entirely on the more diffusive side. In addition, because classical

  5. [Sound duration and sound pattern affect the recovery cycles of inferior collicular neurons in leaf-nosed bat, Hipposideros armiger].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jia; Fu, Zi-Ying; Wu, Fei-Jian

    2010-10-25

    The effects of sound duration and sound pattern on the recovery cycles of inferior collicular (IC) neurons in constant frequency-frequency modulation (CF-FM) bats were explored in this study. Five leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros armiger (4 males, 1 female, 43-50 g body weight), were used as subjects. The extracellular responses of IC neurons to paired sound stimuli with different duration and patterns were recorded, and the recovery was counted as the ratio of the second response to the first response. Totally, 169 sound-sensitive IC neurons were recorded in the experiment. According to the interpulse interval (IPI) of paired sounds when neurons reached 50% recovery (50% IPI), the recovery cycles of these IC neurons were classified into 3 types: fast recovery (F, the 50% IPI was less than 15 ms), short recovery (S, the 50% IPI was between 15.1 and 30 ms) and long recovery (L, the 50% IPI was more than 30 ms). When paired CF stimuli with 2 ms duration was used, the ratio of F neurons was 32.3%, and it decreased to 18.1% and 18.2% respectively when 5 and 7 ms CF stimuli were used. The ratios of S and L neurons were 41.5%, 33.7%, 29.1% and 26.2%, 48.2%, 52.7% respectively when 2, 5 and 7 ms CF stimuli were used. The average 50% IPI determined after stimulation with paired 2 ms, 5 ms and 7 ms CF sounds were (30.2 ± 27.6), (39.9 ± 29.1) and (49.4 ± 34.7) ms, respectively, and the difference among them was significant (P< 0.01). When the stimuli of paired 2 ms CF sounds were shifted to paired 2 ms FM sounds, the proportion of F, S and L neurons changed from 32.3%, 41.5%, 26.2% to 47.7%, 24.6%, 27.7%, respectively, and the average 50% IPI decreased from (30.2 ± 27.6) to (23.9 ± 19.0) ms (P< 0.05, n = 65). When paired 5+2 ms CF-FM pulses were used instead of 7 ms CF sounds, the proportion of F, S and L neurons changed from 18.2%, 29.1%, 52.7% to 29.1%, 27.3%, 43.6%, respectively, and the average 50% IPI decreased from (49.4 ± 34.7) to (36.3 ± 29.4) ms (P< 0.05, n = 55

  6. Overexpression of Sox11 Promotes Corticospinal Tract Regeneration after Spinal Injury While Interfering with Functional Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zimei; Reynolds, Ashley; Kirry, Adam; Nienhaus, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic neurons, peripheral neurons, and CNS neurons in zebrafish respond to axon injury by initiating pro-regenerative transcriptional programs that enable axons to extend, locate appropriate targets, and ultimately contribute to behavioral recovery. In contrast, many long-distance projection neurons in the adult mammalian CNS, notably corticospinal tract (CST) neurons, display a much lower regenerative capacity. To promote CNS repair, a long-standing goal has been to activate pro-regenerative mechanisms that are normally missing from injured CNS neurons. Sox11 is a transcription factor whose expression is common to a many types of regenerating neurons, but it is unknown whether suboptimal Sox11 expression contributes to low regenerative capacity in the adult mammalian CNS. Here we show in adult mice that dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGs) and CST neurons fail to upregulate Sox11 after spinal axon injury. Furthermore, forced viral expression of Sox11 reduces axonal dieback of DRG axons, and promotes CST sprouting and regenerative axon growth in both acute and chronic injury paradigms. In tests of forelimb dexterity, however, Sox11 overexpression in the cortex caused a modest but consistent behavioral impairment. These data identify Sox11 as a key transcription factor that can confer an elevated innate regenerative capacity to CNS neurons. The results also demonstrate an unexpected dissociation between axon growth and behavioral outcome, highlighting the need for additional strategies to optimize the functional output of stimulated neurons. PMID:25698749

  7. The effect of ubiquinone on functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Z; Azizi, S; Hobbenaghi, R

    2014-01-01

    A common cause of peripheral nerve injury is trauma. The positive effect of antioxidants on the improvement of nerve regeneration has currently become a focus of attention. In this experiment, the effect of intraperitoneal administration of ubiquinone (CoQ10) on an acute experimentally sciatic nerve crush was studied in a rat model. Forty-five male Wistar rats, weighing between 160-180 g were used. The rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20). Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each. Functional studies confirmed the faster recovery of regenerated axons in the treatment group compared to the un-treated group (P<0.05). Morphometric indices of the regenerated fibers showed the number and diameter of the myelinated fibers to be significantly higher in the treatment group than the un-treated group (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal administration of CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/day) in the early inflammatory stage of sciatic nerve crush was found to improve nerve regeneration. PMID:27175137

  8. Atrophied cardiomyocytes and their potential for rescue and recovery of ventricular function.

    PubMed

    Heckle, Mark R; Flatt, David M; Sun, Yao; Mancarella, Salvatore; Marion, Tony N; Gerling, Ivan C; Weber, Karl T

    2016-03-01

    Cardiomyocytes must be responsive to demands placed on the heart's contractile work as a muscular pump. In turn, myocyte size is largely dependent on the workload they perform. Both hypertrophied and atrophic myocytes are found in the normal and diseased ventricle. Individual myocytes become atrophic when encumbered by fibrillar collagen, such as occurs at sites of fibrosis. The mechanisms include: (a) being immobilized and subject to disuse with ensuing protein degradation mediated by redox-sensitive, proteolytic ligases of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and (b) dedifferentiated re-expressing fetal genes induced by low intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) via thyroid hormone receptor β1. This myocyte-selective, low T3 state is a consequence of heterocellular signaling emanating from juxtaposed scar tissue myofibroblasts and their secretome with its de novo generation of angiotensin II. In a paracrine manner, angiotensin II promotes myocyte Ca(2+) entry and subsequent Ca(2+) overload with ensuing oxidative stress that overwhelms antioxidant defenses to activate deiodinase-3 and its enzymatic degradation of T3. In the failing heart, atrophic myocytes represent an endogenous population of viable myocytes which could be rescued to augment contractile mass, reduce systolic wall stress (afterload) and recover ventricular function. Experimental studies have shown the potential for the rescue and recovery of atrophic myocytes in rebuilding the myocardium-a method complementary to today's quest in regenerating myocardium using progenitor cells. PMID:26872676

  9. Effects of Rolipram on Adult Rat Oligodendrocytes and Functional Recovery after Contusive Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Eric; Whitaker, Christopher M.; Burke, Darlene A.; Hetman, Michal; Onifer, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic human spinal cord injury causes devastating and long-term hardships. These are due to the irreparable primary mechanical injury and secondary injury cascade. In particular, oligodendrocyte cell death, white matter axon damage, spared axon demyelination, and the ensuing dysfunction in action potential conduction lead to the initial deficits and impair functional recovery. For these reasons, and that oligodendrocyte and axon survival may be related, various neuroprotective strategies after SCI are being investigated. We previously demonstrated that oligodendrocytes in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus express 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphodiesterase 4 subtypes and that their death was attenuated up to 3 days after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, was administered. Here, we report that 1) there are more oligodendrocyte somata in the adult rat epicenter ventrolateral funiculus, 2) descending and ascending axonal conductivity in the ventrolateral funiculus improves, and that 3) there are fewer hindlimb footfall errors during grid-walking at 5 weeks after contusive cervical spinal cord injury when rolipram is delivered for 2 weeks. This is the first demonstration of improved descending and ascending long-tract axonal conductivity across a spinal cord injury with this pharmacological approach. Since descending long-tract axonal conductivity did not return to normal, further evaluations of the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic window of rolipram as well as optimal combinations are necessary before consideration for neuroprotection in humans with spinal cord injury. PMID:19635528

  10. Targeting the Cholinergic System for Neuroprotection and/or Enhancement of Functional Recovery Following Neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Huber, Kathleen B G; Uteshev, Victor V; Pauly, James R

    2016-01-01

    Development of novel pharmacotherapies for the treatment of traumatic injury to the nervous system has been ongoing for over 40 years. Despite many promising compounds discovered using animal models, no treatments have successfully translated into the clinic. The central dogma in this field is that brain trauma initiates a complex chain of biochemical events leading to secondary brain damage and sustained neurological deficits. The delayed secondary brain injury is likely to result from multiple insults including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, dysregulated release of glutamate, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and other mediators. However, therapies targeting these systems have generally met with failure in clinical trials. The purpose of this review is to summarize the models used for preclinical neurotrauma research, provide a brief overview of previous failed clinical trials in head and spinal cord injury, and finally, to review involvement of the cholinergic system and discuss implications for future research. Possibilities and pitfalls of targeting the cholinergic system for neuroprotection and/or enhancement of functional recovery are also discussed. PMID:26818862

  11. FGF2 and FGFR1 signaling regulate functional recovery following cuprizone demyelination.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Amanda J; Zhou, Yong-Xing; Hibbits, Norah; Vana, Adam C; Armstrong, Regina C

    2013-08-26

    In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, remyelination offers the potential to recover function of viable denuded axons by restoring saltatory conduction and/or protecting from further damage. Mice with genetic reduction of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) or Fgf receptor 1 (Fgfr1) exhibit dramatically improved remyelination following experimental demyelination with cuprizone. The current studies are the first to test neurobehavioral outcomes with these gene deletions that improved remyelination. The cuprizone protocols used did not produce overt abnormalities but did reduce bilateral sensorimotor coordination (complex wheel task) and increase sociability (two chamber apparatus with novel mouse). A significant effect of genotype was observed on the complex wheel task but not in the sociability apparatus. Specifically, complex wheel velocities for Fgf2 nulls improved significantly after removal of cuprizone from the diet. This improvement in Fgf2 null mice occurred following either acute (6 weeks) or chronic (12 weeks) demyelination. Plp/CreERT:Fgfr1(fl/fl) mice administered tamoxifen at 10 weeks of cuprizone treatment to induce Fgfr1 knockdown also showed improved recovery of running velocities on the complex wheels. Therefore, constitutive deletion of Fgf2 or Fgfr1 knockdown in oligodendrocyte lineage cells is sufficient to overcome impairment of sensorimotor coordination after cuprizone demyelination. PMID:23684572

  12. A common risk variant in CACNA1C supports a sex-dependent effect on longitudinal functioning and functional recovery from episodes of schizophrenia-spectrum but not bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Urs; Malzahn, Dörthe; Strohmaier, Jana; Maier, Sandra; Frank, Josef; Treutlein, Jens; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Forstner, Andreas J; Witt, Stephanie H; Cichon, Sven; Falkai, Peter; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G

    2015-12-01

    Sex is a powerful modulator of disease susceptibility, course and outcome. The gene CACNA1C is among the best replicated vulnerability genes of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sex and a variant in CACNA1C (rs10774035 as a proxy for the well-acknowledged risk variant rs1006737) influence psychosocial adaptation in a large German patient sample with schizophrenia-spectrum (n=297) and bipolar (n=516) disorders. We analyzed Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, retrospectively collected for different time points during disease course. We investigated whether CACNA1C sex-dependently modulates longitudinal GAF scores and recovery from episodes of psychiatric disturbance in the above mentioned disorders. Psychosocial recovery was measured as difference score between the current GAF score (assessing the last remission) and the worst GAF score ever during an illness episode. Covariate- adjusted association analyses revealed a sex × rs10774035 genotype interaction on longitudinal GAF and recovery from illness episodes only in schizophrenia-spectrum but not in bipolar disorders. In schizophrenia-spectrum affected males, rs10774035 minor allele (T) carriers had higher GAF scores at three time points (premorbid, worst ever, current). In contrast, females carrying rs10774035 minor alleles had impaired recovery from schizophrenia-spectrum episodes. These results encourage further investigations of gene × sex interactions and longitudinal quantitative phenotypes to unravel the rich variety of behavioral consequences of genetic individuality. PMID:26475575

  13. Recovery of lower limb function following 6 weeks of non-weight bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Donna L.; Eng, Janice J.; Allen, Trevor J.

    2005-05-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy occur following an extended period of decreased use, including space flight and limb unloading. It is also likely that affected muscles will be susceptible to a re-loading injury when they begin return to earth or weight bearing. However, there is a paucity of literature evaluating the response of human unloaded muscle to exercise and return to activity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the soreness, function and strength response of muscle to re-loading in seven patients who were non-weight bearing for 6 weeks, compared to five healthy subjects. Function improved significantly over time for the patients but was still less than the healthy subjects over 12 weeks of physiotherapy. Concentric quadriceps muscle strength increased significantly over time for the patients. There was considerable variability in the patients' reports of muscle soreness but there were no significant changes over time or between groups.

  14. The potential synergism by combining external counterpulsation with intermittent theta burst stimulation in post-stroke motor function recovery.

    PubMed

    He, Weijia; Au-Yeung, Suk-Yin Stephanie; Mak, Margaret; Leung, Thomas Wai Hong; Leung, Howan; Wong, Lawrence Ka Sing

    2016-08-01

    Upper limb weakness and incoordination is a common disability following ischemic stroke. Previous studies have showed that the single application of external counterpulsation (ECP) and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) can effectively enhance the cortical motor excitability and facilitate recovery. However, it remains uncertain if sequential application of these therapies would further augment the recovery. We hypothesize a synergistic effect of ECP followed by iTBS to upper limb function may happen through improvements in both cerebral perfusion and neuron excitability. PMID:27372874

  15. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kjell, Jacob; Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew; Olson, Lars

    2015-11-01

    With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines--monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)--to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  16. Hyperbaric oxygenation enhances transplanted cell graft and functional recovery in the infarct heart

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahmood; Meduru, Sarath; Mohan, Iyyapu K.; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Wisel, Sheik; Kulkarni, Aditi; Rivera, Brian K.; Hamlin, Robert L.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    A major limitation to the application of stem-cell therapy to repair ischemic heart damage is the low survival of transplanted cells in the heart, possibly due to poor oxygenation. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) can be used as an adjuvant treatment to augment stem-cell therapy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBO on the engraftment of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted in infarct rat hearts. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Fisher-344 rats by permanently ligating the left-anterior-descending coronary artery. MSCs, labeled with fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, were transplanted in the infarct and peri-infarct regions of the MI hearts. HBO (100% oxygen at 2 ATA for 90 min) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Four MI groups were used: untreated (MI); HBO; MSC; MSC+HBO. Echocardiography, electro-vectorcardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used for functional evaluations. The engraftment of transplanted MSCs in the heart was confirmed by SPIO fluorescence and Prussian-blue staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify key cellular and molecular markers including CD29, troponin-T, connexin-43, VEGF, α-smooth-muscle actin, and von-Willebrand factor in the tissue. Compared to MI and MSC groups, the MSC+HBO group showed a significantly increased recovery of cardiac function including left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, fraction-shortening, LV wall-thickness, and QRS vector. Further, HBO treatment significantly increased the engraftment of CD29-positive cells, expression of connexin-43, troponin-T and VEGF, and angiogenesis in the infarct tissue. Thus, HBO appears to be a potential and clinically-viable adjuvant treatment for myocardial stem-cell therapy. PMID:19376124

  17. Delayed Imatinib Treatment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury: Functional Recovery and Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Anja; Hao, Jingxia; Wellfelt, Katrin; Josephson, Anna; Svensson, Camilla I.; Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Zsuzsanna; Eriksson, Ulf; Abrams, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With no currently available drug treatment for spinal cord injury, there is a need for additional therapeutic candidates. We took the approach of repositioning existing pharmacological agents to serve as acute treatments for spinal cord injury and previously found imatinib to have positive effects on locomotor and bladder function in experimental spinal cord injury when administered immediately after the injury. However, for imatinib to have translational value, it needs to have sustained beneficial effects with delayed initiation of treatment, as well. Here, we show that imatinib improves hind limb locomotion and bladder recovery when initiation of treatment was delayed until 4 h after injury and that bladder function was improved with a delay of up to 24 h. The treatment did not induce hypersensitivity. Instead, imatinib-treated animals were generally less hypersensitive to either thermal or mechanical stimuli, compared with controls. In an effort to provide potential biomarkers, we found serum levels of three cytokines/chemokines—monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3α, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene (interleukin 8)—to increase over time with imatinib treatment and to be significantly higher in injured imatinib-treated animals than in controls during the early treatment period. This correlated to macrophage activation and autofluorescence in lymphoid organs. At the site of injury in the spinal cord, macrophage activation was instead reduced by imatinib treatment. Our data strengthen the case for clinical trials of imatinib by showing that initiation of treatment can be delayed and by identifying serum cytokines that may serve as candidate markers of effective imatinib doses. PMID:25914996

  18. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, T.M.; Dawson, V.L.; Gage, F.H.; Fisher, L.J.; Hunt, M.A.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-03-01

    Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative (3H)BTCP. This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)SCH 23390-labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum (36.7%) and the substantia nigra (35.1%) and a 54.4% increase in the number (Bmax) of (3H)sulpiride-labeled striatal D-2 receptors without an apparent change in affinity (Kd). Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior. In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of (3H)BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning. In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat.

  19. Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

    2013-03-15

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI. PMID:23157611

  20. Thoracic epidural anesthesia improves functional recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Rolf, N; Van de Velde, M; Wouters, P F; Möllhoff, T; Weber, T P; Van Aken, H K

    1996-11-01

    The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on the contractile performance of ischemic and postischemic myocardium have not been well investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of TEA on severity and duration of myocardial stunning in an experimental model for sublethal acute myocardial ischemia. Seven dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate (HR), left atrial (LAP), aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP/dtmax' and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischemia. TEA was performed with lidocaine 4 mg/kg through a chronically implanted epidural catheter at the second thoracic level. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over design on separate days: Experiment 1, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia without TEA; and Experiment 2, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia with TEA. WTF was measured at baseline (BL) and predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. LAD ischemia caused a significant decrease of LAD-WTF with (-28% +/- 5.1% versus BL) and without TEA (-15.5% +/- 5.3% versus BL). After 3 h of reperfusion, WTF as percent of BL values was significantly higher with TEA (P < 0.001). BL values of WTF were reached after 24 h with TEA and after more than 48 h without TEA (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), LVP, LAP, and LVdP/dtmax between the groups during ischemia and reperfusion. In nonischemic myocardium TEA caused an increase of subendocardial blood flow. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/ normal zone blood flow was affected by TEA. TEA attenuates myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. This finding is consistent with data regarding a reduction of infarct size due to TEA. PMID

  1. Long-term nitrogen additions increase likelihood of climate stress and affect recovery from wildfire in a lowland heath.

    PubMed

    Southon, Georgina E; Green, Emma R; Jones, Alan G; Barker, Chris G; Power, Sally A

    2012-09-01

    Increases in the emissions and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) have the potential to cause significant changes to the structure and function of N-limited ecosystems. Here, we present the results of a long-term (13 year) experiment assessing the impacts of N addition (30 kg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) on a UK lowland heathland under a wide range of environmental conditions, including the occurrence of prolonged natural drought episodes and a severe summer fire. Our findings indicate that elevated N deposition results in large, persistent effects on Calluna growth, phenology and chemistry, severe suppression of understorey lichen flora and changes in soil biogeochemistry. Growing season rainfall was found to be a strong driver of inter-annual variation in Calluna growth and, although interactions between N and rainfall for shoot growth were not significant until the later phase of the experiment, N addition exacerbated the extent of drought injury to Calluna shoots following naturally occurring droughts in 2003 and 2009. Following a severe wildfire at the experimental site in 2006, heathland regeneration dynamics were significantly affected by N, with a greater abundance of pioneering moss species and suppression of the lichen flora in plots receiving N additions. Significant interactions between climate and N were also apparent post fire, with the characteristic stimulation in Calluna growth in +N plots suppressed during dry years. Carbon (C) and N budgets demonstrate large increases in both above- and below-ground stocks of these elements in N-treated plots prior to the fire, despite higher levels of soil microbial activity and organic matter turnover. Although much of the organic material was removed during the fire, pre-existing treatment differences were still evident following the burn. Post fire accumulation of below-ground C and N stocks was increased rapidly in N-treated plots, highlighting the role of N deposition in ecosystem C sequestration

  2. Defective postreperfusion metabolic recovery directly associates with incident delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Wijermars, Leonie G M; Schaapherder, Alexander F; de Vries, Dorottya K; Verschuren, Lars; Wüst, Rob C I; Kostidis, Sarantos; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Prins, Frans; Ringers, Jan; Bierau, Jörgen; Bakker, Jaap A; Kooistra, Teake; Lindeman, Jan H N

    2016-07-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) following kidney transplantation affects long-term graft function and survival and is considered a manifestation of ischemia reperfusion injury. Preclinical studies characterize metabolic defects resulting from mitochondrial damage as primary driver of ischemia reperfusion injury. In a comprehensive approach that included sequential establishment of postreperfusion arteriovenous concentration differences over the human graft, metabolomic and genomic analysis in tissue biopsies taken before and after reperfusion, we tested whether the preclinical observations translate to the context of clinical DGF. This report is based on sequential studies of 66 eligible patients of which 22 experienced DGF. Grafts with no DGF immediately recovered aerobic respiration as indicated by prompt cessation of lactate release following reperfusion. In contrast, grafts with DGF failed to recover aerobic respiration and showed persistent adenosine triphosphate catabolism indicated by a significant persistently low post reperfusion tissue glucose-lactate ratio and continued significant post-reperfusion lactate and hypoxanthine release (net arteriovenous difference for lactate and hypoxanthine at 30 minutes). The metabolic data for the group with DGF point to a persistent post reperfusion mitochondrial defect, confirmed by functional (respirometry) and morphological analyses. The archetypical mitochondrial stabilizing peptide SS-31 significantly preserved mitochondrial function in human kidney biopsies following simulated ischemia reperfusion. Thus, development of DGF is preceded by a profound post-reperfusion metabolic deficit resulting from severe mitochondrial damage. Strategies aimed at preventing DGF should be focused on safeguarding a minimally required post-reperfusion metabolic competence. PMID:27188504

  3. Recovery of Neurological Function Despite Immediate Sleep Disruption Following Diffuse Brain Injury in the Mouse: Clinical Relevance to Medically Untreated Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K.; Harrison, Jordan L.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Design: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Setting: Neurotrauma research laboratory. Measurements and Results: Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Conclusion: Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury. Citation: Rowe RK; Harrison JL; O'Hara BF; Lifshitz J. Recovery of neurological

  4. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  5. Enhanced oil recovery with hydrophobically associating polymers containing n-vinyl-pyrrolidone functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Bridgewater, J.B.; Pace, S.J.; Gardner, G.; Schulz, D.N.

    1987-12-01

    This invention relates to a method for enhanced recovery of petroleum from a subterranean oil-bearing formation. More particularly, this invention relates to secondary or tertiary recovery of oil employing a polymer-thickened aqueous drive fluid. The polymeric viscosifier for the drive fluid is selected from a class of hydrophobically associating, water soluble polymers containing one or more water soluble monomers and a water insoluble monomer group. The water soluble groups are acrylamide and a salt of acrylic acid and the water insoluble group is a higher alkylacrylamide. These polymers, when dissolved in an aqueous brine solution, have the ability to substantially increase the viscosity of the aqueous solution. The control of displacement fluid mobility results in more uniform sweep efficiency and improved oil recovery. In addition, aqueous solutions of these hydrophobically associating polymers exhibit enhanced viscosification, reduced salt sensitivity and other desirable rheological properties found useful in chemically enhanced oil recovery processes.

  6. Affect and the Brain's Functional Organization: A Resting-State Connectivity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Christiane S.; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Craddock, R. Cameron; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    The question of how affective processing is organized in the brain is still a matter of controversial discussions. Based on previous initial evidence, several suggestions have been put forward regarding the involved brain areas: (a) right-lateralized dominance in emotional processing, (b) hemispheric dominance according to positive or negative valence, (c) one network for all emotional processing and (d) region-specific discrete emotion matching. We examined these hypotheses by investigating intrinsic functional connectivity patterns that covary with results of the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS) from 65 participants. This approach has the advantage of being able to test connectivity rather than activation, and not requiring a potentially confounding task. Voxelwise functional connectivity from 200 regions-of-interest covering the whole brain was assessed. Positive and negative affect covaried with functional connectivity involving a shared set of regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, the visual cortex and the cerebellum. In addition, each affective domain had unique connectivity patterns, and the lateralization index showed a right hemispheric dominance for negative affect. Therefore, our results suggest a predominantly right-hemispheric network with affect-specific elements as the underlying organization of emotional processes. PMID:23935850

  7. Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Promotes Functional and Histological Recovery in Lysolecithin-Induced Spinal Cord Demyelination in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhen; Li, Fengqiao; Zhang, Yi Ping; Shields, Lisa B.E.; Hu, Xiaoling; Zheng, Yiyan; Yu, Panpan; Zhang, Yongjie; Cai, Jun; Vitek, Michael P.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering demyelination is the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS), reducing demyelination and/or promoting remyelination is a practical therapeutic strategy to improve functional recovery for MS. An apolipoprotein E (apoE)-mimetic peptide COG112 has previously demonstrated therapeutic efficacy on functional and histological recovery in a mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of human MS. In the current study, we further investigated whether COG112 promotes remyelination and improves functional recovery in lysolecithin induced focal demyelination in the white matter of spinal cord in mice. Methods A focal demyelination model was created by stereotaxically injecting lysolecithin into the bilateral ventrolateral funiculus (VLF) of T8 and T9 mouse spinal cords. Immediately after lysolecithin injection mice were treated with COG112, prefix peptide control or vehicle control for 21 days. The locomotor function of the mice was measured by the beam walking test and Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) assessment. The nerve transmission of the VLF of mice was assessed in vivo by transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials (tcMMEPs). The histological changes were also examined by by eriochrome cyanine staining, immunohistochemistry staining and electron microscopy (EM) method. Results The area of demyelination in the spinal cord was significantly reduced in the COG112 group. EM examination showed that treatment with COG112 increased the thickness of myelin sheaths and the numbers of surviving axons in the lesion epicenter. Locomotor function was improved in COG112 treated animals when measured by the beam walking test and BMS assessment compared to controls. TcMMEPs also demonstrated the COG112-mediated enhancement of amplitude of evoked responses. Conclusion The apoE-mimetic COG112 demonstrates a favorable combination of activities in suppressing inflammatory response, mitigating demyelination and in promoting remyelination and

  8. Function-Triggering Antibodies to the Adhesion Molecule L1 Enhance Recovery after Injury of the Adult Mouse Femoral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Daria; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    L1 is among the few adhesion molecules that favors repair after trauma in the adult central nervous system of vertebrates by promoting neuritogenesis and neuronal survival, among other beneficial features. In the peripheral nervous system, L1 is up-regulated in Schwann cells and regrowing axons after nerve damage, but the functional consequences of this expression remain unclear. Our previous study of L1-deficient mice in a femoral nerve injury model showed an unexpected improved functional recovery, attenuated motoneuronal cell death, and enhanced Schwann cell proliferation, being attributed to the persistent synthesis of neurotrophic factors. On the other hand, transgenic mice over-expressing L1 in neurons led to improved remyelination, but not improved functional recovery. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the monoclonal L1 antibody 557 that triggers beneficial L1 functions in vitro would trigger these also in femoral nerve repair. We analyzed femoral nerve regeneration in C57BL/6J mice that received this antibody in a hydrogel filled conduit connecting the cut and sutured nerve before its bifurcation, leading to short-term release of antibody by diffusion. Video-based quantitative analysis of motor functions showed improved recovery when compared to mice treated with conduits containing PBS in the hydrogel scaffold, as a vehicle control. This improved recovery was associated with attenuated motoneuron loss, remyelination and improved precision of preferential motor reinnervation. We suggest that function-triggering L1 antibodies applied to the lesion site at the time of injury over a limited time period will not only be beneficial in peripheral, but also central nervous system regeneration. PMID:25393007

  9. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  10. Influence of Sexuality in Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Soltani, Bahram; Babaei, Parvin; Mashhadinezhad, Hossein; Ghadarjani, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major clinical condition and research is commonly done to find suitable treatment options. However, there are some degrees of spontaneous recovery after SCI and gender is said to be a contributing factor in recovery, but this is controversial. This study was done to compare the effects of sexual dimorphism on spontaneous recovery after spinal cord injury in Wistar Rats. Methods: Spinal cord lesions were made by compressing the cord at T9 level and making a spinal cord contusion. Routine care of each rat was done daily. The LSS scoring system was used to measure the locomotion of these rats and to compare the recovery rate between male and female rats. Results: The results suggested that there was no significant difference between the two sex in recovery. Conclusions: To be female does not seem to be a prognostic factor for recovery after SCI. However, this preliminary study should be repeated in other animals and in larger cohorts. PMID:26894220

  11. Within-category VOT affects recovery from “lexical” garden paths: Evidence against phoneme-level inhibition

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Spoken word recognition shows gradient sensitivity to within-category voice onset time (VOT), as predicted by several current models of spoken word recognition, including TRACE (McClelland & Elman, Cognitive Psychology, 1986). It remains unclear, however, whether this sensitivity is short-lived or whether it persists over multiple syllables. VOT continua were synthesized for pairs of words like barricade and parakeet, which differ in the voicing of their initial phoneme, but otherwise overlap for at least four phonemes, creating an opportunity for “lexical garden-paths” when listeners encounter the phonemic information consistent with only one member of the pair. Simulations established that phoneme-level inhibition in TRACE eliminates sensitivity to VOT too rapidly to influence recovery. However, in two Visual World experiments, look-contingent and response-contingent analyses demonstrated effects of word initial VOT on lexical garden-path recovery. These results are inconsistent with inhibition at the phoneme level and support models of spoken word recognition in which sub-phonetic detail is preserved throughout the processing system. PMID:20046217

  12. Attenuating the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Improves Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    OHRI, SUJATA SARASWAT; MADDIE, MELISSA A.; ZHAO, YONGMEI; QIU, MENGSHENG S.; HETMAN, MICHAL; WHITTEMORE, SCOTT R.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous CNS myelin abnormalities; yet, its direct role in traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced demyelination is not known. The UPR is an evolutionarily conserved cell defense mechanism initiated to restore endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in response to various cellular stresses including infection, trauma, and oxidative damage. However, if uncompensated, the UPR triggers apoptotic cell death. We demonstrate that the three signaling branches of UPR including the PERK, ATF6, and IRE1α are rapidly initiated in a mouse model of contusive SCI specifically at the injury epicenter. Immunohistochemical analyses of the various UPR markers revealed that in neurons, the UPR appeared at 6 and 24-h post-SCI. In contrast, in oligodendrocytes and astroglia, UPR persisted at least for up to 3 days post-SCI. The UPR-associated proapoptotic transcriptional regulator CHOP was among the UPR markers upregulated in neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not in astrocytes, of traumatized mouse spinal cords. To directly analyze its role in SCI, WT and CHOP null mice received a moderate T9 contusive injury. Deletion of CHOP led to an overall attenuation of the UPR after contusive SCI. Furthermore, analyses of hindlimb locomotion demonstrated a significant functional recovery that correlated with an increase in white-matter sparing, transcript levels of myelin basic protein, and Claudin 11 and decreased oligodendrocyte apoptosis in CHOP null mice in contrast to WT animals. Thus, our study provides evidence that the UPR contributes to oligodendrocyte loss after traumatic SCI. PMID:21638341

  13. Effect of Delayed Peripheral Nerve Repair on Nerve Regeneration, Schwann Cell Function and Target Muscle Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Samuel; Wiberg, Rebecca; McGrath, Aleksandra M.; Novikov, Lev N.; Wiberg, Mikael; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques for peripheral nerve repair, functional restitution remains incomplete. The timing of surgery is one factor influencing the extent of recovery but it is not yet clearly defined how long a delay may be tolerated before repair becomes futile. In this study, rats underwent sciatic nerve transection before immediate (0) or 1, 3, or 6 months delayed repair with a nerve graft. Regeneration of spinal motoneurons, 13 weeks after nerve repair, was assessed using retrograde labeling. Nerve tissue was also collected from the proximal and distal stumps and from the nerve graft, together with the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. A dramatic decline in the number of regenerating motoneurons and myelinated axons in the distal nerve stump was observed in the 3- and 6-months delayed groups. After 3 months delay, the axonal number in the proximal stump increased 2–3 folds, accompanied by a smaller axonal area. RT-PCR of distal nerve segments revealed a decline in Schwann cells (SC) markers, most notably in the 3 and 6 month delayed repair samples. There was also a progressive increase in fibrosis and proteoglycan scar markers in the distal nerve with increased delayed repair time. The yield of SC isolated from the distal nerve segments progressively fell with increased delay in repair time but cultured SC from all groups proliferated at similar rates. MG muscle at 3- and 6-months delay repair showed a significant decline in weight (61% and 27% compared with contra-lateral side). Muscle fiber atrophy and changes to neuromuscular junctions were observed with increased delayed repair time suggestive of progressively impaired reinnervation. This study demonstrates that one of the main limiting factors for nerve regeneration after delayed repair is the distal stump. The critical time point after which the outcome of regeneration becomes too poor appears to be 3-months. PMID:23409189

  14. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Stacy L.; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A.; Demer, Joseph L.; Velez, Federico G.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. METHODS The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from −4 to +4), was evaluated. RESULTS Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from −4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to −2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34Δ ± 14Δ-15Δ ± 9Δ (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47Δ ± 20Δ-20Δ ± 22Δ (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. CONCLUSIONS Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. PMID:22835914

  15. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Anaël; Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Coutts, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR) may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR) in endurance athletes. Methods and Results Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects) before (Pre), and immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and after a 2-week taper (Post). Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue). Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size). Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large), plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small) and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate). These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that i) a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii) changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii) the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity. PMID:26488766

  16. Treadmill Exercise Induced Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Repair Is Associated with Increased Levels of Neurotrophic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Sung; Höke, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of exercise on nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been reported in both central and peripheral nervous system disease models. However, underlying molecular mechanisms of enhanced regeneration and improved functional outcomes are less understood. We used a peripheral nerve regeneration model that has a good correlation between functional outcomes and number of motor axons that regenerate to evaluate the impact of treadmill exercise. In this model, the median nerve was transected and repaired while the ulnar nerve was transected and prevented from regeneration. Daily treadmill exercise resulted in faster recovery of the forelimb grip function as evaluated by grip power and inverted holding test. Daily exercise also resulted in better regeneration as evaluated by recovery of compound motor action potentials, higher number of axons in the median nerve and larger myofiber size in target muscles. Furthermore, these observations correlated with higher levels of neurotrophic factors, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), in serum, nerve and muscle suggesting that increase in muscle derived neurotrophic factors may be responsible for improved regeneration. PMID:24618564

  17. Monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas using temporal profiles of spectral signal from time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulou, Danai; Koutsias, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus to be helpful for monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas. The aim of this study is to explore the vegetation recovery pattern of the catastrophic wildfires that occurred in Peloponnisos, southern Greece, in 2007. These fires caused the loss of 67 lives and were recognized as the most extreme natural disaster in the country's recent history. Satellite remote sensing data from MODIS and LANDSAT satellites in the period from 2000 to 2014 were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal for selected areas within the fire-affected areas. This dataset and time period analyzed together with the time that these fires occurred gave the opportunity to create temporal profiles seven years before and seven years after the fire. The different scale of the data used gave us the chance to understand how vegetation phenology and therefore the recovery patterns are influenced by the spatial resolution of the satellite data used. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been created and used to assess vegetation recovery in the fire-affected areas. Our analysis was focused in the main land cover types that were mostly affected by the 2007 wildland fires. Based on CORINE land-cover maps these were agricultural lands highly interspersed with large areas of natural vegetation followed by sclerophyllous vegetation, transitional woodland shrubs, complex cultivation patterns and olive groves. Apart of the use of the original spectral data we estimated and used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. In this study we

  18. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy in Japanese Patients: Clinical Features, Visual Function, and Factors Affecting Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Saho; Saito, Wataru; Saito, Michiyuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Mori, Shohei; Noda, Kousuke; Namba, Kenichi; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical features and investigate their relationship with visual function in Japanese patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods Fifty-two eyes of 38 Japanese AZOOR patients (31 female and 7 male patients; mean age at first visit, 35.0 years; median follow-up duration, 31 months) were retrospectively collected: 31 untreated eyes with good visual acuity and 21 systemic corticosteroid-treated eyes with progressive visual acuity loss. Variables affecting the logMAR values of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the mean deviation (MD) on Humphrey perimetry at initial and final visits were examined using multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. Results In untreated eyes, the mean MD at the final visit was significantly higher than that at the initial visit (P = 0.00002). In corticosteroid-treated eyes, the logMAR BCVA and MD at the final visit were significantly better than the initial values (P = 0.007 and P = 0.02, respectively). The final logMAR BCVA was 0.0 or less in 85% of patients. Variables affecting initial visual function were moderate anterior vitreous cells, myopia severity, and a-wave amplitudes on electroretinography; factors affecting final visual function were the initial MD values, female sex, moderate anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy. Conclusions Our data indicated that visual functions in enrolled patients significantly improved spontaneously or after systemic corticosteroids therapy, suggesting that Japanese patients with AZOOR have good visual outcomes during the follow-up period of this study. Furthermore, initial visual field defects, gender, anterior vitreous cells, and retinal atrophy affected final visual functions in these patients. PMID:25919689

  19. Synergist muscle ablation and recovery from nerve-repair grafting: contractile and metabolic function

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Lisa M.; Kuzon, William M.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    After nerve-repair grafting of medial gastrocnemius muscle, there is incomplete recovery of specific force and sustainable power, perhaps due to overcompensation by synergistic muscles. We hypothesized that increased workload due to synergist ablation would enhance graft recovery. Contractile and metabolic properties of control and nerve-repair grafted muscles, with and without synergist ablation, were determined after 120 days recovery. Specific force (N/cm2) and normalized power (W/kg) were less in the experimental groups compared with controls. Sustained power (W/kg) in the synergist-ablated nerve-repair grafted muscle was higher than nerve-repair grafted muscle, returning to control values. GLUT-4 protein was higher and glycogen content was diminished in both synergist-ablated groups. In summary, synergist ablation did not enhance the recovery of specific force or normalized power, but sustained power did recover, suggesting that metabolic and not mechanical parameters were responsible for this recovery. The enhanced endurance after synergist ablation was accompanied by increased GLUT-4 protein, suggesting a role for increased uptake of circulating glucose during contraction. PMID:11007584

  20. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  1. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  2. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  3. Weight Reduction in Athletes May Adversely Affect the Phagocytic Function of Monocytes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kono, Ichiro; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the monocyte phagocytic function in nine competitive athletes before and after a two-week weight reduction (through calorie restriction) program revealed that their pre-program phagocytic activity was higher than in sedentary controls but decreased significantly after the program. This suggests calorie restriction may affect the human…

  4. Impact of hurricane Isaac on recovery of saltmarshes affected by the BP oil spill in Barataria Bay in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, S.; Haverkamp, P. J.; Santos, M. J.; Shapiro, K.; Lay, M.; Koltunov, A.; Ustin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Saltmarshes of the Gulf of Mexico have a long history of being impacted by oil spills. The Deep Water Horizon BP Oil spill was the biggest spill in US history. Its effects are still noticeable on these coastal wetlands. While it is expected that over time these ecosystems will recover from oil spill impacts, disturbances can alter the pathway to recovery. In August 2012, hurricane Isaac traced the same path as the 2010 oil spill. We questioned whether the hurricane had a detrimental effect on the recovery of wetland communities previously affected by the oil spill. We analyzed AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery acquired over Bay Jimmy in Barataria Bay in September of 2010, in August of 2011, and after hurricane Isaac in October of 2012. We estimated oil and hurricane impact extent, and effects on plant stress based on change detection and trajectories of narrow band vegetation indexes. In September 2010, the oil impact extended 14m inland from the shore. Four plant stress indexes (NDVI, mNDVI, ANIR, ARed) and three water content indexes (NDII, WA980, WA1240) consistently showed that plant stress was significantly negatively correlated with distance from the shore. A year after the oil spill, in August 2011, we found that the vegetation was regenerating rapidly in more than 80% of the affected area. However, after hurricane Isaac, in October 2012, 24% of the 14-m green vegetation belt next to the shore disappeared under water in regions previously impacted by oil and 21% of the oil-free shoreline also lost its land to water. In the first 7 m adjacent to the shore, 38.5% of the land disappeared in oil-impacted zones and 32% in the oil-free zones. These results suggest that post-oil disturbance events can delay vegetation recovery in an already fragile wetland community.

  5. Glial growth factor 2 promotes functional recovery with treatment initiated up to 7 days after permanent focal ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Iaci, Jennifer F; Ganguly, Anindita; Finklestein, Seth P; Parry, Tom J; Ren, Jingmei; Saha, Subhash; Sietsma, Dana K; Srinivas, Maya; Vecchione, Andrea M; Caggiano, Anthony O

    2010-12-01

    Neuregulins are a family of growth factors essential for normal cardiac and nervous system development. The EGF-like domain of neuregulins contains the active site which binds and activates signaling cascades through ErbB receptors. A neuregulin-1 gene EGF-like fragment demonstrated neuroprotection in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model and drastically reduced infarct volume (Xu et al., 2004). Here we use a permanent MCAO rat model to initially compare two products of the neuregulin-1 gene and also assess levels of recovery with acute versus delayed time to treatment. In the initial study full-length glial growth factor 2 (GGF2) and an EGF-like domain fragment were compared with acute intravenous delivery. In a second study GGF2 only was delivered starting at 24h, 3 days or 7 days after permanent ischemia was induced. In both studies daily intravenous administration continued for 10 days. Recovery of neurological function was assessed using limb placing and body swing tests. GGF2 had similar functional improvements compared to the EGF-like domain fragment at equimolar doses, and a higher dose of GGF2 demonstrated more robust functional improvements compared to a lower dose. GGF2 improved sensorimotor recovery with all treatment paradigms, even enhancing recovery of function with a delay of 7 days to treatment. Histological assessments did not show any associated reduction in infarct volume at either 48 h or 21 days post-ischemic event. Neurorestorative effects of this kind are of great potential clinical importance, given the difficulty of delivering neuroprotective therapies within a short time after an ischemic event in human patients. If confirmed by additional work including additional data on mechanism(s) of improved outcome with verification in other stroke models, one can make a compelling case to bring GGF2 to clinical trials as a neurorestorative approach to improving outcome following stroke injury. PMID:20691195

  6. A new method of measuring functional recovery after crushing the peripheral nerves in unanesthetized and unrestrained rats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K

    1978-02-15

    The distances between the first and fifth digits and between the second and fourth digits of the rat's hind paw were measured after crushing the sciatic nerve. The distances between the digits recovered significantly faster in weak nerve crushing than in strong crushing, and faster in distal nerve crushing than in proximal crushing. These results suggest that this method is available for evaluating the functional recovery after nerve crushing. PMID:624375

  7. Omentum-Wrapped Scaffold with Longitudinally Oriented Micro-Channels Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Motor Functional Recovery in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qing-Song; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue-engineered nerve scaffolds hold great potential in bridging large peripheral nerve defects. However, insufficient vascularization of nerve scaffolds limited neural tissues survival and regeneration, which hampered the successful implantation and clinical application of nerve scaffolds. The omentum possesses a high vascularization capacity and enhances regeneration and maturation of tissues and constructs to which it is applied. However, combined application of nerve scaffolds and omentum on axonal regeneration and functional recovery in the treatment of large peripheral nerve defects has rarely been investigated thus far. Methods In the present study, an omentum-wrapped collagen-chitosan scaffold was used to bridge a 15-mm-long sciatic nerve defect in rats. Rats that received nerve autografts or scaffolds alone were served as positive control or negative control, respectively. The axonal regeneration and functional recovery were examined by a combination of walking track analysis, electrophysiological assessment, Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde tracing, as well as morphometric analyses to both regenerated nerves and target muscles. Findings The results demonstrated that axonal regeneration and functional recovery were in the similar range between the omentum-wrapping group and the autograft group, which were significantly better than those in the scaffold alone group. Further investigation showed that the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were significantly higher in the omentum-wrapping group than those in the scaffold alone group in the early weeks after surgery. Conclusion These findings indicate that the omentum-wrapped scaffold is capable of enhancing axonal regeneration and functional recovery, which might be served as a potent alternative to nerve autografts. The beneficial effect of omentum-wrapping on nerve regeneration might be related with the

  8. Automatic facial responses to affective stimuli in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-01-17

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical behavioural responses to affective stimuli, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Investigating automatic responses to these stimuli may help elucidate these mechanisms. 18 high-functioning adults with ASDs and 18 typically developing controls viewed 54 extreme pleasant (erotica), extreme unpleasant (mutilations), and non-social neutral images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Two-thirds of images received an acoustic startle probe 3s post-picture onset. Facial electromyography (EMG) activity (orbicularis, zygomaticus, corrugator), skin conductance (SCR) and cardiac responses were recorded. The adults with ASDs demonstrated typical affective startle modulation and automatic facial EMG responses but atypical autonomic (SCRs and cardiac) responses, suggesting a failure to orient to, or a deliberate effort to disconnect from, socially relevant stimuli (erotica, mutilations). These results have implications for neural systems known to underlie affective processes, including the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PMID:23142408

  9. Lithium accelerates functional motor recovery by improving remyelination of regenerating axons following ventral root avulsion and reimplantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chao-Fan; Wong, Wai-Man; Li, Wen; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) often involves the complete or partial avulsion of one or more of the cervical nerve roots, which leads to permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. Reimplantation surgery has been attempted as a clinical treatment for brachial plexus root avulsion but has failed to achieve complete functional recovery. Lithium is a mood stabilizer drug that is used to treat bipolar disorder; however, its effects on spinal cord or peripheral nerve injuries have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lithium can improve functional motor recovery after ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in a rat model of BPI. The results showed that systemic treatment with a clinical dose of lithium promoted motor neuron outgrowth and increased the efficiency of motor unit regeneration through enhanced remyelination. An analysis of myelin-associated genes showed that the effects of lithium started during the early phase of remyelination and persisted through the late stage of the process. Efficient remyelination of the regenerated axons in the lithium-treated rats led to an earlier functional recovery. Therefore, we demonstrated that lithium might be a potential clinical treatment for BPI in combination with reimplantation surgery. PMID:27185485

  10. Comparison of in vivo postexercise phosphocreatine recovery and resting ATP synthesis flux for the assessment of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, N M A; Ciapaite, J; Nicolay, K; Prompers, J J

    2010-11-01

    (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used to assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo by measuring 1) phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery after exercise or 2) resting ATP synthesis flux with saturation transfer (ST). In this study, we compared both parameters in a rat model of mitochondrial dysfunction with the aim of establishing the most appropriate method for the assessment of in vivo muscle mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial dysfunction was induced in adult Wistar rats by daily subcutaneous injections with the complex I inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for 2 wk. In vivo (31)P MRS measurements were supplemented by in vitro measurements of oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria. Two weeks of DPI treatment induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by a 20% lower maximal ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate in isolated mitochondria from DPI-treated rats oxidizing pyruvate plus malate. This was paralleled by a 46% decrease in in vivo oxidative capacity, determined from postexercise PCr recovery. Interestingly, no significant difference in resting, ST-based ATP synthesis flux was observed between DPI-treated rats and controls. These results show that PCr recovery after exercise has a more direct relationship with skeletal muscle mitochondrial function than the ATP synthesis flux measured with (31)P ST MRS in the resting state. PMID:20668212

  11. Auricular vagus nerve stimulation promotes functional recovery and enhances the post-ischemic angiogenic response in an ischemia/reperfusion rat model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Li, Longling; Ma, Jingxi; Zhang, Lina; Niu, Fei; Feng, Tao; Li, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, which has been used to treat epilepsy patients since 1997, also enhances long-term restoration after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Angiogenesis is a complex restorative mechanism that occurs in response to ischemic stroke, and it positively affects the recovery of neurological functions in a rat model of stroke. The aims of our study were to determine whether auricular vagus nerve stimulation (aVNS) promoted functional recovery and enhanced angiogenesis in the ischemic boundary following ischemia/reperfusion and to uncover the possible molecular mechanisms that are involved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) surgery and received repeated electrical stimulation of the left cavum concha starting 30 min after ischemia. For the following 21 days, we evaluated functional recovery at different time points using neurological deficit scores, the beam-walking test and the staircase test. The infarct volume was measured using TTC staining at 24 h post reperfusion, neuronal survival in the ischemic penumbra was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Microvessel density and endothelial cell proliferation in the ischemic boundary were assessed using immunofluorescence. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic penumbra were also evaluated. Our results showed that aVNS had significant neuroprotective effects and enhanced angiogenesis, which was demonstrated by improvements in the behavioral scores and brain histopathology, including increased levels of microvessel density and endothelial cell proliferation surrounding the infarct area. Furthermore, BDNF, eNOS and VEGF were expressed at higher levels in the I/R + aVNS group than in the I/R group or the I/R + sham aVNS group (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that repeated a

  12. Comparative effect of immature neuronal or glial cell transplantation on motor functional recovery following experimental traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Chen, Jian; Zhong, Yuan; Ren, Wen-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the comparative effect of stereotaxically transplanted immature neuronal or glial cells in brain on motor functional recovery and cytokine expression after cold-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adult rats. A total of 60 rats were divided into four groups (n=15/group): Sham group; TBI only group; TBI plus neuronal cells-transplanted group (NC-G); and TBI plus glial cells-transplanted group (GC-G). Cortical lesions were induced by a touching metal stamp, frozen with liquid nitrogen, to the dura mater over the motor cortex of adult rats. Neuronal and glial cells were isolated from rat embryonic and newborn cortices, respectively, and cultured in culture flasks. Rats received neurons or glia grafts (~1×106 cells) 5 days after TBI was induced. Motor functional evaluation was performed with the rotarod test prior to and following glial and neural cell grafts. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-cell transplantation. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain section to identify the transplanted neuronal or glial cells using neural and astrocytic markers. The expression levels of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, which have key roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural cells, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A localized cortical lesion was evoked in all injured rats, resulting in significant motor deficits. Transplanted cells successfully migrated and survived in the injured brain lesion, and the expression of neuronal and astrocyte markers were detected in the NC-G and GC-G groups, respectively. Rats in the NC-G and GC-G cell-transplanted groups exhibited significant motor functional recovery and reduced histopathologic lesions, as compared with the TBI-G rats that did not receive neural cells (P<0.05, respectively). Furthermore, GC-G treatment

  13. Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568

  14. Small but Powerful: Top Predator Local Extinction Affects Ecosystem Structure and Function in an Intermittent Stream

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators’ extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a ‘mesopredator release’, affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to ‘mesopredator release’, and also to ‘prey release’ despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem’s structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers’ extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been

  15. Small but powerful: top predator local extinction affects ecosystem structure and function in an intermittent stream.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lozano, Pablo; Verkaik, Iraima; Rieradevall, Maria; Prat, Narcís

    2015-01-01

    Top predator loss is a major global problem, with a current trend in biodiversity loss towards high trophic levels that modifies most ecosystems worldwide. Most research in this area is focused on large-bodied predators, despite the high extinction risk of small-bodied freshwater fish that often act as apex consumers. Consequently, it remains unknown if intermittent streams are affected by the consequences of top-predators' extirpations. The aim of our research was to determine how this global problem affects intermittent streams and, in particular, if the loss of a small-bodied top predator (1) leads to a 'mesopredator release', affects primary consumers and changes whole community structures, and (2) triggers a cascade effect modifying the ecosystem function. To address these questions, we studied the top-down effects of a small endangered fish species, Barbus meridionalis (the Mediterranean barbel), conducting an enclosure/exclosure mesocosm experiment in an intermittent stream where B. meridionalis became locally extinct following a wildfire. We found that top predator absence led to 'mesopredator release', and also to 'prey release' despite intraguild predation, which contrasts with traditional food web theory. In addition, B. meridionalis extirpation changed whole macroinvertebrate community composition and increased total macroinvertebrate density. Regarding ecosystem function, periphyton primary production decreased in apex consumer absence. In this study, the apex consumer was functionally irreplaceable; its local extinction led to the loss of an important functional role that resulted in major changes to the ecosystem's structure and function. This study evidences that intermittent streams can be affected by the consequences of apex consumers' extinctions, and that the loss of small-bodied top predators can lead to large ecosystem changes. We recommend the reintroduction of small-bodied apex consumers to systems where they have been extirpated, to restore

  16. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  17. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Negro, M; Giardina, S; Marzani, B; Marzatico, F

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1980's there has been high interest in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by sports nutrition scientists. The metabolism of BCAA is involved in some specific biochemical muscle processes and many studies have been carried out to understand whether sports performance can be enhanced by a BCAA supplementation. However, many of these researches have failed to confirm this hypothesis. Thus, in recent years investigators have changed their research target and focused on the effects of BCAA on the muscle protein matrix and the immune system. Data show that BCAA supplementation before and after exercise has beneficial effects for decreasing exercise-induced muscle damage and promoting muscle-protein synthesis. Muscle damage develops delayed onset muscle soreness: a syndrome that occurs 24-48 h after intensive physical activity that can inhibit athletic performance. Other recent works indicate that BCAA supplementation recovers peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to mitogens after a long distance intense exercise, as well as plasma glutamine concentration. The BCAA also modifies the pattern of exercise-related cytokine production, leading to a diversion of the lymphocyte immune response towards a Th1 type. According to these findings, it is possible to consider the BCAA as a useful supplement for muscle recovery and immune regulation for sports events. PMID:18974721

  18. A review of factors affecting productivity of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region: implications for recovery.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, W W; Giesy, J P; Best, D A; Kramer, V J

    1995-05-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population in North America declined greatly after World War II due primarily to the eggshell thinning effects of p,p'-DDE, a biodegradation product of DDT. After the banning of DDT in the United States and Canada during the early 1970s, the bald eagle population started to increase. However, this population recovery has not been uniform. Eagles nesting along the shorelines of the North American Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes still exhibit impaired reproduction. We have explored both ecological and toxicological factors that would limit reproduction of bald eagles in the Great Lakes region. Based on our studies, the most critical factors influencing eagle populations are concentrations of environmental toxicants. While there might be some continuing effects of DDE, total PCBs and most importantly 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) in fishes from the Great Lakes and rivers open to spawning runs of anadromous fishes from the Great Lakes currently represent a significant hazard to bald eagles living along these shorelines or near these rivers and are most likely related to the impaired reproduction in bald eagles living there. PMID:7556024

  19. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a detailed example, based on a field trial, of how to evaluate a field for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations utilizing data typically available in a field that has undergone primary development. The approach will utilize readily available, affordable computer software and analytical services. For example, the GeoGraphix Exploration System software package was acquired, installed on a PC in the Subsurface Laboratory at Michigan Technological University, and is currently in use. The USGS Digital Land Grid and National Geophysical Data Center`s Gravity Data CDROM were acquired and installed on GeoGraphix. Microsoft Access databases are being developed to archive analytical data and digitized log traces. Data tables for geochemical and petrographic data, well logs, well header information, well production data, formation tops, and fault trace data have been completed. A new effort was initiated during the last quarter of 1995. The surface geological maps of the southern San Joaquin Valley were digitized and loaded into the computer drafting program Canvas where they were edited combined into one large map and colored. When completed, the integrated map will be printed in large format on the HP650C color plotter.

  20. Characterization of tests of functional recovery after median and ulnar nerve injury and repair in the rat forelimb.

    PubMed

    Galtrey, Clare M; Fawcett, James W

    2007-03-01

    The majority of human peripheral nerve injuries occur in the upper limb but the majority of studies in the rat are performed in the hindlimb. The upper and lower limbs differ in dexterity and control by supraspinal systems, so an upper limb model is a better representation of the common form of human injury. The purpose of this study was to further develop a rat model involving lesions of the median and ulnar nerves. To produce different degrees of misdirection of axons following nerve repair, we studied nerve crush, cut and repair of the two nerves, and cut and repair with crossover. Assessment of functional recovery was performed using a battery of motor and sensory tests: the staircase test, which assesses skilled forepaw reaching; grip strength meter, which assesses grip strength; pawprint analysis, which assesses toe spread and print length; horizontal ladder, which assesses forepaw placement during skilled locomotion; modified Randall-Selitto device and electronic von Frey probes, which assess fine touch; and cold probes, which assess temperature sensation. All tests revealed deficits in forepaw function after nerve injury except the print length and modified Randall-Selitto device. The time course of functional recovery was observed over 15 weeks. The final degree of functional recovery achieved was related to the misdirection of axon regeneration. The tests that most clearly revealed the effects of axon misdirection on function were the skilled paw reaching and grip strength tests. The lesion model and functional tests that we have developed will be useful in testing therapeutic strategies for treating the consequences of inaccurate axon regeneration following peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:17374098

  1. Recovery from silver-nanoparticle-exposure-induced lung inflammation and lung function changes in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung Seuk; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jong Seong; Ryu, Hyeon Ryol; Lee, Jin Kyu; Chung, Yong Hyun; Park, Hyun Min; Shin, Beom Soo; Chang, Hee Kyung; Kelman, Bruce; Yu, Il Je

    2013-03-01

    In a previous study, the lung function, as indicated by the tidal volume, minute volume, and peak inspiration flow, decreased during 90 days of exposure to silver nanoparticles and was accompanied by inflammatory lesions in the lung morphology. Therefore, this study investigated the recovery from such lung function changes in rats following the cessation of 12 weeks of nanoparticle exposure. Male and female rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles (14-15 nm diameter) at concentrations of 0.66 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (49 μg/m(3), low dose), 1.41 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (117 μg/m(3), middle dose), and 3.24 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (381 μg/m(3), high dose) for 6 h/day in an inhalation chamber for 12 weeks. The rats were then allowed to recover. The lung function was measured every week during the exposure period and after the cessation of exposure, plus animals were sacrificed after the 12-week exposure period, and 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. An exposure-related lung function decrease was measured in the male rats after the 12-week exposure period and 12 weeks after the exposure cessation. In contrast, the female rats did not show a consistent lung function decrease either during the exposure period or following the exposure cessation. The histopathology showed a gradual recovery from the lung inflammation in the female rats, whereas the male rats in the high-dose group exhibited persistent inflammation throughout the 12-week recovery period. Therefore, the present results suggest a potential persistence of lung function changes and inflammation induced by silver nanoparticle exposure above the no observed adverse effect level. PMID:22264098

  2. Alcoholics' Recovery from Cerebral Impairment as a Function of Duration of Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, G. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the time-course of recovery from cerebral impairment due to heavy drinking. Results suggest that treatment programs that use a preliminary "drying-out" period should consider lengthening this period to three weeks to ensure that patients are maximally responsive to psychotherapy. (Author)

  3. Recovery of function in humans: Cortical stimulation and pharmacological treatments after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Floel, Agnes; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we first provide an overview of general principles of reorganisation in the human brain, and point out possible biomarkers of recovery. Subsequently, we expand on possibilities of adjuvant therapy in human rehabilitation using cortical stimulation and pharmacological treatments. Finally, we suggest future directions for research in this field. PMID:19520165

  4. Strength Recovery Following Rhythmic or Sustained Exercise as a Function of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Jay T.

    The relative rates of strength recovery subsequent to bouts of rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise were investigated. The 72 undergraduates who served as subjects were tested seven times within the framework of a repeated measures design. Each testing session involved two bouts of either rhythmic or sustained isometric exercise separated by a…

  5. A single mild episode of subacute ruminal acidosis does not affect ruminal barrier function in the short term.

    PubMed

    Penner, G B; Oba, M; Gäbel, G; Aschenbach, J R

    2010-10-01

    challenge increased J(mannitol-SM) and G(t) and decreased I(sc) during the challenge period, which was reversible in the recovery period except for slight reduction in I(sc). Interactions between the in vitro treatment and measurement period were detected for J(mannitol-SM), G(t), and I(sc). These data indicate that a mild episode of SARA (nadir pH, 5.48; duration ruminal pH <5.8, 111 min relative to the 180-min measurement period) does not affect ruminal epithelial barrier function immediately after the episode but that a rapid and more severe acidification (pH 5.2) in vitro increases epithelial permeability following the insult. PMID:20855017

  6. Human Adipose Stem Cells Improve Mechanical Allodynia and Enhance Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Yeong; Lee, Hye-Lan; Yun, Yeomin; Kim, Jin-Su; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Lee, Soo-Hong; Shin, Dong Ah

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells are a promising source of tissue engineering due to their differentiation potential. Today, direct transplantation of stem cells for cell therapy is commonly performed. However, in cases of nerve injury, direct transplantation of cells could lead to secondary nerve damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: the phosphate-buffered saline epineural transplantation (PBS-ENT) group, the PBS intraneural transplantation (PBS-INT) group, the human adipose-derived stem cells epineural transplantation (hASCs-ENT) group, and human adipose-derived stem cells intraneural transplantation (hASCs-INT) group. Transplantation was conducted 1 week later after inflicting a crush injury with subsequent observation for 5 weeks. To evaluate pain, each group was examined with regard to paw withdrawal latency and evoked potentials. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was calculated to estimate functional recovery. The sciatic nerve was also examined histologically. The hASCs-ENT group showed a more rapid paw withdrawal threshold and SFI recovery than the other groups (p<0.05). The hASCs-ENT group also showed shorter initial latencies in both somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) than the PBS-INT group (p<0.05). In addition, the N1 latency of the MEP and the N1 and P1 latencies of the SSEP were significantly shorter than those of the PBS-INT group (p<0.05). Histological examination revealed that the transplanted groups showed better neural recovery and remyelination than the groups injected with PBS. These results show that the transplantation of hASCs into the injured sciatic nerve improved mechanical allodynia and functional recovery as determined by the paw withdrawal test, SFI analysis, and electrophysiological studies. ENT is superior to INT in terms of invasiveness and better outcomes. PMID:25857679

  7. Mast cells promote scar remodeling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury via mouse mast cell protease 6.

    PubMed

    Vangansewinkel, Tim; Geurts, Nathalie; Quanten, Kirsten; Nelissen, Sofie; Lemmens, Stefanie; Geboes, Lies; Dooley, Dearbhaile; Vidal, Pia M; Pejler, Gunnar; Hendrix, Sven

    2016-05-01

    An important barrier for axon regeneration and recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is attributed to the scar that is formed at the lesion site. Here, we investigated the effect of mouse mast cell protease (mMCP) 6, a mast cell (MC)-specific tryptase, on scarring and functional recovery after a spinal cord hemisection injury. Functional recovery was significantly impaired in both MC-deficient and mMCP6-knockout (mMCP6(-/-)) mice after SCI compared with wild-type control mice. This decrease in locomotor performance was associated with an increased lesion size and excessive scarring at the injury site. Axon growth-inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and the extracellular matrix components fibronectin, laminin, and collagen IV were significantly up-regulated in MC-deficient and mMCP6(-/-) mice, with an increase in scar volume between 23 and 32%. A degradation assay revealed that mMCP6 directly cleaves fibronectin and collagen IV in vitro In addition, gene expression levels of the scar components fibronectin, aggrecan, and collagen IV were increased up to 6.8-fold in mMCP6(-/-) mice in the subacute phase after injury. These data indicate that endogenous mMCP6 has scar-suppressing properties after SCI via indirect cleavage of axon growth-inhibitory scar components and alteration of the gene expression profile of these factors.-Vangansewinkel, T., Geurts, N., Quanten, K., Nelissen, S., Lemmens, S., Geboes, L., Dooley, D., Vidal, P. M., Pejler, G., Hendrix, S. Mast cells promote scar remodeling and functional recovery after spinal cord injury via mouse mast cell protease 6. PMID:26917739

  8. COMPOSITION-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS DURING IL-1-INDUCED CARTILAGE DEGRADATION AND RECOVERY

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Ashley W.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Baum, Elyse J.; Levenston, Marc E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between biochemical composition and mechanical properties of articular cartilage explants during interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced degradation and post-exposure recovery. Design: Bovine articular cartilage explants were cultured for up to 32 days with or without 20 ng/mL interleukin-1. The dynamic shear modulus |G*dyn| and equilibrium and dynamic unconfined compression moduli (Eequil and |E*dyn|) were measured at intervals throughout the culture period. In a subsequent recovery study, explants were cultured for 4 days with or without 20ng/mL IL-1 and for an additional 16 days in control media. The dynamic moduli |E*dyn| and |G*dyn| were measured at intervals during degeneration and recovery. Conditioned media and explant digests were assayed for sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) and collagen content. Results: Continuous IL-1 stimulation triggered progressive decreases in Eequil, |E*dyn|, and |G*dyn| concomitant with the sequential release of sGAG and collagen from the explants. Brief IL-1 exposure resulted in a short release of sGAG but not collagen, followed by a gradual and incomplete repopulation of sGAG. The temporary sGAG depletion was associated with decreases in both |E*dyn| and |G*dyn| which also recovered after removal of IL-1. During IL-1-induced degradation and post-exposure recovery, explant mechanical properties correlated well with tissue sGAG concentration. Conclusions: As previously shown for developing cartilages and engineered cartilage constructs, cytokine-induced changes in sGAG concentration (i.e., fixed charge density) are coincident with changes in compressive and shear properties of articular cartilage. Further, recovery of cartilage mechanical properties can be achieved by relief from proinflammatory stimuli and subsequent restoration of tissue sGAG concentration. PMID:19281879

  9. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations differentially affect large-scale functional networks in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Shah, Disha; Blockx, Ines; Keliris, Georgios A; Kara, Firat; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Verhoye, Marleen; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2016-07-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) is a widely implemented technique used to investigate large-scale topology in the human brain during health and disease. Studies in mice provide additional advantages, including the possibility to flexibly modulate the brain by pharmacological or genetic manipulations in combination with high-throughput functional connectivity (FC) investigations. Pharmacological modulations that target specific neurotransmitter systems, partly mimicking the effect of pathological events, could allow discriminating the effect of specific systems on functional network disruptions. The current study investigated the effect of cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists on large-scale brain networks in mice. The cholinergic system is involved in cognitive functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, while the serotonergic system is involved in emotional and introspective functions and is impaired in, e.g., Alzheimer's disease, depression and autism. Specific interest goes to the default-mode-network (DMN), which is studied extensively in humans and is affected in many neurological disorders. The results show that both cholinergic and serotonergic antagonists impaired the mouse DMN-like network similarly, except that cholinergic modulation additionally affected the retrosplenial cortex. This suggests that both neurotransmitter systems are involved in maintaining integrity of FC within the DMN-like network in mice. Cholinergic and serotonergic modulations also affected other functional networks, however, serotonergic modulation impaired the frontal and thalamus networks more extensively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of pharmacological rsfMRI in animal models to provide insights into the role of specific neurotransmitter systems on functional networks in neurological disorders. PMID:26195064

  10. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine. PMID:19420889

  11. Functions and sources of perceived social support among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Junfeng; Hong, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-06-01

    While the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and psychosocial well-being has been well documented in the global literature, existing studies also suggest the existence of multiple domains in definition and measurement of PSS. The current study, utilizing data from 1299 rural children affected by HIV/AIDS in central China, examines the relative importance of PSS functional measures (informational/emotional, material/tangible, affectionate, and social interaction) and PSS structural measures (family/relatives, teachers, friends, and significant others) in predicting psychosocial outcomes including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and educational resilience. Both functional and structural measures of PSS provided reliable measures of related but unique aspects of PSS. The findings of the current study confirmed the previous results that PSS is highly correlated with children's psychosocial well-being and such correlations vary by functions and sources of the PSS as well as different psychosocial outcomes. The findings in the current study suggested the roles of specific social support functions or resources may need to be assessed in relation to specific psychosocial outcome and the context of children's lives. The strong association between PSS and psychosocial outcomes underscores the importance of adequate social support to alleviate stressful life events and improve psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, the study findings call for gender and developmentally appropriate and situation-specific social support for children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:21287421

  12. Visual display of reservoir parameters affecting enhanced oil recovery. Final report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    The Pioneer Anticline, 25 miles southwest of Bakersfield, California, which has yielded oil since 1926, was the subject of a three-year study aimed at recovering more oil. A team from Michigan Technological University of Houghton, Michigan (MTU), and Digital Petrophysics, Inc. of Bakersfield, California (DPI), undertook the study as part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Extraction and Process Technology Program. The program provides support for projects which cross-cut geoscience and engineering research in order to develop innovative technologies for increasing the recovery of some of the estimated 340 billion barrels of in-place oil remaining in U.S. reservoirs. In recent years, low prices and declining production have increased the likelihood that oil fields will be prematurely abandoned, locking away large volumes of unrecovered oil. The major companies have sold many of their fields to smaller operators in an attempt to concentrate their efforts on fewer {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} properties and on overseas exploration. As a result, small companies with fewer resources at their disposal are becoming responsible for an ever-increasing share of U.S. production. The goal of the MTU-DPI project was to make small independent producers who are inheriting old fields from the majors aware that high technology computer software is now available at relatively low cost. In this project, a suite of relatively inexpensive, PC-based software packages, including a commercial database, a multimedia presentation manager, several well-log analysis program, a mapping and cross-section program, and 2-D and 3-D visualization programs, were tested and evaluated on Pioneer Anticline in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. These relatively inexpensive, commercially available PC-based programs can be assembled into a compatible package for a fraction of the cost of a workstation program with similar capabilities.

  13. Effects of Anti-NMDA Antibodies on Functional Recovery and Synaptic Rearrangement Following Hemicerebellectomy.

    PubMed

    Laricchiuta, Daniela; Cavallucci, Virve; Cutuli, Debora; De Bartolo, Paola; Caporali, Paola; Foti, Francesca; Finke, Carsten; D'Amelio, Marcello; Manto, Mario; Petrosini, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The compensation that follows cerebellar lesions is based on synaptic modifications in many cortical and subcortical regions, although its cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Changes in glutamatergic receptor expression may represent the synaptic basis of the compensated state. We analyzed in rats the involvement of glutamatergic system of the cerebello-frontal network in the compensation following a right hemicerebellectomy. We evaluated motor performances, spatial competencies and molecular correlates in compensated hemicerebellectomized rats which in the frontal cortex contralateral to the hemicerebellectomy side received injections of anti-NMDA antibodies from patients affected by anti-NMDA encephalitis. In the compensated hemicerebellectomized rats, the frontal injections of anti-NMDA antibodies elicited a marked decompensation state characterized by slight worsening of the motor symptoms as well as severe impairment of spatial mnesic and procedural performances. Conversely, in the sham-operated group the frontal injections of anti-NMDA antibodies elicited slight motor and spatial impairment. The molecular analyses indicated that cerebellar compensatory processes were related to a relevant rearrangement of glutamatergic synapses (NMDA and AMPA receptors and other glutamatergic components) along the entire cortico-cerebellar network. The long-term maintenance of the rearranged glutamatergic activity plays a crucial role in the maintenance of recovered function. PMID:27027521

  14. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S.; Phillips, Ellie L.; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M.; Roulston, Carli L.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  15. Ligustilide treatment promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weidong; Yu, Aixi; Liu, Danli; Shen, Jun; Xu, Zhigao

    2015-01-01

    Ligustilide from traditional Chinese medicine extract, angelica sinensis is one of the main active components, and has many pharmacological activities related to the effectiveness. This study sought to determine whether neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) via preventing ROS production. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced using operation for model SCI. Furthermore, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and footprint analysis of gait was used to assess the neuro-protection of ligustilide on SCI. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production levels were measured by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay kit. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein expressions were detected using Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blot analyses, respectively. Interestingly, treatment with ligustilide significantly increased BBB scale and reduced recovery of coordination in SCI rats. After SCI, the iROS, PGE(2), IL-1β, TNF-α production levels and iNOS gene expression were significantly suppressed in SCI rats. These results suggest that the neuro-protection of ligustilide promotes functional recovery in a rat model of spinal cord injury via preventing ROS production. PMID:26722386

  16. Modulating Astrocyte Transition after Stroke to Promote Brain Rescue and Functional Recovery: Emerging Targets Include Rho Kinase.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Hima Charika S; Phillips, Ellie L; Chin-Cheng, Heung; Beart, Philip M; Roulston, Carli L

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a common and serious condition, with few therapies. Whilst previous focus has been directed towards biochemical events within neurons, none have successfully prevented the progression of injury that occurs in the acute phase. New targeted treatments that promote recovery after stroke might be a better strategy and are desperately needed for the majority of stroke survivors. Cells comprising the neurovascular unit, including blood vessels and astrocytes, present an alternative target for supporting brain rescue and recovery in the late phase of stroke, since alteration in the unit also occurs in regions outside of the lesion. One of the major changes in the unit involves extensive morphological transition of astrocytes resulting in altered energy metabolism, decreased glutamate reuptake and recycling, and retraction of astrocyte end feed from both blood vessels and neurons. Whilst globally inhibiting transitional change in astrocytes after stroke is reported to result in further damage and functional loss, we discuss the available evidence to suggest that the transitional activation of astrocytes after stroke can be modulated for improved outcomes. In particular, we review the role of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in reactive gliosis and show that inhibiting ROCK after stroke results in reduced scar formation and improved functional recovery. PMID:26927079

  17. Functional relations trump implied motion in recovery from extinction: evidence from the effects of animacy on extinction.

    PubMed

    Riddoch, M Jane; Riveros, Rodrigo; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2011-02-01

    Patients with extinction show a characteristic impairment in the identification of objects when two items are presented simultaneously, typically reporting the ipsilesional item only. The effect is thought to be due to a spatial bias advantaging the ipsilesional item under conditions of competing concurrent stimulation. Action relations between objects can result in recovery from extinction as the object pair may be perceived as a single group rather than competing perceptual units. However, objects interacting together can also have implied motion. Here we test whether implied motion is necessary to generate recovery from extinction. We varied orthogonally whether animate and inanimate objects were paired together in positions related or unrelated to action. Implied motion was greater when an animate object was present than when both stimuli were inanimate. Despite this, recovery from extinction was greater when actions were shown between inanimate objects. We suggest that actions between inanimate objects are perceived more easily due to the surfaces of these stimuli being designed for functional goals (e.g., the flat surface of a hammer head is designed to hit the flattened head of a nail). Attention is sensitive to the fit between potential action and the functional properties of objects, and not just to implied motion between stimuli. PMID:20672224

  18. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  19. Schwann Cells Overexpressing FGF-2 Alone or Combined with Manual Stimulation Do Not Promote Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Haastert, Kirsten; Grosheva, Maria; Angelova, Srebrina K.; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Skouras, Emmanouil; Michael, Joern; Grothe, Claudia; Dunlop, Sarah A.; Angelov, Doychin N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing different isoforms of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) combined with manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles improves recovery after facial nerve transection in adult rat. Procedures. Transected facial nerves were entubulated with collagen alone or collagen plus naïve SCs or transfected SCs. Half of the rats received daily MS. Collateral branching was quantified from motoneuron counts after retrograde labeling from 3 facial nerve branches. Quality assessment of endplate reinnervation was combined with video-based vibrissal function analysis. Results. There was no difference in the extent of collateral axonal branching. The proportion of polyinnervated motor endplates for either naïve SCs or FGF-2 over-expressing SCs was identical. Postoperative MS also failed to improve recovery. Conclusions. Neither FGF-2 isoform changed the extent of collateral branching or polyinnervation of motor endplates; furthermore, this motoneuron response could not be overridden by MS. PMID:19830246

  20. Comparison of the Effect of Minocycline and Simvastatin on Functional Recovery and Gene Expression in a Rat Traumatic Brain Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Vonder Haar, Cole; Elmore, Brandy E.; Moore, Lynn H.; Wright, Amanda M.; Kantor, Eric D.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Hoane, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to compare the effects of minocycline and simvastatin on functional recovery and brain gene expression after a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury. Dosage regimens were designed to provide serum concentrations in a rat model in the range obtained with clinically approved doses; minocycline 60 mg/kg q12h and simvastatin 10 mg/kg q12h for 72 h. Functional recovery was assessed using motor and spatial learning tasks and neuropathological measurements. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Gene Ontology analysis (GOA) was used to evaluate the effect on relevant biological pathways. Both minocycline and simvastatin improved fine motor function, but not gross motor or cognitive function. Minocycline modestly decreased lesion size with no effect of simvastatin. At 24 h post-CCI, GOA identified a significant effect of minocycline on chemotaxis, blood circulation, immune response, and cell to cell signaling pathways. Inflammatory pathways were affected by minocycline only at the 72 h time point. There was a minimal effect of simvastatin on gene expression 24 h after injury, with increasing effects at 72 h and 7 days. GOA identified a significant effect of simvastatin on inflammatory response at 72 h and 7 days. In conclusion, treatment with minocycline and simvastatin resulted in significant effects on gene expression in the brain reflecting adequate brain penetration without producing significant neurorestorative effects. PMID:24308531

  1. Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J.; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R.

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90–120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1 mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 μg/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

  2. Recovery of elbow function in voluntary positioning of the hand following hemiplegia due to stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, A M; Lough, S; Turton, A; Fraser, C; Jenner, J R

    1990-01-01

    Elbow movement during voluntary positioning of the hand (with the arm supported against gravity) is described in a longitudinal study of five patients recovering from hemiplegia due to stroke. Over a twelve month period, four of the patients improved their speed of movement, three exhibiting slightly better recovery of elbow extension, one of flexion. In some instances co-contraction of the elbow agonist and antagonist (measured just before the onset of movement) decreased with time after stroke. The effects of contrasting movements at the shoulder on elbow movement were also studied. Estimates of recovery were generally similar whether patients kept the shoulder still or made movements that were synergic or counter-synergic to those of the elbow. PMID:2313299

  3. Recovery of functional DNA inserts by electroendosmotic elution during gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, H V; Kitzis, A; Berthollet, T; Hamard, G; Beldjord, C; Benarous, R

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to all previous preparative electrophoresis apparatus which used a pump, electroendosmotic elution uses bound electrical charges at the end of the separating gel to generate a buffer flow. The electroendosmotic flow increased with increasing currents and decreasing buffer concentrations: its exact characteristics for the built apparatus were determined. The electroendosmotic device was able to separate two DNA fragments differing in size by only 5% with a recovery over 95%. As demonstrated in practical examples of recovery and uses of DNA inserts, up to 10 micrograms of DNA per band can be loaded at a time. The recovered DNA can be used directly for nick-translation, ligation... without further treatment. The performances of the method are expected to improve still further if the charge density and pores of the electroendosmotic medium can be "made-to-order" to provide a better flow profile of the eluting buffer. Images PMID:2833722

  4. Cognitive Function in Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Unipolar Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarrar, Lea; Holzhausen, Martin; Warschburger, Petra; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Schneider, Nora

    2016-05-01

    Studies have shown impairments in cognitive function among adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and affective disorders (AD). The association between cognitive dysfunctions, AN and AD as well as the specificity for these psychiatric diagnoses remains unclear. Therefore, we examined cognitive flexibility and processing speed in 47 female adolescent patients with AN, 21 female adolescent patients with unipolar affective disorders and 48 female healthy adolescents. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery. There were no significant group differences regarding cognitive function, except for psychomotor processing speed with poorer performance in patients with AN. A further analysis revealed that all groups performed with the normal range, although patients with AN were over represented in the poorest performing quartile. We found no severe cognitive impairments in either patient group. Nevertheless, belonging to the AN group contributed significantly to poor performances in neuropsychological tasks. Therefore, we conclude that the risk for cognitive impairments is slightly higher for patients with AN. PMID:26695683

  5. The relationship between sleep-wake cycle and cognitive functioning in young people with affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in

  6. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Joanne S.; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S. C.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Naismith, Sharon L.; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16–30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18–30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a ‘long sleep’ cluster, a ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster, and a ‘delayed and disrupted sleep’ cluster. Circadian clusters included a ‘strong circadian’ cluster, a ‘weak circadian’ cluster, and a ‘delayed circadian’ cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The ‘long sleep’ cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the ‘disrupted sleep’ cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments

  7. Right ventricular functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction: relation with left ventricular function and interventricular septum motion. GISSI-3 echo substudy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, B A; Antonini-Canterin, F; Temporelli, P L; Giannuzzi, P; Bosimini, E; Gentile, F; Maggioni, A P; Tavazzi, L; Piazza, R; Ascione, L; Stoian, I; Cervesato, E; Popescu, A C; Nicolosi, G L

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pattern of right ventricular (RV) functional recovery and its relation with left ventricular (LV) function and interventricular septal (IVS) motion in low risk patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design and setting: Multicentre clinical trial carried out in 47 Italian coronary care units. Patients: 500 patients from the GISSI (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto Miocardico) -3 echo substudy, who underwent serial echocardiograms 24–48 hours after symptom onset and at discharge, six weeks, and six months after AMI. Results: Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) increased significantly during follow up (mean (SD) 1.79 (0.46) cm at 24–48 hours to 1.92 (0.46) cm at six months, p < 0.001) and the increase was already significant at discharge (1.88 (0.47) cm, p < 0.001). LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was the best correlate of TAPSE at 24–48 hours (r  =  0.15, p  =  0.001). TAPSE increased significantly in patients both with reduced (< 45%) and with preserved (⩾ 45%) LVEF, but the magnitude of increase was higher in patients with lower initial LVEF (p  =  0.001). Improvement in IVS wall motion score index (IVS-WMSI) was the only independent predictor of TAPSE changes during follow up (r  =  −0.12, p  =  0.007). Conclusions: In low risk patients after AMI, RV function recovered throughout six months of follow up and was already significant at discharge. TAPSE was significantly related to LVEF at 24–48 hours. The magnitude of RV functional recovery was higher in patients with lower initial LVEF. RV functional recovery is best related to IVS-WMSI improvement, suggesting that IVS motion has an important role in RV functional improvement in this setting. PMID:15772207

  8. Functional Mechanisms of Recovery after Chronic Stroke: Modeling with the Virtual Brain123

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Jeffrey D.; Jirsa, Viktor; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Elinor Chen, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have seen important strides in our understanding of mechanisms underlying stroke recovery, yet effective translational links between basic and applied sciences, as well as from big data to individualized therapies, are needed to truly develop a cure for stroke. We present such an approach using The Virtual Brain (TVB), a neuroinformatics platform that uses empirical neuroimaging data to create dynamic models of an individual’s human brain; specifically, we simulate fMRI signals by modeling parameters associated with brain dynamics after stroke. In 20 individuals with stroke and 11 controls, we obtained rest fMRI, T1w, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Motor performance was assessed pre-therapy, post-therapy, and 6–12 months post-therapy. Based on individual structural connectomes derived from DTI, the following steps were performed in the TVB platform: (1) optimization of local and global parameters (conduction velocity, global coupling); (2) simulation of BOLD signal using optimized parameter values; (3) validation of simulated time series by comparing frequency, amplitude, and phase of the simulated signal with empirical time series; and (4) multivariate linear regression of model parameters with clinical phenotype. Compared with controls, individuals with stroke demonstrated a consistent reduction in conduction velocity, increased local dynamics, and reduced local inhibitory coupling. A negative relationship between local excitation and motor recovery, and a positive correlation between local dynamics and motor recovery were seen. TVB reveals a disrupted post-stroke system favoring excitation-over-inhibition and local-over-global dynamics, consistent with existing mammal literature on stroke mechanisms. Our results point to the potential of TVB to determine individualized biomarkers of stroke recovery. PMID:27088127

  9. Amygdala Perfusion Is Predicted by Its Functional Connectivity with the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Negative Affect

    PubMed Central

    Coombs III, Garth; Loggia, Marco L.; Greve, Douglas N.; Holt, Daphne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the activity of the amygdala is elevated in people experiencing clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression (negative affect). It has been proposed that a reduction in inhibitory input to the amygdala from the prefrontal cortex and resultant over-activity of the amygdala underlies this association. Prior studies have found relationships between negative affect and 1) amygdala over-activity and 2) reduced amygdala-prefrontal connectivity. However, it is not known whether elevated amygdala activity is associated with decreased amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during negative affect states. Methods Here we used resting-state arterial spin labeling (ASL) and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination to test this model, measuring the activity (regional cerebral blood flow, rCBF) and functional connectivity (correlated fluctuations in the BOLD signal) of one subregion of the amygdala with strong connections with the prefrontal cortex, the basolateral nucleus (BLA), and subsyndromal anxiety levels in 38 healthy subjects. Results BLA rCBF was strongly correlated with anxiety levels. Moreover, both BLA rCBF and anxiety were inversely correlated with the strength of the functional coupling of the BLA with the caudal ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Lastly, BLA perfusion was found to be a mediator of the relationship between BLA-prefrontal connectivity and anxiety. Conclusions These results show that both perfusion of the BLA and a measure of its functional coupling with the prefrontal cortex directly index anxiety levels in healthy subjects, and that low BLA-prefrontal connectivity may lead to increased BLA activity and resulting anxiety. Thus, these data provide key evidence for an often-cited circuitry model of negative affect, using a novel, multi-modal imaging approach. PMID:24816735

  10. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. PMID:25533973

  11. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz Galindo, Carmen; Gómez-González, Beatriz; Salinas, Eva; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Bautista, Eduardo; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5(th) week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1(st) week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury. PMID:26807118

  12. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz Galindo, Carmen; Gómez-González, Beatriz; Salinas, Eva; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Bautista, Eduardo; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5th week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1st week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury. PMID:26807118

  13. Phosphodiesterase 5A inhibitors improve functional recovery after stroke in rats: optimized dosing regimen with implications for mechanism.

    PubMed

    Menniti, Frank S; Ren, JingMei; Coskran, Timothy M; Liu, Jing; Morton, Daniel; Sietsma, Dana K; Som, Angel; Stephenson, Diane T; Tate, Barbara A; Finklestein, Seth P

    2009-12-01

    Phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) inhibitors improve functional recovery after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA-o) in rats. We used the PDE5A inhibitor 3-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl)-7-(6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-1-(2-propoxyethyl)pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazin-2(1H)-one hydrochloride (PF-5) to determine the timing, duration, and degree of inhibition that yields maximum efficacy. We also investigated the localization of PDE5A to determine the tissues and cells that would be targets for PDE5 inhibition and that may mediate efficacy. Nearly complete inhibition of PDE5A, starting 24 h after MCA-o and continued for 7 days, resulted in nearly complete recovery of sensorimotor function that was sustained for 3 months. Delaying administration until 72 h after MCA-o resulted in equivalent efficacy, whereas delaying treatment for 14 days was ineffective. Treatment for 7 days was equivalently efficacious to 28 or 84 days of treatment, whereas treatment for 1 day was less effective. In the normal forebrain, PDE5A immunoreactivity was prominent in smooth muscle of meningeal arteries and a few smaller blood vessels, with weak staining in a few widely scattered cortical neurons and glia. At 24 and 48 h after MCA-o, the number and intensity of blood vessel staining increased in the infarcted cortex and striatum. PDE5A immunoreactivity also was increased at 48 h in putative microglia in penumbra, whereas there was no change in staining of the scattered cortical neurons. Given the window for efficacy and the PDE5A distribution, we hypothesize that efficacy results from an effect on vasculature, and perhaps modulation of microglial function, both of which may facilitate recovery of neuronal function. PMID:19729580

  14. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Expressing the Neurogenin-2 Promote Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Rat.

    PubMed

    Tang, Linjun; Lu, Xiaocheng; Zhu, Ronglan; Qian, Tengda; Tao, Yi; Li, Kai; Zheng, Jinyu; Zhao, Penglai; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xi; Li, Lixin

    2016-07-01

    Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is a proneural gene that directs neuronal differentiation of progenitor cells during development. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) over-expressing the Ngn2 transgene (Ngn2-ADSCs) could display the characteristics of neurogenic cells and improve functional recovery in an experimental rat model of SCI. ADSCs from rats were cultured and purified in vitro, followed by genetically modified with the Ngn2 gene. Forty-eight adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control, ADSCs, and Ngn2-ADSCs groups. The hind-limb motor function of all rats was recorded using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for 8 weeks. Moreover, hematoxylineosin staining and immunohistochemistry were also performed. After neural induction, positive expression rate of NeuN in Ngn2-ADSCs group was upon 90 %. Following transplantation, a great number of ADSCs was found around the center of the injury spinal cord at 1 and 4 weeks, which improved retention of tissue at the lesion site. Ngn2-ADSCs differentiated into neurons, indicated by the expression of neuronal markers, NeuN and Tuj1. Additionally, transplantation of Ngn2-ADSCs upregulated the trophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor), and inhibited the glial scar formation, which was indicated by immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein. Finally, Ngn2-ADSCs-treated animals showed the highest functional recovery among the three groups. These findings suggest that transplantation of Ngn2-overexpressed ADSCs promote the functional recovery from SCI, and improve the local microenvironment of injured cord in a more efficient way than that with ADSCs alone. PMID:26283493

  15. O-GlcNAc glycosylation of p27(kip1) promotes astrocyte migration and functional recovery after spinal cord contusion.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xingxing; Zhang, Dongmei; Tao, Tao; Liu, Xiaojuan; Sun, Xiaolei; Wang, Youhua; Shen, Aiguo

    2015-12-10

    Glial scar formation derived from astrocyte proliferation and migration influences the functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1), whose activity is closely related to its phosphorylation state, reportedly regulates astrocyte proliferation and migration. In this study, we reported that p27(Kip1) undergoes O-GlcNAc modification at Ser 2, Ser 110 and Thr 197. Inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation on Ser 2 by gene mutation (S2A) attenuated the phosphorylation of Ser 10, and vice versa. Interestingly, compared with wild type p27(Kip1), S2A p27(Kip1) displayed a decreased interaction with CRM1 and reduced nuclear export following serum starvation and release. In addition, the interaction between stathmin and S2A p27(Kip1) was also decreased. Cytoskeletal proteins microtubules appeared high density in astrocytes transfected with S2A p27(Kip1) especially at the leading edge of the scratch wound. Accordingly, scratch-wound assay revealed that the motility of astrocytes transfected with S2A p27(Kip1) was faster than that of control. Finally, we injected lentiviral vectors immediately after spinal cord contusion, and found the lesion volume of the rat injected with S2A p27(Kip1) was smaller than that of rat injected with wild type p27(Kip1). Besides, the BBB and CBS behavioral tests showed greater functional recovery in S2A p27(Kip1) treated rats. Taken together, our findings revealed a novel function of O-GlcNAc modification of p27(Kip1) in mediating astrocytes migration and functional recovery after spinal cord contusion. PMID:26562163

  16. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality. Methods This pilot study assessed the compliance of a home-based, NMES prehabilitation programme in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated its effect on preoperative and postoperative isometric quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength, QFM cross-sectional area (CSA) and clinical function (subjective and objective). Seventeen subjects were recruited with 14 completing the study (NMES group n = 9; Control group n = 5). Results Overall compliance with the programme was excellent (99%). Preoperative QFM strength increased by 28% (p > 0.05) with associated gains in walk, stair-climb and chair-rise times (p < 0.05). Early postoperative strength loss (approximately 50%) was similar in both groups. Only the NMES group demonstrated significant strength (53.3%, p = 0.011) and functional recovery (p < 0.05) from 6 to 12 weeks post-TKA. QFM CSA decreased by 4% in the NMES group compared to a reduction of 12% in the control group (P > 0.05) at 12 weeks postoperatively compared to baseline. There were only limited associations found between objective and subjective functional outcome instruments. Conclusions This pilot study has shown that preoperative NMES may improve recovery of quadriceps muscle strength and expedite a return to normal activities in patients undergoing TKA for OA. Recommendations for appropriate outcome instruments in future studies of prehabilitation in TKA have been provided. PMID:20540807

  17. Effects of Ankle–Foot Orthoses on Functional Recovery after Stroke: A Propensity Score Analysis Based on Japan Rehabilitation Database

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to investigate potential effects of ankle–foot orthoses (AFOs) on the functional recovery of post-acute stroke patients following rehabilitation. Subjects and Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study. Participants were in-hospital stroke patients registered in the Japan Rehabilitation Database between 2005 and 2012. A total of 1862 patients were eligible after applying exclusion criteria. Propensity score analysis was applied to adjust for potential bias and to create two comparable groups. An additional subset analysis focused on Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores on admission. Results In this sample, 30.7% of 1863 eligible patients were prescribed AFOs. Propensity score matched analysis showed that patients with AFOs had significantly higher scores than those without them for discharge FIM (mean: 91.3 vs 85.8; p=0.02), FIM gain (mean: 28.9 vs 23.5; p<0.001), and FIM efficiency (mean: 0.27 vs 0.22; p<0.001). Inverse probability weighting analysis showed similar results. In the subset analysis, patients with AFOs had significantly higher discharge FIM compared with those without them in the low admission FIM subgroup only. In addition, patients with AFOs performed independent exercise more than those without them (p<0.001). Conclusions These data suggest that stroke survivors may have better functional recovery if they are prescribed an AFO than if they are not prescribed an AFO. The use of AFOs is considered to be a feasible option to improve functional recovery of stroke rehabilitation patients. PMID:25837720

  18. Effects of estrogen on functional and neurological recovery after spinal cord injury: An experimental study with rats

    PubMed Central

    Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa; Ferreira, Ricardo; dos Santos, Gustavo Bispo; da Rocha, Ivan Dias; Marcon, Raphael Martus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional and histological effects of estrogen as a neuroprotective agent after a standard experimentally induced spinal cord lesion. METHODS: In this experimental study, 20 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group with rats undergoing spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 and receiving estrogen therapy with 17-beta estradiol (4mg/kg) immediately following the injury and after the placement of skin sutures and a control group with rats only subjected to SCI. A moderate standard experimentally induced SCI was produced using a computerized device that dropped a weight on the rat's spine from a height of 12.5 mm. Functional recovery was verified with the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale on the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th and 42nd days after injury and by quantifying the motor-evoked potential on the 42nd day after injury. Histopathological evaluation of the SCI area was performed after euthanasia on the 42nd day. RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significantly greater functional improvement from the 28th to the 42nd day of observation compared to the control group. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in the motor-evoked potential compared with the control group. The results of pathological histomorphometry evaluations showed a better neurological recovery in the experimental group, with respect to the proportion and diameter of the quantified nerve fibers. CONCLUSIONS: Estrogen administration provided benefits in neurological and functional motor recovery in rats with SCI beginning at the 28th day after injury. PMID:26598084

  19. Relationship between T-wave normalization on exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Shim, Wan Joo; Jung, Seong Won; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Soo Jin; Song, Woo Hyuk; Kim, Young Hoon; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo; Ro, Young Moo

    2002-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested that T-wave normalization (TWN) in exercise ECG indicates the presence of viable myocardium. But the clinical implication of this phenomenon in patients with acute myocardial infarction who received proper revascularization therapy was not determined. Precisely the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TWN in exercise ECG and myocardial functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. Methods We studied 30 acute myocardial infarction patients with negative T waves in infarct related electrocardiographic leads and who had received successful revascularization therapy. Exercise ECG was performed 10–14days after infarct onset using Naughton protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to presence (group I; n=14) or not (group II; n=16) of TWN in exercise ECG. Exercise parameters and coronary angiographic findings were compared between groups. Baseline and follow-up (mean 11 months) regional and global left ventricular function was analyzed by echocardiography. Results Exercise parameters were similar between groups. There was no difference in baseline ejection fraction and wall motion score between group I and II (EF; 56±12% vs 52±11%, p=ns. WMS; 21±3 vs 23±4, p=ns) and it was improved at the tenth month by similar magnitude (group I/group II, EF % change=12±12% vs 7±6%, p=ns, WMS % change=6±6% vs 7±5%, p=ns). The finding of no relation between TWN and functional recovery was observed also when the patients were analysed according to infarct location and presence or absence of Q-waves. Conclusion As the exercise-induced TWN in patients with acute myocardial infarction was not related with better functional recovery of dysfunctional regional wall motion and ejection fraction, TWN does not appear to be an indicator of myocardial viability. PMID:12164089

  20. A Review on Locomotor Training after Spinal Cord Injury: Reorganization of Spinal Neuronal Circuits and Recovery of Motor Function

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Locomotor training is a classic rehabilitation approach utilized with the aim of improving sensorimotor function and walking ability in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies have provided strong evidence that locomotor training of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI induces functional reorganization of spinal neuronal networks at multisegmental levels at rest and during assisted stepping. This neuronal reorganization coincides with improvements in motor function and decreased muscle cocontractions. In this review, we will discuss the manner in which spinal neuronal circuits are impaired and the evidence surrounding plasticity of neuronal activity after locomotor training in people with SCI. We conclude that we need to better understand the physiological changes underlying locomotor training, use physiological signals to probe recovery over the course of training, and utilize established and contemporary interventions simultaneously in larger scale research studies. Furthermore, the focus of our research questions needs to change from feasibility and efficacy to the following: what are the physiological mechanisms that make it work and for whom? The aforementioned will enable the scientific and clinical community to develop more effective rehabilitation protocols maximizing sensorimotor function recovery in people with SCI. PMID:27293901

  1. A Review on Locomotor Training after Spinal Cord Injury: Reorganization of Spinal Neuronal Circuits and Recovery of Motor Function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew C; Knikou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Locomotor training is a classic rehabilitation approach utilized with the aim of improving sensorimotor function and walking ability in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies have provided strong evidence that locomotor training of persons with clinically complete, motor complete, or motor incomplete SCI induces functional reorganization of spinal neuronal networks at multisegmental levels at rest and during assisted stepping. This neuronal reorganization coincides with improvements in motor function and decreased muscle cocontractions. In this review, we will discuss the manner in which spinal neuronal circuits are impaired and the evidence surrounding plasticity of neuronal activity after locomotor training in people with SCI. We conclude that we need to better understand the physiological changes underlying locomotor training, use physiological signals to probe recovery over the course of training, and utilize established and contemporary interventions simultaneously in larger scale research studies. Furthermore, the focus of our research questions needs to change from feasibility and efficacy to the following: what are the physiological mechanisms that make it work and for whom? The aforementioned will enable the scientific and clinical community to develop more effective rehabilitation protocols maximizing sensorimotor function recovery in people with SCI. PMID:27293901

  2. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  3. Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

    PubMed Central

    Modlin, Leslie; Wang, Lihong; Kozink, Rachel V.; McClernon, F. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion–cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. PMID:21989805

  4. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we p