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Sample records for affect future generations

  1. Epigenetics and Future Generations.

    PubMed

    Del Savio, Lorenzo; Loi, Michele; Stupka, Elia

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence of intergenerational epigenetic programming of disease risk broadens the scope of public health preventive interventions to future generations, i.e. non existing people. Due to the transmission of epigenetic predispositions, lifestyles such as smoking or unhealthy diet might affect the health of populations across several generations. While public policy for the health of future generations can be justified through impersonal considerations, such as maximizing aggregate well-being, in this article we explore whether there are rights-based obligations supervening on intergenerational epigenetic programming despite the non-identity argument, which challenges this rationale in case of policies that affect the number and identity of future people. We propose that rights based obligations grounded in the interests of non-existing people might fall upon existing people when generations overlap. In particular, if environmental exposure in F0 (i.e. existing people) will affect the health of F2 (i.e. non-existing people) through epigenetic programming, then F1 (i.e. existing and overlapping with both F0 and F2) might face increased costs to address F2's condition in the future: this might generate obligations upon F0 from various distributive principles, such as the principle of equal opportunity for well being.

  2. Word generation affects continuous hand movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisai; Wininger, Michael; Rosenbaum, David A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding interactions between cognitive and motor performance is an important theoretical and practical aim of motor neuroscience. Toward this aim, we invited university students to move one hand back and forth at a self-paced rate either in silence or while overtly generating words from semantic categories. The same participants also generated words without movement. Word generation affected manual performance but manual performance did not affect word generation. Only the timing, but not the spatial features, of the hand movements were influenced by word generation. The simplicity of our procedure argues for its future use, both for theoretical and practical purposes.

  3. Responsibilities to future generations: environmental ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, E.

    1980-01-01

    The moral question of our responsibilities to future generations, which have no voice in the decision, is addressed in this anthology of 25 essays. The essays focus on such issues as our duty to posterity and our motivation to provide for future generations, the rights of future generations, and how policies relating to food, energy, population, and eugenics should apply to these issues. The authors note that we know and can monitor the threats to our world that are resulting from our activities. This obligates us to develop the historical consciousness and moral judgement to ensure future generations the necessities of life. 356 references. (DCK)

  4. Sustainability protects resources for future generations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the steps necessary to provide livable urban centers for future generations through sustainable development, or sustainability. To illustrate this concept, nonsustainable cities and sustainable cities are compared. Sustainable city projects for several major US cites are reviewed.

  5. Sweet future: fluctuating blood glucose levels affect future discounting.

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Dvorak, Robert D

    2010-02-01

    This study explored metabolic mechanisms of future (delay) discounting, a choice phenomenon where people value present goods over future goods. Using fluctuating blood glucose as an index of body-energy budget, optimal discounting should regulate choice among rewards as a function of temporal caloric requirement. We identified this novel link between blood glucose levels measured in the lab and future-discounting rates of participants, who made choices between a "smaller and sooner" reward and a "larger but later" option, with possible actual monetary rewards. A group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained sugar showed a reduced rate of future discounting afterward, when we controlled for sex, age, body mass index, and the taste of the drink. In contrast, a group of participants who drank a soft drink that contained artificial sweetener showed an increased rate of future discounting. Blood glucose levels not only varied as a result of caloric intake but also regulated the rate of future discounting, according to participants' dynamic body-energy budget.

  6. Leveraging Affective Learning for Developing Future Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    sity, the United States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or any other US government agency. Cleared for public release: distribution unlimited...clude affective objectives in their lessons. A student’s affective state influences his or her learning pre- disposition, and educators should consider...but may not be possible for a large number of students or for dispersed learning activity. The ability to discern the affective state of students

  7. From what should we protect future generations: germ-line therapy or genetic screening?

    PubMed

    Mallia, Pierre; ten Have, Henk

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of whether we have responsibilities to future generations with respect to genetic screening, including for purposes of selective abortion or discard. Future generations have been discussed at length among scholars. The concept of 'Guardian for Future Generations' is tackled and its main criticisms discussed. Whilst germ-line cures, it is argued, can only affect family trees, genetic screening and testing can have wider implications. If asking how this may affect future generations is a legitimate question and since we indeed make retrospective moral judgements, it would be wise to consider that future generations will make the same retrospective judgements on us. Moreover such technologies affect present embryos to which we indeed can be considered to have an obligation.

  8. EIDA Next Generation: ongoing and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strollo, Angelo; Quinteros, Javier; Sleeman, Reinoud; Trani, Luca; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html) is the distributed Data Centre system within ORFEUS, providing transparent access and services to high quality, seismic data across (currently) 9 large data archives in Europe. EIDA is growing, in terms of the number of participating data centres, the size of the archives, the variability of the data in the archives, the number of users, and the volume of downloads. The on-going success of EIDA is thus providing challenges that are the driving force behind the design of the next generation (NG) of EIDA, which is expected to be implemented within EPOS IP. EIDA ORFEUS must cope with further expansion of the system and more complex user requirements by developing new techniques and extended services. The EIDA NG is being designed to work on standard FDSN web services and two additional new web services: Routing Service and QC (quality controlled) service. This presentation highlights the challenges EIDA needs to address during the EPOS IP and focuses on these 2 new services. The Routing Service can be considered as the core of EIDA NG. It was designed to assist users and clients to locate data within a federated, decentralized data centre (e.g. EIDA). A detailed, FDSN-compliant specification of the service has been developed. Our implementation of this service will run at every EIDA node, but is also capable of running on a user's computer, allowing anyone to define virtual or integrate existing data centres. This (meta)service needs to be queried in order to locate the data. Some smart clients (in a beta status) have been also provided to offer the user an integrated view of the whole EIDA, hiding the complexity of its internal structure. The service is open and able to be queried by anyone without the need of credentials or authentication. The QC Service is developed to cope with user requirements to query for relevant data only. The web service provides detailed information on the

  9. Random Item Generation Is Affected by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multani, Namita; Rudzicz, Frank; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Random item generation (RIG) involves central executive functioning. Measuring aspects of random sequences can therefore provide a simple method to complement other tools for cognitive assessment. We examine the extent to which RIG relates to specific measures of cognitive function, and whether those measures can be estimated using RIG…

  10. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Rich; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets.The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The paper will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe

  11. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  12. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  13. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-01-04

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically.

  14. Renewable Energy Education for Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the constantly growing use of technology, modern society requires increasing amounts of electrical power. Acknowledging the global efforts to increase the use of renewable energy sources, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy, a school in Hong Kong, plans to provide the opportunity for students to explore the applications of various forms of renewable energy through a Renewable Energy Education Centre (REEC). Two students are involved in the designing and construction of the Renewable Energy Education Centre to understand the technologies, processes, and provide insight from the students' perspective. The REEC will incorporate various uses of renewable energy, including a solar photovoltaic system, hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system, vertical windmill, hot water heater, and heat pump. As a means to enrich students' learning experiences, the REEC will be open to access by science students for a wide range of investigations, such as science experiments related to renewable energy and energy efficiency, providing opportunities for student led research projects, Personal Projects and IB Extended Essays. In short, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy aims to allow students to familiarize themselves with various forms of renewable energy from a young age, and develop a deeper understanding of technologies that will become primary sources of electrical power in the near future.

  15. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  16. Future trends in computer waste generation in India.

    PubMed

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R K

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the future projection of computer waste in India and to subsequently analyze their flow at the end of their useful phase. For this purpose, the study utilizes the logistic model-based approach proposed by Yang and Williams to forecast future trends in computer waste. The model estimates future projection of computer penetration rate utilizing their first lifespan distribution and historical sales data. A bounding analysis on the future carrying capacity was simulated using the three parameter logistic curve. The observed obsolete generation quantities from the extrapolated penetration rates are then used to model the disposal phase. The results of the bounding analysis indicate that in the year 2020, around 41-152 million units of computers will become obsolete. The obsolete computer generation quantities are then used to estimate the End-of-Life outflows by utilizing a time-series multiple lifespan model. Even a conservative estimate of the future recycling capacity of PCs will reach upwards of 30 million units during 2025. Apparently, more than 150 million units could be potentially recycled in the upper bound case. However, considering significant future investment in the e-waste recycling sector from all stakeholders in India, we propose a logistic growth in the recycling rate and estimate the requirement of recycling capacity between 60 and 400 million units for the lower and upper bound case during 2025. Finally, we compare the future obsolete PC generation amount of the US and India.

  17. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  18. Mobilizing Political Action on Behalf of Future Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Our failure to mobilize sufficient effort to fight climate change reflects a combination of political and economic forces, on both the national and the global level. To state the problem in its simplest terms, writes Joseph Aldy, future, unborn generations would enjoy the benefits of policies to reduce carbon emissions whereas the current…

  19. Impacts of Potential Future Droughts on Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tidwell, V. C.; King, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the state of Texas experienced the worst single-year drought on record. This recent extreme climate event raised questions as to how future droughts might impact ERCOT operations. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential future droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and power plants within the context of long-term transmission planning. The study identified three potential drought scenarios (single- and multiple-year droughts) based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Texas-Gulf river basin. The Texas-Gulf hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and 125 reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and cooling water for power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds (such as evapotranspiration, soil water, water yield from watersheds, stream flow, and water storage in reservoirs) provide a bases to assess if power plants potentially at risk of being of derated and watersheds are vulnerable to droughts. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of power plants at risk and vulnerable watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation. Beyond impacts to the existing

  20. Assessing Vulnerability of Electricity Generation Under Potential Future Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, the western US experienced increased sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues, which raised questions as to how electricity sector might be vulnerable to future droughts. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and individual power plants within the context of current and future characteristics of power system and water resource system.The study identified three potential drought scenarios based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Pacific Northwest River Basin and California River Basin. The hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and all major reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and hydroelectric power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and reservoirs are used as input to power-plant specific models to quantify potential risk of curtailment at each power plant. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of vulnerable power plants and watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios. Beyond impacts to the existing

  1. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  2. Preparing for 2020: NACAC's Role in Affecting the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drinan, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Presentation to members of the National Association of College Admission Counselors addresses the need to prepare students for the future. Attempts to predict life in the year 2020 and how best to communicate present visions and values to today's college students. (ABB)

  3. Extreme Rivers for Future Climates - Simulation Using Spatial Weather Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchar, Leszek; Kosierb, Ryszard; Iwański, Sławomir; Jelonek, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an application of spatial weather generator for estimation of probability distributions changes of river flows for selected climate change scenarios and different time horizons are presented. The main studies for the Kaczawa river basin located in Southwest region of Poland are carried out. For the estimation of probability distribution river flow, daily data of SR solar radiation, maximum and minimum air temperature, and total precipitation were obtained for sixteen stations of hydrological network from Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. In addition, daily data of flows from 6 closing water-gauges (partial catchments) were collected. Idea of flow simulation in the Kaczawa river catchment for future climate conditions given by different scenario shall be presented in the paper. First, on the basis of 25-years data series (1981-2005) for 16 stations of meteorological network within or around the Kaczawa river catchment basic climatology characteristics required by weather generator are computed. Then, spatial correlations between variables and stations are added to the characteristics. Next, on the basis of information coming from three climate change scenarios (GISS, GFDL and CCCM) for years 2040, 2060 and 2080 basic climatology characteristics are modified. Then, spatial weather generator SWGEN is used to produce 500 years of synthetic data for 16 stations, given time horizon and scenario. The year 2000 as the background of potential changes in river flow is used together with 500 years of synthetic data. Next, generated data are applied to hydrological model Mike SHE to simulate daily flows for closing water-gauges. The flow are evaluated with different temporal step and characterized by pdf functions. The application of spatial weather generator SWGEN combined with hydrological rainfall-runoff model (Mike SHE Ed. 2008) and climate change scenario, gives various possibilities to study changes in the river catchment coming up to 60

  4. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  5. Resourcing Future Generations - Challenges for geoscience: a new IUGS initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Lambert, Ian

    2014-05-01

    In a world with rapidly increasing population and technological development new space based remote sensing tools allowed for new discoveries and production of water, energy- and mineral-resources, including minerals, soils and construction materials. This has impact on politics, socio-economic development and thus calls for a strong involvement of geosciences because one of humanities biggest challenges will be, to rise living standards particularly in less developed countries. Any growth will lead to an increase of demand for natural resources. But especially for readily available mineral resources supply appears to be limited. Particularly demand for so called high-tech commodities - platinum group or rare earth elements - increased. This happened often faster than new discoveries were made. All this, while areas available for exploration decreased as the need for urban and agricultural use increased. Despite strong efforts in increasing efficiency of recycling, shortage in some commodities has to be expected. A major concern is that resources are not distributed evenly on our planet. Thus supplies depend on political stability, socio-economic standards and pricing. In the light of these statements IUGS is scoping a new initiative, Resourcing Future Generations (RFG), which is predicated on the fact that mining will continue to be an essential activity to meet the needs of future generations. RFG is aimed at identifying and addressing key challenges involved in securing natural resources to meet global needs post-2030. We consider that mineral resources should be the initial focus, but energy, soils, water resources and land use should also be covered. Addressing the multi-generational needs for mineral and other natural resources requires data, research and actions under four general themes: 1. Comprehensive evaluation and quantification of 21st century supply and demand. 2. Enhanced understanding of subsurface as it relates to mineral (energy and groundwater

  6. Does retrieval-induced forgetting affect future social behavior?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcelle; Saunders, Jo

    2013-09-01

    The current paper presents an experiment examining the impact of retrieval-induced forgetting on a behavioral test. Participants first studied neutral and positive, or neutral and negative traits about a target and then practiced the neutral traits either via retrieval practice or re-presentation. Participants then were asked to take a seat outside the laboratory before recalling all the traits. Retrieval-induced forgetting was found in the retrieval practice but not the re-presentation condition for the valenced traits and also on the behavioral task with participants who suppressed positive traits choosing to sit further away from the target and participants who suppressed negative traits choosing to sit closer to the target. The findings indicate that retrieval-induced forgetting extends to behavioral tasks and affects the likely execution of a behavior. The findings are discussed in terms of the inhibitory theory of retrieval-induced forgetting.

  7. How Fear of Future Outcomes Affects Social Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Mutualistic relationships among the different species are ubiquitous in nature. To prevent mutualism from slipping into antagonism, a host often invokes a "carrot and stick" approach towards symbionts with a stabilizing effect on their symbiosis. In open human societies, a mutualistic relationship arises when a native insider population attracts outsiders with benevolent incentives in hope that the additional labor will improve the standard of all. A lingering question, however, is the extent to which insiders are willing to tolerate outsiders before mutualism slips into antagonism. To test the assertion by Karl Popper that unlimited tolerance leads to the demise of tolerance, we model a society under a growing incursion from the outside. Guided by their traditions of maintaining the social fabric and prizing tolerance, the insiders reduce their benevolence toward the growing subpopulation of outsiders but do not invoke punishment. This reduction of benevolence intensifies as less tolerant insiders (e.g., "radicals") openly renounce benevolence. Although more tolerant insiders maintain some level of benevolence, they may also tacitly support radicals out of fear for the future. If radicals and their tacit supporters achieve a critical majority, herd behavior ensues and the relation between the insider and outsider subpopulations turns antagonistic. To control the risk of unwanted social dynamics, we map the parameter space within which the tolerance of insiders is in balance with the assimilation of outsiders, the tolerant insiders maintain a sustainable majority, and any reduction in benevolence occurs smoothly. We also identify the circumstances that cause the relations between insiders and outsiders to collapse or that lead to the dominance of the outsiders.

  8. European Regulation Affecting Nanomaterials - Review of Limitations and Future Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    After learning about the potential risks associated with various specific nanomaterials, concerns have been raised about adequacy of existing regulation in Europe and what should be done to address any potential regulatory gaps related to nanomaterials. Understanding the limitations of the current regulation in regard to nanomaterials is a starting point in a democratic and transparent process towards adapting existing laws and facilitating an informed discussion about which kind of regulatory options best address the identified limitations. In the following we will introduce key pieces of European legislation affecting nanomaterials, analyze their limitations, and provide a number of recommendations on how these can be overcome. We find that, although nanomaterials are in principle covered by the scope of many of the existing legislative frameworks, it is often unclear, if current regulations are actually applicable when it comes to specific nanomaterials and their diverse applications. Main limitations seem to be: that requirements to do safety evaluations are triggered by production volumes by tonnage not tailored to the nanoscale, the profound lack of (eco)toxicological data, and that thresholds values and occupational exposure limits cannot be established with existing methodologies. PMID:22942870

  9. European regulation affecting nanomaterials - review of limitations and future recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    After learning about the potential risks associated with various specific nanomaterials, concerns have been raised about adequacy of existing regulation in Europe and what should be done to address any potential regulatory gaps related to nanomaterials. Understanding the limitations of the current regulation in regard to nanomaterials is a starting point in a democratic and transparent process towards adapting existing laws and facilitating an informed discussion about which kind of regulatory options best address the identified limitations. In the following we will introduce key pieces of European legislation affecting nanomaterials, analyze their limitations, and provide a number of recommendations on how these can be overcome. We find that, although nanomaterials are in principle covered by the scope of many of the existing legislative frameworks, it is often unclear, if current regulations are actually applicable when it comes to specific nanomaterials and their diverse applications. Main limitations seem to be: that requirements to do safety evaluations are triggered by production volumes by tonnage not tailored to the nanoscale, the profound lack of (eco)toxicological data, and that thresholds values and occupational exposure limits cannot be established with existing methodologies.

  10. Future tense: call for a new generation of artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlmann, Dietmar

    1995-02-01

    Some people try hard to educate others about the beauty and technical benefits of holographic applications but another generation is already waiting to learn more about the media which talk to them about the future. Today the most common question is 'How can I do holograms with a computer?' 'Can I do it with an Amiga?' For the MIT specialists these are now very simple questions. We can expect to see the present shape of the holographic laboratory pass into history. I personally like to work with a VHS camera and mix it with CAD/CAM images, but computer and video are not the only media which will change the face of holography. The He.Ne. will be exchanged by diode laser. In a wavelength of 690 nm, some of them bring 40 mW in single mode and single line, not bigger than your little finger. Having such energy in so little a container, and the state of the art drifts rapidly into more flexibility. Using new media and introducing it in our societies give us a new responsibility. Would too much media kill the art? I do not think so, because I like the variety of media which give new possibility of expression. The game with new media is the power of creativity and it will find its meaning by itself.

  11. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  12. Establishment of sustainable health science for future generations: from a hundred years ago to a hundred years in the future.

    PubMed

    Mori, Chisato; Todaka, Emiko

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have investigated the relationship between environment and health from a scientific perspective and developed a new academic field, "Sustainable Health Science" that will contribute to creating a healthy environment for future generations. There are three key points in Sustainable Heath Science. The first key point is "focusing on future generations"-society should improve the environment and prevent possible adverse health effects on future generations (Environmental Preventive Medicine). The second key point is the "precautious principle". The third key point is "transdisciplinary science", which means that not only medical science but also other scientific fields, such as architectural and engineering science, should be involved. Here, we introduce our recent challenging project "Chemiless Town Project", in which a model town is under construction with fewer chemicals. In the project, a trial of an education program and a health-examination system of chemical exposure is going to be conducted. In the future, we are aiming to establish health examination of exposure to chemicals of women of reproductive age so that the risk of adverse health effects to future generations will decrease and they can enjoy a better quality of life. We hope that society will accept the importance of forming a sustainable society for future generations not only with regard to chemicals but also to the whole surrounding environment. As the proverb of American native people tells us, we should live considering the effects on seven generations in the future.

  13. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  14. Assessing future expectations and the two-dimensional model of affect in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Corno, Giulia; Molinari, Guadalupe; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2017-03-01

    Future-directed thinking has been described as part of two underlying systems that integrate dimensions of affect, motivational systems, orientation to the future, and future expectations, which are initiated at the cognitive, affective, biological, behavioral, and motivational levels. The main aim of the present study is to test the two underlying frameworks model and explore future expectations in a general Italian-speaking population (N=345). Therefore, the second aim of the present paper is to confirm the factorial structure of the Subjective Probability Task (SPT; MacLeod et al., 1996), a questionnaire designed to assess specific positive and negative orientations towards the future. Results showed that the SPT has good psychometric properties and it is a reliable instrument to assess future-directed thinking. Moreover, our findings confirmed the role of future expectancies as cognitive correlates of depression and anxiety. Differently from previous studies (Clark and Watson, 1991; MacLeod et al., 1996), our results did not confirm that depression was characterized by low positive affect. We believe this paper contributes to the understanding of future expectancies and their relation with anxiety and depression, and will help to expand the availability of an instrument to assess future directed thinking.

  15. Financing Education for Children Affected by Conflict: Lessons from Save the Children's Rewrite the Future Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Janice; Ndaruhutse, Susy

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, prioritized education for children affected by conflict through its Rewrite the Future Campaign. By significantly scaling up the resources allocated to programmes in conflict-affected countries, the organization has grown its education programmes in these contexts. Thus it has…

  16. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Landis, G.; Raffaelle, R.; Hepp, A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent NASA program, Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT), investigated the technologies needed to provide cost-competitive ground baseload electrical power from space based solar energy conversion. This goal mandated low cost, light weight gigawatt (GW) power generation. Investment in solar power generation technologies would also benefit high power military, commercial and science missions. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the moon or mars, space based lasers or radar, or as large earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or as in the SERT program, potentially beaming power to the earth itself. This paper will discuss requirements for the two latter options, the current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies which may impact the future choice of space solar cells for a high power mission application. The space world has primarily transitioned to commercially available III-V (GaInP/GaAs/Ge) cells with 24-26% air mass zero (AMO) efficiencies. Research in the III-V multi-junction solar cells has focused on fabricating either lattice-mismatched materials with optimum stacking bandgaps or new lattice matched materials with optimum bandgaps. In the near term this will yield a 30% commercially available space cell and in the far term possibly a 40% cell. Cost reduction would be achieved if these cells could be grown on a silicon rather than a germanium substrate since the substrate is ~65% of the cell cost or, better yet, on a polyimide or possibly a ceramic substrate. An overview of multi-junction cell characteristics will be presented here. Thin film cells require substantially less material and have promised the advantage of large area, low cost manufacturing. However, space cell requirements

  17. Lunar Exploration Products Generated from LRO Data: Enabling Future Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, N. E.; Keller, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    While LRO has been operated as a science mission, its initial objectives focused on enabling future surface exploration. The extended life of LRO has allowed the science teams to generate a range of products critical for future exploration.

  18. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  19. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and…

  20. A Bill of Rights for Future Generations. Proceedings Number 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousteau, Jacques-Yves

    This monograph stresses the need for environmental protection and identifies principles for a global policy to preserve the world's oceans. It is hypothesized that unbridled technological development pollutes the environment, and particularly oceans, to such a degree that it threatens the future of mankind. Factors identified as being largely…

  1. To Our Indian Youth - Generation With a Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seneca Nation Educational Foundation, Salamanca, NY.

    The Seneca Nation Educational Foundation has compiled this document for the Indian Youth of New York State who will graduate from high school in the next few years. Information relating to their future occupational and educational opportunities, such as lists of schools and scholarships of specific interest to Indian youth, is presented. Programs…

  2. Listeners discern affective variation in computer-generated musical sounds.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2009-01-01

    We carried out two experiments to test the relationship between real-time perception of structural change in stylistically unusual musical sounds, and perception of its affect (arousal and valence). Computer music was used because of its unfamiliarity and our capacity to control it in ecologically appropriate ways. In experiment 1, thirteen participants unselected for musical training participated in tasks to detect segmentation and changes in affect. Changes in affect occurred upon detection of segmentation; but not all algorithmically distinct segments conveyed distinct affect. Short segments followed by long segments led to greater changes in arousal and valence at the point of segmentation than vice versa. In experiment 2, intra-segment sound transitions were introduced. Sixteen musicians performed the same affect task as in experiment 1, and a novel change in sound task. Participants were slow to respond to a continuous transition, but quick to respond to instantaneous transitions. Contrary to literature on the perception of affect in more familiar music, the musician participants in experiment 2 differed more in their ratings of arousal than of valence, in spite of a strong correlation of arousal with the composition of the stimuli. These findings are discussed in relation to the positive valence attributed to the more familiar sounds in both experiments.

  3. Implementing a Quantitative Analysis Design Tool for Future Generation Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    future MAC-enabled systems. A human-computer interaction ( HCI ) Index, originally applied to multi-function displays was applied to the prototype Vigilant...Spirit interface. A modified version of the HCI Index was successfully applied to perform a quantitative analysis of the baseline VSCS interface and...two modified interface designs. The modified HCI Index incorporates the Hick-Hyman decision time, Fitts’ Law time, and the physical actions

  4. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses requirements for large earth orbiting power stations that can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or for beaming power to the earth itself. The current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies that may impact the future choice of space solar cells for high power mission applications are addressed.

  5. The role of repowering in America's power generation future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-12-01

    Repowering--modifying aging coalfired electric power generating units with a new generation of environmentally clean, highly efficient coal technologies--can lead to long-term, sustained emission reductions, higher energy efficiencies, and more economical electricity for consumers. If the repowering design includes a combined cycle configuration, the potential exists to satisfy much of the nation's foreseeable demand for new capacity without undertaking expensive new power plant construction. This report analyzes the potential benefits of repowering with advanced, innovative clean coal technologies. It approaches the repowering option from the perspective of utility decisionmaking. Beneficial effects with respect to atmospheric pollution, in particular SO2 reduction and resulting acid rain reduction, are discussed.

  6. Popular Imagination and Identity Politics: Reading the Future in "Star Trek: The Next Generation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Brian L.; Aoki, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the television series "Star Trek: The Next Generation." Theorizes the relationship between collective visions of the future and the identity politics of the present. Argues that "The Next Generation" invites audiences to participate in a shared sense of the future that constrains human agency and (re)produces the…

  7. Comparative optimism in the spontaneous generation of future life-events.

    PubMed

    Hoorens, Vera; Smits, Tim; Shepperd, James A

    2008-09-01

    We examined whether comparative optimism characterizes the events people generate when they describe their future. In contrast to previous studies in which participants estimated the likelihoods of experimenter-generated events, our participants freely listed important events they believed were possible in their future versus the average person's future. They also provided desirability ratings, controllability ratings, and likelihood estimates for these self-generated events. Participants listed more desirable and fewer undesirable events in their future than in the average person's future. These differences were stronger for controllable than uncontrollable events. Comparative optimism was also observed in participants' ratings of the likelihood of positive and negative events. Taken together, these findings suggest that a comparative optimism characterizes future expectations about spontaneously generated events as well as the pre-selected events sampled in previous studies.

  8. How Causal Knowledge Affects Classification: A Generative Theory of Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehder, Bob; Kim, ShinWoo

    2006-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed regarding how causal relations among features of objects affect how those objects are classified. The assumptions of these theories were tested in 3 experiments that manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories. There were 3 results. The 1st was a multiple cause effect in which a feature's…

  9. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advances in multidisciplinary technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the FW Project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve the challenging goals of aviation. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  10. Novel Virtual Substrates for Future Generation IR Photodetectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    investigation of CdTe solar cells . 1. Objectives The next generation of IR sensors is likely to be based on large-format (megapixel) arrays of...recombination, had limited non-radiative interface recombination, and were likely to be promising for solar cells that could reach power conversion...InSb is promising for high-efficiency solar cells with large open- circuit voltages, as well as virtual substrate applications for high-performance

  11. The Millennial Generation: Developing Leaders for the Future Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    regard to civic duty, Millennials also appear to be much more willing and empathetic to volunteer their time for worthy causes in comparison to...previous generations.30 It seems that a new Millennial service ethic is emerging, built around notions of working together, support for civic ...Sense of Civic Duty • Pressured • Conventional • Achievers • Higher Violence/ Crime • Unrealistic Optimism • Lacking Basic Education

  12. Notes on Inventive Methodologies and Affirmative Critiques of an Affective Edu-Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staunaes, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    What are the possible futures for educational research? The essay concerns two intertwined agendas. The first agenda is empirical and concerns how educational policy and leadership constitute, circulate, transform and modify feelings, moods and affects. Especially, motivation, engagement and the desire for learning are targets for policy and…

  13. The Future of Web Maps in Next Generation Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, D.; Prasad, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reformation of the "Object Formerly Known as Textbook" (coined by the Chronicle of Higher Education) toward a digital future is underway. Emerging nextgen texts look less like electronic books ("ebooks") and more like online courseware. In addition to text and illustrations, nextgen textbooks for STEM subjects are likely to combine quizzes, grade management tools, support for social learning, and interactive media including web maps. Web maps are interactive, multi-scale, online maps that enable teachers and learners to explore, interrogate, and mash up the wide variety of map layers available in the cloud. This presentation will show how web maps coupled with interactive quizzes enable students' purposeful explorations and interpretations of spatial patterns related to humankind's interactions with the earth. Attendees will also learn about Esri's offer to donate ArcGIS Online web mapping subscriptions to every U.S. school as part of the President Obama's ConnectED initiative.

  14. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  15. Next Generation DNA Sequencing and the Future of Genomic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Matthew W.; Schrijver, Iris

    2010-01-01

    In the years since the first complete human genome sequence was reported, there has been a rapid development of technologies to facilitate high-throughput sequence analysis of DNA (termed “next-generation” sequencing). These novel approaches to DNA sequencing offer the promise of complete genomic analysis at a cost feasible for routine clinical diagnostics. However, the ability to more thoroughly interrogate genomic sequence raises a number of important issues with regard to result interpretation, laboratory workflow, data storage, and ethical considerations. This review describes the current high-throughput sequencing platforms commercially available, and compares the inherent advantages and disadvantages of each. The potential applications for clinical diagnostics are considered, as well as the need for software and analysis tools to interpret the vast amount of data generated. Finally, we discuss the clinical and ethical implications of the wealth of genetic information generated by these methods. Despite the challenges, we anticipate that the evolution and refinement of high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies will catalyze a new era of personalized medicine based on individualized genomic analysis. PMID:24710010

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. Infiltration and runoff generation processes in fire-affected soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-wildfire runoff was investigated by combining field measurements and modelling of infiltration into fire-affected soils to predict time-to-start of runoff and peak runoff rate at the plot scale (1 m2). Time series of soil-water content, rainfall and runoff were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during cyclonic and convective rainstorms in the spring and summer of 2011. Some of the field measurements and measured soil physical properties were used to calibrate a one-dimensional post-wildfire numerical model, which was then used as a ‘virtual instrument’ to provide estimates of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and high-resolution (1 mm) estimates of the soil-water profile and water fluxes within the unsaturated zone.Field and model estimates of the wetting-front depth indicated that post-wildfire infiltration was on average confined to shallow depths less than 30 mm. Model estimates of the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, near the soil surface ranged from 0.1 to 5.2 mm h−1. Because of the relatively small values of Ks, the time-to-start of runoff (measured from the start of rainfall),  tp, was found to depend only on the initial soil-water saturation deficit (predicted by the model) and a measured characteristic of the rainfall profile (referred to as the average rainfall acceleration, equal to the initial rate of change in rainfall intensity). An analytical model was developed from the combined results and explained 92–97% of the variance of  tp, and the numerical infiltration model explained 74–91% of the variance of the peak runoff rates. These results are from one burned site, but they strongly suggest that  tp in fire-affected soils (which often have low values of Ks) is probably controlled more by the storm profile and the initial soil-water saturation deficit than by soil hydraulic properties.

  18. Future Impacts of Distributed Power Generation on Ambient Ozone and Particulate Matter Concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region. [Box: see text].

  19. Future impacts of distributed power generation on ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Vutukuru, Satish; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald

    2011-12-01

    Distributed power generation-electricity generation that is produced by many small stationary power generators distributed throughout an urban air basin-has the potential to supply a significant portion of electricity in future years. As a result, distributed generation may lead to increased pollutant emissions within an urban air basin, which could adversely affect air quality. However, the use of combined heating and power with distributed generation may reduce the energy consumption for space heating and air conditioning, resulting in a net decrease of pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. This work used a systematic approach based on land-use geographical information system data to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of distributed generation emissions in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin of California and simulated the potential air quality impacts using state-of-the-art three-dimensional computer models. The evaluation of the potential market penetration of distributed generation focuses on the year 2023. In general, the air quality impacts of distributed generation were found to be small due to the restrictive 2007 California Air Resources Board air emission standards applied to all distributed generation units and due to the use of combined heating and power. Results suggest that if distributed generation units were allowed to emit at the current Best Available Control Technology standards (which are less restrictive than the 2007 California Air Resources Board standards), air quality impacts of distributed generation could compromise compliance with the federal 8-hr average ozone standard in the region.

  20. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    PubMed

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  1. [How generativity affects motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Megumi; Gondo, Yasuyuki

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify a model of motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people. Erikson's developmental task theory and concept of "generativity" was used as the basis of a hypothetic model. We assumed that memory about parents in childhood has a direct impact on motivation for participating in child-support, and has an indirect impact through generativity and the view of child rearing. Also, the view of child rearing has an indirect impact through generativity. Data was analyzed from questionnaires completed by 236 elderly people (M=68.35 years old, SD=7.64 years). Structural equation modeling showed that the effect of memory about parents and the view of child rearing on the motivation for participating in child-support were mediated by generativity. These results suggested that generativity is a key concept in explaining the motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  3. Sowing Seeds for Future Generations: Development of Generative Concern and Its Relation to Environmental Narrative Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Fanli; Soucie, Kendall; Alisat, Susan; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the trajectory of generative concern measured at ages 23, 26 and 32 and environmental narrative identity at age 32. Canadian participants completed a questionnaire on generative concern at ages 23, 26 and 32 and were then interviewed about their personal experiences with the…

  4. Adolescent Generativity: A Longitudinal Study of Two Possible Contexts for Learning Concern for Future Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.; Hunsberger, Bruce; Pancer, S. Mark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate developmental pathways to Erikson's (1959) construct of generativity, defined as care and concern for the next generation and traditionally viewed as important for midlife adults, in a late adolescent sample. A sample of 198 adolescents was followed three times over a 6-year period, from ages 17…

  5. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  6. The next generation - How are we equipping our young generation for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, Corhyn

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear industry until a few years ago was perceived to be a dying breed in the UK. As the lifetime of our operating station comes to a close younger engineers and scientists favoured other industries such as IT, manufacturing or banking. As we enter a nuclear renaissance in the UK it is becoming increasingly more important to attract and retain the best scientists and engineers to secure our energy requirements for the future as well as decommission the current liabilities. This paper discusses 3 groups focusing on graduate recruitment and retention, Companies, YGN and NDA. All three need to work together to not only promote the nuclear industry and encourage graduates but also to develop them for the future. Companies are continuously refocusing their schemes to the changing requirements of the industry, the YGN are a link between these companies assisting with career developing of new recruits and the NDA have launched a programme to encourage a national graduate programme. All three elements are discussed and required to evolve together to ensure the successful development of the industry on a national level. (author)

  7. The Impact of Exposure to Addictive Drugs on Future Generations: Physiological and Behavioral Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vassoler, F.M.; Byrnes, E.M.; Pierce, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to drug addiction. Recent evidence indicating trans-generational influences of drug abuse highlight potential epigenetic factors as well. Specifically, mounting evidence suggests that parental ingestion of abused drugs influence the physiology and behavior of future generations even in the absence of prenatal exposure. The goal of this review is to describe the trans-generational consequences of preconception exposure to drugs of abuse for five major classes of drugs: alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, opioids, and cocaine. The potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying the transmission of these phenotypes across generations also are detailed. PMID:23810828

  8. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's... affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs? Retrocession does not affect other parts of the AFA or funding agreements with other bureaus. A Tribe/Consortium may request to negotiate for...

  13. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  14. High-Temperature Corrosion in Fossil Fuel Power Generation: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.

    2013-08-01

    Fossil fuels have historically represented two-thirds of all electricity generation in the United States and are projected to continue to play a similar role despite historically low projected growth rates in electricity demand and the recent dramatic shift from coal to more natural gas usage. Economic and environmental drivers will require more reliable and efficient fossil fuel generation systems in the future, likely with new system designs, higher operating temperatures, and more aggressive environments. Some of the current corrosion issues in power plants are reviewed along with research on materials solutions for systems envisioned for the near future, such as coal gasification and oxy-fired coal boilers.

  15. Sensitivity of Regional Hydropower Generation to the Projected Changes in Future Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower is a key contributor to the renewable energy portfolio due to its established development history and the diverse benefits it provides to the electric power systems. With the projected change in the future watershed hydrology, including shift of snowmelt timing, increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation, and change in drought frequencies, there is a need to investigate how the regional hydropower generation may change correspondingly. To evaluate the sensitivity of watershed storage and hydropower generation to future climate change, a lumped Watershed Runoff-Energy Storage (WRES) model is developed to simulate the annual and seasonal hydropower generation at various hydropower areas in the United States. For each hydropower study area, the WRES model use the monthly precipitation and naturalized (unregulated) runoff as inputs to perform a runoff mass balance calculation for the total monthly runoff storage in all reservoirs and retention facilities in the watershed, and simulate the monthly regulated runoff release and hydropower generation through the system. The WRES model is developed and calibrated using the historic (1980-2009) monthly precipitation, runoff, and generation data, and then driven by a large set of dynamically- and statistically-downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections to simulate the change of watershed storage and hydropower generation under different future climate scenarios. The results among different hydropower regions, storage capacities, emission scenarios, and timescales are compared and discussed in this study.

  16. Using Emotion as Information in Future-Oriented Cognition: Individual Differences in the Context of State Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Brett; Boyle, Chloe C; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-06-01

    Predictions about the future are susceptible to mood-congruent influences of emotional state. However, recent work suggests individuals also differ in the degree to which they incorporate emotion into cognition. This study examined the role of such individual differences in the context of state negative emotion. We examined whether trait tendencies to use negative or positive emotion as information affect individuals' predictions of what will happen in the future (likelihood estimation) and how events will feel (affective forecasting), and whether trait influences depend on emotional state. Participants (N=119) reported on tendencies to use emotion as information ("following feelings"), underwent an emotion induction (negative versus neutral), and made likelihood estimates and affective forecasts for future events. Views of the future were predicted by both emotional state and individual differences in following feelings. Whereas following negative feelings affected most future-oriented cognition across emotional states, following positive feelings specifically buffered individuals' views of the future in the negative emotion condition, and specifically for positive future events, a category of future-event prediction especially important in psychological health. Individual differences may confer predisposition toward optimistic or pessimistic expectations of the future in the context of acute negative emotion, with implications for adaptive and maladaptive functioning.

  17. For Future Generations: Funding Culturally Embedded Higher Education at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clairmont, Tanksi

    2014-01-01

    From their inception, tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) have played a special cultural as well as educational role in Native communities. These dual roles are integral to the preservation of American Indian language and traditions, as they open the door for future generations to acquire and perpetuate cultural knowledge. The American Indian…

  18. Transfer of the Kenyan Kikuyu Male Circumcision Ritual to Future Generations Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbito, Michael N.; Malia, Julia A.

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological research report from analysis of interviews with 18 participants focuses on the theme of transferring an age-old initiation-into-manhood circumcision ritual to future generations of Kenyan Kikuyu who are living in the US. We identified three subthemes and found a strong indication that, while personally meaningful to the…

  19. The impact of H2S emissions on future geothermal power generation - The Geysers region, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    The future potential for geothermal power generation in the Geysers region of California is as much as 10 times the current 502 MW(e) capacity. However, environmental factors such as H2S emissions and institutional considerations may play the primary role in determining the rate and ultimate level of development. In this paper a scenario of future geothermal generation capacity and H2S emissions in the Geysers region is presented. Problem areas associated with H2S emissions, H2S abatement processes, plant operations, and government agency resources are described. The impact of H2S emissions on future development and the views of effected organizations are discussed. Potential actions needed to remove these constraints are summarized.

  20. The future in clinical genetics: affective forecasting biases in patient and clinician decision making.

    PubMed

    Peters, S A; Laham, S M; Pachter, N; Winship, I M

    2014-04-01

    When clinicians facilitate and patients make decisions about predictive genetic testing, they often base their choices on the predicted emotional consequences of positive and negative test results. Research from psychology and decision making suggests that such predictions may often be biased. Work on affective forecasting-predicting one's future emotional states-shows that people tend to overestimate the impact of (especially negative) emotional events on their well-being; a phenomenon termed the impact bias. In this article, we review the causes and consequences of the impact bias in medical decision making, with a focus on applying such findings to predictive testing in clinical genetics. We also recommend strategies for reducing the impact bias and consider the ethical and practical implications of doing so.

  1. Domestic and world trends (1980 - 2000) affecting the future of aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, N.; Overholt, W.; Thomas, J.; Wiener, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Variables affecting aviation in the United States during the last fifth of the twentieth century are studied. Estimates of relevant future developments are presented and their probable impact on the aviation industry in this country are identified. A series of key trends relating to economic, social, political, technological, ecological and environmental developments are identified and discussed with relation to their possible effects on aviation. From this analysis, a series of scenarios are developed representing an array of possibilities ranging from severe economic depression and high international tension on the one hand, to a world of detente which enjoys an unprecedented economic growth rate and relaxation of tensions on the other. A surprise free scenario is presented which represents the best judgment of the manner in which events will most probably develop and the effect on the aviation industry such developments will likely produce.

  2. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  3. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  4. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought

    PubMed Central

    Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val158Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. PMID:25190703

  5. Chemical and physical parameters affecting the performance of the Os-191/Ir-191m generator

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, A.B.; Treves, S.; O'Brien, G.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an Os-191/Ir-191m generator suitable for radionuclide angiography in humans has elicited much interest. This generator employs (OsO/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/)/sup 2 -/ on AG MP-1 anion exchange resin with a Dowex-2 scavenger column and is elute with normal saline at pH 1. The parent Os species is, however, neither well-defined nor homogeneous leading to less than optimal breakthrough of Os-191 (5 x 10/sup -3/%) and modest Ir-191m yield (10-15%). The effect of a range of parameters on generator performance has been evaluated as has been the way in which the assembly and loading process affects generator performance. In addition, a number of potential alternative generator systems have been evaluated. 11 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed.

  7. The role of advanced technology in the future of the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1994-10-01

    This presentation reviews the directions that technology has given the power generation industry in the past and how advanced technology will be the key for the future of the industry. The topics of the presentation include how the industry`s history has defined its culture, how today`s economic and regulatory climate has constrained its strategy, and how certain technology options might give some of the players an unfair advantage.

  8. Efficiency and economics of large scale hydrogen liquefaction. [for future generation aircraft requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen is being considered as a substitute for conventional hydrocarbon-based fuels for future generations of commercial jet aircraft. Its acceptance will depend, in part, upon the technology and cost of liquefaction. The process and economic requirements for providing a sufficient quantity of liquid hydrogen to service a major airport are described. The design is supported by thermodynamic studies which determine the effect of process arrangement and operating parameters on the process efficiency and work of liquefaction.

  9. NASA Workshop on future directions in surface modeling and grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandalsem, W. R.; Smith, R. E.; Choo, Y. K.; Birckelbaw, L. D.; Vogel, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a summary of the paper sessions and panel discussions of the NASA Workshop on Future Directions in Surface Modeling and Grid Generation held a NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, December 5-7, 1989. The purpose was to assess U.S. capabilities in surface modeling and grid generation and take steps to improve the focus and pace of these disciplines within NASA. The organization of the workshop centered around overviews from NASA centers and expert presentations from U.S. corporations and universities. Small discussion groups were held and summarized by group leaders. Brief overviews and a panel discussion by representatives from the DoD were held, and a NASA-only session concluded the meeting. In the NASA Program Planning Session summary there are five recommended steps for NASA to take to improve the development and application of surface modeling and grid generation.

  10. Usage of Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (MMRTGs) for Future Potential Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Otting, Bill; Johnson, Steve; Woerner, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASAs Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), evaluates the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Programs budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This presentation focuses on the needs of the mission community and provides users a better understanding of how to integrate the MMRTG (Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator).

  11. Future Developments of the Next Generation Manned Space Platforms (European and Russian Space Students Perspectives)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Douglas K. R.

    2002-01-01

    The opportunities for research made available by in-orbit manned space platforms is extensive. Research topics from space life science and biotechnology to material science and structural mechanics, from Astrophysics to the Low Earth Orbit environment to name a few. The list is long and has been growing steadily since the launch of Salyut 1 in 1971 till the present day ISS. With the construction of the ISS now into its final phase, what is the future of such research platforms? What will the "Next Generation" space station comprise of? What of manned research platforms beyond LEO and what constraints are foreseen after ISS. This paper presents current issues concerning the conceptual design of the "Next Generation" manned space platforms, the obstacles that are predicted concerning major subsystems of such platforms and also predictions of where the foci of research will concentrate. Future developments of the next generation manned space platforms presents research by the author in both his previous academic institutions1, personal opinions and the opinions of other young space research students and space professionals including Super Aero (France), Leicester University and Space Research Centre (UK) and Moscow State University (Russia). Here the author will detail the areas in which the contributors (representing the next generation space professionals) believe manned space platform architectures will be evolved, new technological developments and barriers to be overcome. In addition, new methods of Spacecraft design will also be presented, referring in the main to the Space Station Design Workshop 2002 (ESTEC Concurrent Design Facility) a week long workshop where a group of 30 young space professionals where brought together to design a conceptual space station. Future developments of the next generation manned space platforms has been composed with two aims. Firstly, to convey to both young space enthusiasts and more mature space professionals the ideas

  12. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of

  13. Stress generation in depression: A systematic review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Richard T.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    Within the past 20 years, depression research has given increasing consideration to the possibility of complex and reciprocal relations between stress and depression. Not only does stress increase risk for depression (i.e., a stress exposure model of depression), but depression, or depressogenic vulnerabilities, in turn, also increases susceptibility to stressful events that are at least in part influenced by the individual (i.e., stress generation; Hammen, 1991). The present review provides a systematic examination of the stress generation literature to date, with specific focus given to depression and depressogenic risk factors (i.e., past stress, negative cognitive styles, and personality and interpersonal vulnerabilities) as predictors of the stress generation effect, as well as gender differences in stress generation, the sequelae of generated stress, and the relative specificity of this phenomenon to depression. The research thus far appears most consistent in supporting the role of depression in predicting generated stress, although more research is still required. In addition to highlighting these findings, methodological limitations and conceptual gaps in the literature are discussed with the view of informing future research in this area. PMID:20478648

  14. Litter decay controlled by temperature, not soil properties, affecting future soil carbon.

    PubMed

    Gregorich, Edward G; Janzen, Henry; Ellert, Benjamin H; Helgason, Bobbi L; Qian, Budong; Zebarth, Bernie J; Angers, Denis A; Beyaert, Ronald P; Drury, Craig F; Duguid, Scott D; May, William E; McConkey, Brian G; Dyck, Miles F

    2017-04-01

    Widespread global changes, including rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, climate warming and loss of biodiversity, are predicted for this century; all of these will affect terrestrial ecosystem processes like plant litter decomposition. Conversely, increased plant litter decomposition can have potential carbon-cycle feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 levels, climate warming and biodiversity. But predicting litter decomposition is difficult because of many interacting factors related to the chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, as well as to climate and agricultural management practices. We applied (13) C-labelled plant litter to soil at ten sites spanning a 3500-km transect across the agricultural regions of Canada and measured its decomposition over five years. Despite large differences in soil type and climatic conditions, we found that the kinetics of litter decomposition were similar once the effect of temperature had been removed, indicating no measurable effect of soil properties. A two-pool exponential decay model expressing undecomposed carbon simply as a function of thermal time accurately described kinetics of decomposition. (R(2)  = 0.94; RMSE = 0.0508). Soil properties such as texture, cation exchange capacity, pH and moisture, although very different among sites, had minimal discernible influence on decomposition kinetics. Using this kinetic model under different climate change scenarios, we projected that the time required to decompose 50% of the litter (i.e. the labile fractions) would be reduced by 1-4 months, whereas time required to decompose 90% of the litter (including recalcitrant fractions) would be reduced by 1 year in cooler sites to as much as 2 years in warmer sites. These findings confirm quantitatively the sensitivity of litter decomposition to temperature increases and demonstrate how climate change may constrain future soil carbon storage, an effect apparently not influenced by soil properties.

  15. Local network parameters can affect inter-network phase lags in central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Kopell, N

    2006-01-01

    Weakly coupled phase oscillators and strongly coupled relaxation oscillators have different mechanisms for creating stable phase lags. Many oscillations in central pattern generators combine features of each type of coupling: local networks composed of strongly coupled relaxation oscillators are weakly coupled to similar local networks. This paper analyzes the phase lags produced by this combination of mechanisms and shows how the parameters of a local network, such as the decay time of inhibition, can affect the phase lags between the local networks. The analysis is motivated by the crayfish central pattern generator used for swimming, and uses techniques from geometrical singular perturbation theory.

  16. Futurism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  17. Statistical downscaling and future scenario generation of temperatures for Pakistan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Dildar Hussain; Li, Jianping; Rasul, Ghulam; Tong, Jiang; Ali, Gohar; Cheema, Sohail Babar; Liu, Luliu; Gemmer, Marco; Fischer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Finer climate change information on spatial scale is required for impact studies than that presently provided by global or regional climate models. It is especially true for regions like South Asia with complex topography, coastal or island locations, and the areas of highly heterogeneous land-cover. To deal with the situation, an inexpensive method (statistical downscaling) has been adopted. Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM) employed for downscaling of daily minimum and maximum temperature data of 44 national stations for base time (1961-1990) and then the future scenarios generated up to 2099. Observed as well as Predictors (product of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) data were calibrated and tested on individual/multiple basis through linear regression. Future scenario was generated based on HadCM3 daily data for A2 and B2 story lines. The downscaled data has been tested, and it has shown a relatively strong relationship with the observed in comparison to ECHAM5 data. Generally, the southern half of the country is considered vulnerable in terms of increasing temperatures, but the results of this study projects that in future, the northern belt in particular would have a possible threat of increasing tendency in air temperature. Especially, the northern areas (hosting the third largest ice reserves after the Polar Regions), an important feeding source for Indus River, are projected to be vulnerable in terms of increasing temperatures. Consequently, not only the hydro-agricultural sector but also the environmental conditions in the area may be at risk, in future.

  18. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are an important source of renewable energy for many countries in Europe. In Switzerland, for instance, they represent the most important domestic source of renewable energy (around 55%). However, future hydropower production may be threatened by unprecedented challenges, such as a decreasing water availability, due to climate change (CC) and associated glacier retreat, and uncertain operating conditions, such as future power needs and highly fluctuating demand on the energy market. This second aspect has gained increasingly relevance since the massive introduction of solar and wind generating systems in the portfolios of many European countries. Because hydropower systems have the potential to provide backup storage of energy to compensate for fluctuations that are typical, for instance, of solar and wind generation systems, it is important to investigate how the increased demand for flexible operation, together with climate change challenge and fluctuating markets, can impact their operating policies. The Swiss Competence Center on Supply of Electricity (www.sccer-soe.ch) has been recently established to explore new potential paths for the development of future power generation systems. In this context, we develop modelling and optimization tools to design and assess new operation strategies for hydropower systems to increase their reliability, flexibility, and robustness to future operation conditions. In particular, we develop an advanced modelling framework for the integrated simulation of the operation of hydropower plants, which accounts for CC-altered streamflow regimes, new demand and market conditions, as well as new boundary conditions for operation (e.g., aquatic ecosystem conservation). The model construction consists of two primary components: a physically based and spatially distributed hydrological model, which describes the relevant hydrological processes at the basin scale, and an agent based decision model, which

  19. What Affects Willingness to Mentor in the Future? An Investigation of Attachment Styles and Mentoring Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Sheng; Noe, Raymond A.; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Greenberger, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of attachment styles and mentoring experiences on willingness to mentor in the future in a formal mentoring program in China. For both mentors and proteges, avoidance and anxiety dimensions of attachment styles and their interaction had a significant influence on willingness to mentor in the future. Mentoring…

  20. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate fundamental'' limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  1. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate ``fundamental`` limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  2. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  3. Why We Explore: The Value of Space Exploration for Future Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Armstrong, Robert C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its industry partners are making measurable progress toward delivering new human space transportation capabilities to serve as the catalyst for a new era of discovery, as directed by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. In the interest of ensuring prolonged support, the Agency encourages space advocates of all stripes to accurately portray both the tangible and intangible benefits of space exploration, especially its value for future generations. This may be done not only by emphasizing the nation's return on its aerospace investment, but also by highlighting enabling security features and by promoting the scientific and technological benefits that accrue from the human exploration of space. As America embarks on a new era of leadership and international partnership on the next frontier, we are poised to master space by living off-planet on the Moon to prepare astronauts for longer journeys to Mars. These and other relevant facts should be clearly in the view of influential decision-makers and the American taxpayers, and we must increasingly involve those on whom the long-term sustainability of space exploration ultimately depends: America's youth. This paper will examine three areas of concrete benefits for future generations: fundamental security, economic enterprise, and high-technology advancements spurred by the innovation that scientific discovery demands.

  4. (Un)Disciplined futures: Women of color feminism as a disruptive to white affect studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rojas, Claudia

    2016-09-09

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how women of color feminism predates and disrupts dominant dialogues in the field of White affect studies. I introduce the concept of White affect studies as an arena of inquiry that draws from Western-European theories and literatures and architects a sociopolitical structure of affect that positions White affects as universal. Scholars contributing to the field of White affect studies posit theories of affect, embodiment, subjectivity, phenomenology, violence, war, and more, while disregarding the theoretical contributions made by women of color feminism in thinking through these notions and social issues. This is done by engaging in a citational practice that results in an epistemic erasure of women of color feminist thought. The voices of women of color feminists are thus disqualified, and their theoretical contributions are not acknowledged as significant or relevant in conceptualizing affect, affective economies, and the social. By turning to the writings of women of color feminists, I demonstrate how their theories on embodiment, subjectivity, and social structures predate the institutionalization of White affect studies. Feminists of color from the past and present have and continue to theorize through a language of self their experiences as subjects embedded within matrices of violence, power, and pleasure. Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla write about the ways in which lesbian and queer women of color institute different affects that counter dominant structures of emotion, systems of power, and heterosexual modes of being. In developing conceptual methodologies, Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla are able to weave into the dominant discursive logic a language of self that both introduces new queer subjectivities, while reinterpreting existing forms of thought, thereby contesting mainstream economies of White affects and White affect studies. It is through a language of self that Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla develop

  5. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  7. Report on Future Factors Affecting the Department of Defense Dependents Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Ted; And Others

    The second volume of a comprehensive study of the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS), this report identifies emerging and future trends that will influence DoDDS operations in coming years. Chapter 1, "Changing Student Population," forecasts effects on DoDDS of predicted youth population decline, changing racial/ethnic composition,…

  8. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    PubMed Central

    Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring

  9. The Italian Spacegate: Study and innovative approaches to future generation transportation based on High Altitude Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Francesco; Bellomo, Alessandro; Bolle, Andrea; Vittori, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the pre-feasibility studies carried out in 2012 on the concept of sub orbital and hypersonic, high altitude flight in support of future generation transportation. Currently, while the High Altitude Flight is mostly instrumental to touristic purposes and emphasizes the so called Spaceports as futuristic, customers-luring airports featured with all the support services, the “Spacegate” concept deals with scheduled traveling in the upper part of the atmosphere between two points over the Earth surface, with significant reduction of the transfer time. The first part of the paper provides a theoretical approach to the matter, by proposing an “operational” mapping of the atmosphere as well as of the different kinds of flight occurring at High Altitude. The second part of the paper addresses the problem of the limited human capability of maintaining an active control of the vehicle during the re-entry phase and introduces the “Spacegate” concept as the conical portion of the atmosphere above the landing site, whose surface delimits the spiral-descending trajectories that the pilot can travel for a safe re-entry. This paper further outlines the results of the preliminary definition of top level operational requirements and derived architecture functional modules in support to the “Spacegate” implementation. Special attention was given to the favorable geographic and climatic conditions of Italy that make this Country suitable enough for future experimental sub orbital flights and related operations. An initial analysis was performed on the regulatory backbone that has to be built to properly operate High Altitude Flight vehicles in Italy according to the concept of an Italian “Spacegate”. A Preliminary Master Plan/Road Map for the “Spacegate” has been laid out, with special emphasis to selected near term activities and support infrastructures necessary to be carried out to better refine the study in preparation

  10. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months. Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  11. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months (6.6%). Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics (such as global radiative forcing) to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  12. [In vitro generation of blood red cells from stem cells: a sketch of the future].

    PubMed

    Mazurier, Christelle; Douay, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Human adult pluripotent stem cells, stem cells of embryonic origin and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) provide cellular sources for new promising regenerative medicine approaches. Because these cells can be patient-specific, they allow considering a personalized medicine appropriate to the diagnosis of each. The generation of cultured red blood cells (cRBC) derived from stem cells is emblematic of personalized medicine. Indeed, these cells have the advantage of being selected according to a blood phenotype of interest and they may provide treatments to patients in situation of impossible transfusion (alloimmunized patients, rare phenotypes). Essential progresses have established proof of concept for this approach, still a concept some years ago. From adult stem cells, all steps of upstream research were successfully achieved, including the demonstration of the feasibility of injection into human. This leads us to believe that Red Blood Cells generated in vitro from stem cells will be the future players of blood transfusion. However, although theoretically ideal, these stem cells raise many biological challenges to overcome, although some tracks are identified.

  13. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  14. Future application of e-beam repair tool beyond 3X generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamitsu, Shingo; Hirano, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Currently, repair technology is one of the key factors in mask making process regarding TAT reduction and yield level enhancement. Since its commercial release EB repair tool has been commonly used for production line and contributed to high quality repair. But it is not guaranteed whether those conventional machines can keep up with future pattern reduction trend or not. In 2Xnm generation node some advanced exposure techniques seem to be adopted and that will inevitably require higher specification of repair machine. A simple lithography simulation predicts 5nm of indispensable repair accuracy for 2Xnm generation pattern. This number implies the necessity of upper class machine. Generally, the error budget of EB repair tool is composed of three to four components, stated another way mechanical stability, electrical (charging) uniformity, process stability, and graphical quality including software ability. If errors from those components are reduced, overall repair accuracy could be better. A suggestion which can improve those errors was issued last year from tool vender including new machine concept. We have conducted several kind of experiment in order to confirm the performance of new machine. In this paper, we will report the result of experiment and consider which part can effectively contribute to repair accuracy. And we have also evaluated its practical utility value for 2Xnm node by verifying actual application of some 3Xnm production masks.

  15. Study of methane hydrate as a future energy resource: low emission extraction and power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Yamada, H.; Kanda, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Okajima, J.; Iga, Y.; Komiya, A.; Maruyama, S.

    2016-08-01

    With the fast increase of world energy consumption in recent years, new and sustainable energy sources are becoming more and more important. Methane Hydrate is one promising candidate for the future energy supply of humankind, due to its vast existence in permafrost regions and near-coast seabed. This study is focused on the effective low emission utilization of methane hydrate from deep seabed. The Nankai Trough of Japan is taken as the target region in this study for methane hydrate extraction and utilization system design. Low emission system and power generation system with CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) processes are proposed and analyzed for production rate and electricity generation efficiency problem study. It is found that the gas production price can reach the current domestic natural gas supply price level if the production rate can be improved. The optimized system is estimated to have power efficiency about 35%. In addition, current development and analysis from micro-to-macro scale methane hydrate production and dissociation dynamics are also discussed into detail in this study.

  16. Past and future climate patterns affecting temperate, sub-tropical and tropical horticultural crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...

  17. Trends that will affect your future ... Mr South Whidbey, globalization, and the worship of profit.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2010-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  18. Seventy-One Trends That May Affect Entrepreneur Education for Future World Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetron, Marvin

    Entrepreneurship education is and will likely continue to be affected by various societal, technological, educational, labor force, management, ideological, family, and institutional trends. In the area of the economy, these trends include a rise of middle-class society, the integration of the national economy, and the integration of the national…

  19. Trends that will affect your future ... The illness profit industry and national security.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2009-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  20. Next generation information communication infrastructure and case studies for future power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Bin

    As power industry enters the new century, powerful driving forces, uncertainties and new functions are compelling electric utilities to make dramatic changes in their information communication infrastructure. Expanding network services such as real time measurement and monitoring are also driving the need for more bandwidth in the communication network. These needs will grow further as new remote real-time protection and control applications become more feasible and pervasive. This dissertation addresses two main issues for the future power system information infrastructure: communication network infrastructure and associated power system applications. Optical networks no doubt will become the predominant data transmission media for next generation power system communication. The rapid development of fiber optic network technology poses new challenges in the areas of topology design, network management and real time applications. Based on advanced fiber optic technologies, an all-fiber network is investigated and proposed. The study will cover the system architecture and data exchange protocol aspects. High bandwidth, robust optical networks could provide great opportunities to the power system for better service and efficient operation. In the dissertation, different applications are investigated. One of the typical applications is the SCADA information accessing system. An Internet-based application for the substation automation system will be presented. VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technology is also used for one-line diagrams auto-generation. High transition rate and low latency optical network is especially suitable for power system real time control. In the dissertation, a new local area network based Load Shedding Controller (LSC) for isolated power system will be presented. By using PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) and fiber optic network, an AGE (Area Generation Error) based accurate wide area load shedding scheme will also be proposed. The objective

  1. Solid images generated from UAVs to analyze areas affected by rock falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The study of rock fall affected areas is usually based on the recognition of principal joints families and the localization of potential instable sectors. This requires the acquisition of field data, although as the areas are barely accessible and field inspections are often very dangerous. For this reason, remote sensing systems can be considered as suitable alternative. Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been proposed as platform to acquire the necessary information. Indeed, mini UAVs (in particular in the multi-rotors configuration) provide versatility for the acquisition from different points of view a large number of high resolution optical images, which can be used to generate high resolution digital models relevant to the study area. By considering the recent development of powerful user-friendly software and algorithms to process images acquired from UAVs, there is now a need to establish robust methodologies and best-practice guidelines for correct use of 3D models generated in the context of rock fall scenarios. In this work, we show how multi-rotor UAVs can be used to survey areas by rock fall during real emergency contexts. We present two examples of application located in northwestern Italy: the San Germano rock fall (Piemonte region) and the Moneglia rock fall (Liguria region). We acquired data from both terrestrial LiDAR and UAV, in order to compare digital elevation models generated with different remote sensing approaches. We evaluate the volume of the rock falls, identify the areas potentially unstable, and recognize the main joints families. The use on is not so developed but probably this approach can be considered the better solution for a structural investigation of large rock walls. We propose a methodology that jointly considers the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach for the generation of 3D solid images, and a geotechnical analysis for the identification of joint families and potential failure planes.

  2. Quantifying the Opportunity Space for Future Electricity Generation: An Application to Offshore Wind Energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Marcy, Cara; Beiter, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    This report provides a high-level indicator of the future electricity demand for additional electric power generation that is not met by existing generation sources between 2015 and 2050. The indicator is applied to coastal regions, including the Great Lakes, to assess the regional opportunity space for offshore wind. An assessment of opportunity space can be a first step in determining the prospects and the system value of a technology. The metric provides the maximal amount of additional generation that is likely required to satisfy load in future years.

  3. Future climate change scenarios differentially affect three abundant algal species in southwestern Australia.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Charlie M; Boyce, Mary C; Huggett, Megan J

    2017-02-21

    Three species of macroalgae (Ecklonia radiata, Sargassum linearifolium, and Laurencia brongniartii) were subjected to future climate change conditions, tested directly for changes in their physiology and chemical ecology, and used in feeding assays with local herbivores to identify the indirect effects of climatic stressors on subsequent levels of herbivory. Each alga had distinct physical and chemical responses to the changes in environmental conditions. In high temperature conditions, S. linearifolium exhibited high levels of bleaching and low maximum quantum yield. For E. radiata, the alga became more palatable to herbivores and the C:N ratios were either higher or lower, dependent on the treatment. Laurencia brongniartii was effected in all manipulations when compared to controls, with increases in bleaching, blade density, and C:N ratios and decreases in growth, maximum quantum yield, blade toughness, total phenolics and consumption by mesograzers. The differential responses we observed in each species have important implications for benthic communities in projected climate change conditions and we suggest that future studies target multi-species assemblage responses.

  4. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  5. Concentrated solar power generation: Firm and dispatchable capacity for Brazil's solar future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Jan; Haasz, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    The Brazilian electricity mix is currently dominated by renewable energy forms, foremost hydropower. Large additional capacity demands are expected in the mid-term future but additional potential for hydro power is limited. In addition it is planned to construct more than 17 GW of wind power and additional capacity of photovoltaics (PV). Due to the fluctuating nature of such renewables, however, wind and PV are hardly able to provide firm capacity. Concentrated solar power (CSP) might be a feasible option to provide firm and dispatchable capacity at low carbon emissions. This study analyses the opportunities for integrating CSP into the Brazilian energy system. Making use of the TiPS-B model, a novel application of the optimization model generator TIMES, we compare different climate protection strategies with a reference scenario and analyze the contribution of CSP to the electricity mix. The analysis covers various types of CSP power plants with molten salt energy storage where we look at possible dispatch strategies considering the fluctuations in electricity supply and use. The consideration of solar water heaters (SWH) is the first step to transfer the power system model to an energy system model that is capable of showing the benefits of energy saving measures on the demand side. It can be demonstrated that the Brazilian power system is likely to change significantly in future. This development would go hand in hand with a strong increase in carbon emissions if no mitigation actions are taken and fossil fueled power plants are used to fill the gap in capacity. CSP power plants are found as a feasible alternative for covering the demand while taking carbon mitigation actions. In a scenario, aiming at 4 and 2 degrees global warming, CSP provides for 7.6 GW and 14.6 GW capacity in 2050, respectively. Different storage configurations are used to provide energy in the evening hours to cover the demand peak providing a strong benefit over photovoltaic electricity

  6. Mood Disorders & their Pharmacological Treatment during Pregnancy: Is the Future Child Affected?

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Catherine; Fitelson, Elizabeth M.; Werner, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Nearly half the U.S. population will meet criteria for a neuropsychiatric disorder at some point in their lives, and 1 in 17 has a seriously debilitating illness. Though not all affected adults had an identified disorder as a child, increasingly these psychopathologies are conceptualized as the late–stage culmination of aberrant developmental processes shaped by a complex interplay of genes and experience, including experiences in utero. Decades of studies with pregnant animals demonstrate that stress–elicited perturbations in maternal biology affect offspring neurodevelopment. Studies of stress in pregnant women largely mirror these findings. Pregnant women with anxiety and/or depression experience greater life stress, as well as illness–related alterations in their neurobiology, with a potential to impact fetal neurobehavioral development via associated changes in the intrauterine environment, and/or pharmacologic interventions. This article critically reviews findings on child development (including fetal neurobehavior) related to maternal depression, anxiety, and pharmacological treatments, primarily Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). The hypothesis under review is that, in addition to genetics and characteristics of the postnatal environment, the familial transmission of risk for neuropsychiatric disorders involves a ‘third path’ — prenatal exposure to psychiatric illness and its treatment. PMID:21289532

  7. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  8. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Extraembryonic Tissues of Fetuses Affected by Monogenic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa V; Botta, Annalisa; Murdocca, Michela; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Orlandi, Augusto; Giardina, Emiliano; Santoro, Massimo; Brancati, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from an autologous extraembryonic fetal source is an innovative personalized regenerative technology that can transform own-self cells into embryonic stem-like ones. These cells are regarded as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for disease modeling and drug discovery. Thus, hiPSCs enable researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases or for future applications of in utero therapy. We used a polycistronic lentiviral vector (hSTEMCCA-loxP) encoding OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC genes and containing loxP sites, excisible by Cre recombinase, to reprogram patient-specific fetal cells derived from prenatal diagnosis for several genetic disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), β-thalassemia (β-Thal), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as from wild-type (WT) fetal cells. Because cell types tested to create hiPSCs influence both the reprogramming process efficiency and the kinetics, we used chorionic villus (CV) and amniotic fluid (AF) cells, demonstrating how they represent an ideal cell resource for a more efficient generation of hiPSCs. The successful reprogramming of both CV and AF cells into hiPSCs was confirmed by specific morphological, molecular, and immunocytochemical markers and also by their teratogenic potential when inoculated in vivo. We further demonstrated the stability of reprogrammed cells over 10 and more passages and their capability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers, as well as into neural cells. These data suggest that hiPSCs-CV/AF can be considered a valid cellular model to accomplish pathogenesis studies and therapeutic applications.

  9. Domestic and world trends affecting the future of aviation (1980 - 2000), appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of variables affecting aviation in the United States during the last fifth of the twentieth century. A series of key trends relating to economic, social, political, technological, ecological, and environmental developments are identified and discussed with relation to their possible effects on aviation. From this analysis a series of scenarios is developed representing an array of possibilities ranging from severe economic depression and high international tension on the one hand to a world of detente which enjoys an unprecedented economic growth rate and relaxation of tensions on the other. A scenario is presented which represents the manner in which events will most probably develop and their effect on the aviation industry.

  10. Adolescent Experience Affects Postnatal Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Gene Expression in Future Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bodi, Caroline M.; Vassoler, Fair M.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study measured postnatal ultrasonic vocalization (USV) and gene expression to examine potential changes in communication and/or attachment in the offspring of mothers exposed to morphine during adolescence. Offspring of morphine-exposed (Mor-F1), saline-exposed (Sal-F1), or non-handled control (Con-F1) female Sprague–Dawley rats were tested for separation-induced distress calls and maternal potentiation of distress calls during early postnatal development. We also examined relative expression of dopamine D2 receptor and mu opioid receptor (oprm1) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus in these offspring, as their activity has been implicated in the regulation of postnatal USV in response to maternal separation. The findings indicate that adolescent experiences of future mothers, including their 10 daily saline or morphine injections, can result in significant region-specific differences in gene expression. In addition, these experiences resulted in fewer numbers of separation-induced distress calls produced by offspring. In contrast, augmented maternal potentiation was only observed in Mor-F1 offspring. PMID:26999300

  11. An Idea for Generating Diversity Conversations: Physics Jeopardy and the Future Faces of Physics Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Kendra; White, Gary

    2008-10-01

    Is there a way to engage typical physics undergraduates in a conversation about under-represented groups in physics that doesn't result in rolled-eyes or fingers-in-the-ears? The Society of Physics Students (SPS) has begun an experiment using a jeopardy-like game at physics meetings in an attempt to generate conversations about diversity. The physics jeopardy game is part of a "Future Faces of Physics" kit that includes a variety of materials that are of interest to those wanting to address under-represented audiences in physics, such as video clips exhibiting common physics words in sign language, tactile representations of the lunar surface for blind students, guidelines regarding lab procedures for the wheel-chair bound, and the book, Einstein on Race and Racism with a challenge letter directed at SPS chapters from the authors. While attempts to assess the impact of the game are modest, we report anecdotally some of the qualitative features seen in the discussions when the game is played. We also strive to indulge in a few physics jeopardy game moments to give a sense of how the game works. If you are hosting a meeting, large or small, and would like to receive this kit for use at your meeting, notify Kendra Rand, SPS Program Coordinator at krand@aip.org.

  12. The Entirely Subcutaneous Defibrillator – A New Generation and Future Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Cappato, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Although conventional implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have proved effective in the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD), they still appear to be limited by non-trivial acute and long-term complications. The recent advent of an entirely subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) represents a further step in the evolution of defibrillation technology towards a less-invasive approach. This review highlights some historical and current issues concerning the S-ICD that may offer a viable therapeutic option in selected patients at high risk of SCD and in whom pacing is not required. After the CE Mark and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals, the S-ICD is being implanted worldwide with growing clinical data regarding its safety and efficacy (the EFFORTLESS Registry). The recently developed new generation of S-ICD (EMBLEM, Boston Scientific) demonstrates favourable features including a smaller device, longer longevity and remote-monitoring compatibility. Further innovations in the S-ICD system and potential integration with leadless pacing may play an important role in defibrillation therapy and prevention of SCD in the near future. PMID:26835112

  13. A Review of the Empirical Generations at Work Research: Implications for School Leaders and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Most schools currently employ three generations of teachers and leaders: Baby Boomers (1946-65), Generation X (1966-80) and Generation Y (1981-2003). However, the implications for school leaders of multi-generational schools remain relatively unexplored. This paper examines the empirical multi-disciplinary generations at work evidence to identify…

  14. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    PubMed

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier.

  15. Generating Synthetic Rainfall Time Series Across Europe For Present and Future Climates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, A.; Kilsby, C. G.; O'Connell, P. E.

    GCM rainfall outputs are typically at too coarse a resolution in space and time to pro- vide rainfall patterns with sufficient intensity, temporal variability or spatial precision to be useful in hydrological simulations. Until GCMs can operate in such a way as to overcome these difficulties it is important to establish the best possible interpre- tation and downscaling of their results and to establish synthetic benchmark rainfall simulations to represent present and future climate scenarios. The best choices of at- mospheric circulation variables and regionalised statistical downscaling relationships were found in an initial study to predict monthly time series of pr (mean daily precipi- tation) and pdry (proportion of dry days). This was limited to the UK and used NCEP reanalysis data and raingauge records aggregated to monthly time series. The results were quite successful despite omitting any seasonality or location variables since these were considered to be surrogates for other more physical variables. The downscaling methodology was extended across Europe using the CRU climatology dataset to rep- resent observed rainfall in a grid at a resolution of 0.5 degrees, individually parame- terizing the chosen downscaling functions to each grid in order to maximize the accu- racy of the fit. Results were generally satisfactory and demonstrated that this approach performs best in western regions suggesting that it is most successful at identifying Atlantic weather systems. HadCM3 results provided the atmospheric circulation vari- able time series data for a control and a future scenario. These were first corrected for field bias and then downscaled using the individual downscaling functions for each grid square. A Neyman Scott rainfall generator was parameterized for each grid square using a set of statistics derived from a combination of the results of the GCM downscaling and a raingauge chosen to represent the rainfall pattern in that region. Stochastic rainfall

  16. Evaluating potentials for future generation off-shore wind-power outside Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, R. E.; Haugen, J.; Haakenstad, H.

    2012-12-01

    With todays critical need of renewable energy sources, it is naturally to look towards wind power. With the long coast of Norway, there is a large potential for wind farms offshore Norway. Although there are more challenges with offshore wind energy installations compared to wind farms on land, the offshore wind is generally higher, and there is also higher persistence of wind speed values in the power generating classes. I planning offshore wind farms, there is a need of evaluation of the wind resources, the wind climatology and possible future changes. In this aspect, we use data from regional climate model runs performed in the European ENSEMBLE-project (van der Linden and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2009). In spite of increased reliability in RCMs in the recent years, the simulations still suffer from systematic model errors, therefore the data has to be corrected before using them in wind resource analyses. In correcting the wind speeds from the RCMs, we will use wind speeds from a Norwegian high resolution wind- and wave- archive, NORA10 (Reistad et al 2010), to do quantile mapping (Themeβl et. al. 2012). The quantile mapping is performed individually for each regional simulation driven by ERA40-reanalysis from the ENSEMBLE-project corrected against NORA10. The same calibration is then used to the belonging regional climate scenario. The calibration is done for each grid cell in the domain and for each day of the year centered in a +/-15 day window to make an empirical cumulative density function for each day of the year. The quantile mapping of the scenarios provide us with a new wind speed data set for the future, more correct compared to the raw ENSEMBLE scenarios. References: Reistad M., Ø. Breivik, H. Haakenstad, O. J. Aarnes, B. R. Furevik and J-R Bidlo, 2010, A high-resolution hindcast of wind and waves for The North Sea, The Norwegian Sea and The Barents Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 116. doi:10.1029/2010JC006402. Themessl M. J., A. Gobiet and A. Leuprecht, 2012

  17. Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Tardive Syndromes in Affective Illness: A Public Health Problem With Neuropsychiatric Consequences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration–approved information and public advertisements belie neurodegenerative risks for second-generation antipsychotics in affective illness. Package inserts label tardive syndromes “potentially reversible” while uniformly omitting patient counseling for long-term neurodegenerative side effects. I found that only 2 of 78 outpatients exposed to second-generation antipsychotics reported awareness of tardive syndromes. Updated literature challenges safety advantages of atypical versus typical antipsychotics. Physician and patient information regarding tardive syndromes from second-generation antipsychotics approved for affective illness is inadequate. PMID:25521884

  18. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  19. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. American Indian Millennium: Renewing Our Way of Life for Future Generations. Proceedings (Ithaca, New York, November 29-December 2, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiro, Jose, Ed.; Johnson, Tim, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In November 2001, elders, youth, educators, culture bearers, and community members came together to speak from within their own experiences about the critical issues and challenges facing Native people in the 21st century and to envision the positive thinking required for future generations. This proceedings documents 34 oral presentations and…

  1. Impact of generational differences on the future of radiology: proceedings of the 11th annual ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Ellenbogen, Paul H; Patti, John A; Hillman, Bruce J

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 ACR Forum focused on the impact of generational differences on the future of radiology, seeking to inform ACR leadership and members on how best to address the influence of the new integrated workforce on the specialty of radiology and on individual practices.

  2. A humanitarian preparedness toolbox: estimating flood affected figures and exposure of livelihoods to future floods events, using freely available datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; von Hagen, Craig; Peppino Disperati, Stefano; Hermansyah, Budi; Shaheen, Imra; Jan, Qasim; Berloffa, Andrea; Khan, Ruby; Fakhre, Alam

    2013-04-01

    Pakistan is highly disaster-prone, with three major flood disasters occurred in the past three years, yet major losses are not inevitable. Farming-based families still struggling to recover from 2010 and 2011 floods have again faced another bad monsoon season in 2012. Meanwhile, the likelihood of yet more natural disasters in the future is high as the phenomenon of climate change is increasing the prevalence of extreme weather conditions. Even with less rainfall, the risk of flooding this year remains high, while many villages have not fully recovered from the 2011-2012 floods. It is of utmost importance to support the most vulnerable rural communities to recover their flood-affected livelihoods. In the meantime, prioritizing disaster preparedness through flood hazard and population mapping is crucial to ensure that realistic contingency plans are in place to deliver an effective and timely response and reduce the impact of floods before they strike. To increase preparedness in future floods, an integrated approach that builds the resilience of flood affected community and enhances emergency preparedness based on reliable data is critical. We present here the innovative methodology developed for estimating population and livelihood that could potentially be affected by a future flood scenario, as well as a methodology for knowing where these people are located, along with an overview of their livelihood pattern. This project has used only freely available dataset, due to the urgency of providing a toolbox to the humanitarian community and the absence of readily available detailed information on natural hazards and exposure in Pakistan. The estimated figures resulting from this project, would provide the Food Security stakeholders with adequate information and data for programming a tailored response in case of floods during future monsoon season. For the purpose of preparedness, understanding the risks, and its potential magnitude, is crucial to provide decision

  3. Talkin' 'Bout Meta-Generation: ACT UP History and Queer Futurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The transmission of ACT UP's movement histories is indispensable to the potential for what Jose Esteban Munoz calls "queer futurity," or "a temporal arrangement in which the past is a field of possibility in which subjects can act in the present in the service of a new futurity." Roger Hallas argues that ACT UP's material and visual archive alone…

  4. Stochastic Hourly Weather Generator HOWGH: Validation and its Use in Pest Modelling under Present and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Hirschi, M.; Spirig, C.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify impact of the climate change on a specific pest (or any weather-dependent process) in a specific site, we may use a site-calibrated pest (or other) model and compare its outputs obtained with site-specific weather data representing present vs. perturbed climates. The input weather data may be produced by the stochastic weather generator. Apart from the quality of the pest model, the reliability of the results obtained in such experiment depend on an ability of the generator to represent the statistical structure of the real world weather series, and on the sensitivity of the pest model to possible imperfections of the generator. This contribution deals with the multivariate HOWGH weather generator, which is based on a combination of parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Here, HOWGH is used to generate synthetic hourly series of three weather variables (solar radiation, temperature and precipitation) required by a dynamic pest model SOPRA to simulate the development of codling moth. The contribution presents results of the direct and indirect validation of HOWGH. In the direct validation, the synthetic series generated by HOWGH (various settings of its underlying model are assumed) are validated in terms of multiple climatic characteristics, focusing on the subdaily wet/dry and hot/cold spells. In the indirect validation, we assess the generator in terms of characteristics derived from the outputs of SOPRA model fed by the observed vs. synthetic series. The weather generator may be used to produce weather series representing present and future climates. In the latter case, the parameters of the generator may be modified by the climate change scenarios based on Global or Regional Climate Models. To demonstrate this feature, the results of codling moth simulations for future climate will be shown. Acknowledgements: The weather generator is developed and validated within the frame of projects WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry

  5. Temporary versus permanent group membership: how the future prospects of newcomers affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence.

    PubMed

    Rink, Floor A; Ellemers, Naomi

    2009-06-01

    Three studies examine how the future prospects of new group members affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence. In Study 1, participants anticipate accepting temporary newcomers less easily than permanent newcomers because they expect temporary newcomers to differ from the group. In Study 2, the effects of newcomer entry in three-person groups are examined. Results show that groups perceived temporary newcomers as more involved in a judgmental decision-making process than permanent newcomers. In Study 3, a hidden profile task confirms that temporary newcomers indeed shared more unique knowledge during discussions than permanent newcomers and that this enhanced the groups' decision quality. However, compared to permanent newcomers, temporary newcomers caused teams to experience more conflict and less group identification, illustrating the tension between innovative group performance and group cohesion. The results are discussed in light of the social identity perspective and research on minority influence.

  6. The organization of prospective thinking: evidence of event clusters in freely generated future thoughts.

    PubMed

    Demblon, Julie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that many imagined future events are not represented in isolation, but instead are embedded in broader event sequences-referred to as event clusters. It remains unclear, however, whether the production of event clusters reflects the underlying organizational structure of prospective thinking or whether it is an artifact of the event-cuing task in which participants are explicitly required to provide chains of associated future events. To address this issue, the present study examined whether the occurrence of event clusters in prospective thought is apparent when people are left to think freely about events that might happen in their personal future. The results showed that the succession of events participants spontaneously produced when envisioning their future frequently included event clusters. This finding provides more compelling evidence that prospective thinking involves higher-order autobiographical knowledge structures that organize imagined events in coherent themes and sequences.

  7. Cardio-Pulmonary Parasitic Nematodes Affecting Cats in Europe: Unraveling the Past, Depicting the Present, and Predicting the Future

    PubMed Central

    Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Various cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes infecting cats have recently been fascinating and stimulating the attention of the Academia, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary practitioners. This is the case of the metastrongyloids: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, the trichuroid: Capillaria aerophila (syn. Eucoleus aerophilus), and the filarioid: Dirofilaria immitis. Apparently, these parasites have been emerging in several European countries, thus, gaining an important role in feline parasitology and clinical practice. Under a practical standpoint, a sound knowledge of the biological, epidemiological, and clinical impact of cardio-respiratory parasitoses affecting cats, in addition to a potential risk of introduction, establishment, and spreading of “new” parasites in Europe is mandatory in order to understand the present and future impact for feline medicine and to address new strategies of control and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to review the current knowledge of heartworm and lungworm infections in cats, discussing and comparing past and present issues, and predicting possible future scenarios. PMID:26664917

  8. Today's Millennial Generation: A Look Ahead to the Future They Create

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    It's 2009: The current millennial generation, the i-Kids, the "Digital Natives," the Net Generation students are now approximately ages 8 to 27. Many of these students are entering their years of career exploration while others are actively involved in career and technical education (CTE) programs in school or college. The millennial…

  9. Characterization of deuterium beam operation on RHEPP-1 for future neutron generation applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Schall, Michael; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Renk, Timothy Jerome

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the potential for neutron generation using the 1 MeV RHEPP-1 intense pulsed ion beam facility at Sandia National Laboratories for a number of emerging applications. Among these are interrogation of cargo for detection of special nuclear materials (SNM). Ions from single-stage sources driven by pulsed power represent a potential source of significant neutron bursts. While a number of applications require higher ion energies (e.g. tens of MeV) than that provided by RHEPP-1, its ability to generate deuterium beams allow for neutron generation at and below 1 MeV. This report details the successful generation and characterization of deuterium ion beams, and their use in generating up to 3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons into 4{pi} per 5kA ion pulse.

  10. The Multigenerational Workforce within Two-Year Public Community Colleges: A Study of Generational Factors Affecting Employee Learning and Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Florida Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to broaden multigenerational workforce research involving factors affecting employee learning and interaction by using a population of Baby Boomer, Generation X, and Millennial faculty and staff age cohorts employed at two-year public community college organizations. Researchers have studied…

  11. Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, F. J.

    A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (α, n) reactions between the α particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious α disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

  12. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  13. Process for Generating Engine Fuel Consumption Map: Future Atkinson Engine with Cooled EGR and Cylinder Deactivation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document summarizes the process followed to utilize GT-POWER modeled engine and laboratory engine dyno test data to generate a full engine fuel consumption map which can be used by EPA's ALPHA vehicle simulations.

  14. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  15. Co-benefits and trade-offs between future electricity generation and water use on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, N.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential to electricity generation. Power plant cooling water is responsible for 40-50% of total freshwater withdrawals in Europe (Rübbelke et al., 2011) and the United States (Kenny et al., 2009). In accordance with growing demands for electricity generation, water demands could be increased. There is concern that the water demands for electricity generation could compete with other major water users. Additionally, many countries are required reviewing energy policies to mitigate climate change. Thermal power replaced low carbon power like renewable energy, nuclear power, Carbon Capture and Storage as a mitigation technology. However, influences of such climate change mitigation technologies on water demands are still uncertain. In this study, we calculated freshwater demands for electricity generation by using the data set of future electricity generation in the twenty-first century which estimated by the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model, and assessed the overall effects of electricity generation on water demands under the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways and the Representative Concentration Pathways which were adopted by IPCC AR5. Water demands for electricity generation depends on cooling types, such as once-through cooling and recirculating cooling. We also took into account cooling system pathways. The result might be useful for deciding energy policies which aim for reduction of water demands, especially in regions experiencing water scarcity.

  16. Next-generation invaders? Hotspots for naturalised sleeper weeds in Australia under future climates.

    PubMed

    Duursma, Daisy Englert; Gallagher, Rachael V; Roger, Erin; Hughes, Lesley; Downey, Paul O; Leishman, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    Naturalised, but not yet invasive plants, pose a nascent threat to biodiversity. As climate regimes continue to change, it is likely that a new suite of invaders will emerge from the established pool of naturalised plants. Pre-emptive management of locations that may be most suitable for a large number of potentially invasive plants will help to target monitoring, and is vital for effective control. We used species distribution models (SDM) and invasion-hotspot analysis to determine where in Australia suitable habitat may occur for 292 naturalised plants. SDMs were built in MaxEnt using both climate and soil variables for current baseline conditions. Modelled relationships were projected onto two Representative Concentration Pathways for future climates (RCP 4.5 and 8.5), based on seven global climate models, for two time periods (2035, 2065). Model outputs for each of the 292 species were then aggregated into single 'hotspot' maps at two scales: continental, and for each of Australia's 37 ecoregions. Across Australia, areas in the south-east and south-west corners of the continent were identified as potential hotspots for naturalised plants under current and future climates. These regions provided suitable habitat for 288 and 239 species respectively under baseline climates. The areal extent of the continental hotspot was projected to decrease by 8.8% under climates for 2035, and by a further 5.2% by 2065. A similar pattern of hotspot contraction under future climates was seen for the majority of ecoregions examined. However, two ecoregions - Tasmanian temperate forests and Australian Alps montane grasslands - showed increases in the areal extent of hotspots of >45% under climate scenarios for 2065. The alpine ecoregion also had an increase in the number of naturalised plant species with abiotically suitable habitat under future climate scenarios, indicating that this area may be particularly vulnerable to future incursions by naturalised plants.

  17. Next-Generation Invaders? Hotspots for Naturalised Sleeper Weeds in Australia under Future Climates

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Erin; Hughes, Lesley; Downey, Paul O.; Leishman, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Naturalised, but not yet invasive plants, pose a nascent threat to biodiversity. As climate regimes continue to change, it is likely that a new suite of invaders will emerge from the established pool of naturalised plants. Pre-emptive management of locations that may be most suitable for a large number of potentially invasive plants will help to target monitoring, and is vital for effective control. We used species distribution models (SDM) and invasion-hotspot analysis to determine where in Australia suitable habitat may occur for 292 naturalised plants. SDMs were built in MaxEnt using both climate and soil variables for current baseline conditions. Modelled relationships were projected onto two Representative Concentration Pathways for future climates (RCP 4.5 and 8.5), based on seven global climate models, for two time periods (2035, 2065). Model outputs for each of the 292 species were then aggregated into single ‘hotspot’ maps at two scales: continental, and for each of Australia’s 37 ecoregions. Across Australia, areas in the south-east and south-west corners of the continent were identified as potential hotspots for naturalised plants under current and future climates. These regions provided suitable habitat for 288 and 239 species respectively under baseline climates. The areal extent of the continental hotspot was projected to decrease by 8.8% under climates for 2035, and by a further 5.2% by 2065. A similar pattern of hotspot contraction under future climates was seen for the majority of ecoregions examined. However, two ecoregions - Tasmanian temperate forests and Australian Alps montane grasslands - showed increases in the areal extent of hotspots of >45% under climate scenarios for 2065. The alpine ecoregion also had an increase in the number of naturalised plant species with abiotically suitable habitat under future climate scenarios, indicating that this area may be particularly vulnerable to future incursions by naturalised plants. PMID

  18. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    PubMed

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM.

  19. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Edith M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0–1.75 m s−1 and ran at speeds of 2.0–5.0 m s−1. We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force–length and force–velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle–tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running. PMID:23470656

  20. Global River Flood Exposure Assessment Under Climate Change: How Many Asians Are Affected By Flood in the Future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Iwami, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Physical exposure assessment in this study shows a methodological possibility to be used as a preliminary case study based on a global approach for flood risk assessment consisting of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The purpose of this preliminary study is to estimate potential flood inundation areas as a hazard (both present and future condition), and flood exposure change over the Asia region with consideration of climate change impacts. A flood hazard was characterized by inundation area at the high-resolution of 500 m, location (lowland around rivers), and probability (floods with the 50-year return period). This study introduced a new approach to moderate the global flood hazard and the exposure calculation with significant limitations of current models for continental-scale flood risk assessment by using the flood inundation depth (FID) model based on Manning's steady, uniform flow resistance formula in extreme case during 25-year simulations based on the global BTOP distributed hydrological model using precipitations from the MRI-AGCM 3.2S with SRES A1B emissions scenarios for present-day (daily data from 1980 to 2004), and end-of-the-21st century (daily data from 2075 to 2099). It effectively simplified the complexity between hydrological and topological variables in a flood risk-prone area with assumption of the effects of natural or artificial levees. Exposure was obtained by combining the hazards at the same resolution to identify affected population by calculating with urbanization ratio and population change ratio of Asian countries from a distributed data of global population (Landscan by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory). As a result of the physical exposure assessment from present to the end-of-the-21st century, potential hazards area and affected population are projected to increase 4.2 % (approximately 75,900 km2) and 3.4 % (approximately 35.1 million people) respectively, because Asian population increases about 43% in the future. We found

  1. Improving Aerosol and Visibility Forecasting Capabilities Using Current and Future Generations of Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    framework for considering current and future satellite aerosol products. 2 . Develop forward models to enable a radiance assimilation capability by: 1...improving forecast performance over cloudy regions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aerosol Index; and 2 ) preparing for the post-MODIS... 2 . REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving Aerosol and Visibility Forecasting Capabilities Using Current and

  2. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    PubMed

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  3. Changes in forcing factors affecting coastal and shallow water erosion in the future Arctic climate change projections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Razumov, Sergey; Brovkin, Victor; Ilyina, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Driving factors of seabed and coastal erosion in the Arctic can be classified as thermal and mechanical. Thermal factors such as air and ocean temperatures affect the seabed and coastal ground temperatures. Mechanical factors such as ocean currents and surface gravity waves contribute to the seabed and costal erosion due to shear stress. Due to polar amplification, the Arctic experiences strong increase in air and water temperature, sea-ice loss and changes in the ocean and atmospheric circulation, temperature and wind distribution. These climatic changes lead to changes in factors driving seabed and coastal erosion, which is expected to accelerate in the shallow Arctic regions such as the Laptev sea and East Siberian sea. In these regions, the coastal line to a large extent consists of frozen rocks, sediments and organic soils including ground ice. The increase of erosion rate of the coastal line will increase the release of organic and inorganic matter from thawed permafrost. Dynamics of thermal and mechanical drivers of seabed and coastal erosion in the present and future climate change (RCP8.5 scenario) simulated by the CMIP5 version of the MPI Earth system model and wave model WAM will be presented. Special attention will be given to changes in the air temperature, wind dynamics and development of new waves system in the ``ice-free'' Arctic and its role in the seabed and coastal erosion.

  4. Genomic tools to improve progress and preserve variation for future generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of genomic tools has greatly decreased generation intervals and increased genetic progress in dairy cattle, but faster selection cycles can also increase rates of inbreeding per unit of time. Average pedigree inbreeding of Holstein cows increased from 4.6% in 2000 to 5.6% in 2009 to 6.6% in 201...

  5. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    PubMed

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  6. Structural and Functional Model of Future Craftsmen Legal Competence Generation during Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romantsev, Gennadij M.; Efanov, Andrei V.; Bychkova, Ekaterina Yu.; Moiseev, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of the law-governed state institutions in Russia, development of civil society, need for neutralizing the legal nihilism and generation of public legal culture, state demand for legally competent specialists, representing the public and social value, justify the relevancy of the investigated issue, on the one hand. On the other hand, it…

  7. Fairness and a Sustainable Society: Why Do We Care for the Education of Future Generations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyadera, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Regarding education as "the social" rather than an intentional action between individuals, this paper discusses the fair way of its distribution. Fairness is presumed to be relevant to the distribution of resources for education not only among people belonging to the same generation in the same society, but also among people belonging to…

  8. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  9. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  10. Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Stress Generation in Children of Affectively Ill Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Abela, John R. Z.; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal…

  11. Current Grid Generation Strategies and Future Requirements in Hypersonic Vehicle Design, Analysis and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Prabhu, Dinesh; Loomis, Mark P.; Olynick, Dave; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in computational power enable computational fluid dynamic modeling of increasingly complex configurations. A review of grid generation methodologies implemented in support of the computational work performed for the X-38 and X-33 are presented. In strategizing topological constructs and blocking structures factors considered are the geometric configuration, optimal grid size, numerical algorithms, accuracy requirements, physics of the problem at hand, computational expense, and the available computer hardware. Also addressed are grid refinement strategies, the effects of wall spacing, and convergence. The significance of grid is demonstrated through a comparison of computational and experimental results of the aeroheating environment experienced by the X-38 vehicle. Special topics on grid generation strategies are also addressed to model control surface deflections, and material mapping.

  12. Effect of second-generation antipsychotics on cognition: current issues and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hill, S Kristian; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Palumbo, Donna; Sweeney, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Generalized cognitive impairments are stable deficits linked to schizophrenia and key factors associated with functional disability in the disorder. Preclinical data suggest that second-generation antipsychotics could potentially reduce cognitive impairments; however, recent large clinical trials indicate only modest cognitive benefits relative to first-generation antipsychotics. This might reflect a limited drug effect in humans, a differential drug effect due to brain alterations associated with schizophrenia, or limited sensitivity of the neuropsychological tests for evaluating cognitive outcomes. New adjunctive procognitive drugs may be needed to achieve robust cognitive and functional improvement. Drug discovery may benefit from greater utilization of translational neurocognitive biomarkers to bridge preclinical and clinical proof-of-concept studies, to optimize assay sensitivity, enhance cost efficiency, and speed progress in drug development. PMID:20021320

  13. Status and Prognosis of Future-Generation Photoconversion to Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Matthew C.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Justin C.; Rumbles, Garry

    2016-08-12

    Professor Arthur J. Nozik has fought for, inspired, cajoled, and led a generation of scientists in the pursuit of the science of solar photoconversion, photovoltaics, and solar fuels. On March 25th, 2016, a group of former colleagues, co-workers, and friends met to recognize Prof. Nozik's contribution to their work, excellence in science, and life. While the event was a celebration of his many scientific contributions, it served mostly to honor his leadership and vision.

  14. New Insights into the Generation of CD4 Memory May Shape Future Vaccine Strategies for Influenza.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Bautista, Bianca; Vong, Allen M; McKinstry, Karl Kai; Strutt, Tara M; Swain, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viral evolution presents a formidable challenge to vaccination due to the virus' ability to rapidly mutate to evade immune responses. Live influenza infections generate large and diverse CD4 effector T cell responses that yield highly protective, long-lasting CD4 T cell memory that can target conserved viral epitopes. We review advances in our understanding of mechanisms involved in generating CD4 T cell responses against the influenza A virus (IAV), focusing on specialized follicular helper (TFH) and CD4 cytotoxic (ThCTL) effector subsets and on CD4 T cell memory. We also discuss two recent findings in context of enhancing vaccine responses. First, helper T cells require priming with APC secreting high levels of IL-6. Second, the transition of IAV-generated effectors to memory depends on IL-2, costimulation and antigen signals, just before effectors reach peak numbers, defined as the "memory checkpoint." The need for these signals during the checkpoint could explain why many current influenza vaccines are poorly effective and elicit poor cellular immunity. We suggest that CD4 memory generation can be enhanced by re-vaccinating at this time. Our best hope lies in a universal vaccine that will not need to be formulated yearly against seasonal antigenically novel influenza strains and will also be protective against a pandemic strain. We suggest a vaccine approach that elicits a powerful T cell response, by initially inducing high levels of APC activation and later providing antigen at the memory checkpoint, may take us a step closer to such a universal influenza vaccine.

  15. Current status and future prospects of power generators using dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Seiki; Waki, Mikio; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron

    2011-12-01

    Electroactive polymer artificial muscle (EPAM), known collectively as dielectric elastomers in the literature, has been shown to offer unique capabilities as an actuator and is now being developed for a wide variety of generator applications. EPAM has several characteristics that make it potentially well suited for wave, water current, wind, human motion, and other environmental energy harvesting systems including a high energy density allowing for minimal EPAM material quantities, high energy conversion efficiency independent of frequency of operation and non-toxic and low-cost materials not susceptible to corrosion. Experiments have been performed on push-button and heel-mounted generator devices powered by human motion, ocean wave power harvesters mounted on buoys and water turbines. While the power output levels of such demonstration devices is small, the performance of these devices has supported the potential benefits of EPAM. For example, an electrical energy conversion efficiency of over 70% was achieved with small wave heights. The ability of EPAM to produce hydrogen fuel for energy storage was also demonstrated. Because the energy conversion principle of EPAM is capacitive in nature, the performance is largely independent of size and it should eventually be possible to scale up EPAM generators to the megawatt level to address a variety of electrical power needs.

  16. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  17. Low power laser irradiation does not affect the generation of signals in a sensory receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeberg, T.; Zhou, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low power Helium-Neon (He-Ne) and Gallium-Arsenide (Ga-As) laser on the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor was studied. The results showed that low power laser irradiation did not affect the membrane potential of the stretch receptor. These results are discussed in relation to the use of low power laser irradiation on the skin overlaying acupuncture points in treatment of pain syndrome.

  18. NFPA, 1996 revisions to National Electrical Code, NFPA 110, and NFPA 99 that affect on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Bell, J.; Whittall, H.

    1995-12-31

    The three most important NFPA standards for the on-site power industry are: NFPA 70-The National Electrical Code, NFPA 110 Emergency and Standby Power Systems and NFPA 99-Health Care Facilities. This paper will cover the important revisions affecting on-site power generation systems for the 1996 editions. Each of the three authors is a member of one or more of the technical committees that have responsibility for writing these standards.

  19. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  20. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Although most rivers in the US are regulated to support human water uses, while preserving aquatic ecosystems, the effectiveness of regulations is rarely assessed. Concerns for restoring natural flow regimes have increased requirements for "run-of-river" (ROR) operation. It is widely believed that such restrictions (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. In this study, we tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects that changed from peaking to ROR operation as a result of license modifications. ROR was often prescribed in states with strong water quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. When testing the second assumption, we found that the overall change in annual generation across projects was not significant, and much smaller than the effect of climate. However, we detected a significant decrease in generation efficiency at one-quarter of hydropower projects. When testing the third assumption, we found the expected decrease in flow during peak demand at seven of ten projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased due to operation of upstream storage projects. We discuss the economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecological benefits. Regional- or national-scale studies of hydropower regulation are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data would facilitate regional scale studies like this one, while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  1. Detector Noise Susceptibility Issues for the Future Generation of High Energy Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Esteban, C.; Iglesias, M.; Rivetta, C.; Arcega, F.J.; /Zaragoza U.

    2011-11-22

    The front-end electronics (FEE) noise characterization to electromagnetic interference and the compatibility of the different subsystems are important topics to consider for the LHC calorimeter upgrades. A new power distribution scheme based on switching power converters is under study and will define a noticeable noise source very close to the detector's FEE. Knowledge and experience with both FFE noise and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues from previous detectors are important conditions to guarantee the design goals and the good functionality of the upgraded LHC detectors. This paper shows an overview of the noise susceptibility studies performed in different CMS subdetectors. The impact of different FEE topologies in the final sensitivity to electromagnetic interference of the subsystem is analyzed and design recommendations are presented to increase the EMC of the detectors to the future challenging power distribution topologies.

  2. Future's operation areas: new-generation suppression enemy air defence (SEAD) elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazinedar, Ä.°lker

    2015-05-01

    Since air vehicles took place in the theater of operations, they have become the indispensable elements and the strongest attack power of armed forces. In the following period, with technological development, supersonic aircrafts took place in the operation area and this increased effectiveness of air vehicles much more. Air forces have used these aircrafts during important missions like strategic attack and air defense operations. On the other hand, decision makers understood that it was not feasible to intercept fighter aircrafts by executing combat air patrol flight missions. Since there is not enough reaction time to intercept the high speed aircrafts, ground stationed Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) system requirement has emerged. Therefore, SAM systems took place in the operation scene as well. Due to the fact that SAM systems emerged against the attack power, the attack aircrafts are to keep away from the fire of the ground stationed SAM systems. Hence, the requirement of Suppression Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) arose. SEAD elements take under suppression the radar of the SAM systems. In this way, attack aircrafts are able to attack without the risk of SAM systems. The purpose of this study is to find new methods or concepts in order to protect friendly attack aircrafts against ground based surface to air missiles' fires. Modernization of SAM systems and new generation SAM system producing activities have proceeded with positive acceleration. So, current SEAD elements and concepts are not able to cover the requirements due to the increased SAM system ranges. According to the concepts, SEAD weapons` ranges must be longer than the SAM weapons' ranges to protect friendly aircrafts. In this study, new concept was offered to overcome the deficiencies of current SEAD concept. The elements of new concepts were put forward. Classic SEAD concept and new generation concepts were assessed by using SWOT analysis technique. As a result, this study has revealed that, air forces

  3. The Future of Alumina-Forming Alloys: Challenges and Applications for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Alumina-forming alloys have been studied for over 50 years and are now needed for high efficiency power generation applications operating at higher temperatures. Especially in the presence of water vapor, alumina-forming alloys outperform conventional chromia-forming alloys above 1000 C. However, alloy mechanical behavior is a significant issue and alumina-forming alloy development has been limited. The opportunity for alloy development is discussed as well as the factors that limit oxidation resistance, including alloy thermal expansion and optimizing reactive element additions. Finally, lifetime modeling is discussed for thick section components together with the need to address performance in more complex environments.

  4. Using item response theory to investigate the structure of anticipated affect: do self-reports about future affective reactions conform to typical or maximal models?

    PubMed Central

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Lerakis, Manolis; Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we used item response theory (IRT) to examine whether effective predictions (anticipated affect) conforms to a typical (i.e., what people usually do) or a maximal behavior process (i.e., what people can do). The former, correspond to non-monotonic ideal point IRT models, whereas the latter correspond to monotonic dominance IRT models. A convenience, cross-sectional student sample (N = 1624) was used. Participants were asked to report on anticipated positive and negative affect around a hypothetical event (emotions surrounding the start of a new business). We carried out analysis comparing graded response model (GRM), a dominance IRT model, against generalized graded unfolding model, an unfolding IRT model. We found that the GRM provided a better fit to the data. Findings suggest that the self-report responses to anticipated affect conform to dominance response process (i.e., maximal behavior). The paper also discusses implications for a growing literature on anticipated affect. PMID:26441806

  5. Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines: current options and future strategies for vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Londero, Ambrogio P; Bertozzi, Serena; Lellè, Ralf J

    2016-02-01

    Two vaccines focused on the prevention of HPV-related diseases have been introduced in the last decade, the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil and the bivalent vaccine Cervarix. They are targeted to prevent precancerous and cancerous lesions not only of the cervix, but also of the vulva, vagina, anal and head-neck region. Furthermore, the protection of the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil includes also genital warts and recurrent respiratory Papillomatosis, two benign conditions with high socio-economic impact. Although their efficacy in reducing the burden of HPV-related pathologies has been already documented, second-generation HPV vaccines are being developed in order to overcome major limitations, above all the cost of production, distribution and acceptance, thus promoting an easier access to vaccination, especially in developing countries. Recently a new multivalent VLP vaccine active against nine HPV subtypes, called Gardasil 9 (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), has been approved, showing promising preliminary results. In this article, we outline the strategies adopted for second-generation HPV vaccine engineering, the latest HPV vaccines available at this time, as well as those currently in development.

  6. Third- and fourth-generation implantable cardioverter defibrillators: current status and future development.

    PubMed

    Saksena, S; Diaz, M L; Varanasi, S; Mathew, P; Berg, J; Krol, R B; Kaushik, R R

    1994-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy has become the mainstay of therapy for patients with a history of sudden cardiac death or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The current generation of ICDs used for secondary prevention combines features for tachycardia reversion with demand ventricular pacing, antitachycardia pacing, programmable shock therapy, and tachycardia events memory. Although demand pacing and defibrillation is indicated for primary prevention usage of ICDs, the application of antitachycardia pacing modes is more controversial. High energy cardioversion and defibrillation shocks remaining the mainstay of sudden death prevention will be redefined as more effective defibrillation shock modes and lead systems are developed. Fourth-generation ICD systems accomplished a significant reduction of device size and almost universal success using an endocardial lead configuration and pectoral implant. A variety of new directions of ICD therapy in clinical practice such as primary prevention applications and the adjunctive role of antiarrhythmic drug therapy are currently being examined in clinical trials. The concepts underlying initiation of tachyarrhythmias are being studied to develop new approaches to tachycardia prevention. These include rate support, subthreshold stimulation, and multiple site pacing. The current developments of ICD therapy promise continued growth of this technology.

  7. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: protecting future generations and the quest for a global consensus.

    PubMed

    Salako, Solomon E

    2008-12-01

    Since the coining of the term 'ectogenesis' by Haldane in 1924, we have witnessed sensational biotechnological triumphs such as in vitro fertilisation, the cloning of "Dolly" the sheep, and the publication of the human genetic code. These triumphs mix benefits with portents in one seamless package. The object of this article is to assess critically the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. It is argued that the Declaration is not a suitable international instrument for regulating biotechnology and protecting future generations. Finally, the feasibility of a legally binding international instrument based on a global consensus is evaluated.

  8. Overview of Proteasome Inhibitor-Based Anti-cancer Therapies: Perspective on Bortezomib and Second Generation Proteasome Inhibitors versus Future Generation Inhibitors of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Q. Ping; Zonder, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, proteasome inhibition has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and some lymphomas. In 2003, Bortezomib (BTZ) became the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BTZ-based therapies have become a staple for the treatment of MM at all stages of the disease. The survival rate of MM patients has improved significantly since clinical introduction of BTZ and other immunomodulatory drugs. However, BTZ has several limitations. Not all patients respond to BTZ-based therapies and relapse occurs in many patients who initially responded. Solid tumors, in particular, are often resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, BTZ can induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy (PN). The second generation proteasome inhibitor Carfizomib (CFZ; U.S. FDA approved in August 2012) induces responses in a minority of MM patients relapsed from or refractory to BTZ. There is less PN compared to BTZ. Four other second-generation proteasome inhibitors (Ixazomib, Delanzomib, Oprozomib and Marizomib) with different pharmacologic properties and broader anticancer activities, have also shown some clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant cancers. While the mechanism of resistance to bortezomib in human cancers still remains to be fully understood, targeting the immunoproteasome, ubiquitin E3 ligases, the 19S proteasome and deubiquitinases in pre-clinical studies represents possible directions for future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the treatment of MM and other cancers. PMID:25092212

  9. When sad groups expect to meet again: interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance.

    PubMed

    Klep, Annefloor H M; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-12-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that the anticipation of future interaction may strengthen the effects of group defining characteristics on subsequent group member behaviour. As a consequence, interactive sharing (vs. non-interactive sharing) of negative affect is more likely to influence work group outcomes when group members expect to meet again. Results from a laboratory experiment with 66 three-person work groups indeed show that interactively shared (vs. non-interactively shared) negative affect facilitated work groups' analytical task performance, whereas it inhibited performance on a creative fluency task when groups have expectations of future interaction and not when they do not have such expectations. The discussion focuses on how these results add to theory on group affect and contribute to insights in the effects of future interaction expectation.

  10. Salt reduction in slow fermented sausages affects the generation of aroma active compounds.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2013-03-01

    Slow fermented sausages with different salt content were manufactured: control (2.7% NaCl, S), 16% salt reduced (2.26% NaCl, RS) and 16% replaced by KCl (2.26% NaCl and 0.43% KCl, RSK). The effect of salt reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture and volatile compounds was studied. The aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS and olfactometry analyses. Small salt reduction (16%) (RS) affected sausage quality producing a reduction in the acceptance of aroma, taste, juiciness and overall quality. The substitution by KCl (RSK) produced the same acceptability by consumers as for high salt (S) treatment except for the aroma that was not improved by KCl addition. The aroma was affected due to the reduction in sulfur and acids and the increase of aldehyde compounds. Aroma compounds that characterized the high salt treatment (S) were dimethyl trisulfide, 3-methyl thiophene, 2,3-butanedione, 2-nonanone and acetic acid.

  11. The next generation of data capturing - digital ink for the data stewards of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerniak, A.; Fleischer, D.; Schirnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Data stewardship of the future requires the continuation from an expert driven discipline into a general scientific routine. One solution how this expansion can be done is the use of data management infrastructures already in the student education. Unsurprisingly, well-known drawbacks in terms of data stewardship from the scientific use complicate this expansion into the educational programs. The advantage of educational programs usually based on the application of standard methods is depleted by the general data capturing process at the point of publication or end of project lifetime. Considering student courses as short projects there are no publications and the end of the course exams keep students just like scientists away from data stewardship tasks. The Kiel Data Management Infrastructure brings the data capturing right in the data creation process. With this approach student education courses can be just another use case of data capturing. Smoothing the data capturing process and making use of available technologies drove the Kiel Data Management Infrastructure into a prototype testing of the use of 'digital ink' and the later on possible handwriting recognition. Making the data digitalization as easy as possible without abandoning the standards of paper-based protocols is the use case 'Smart Pens'. This technology fills the gap between the very long-lasting paper protocols and the effort depending digitalization of field and sampling data but it's also robust enough to work with battery powered devices. The combination of the Kiel Data Management Infrastructure with the 'digital ink' technology enables the data capturing from student education to high-end scientific lab work. Valuing educational data equally to scientific lab data is a strong signal to the researchers of the future while their work is recognized all the way from their undergraduate stage to their post-doc position. Students memorize that their data work is not neglected at any time and so

  12. Rethinking research on sexual exploitation of boys: Methodological challenges and recommendations to optimize future knowledge generation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Katherine; Moynihan, Melissa; Pitcher, Claire; Francis, Annabel; English, Abigail; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2017-02-09

    Research and policies on child and adolescent sexual exploitation frequently focus on the sexual exploitation of girls and fail to recognize the experiences of sexually exploited boys, including their potentially unique health care and social support needs. This oversight limits the ability of health care and social service providers to offer both targeted and evidence informed care to sexually exploited boys. As a first step in a larger grant to understand the experiences of sexually exploited boys and to develop interventions for this specific population, we conducted a systematic review to address the question, "What is the state of the research on sexually exploited boys internationally?" As we undertook this review, we faced a number of significant challenges that made the process more difficult than anticipated. In this paper we discuss four key methodological challenges we encountered: lack of a consistent definition of child and adolescent sexual exploitation, difficulties in differentiating sexual exploitation as a specific concept within child sexual abuse, failure to disaggregate data usefully across multiple variables, and limited epidemiological studies to inform prevalence. We reflect on how these challenges limited our ability to systematically analyze, synthesize, and interpret the available research. We conclude by making recommendations to improve the state of the research regarding sexually exploited boys with the aim of better informing future policy and practice.

  13. Preconditioning in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization in coral larvae under future climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    Coral reefs are globally threatened by climate change-related ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). To date, slow-response mechanisms such as genetic adaptation have been considered the major determinant of coral reef persistence, with little consideration of rapid-response acclimatization mechanisms. These rapid mechanisms such as parental effects that can contribute to trans-generational acclimatization (e.g. epigenetics) have, however, been identified as important contributors to offspring response in other systems. We present the first evidence of parental effects in a cross-generational exposure to temperature and OA in reef-building corals. Here, we exposed adults to high (28.9°C, 805 µatm P(CO2)) or ambient (26.5°C, 417 µatm P(CO2)) temperature and OA treatments during the larval brooding period. Exposure to high treatment negatively affected adult performance, but their larvae exhibited size differences and metabolic acclimation when subsequently re-exposed, unlike larvae from parents exposed to ambient conditions. Understanding the innate capacity corals possess to respond to current and future climatic conditions is essential to reef protection and maintenance. Our results identify that parental effects may have an important role through (1) ameliorating the effects of stress through preconditioning and adaptive plasticity, and/or (2) amplifying the negative parental response through latent effects on future life stages. Whether the consequences of parental effects and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization are beneficial or maladaptive, our work identifies a critical need to expand currently proposed climate change outcomes for corals to further assess rapid response mechanisms that include non-genetic inheritance through parental contributions and classical epigenetic mechanisms.

  14. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value.

    PubMed

    Jager, Henriette I; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is "run-of-river" (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  15. How Run-of-River Operation Affects Hydropower Generation and Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jager, Henriette I.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is “run-of-river” (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  16. Heat generation during ultrasonic instrumentation of dentin as affected by different irrigation methods.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, B K; Peters, R J

    1998-08-01

    Heat is produced by magnetostrictive ultrasonic scalers which may cause injury to pulpal and periodontal tissues. Water coolant flows around the instrument stack and is directed at the instrument tip to reduce the generation of heat. Sound surgical practice requires the use of a sterile coolant for ultrasonic scaling during surgery. Intermittent bulb irrigation is one way to deliver sterile coolant when using ultrasonic scalers not equipped with a dedicated sterile water reservoir. The purpose of this study was to compare the temperature rise in dentin during ultrasonic scaling using either ultrasonic handpiece irrigation or intermittent bulb irrigation. Twenty dentin/cementum root slabs were prepared for each thickness of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm. A 3.0 mm x 1.5 mm field was outlined on each slab to indicate the area of intended instrumentation. Each slab was mounted such that a thermocouple placed in contact with dentin opposite the area of instrumentation was shielded from irrigation. Twenty samples of each thickness were ultrasonically scaled during which dentin temperature was recorded every 5 seconds over a 30-second period. All 60 slabs were first treated with dental unit ultrasonic handpiece water irrigation, followed by no irrigation, and finally by bulb irrigation with sterile saline. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that there were differences among the three treatment groups for temperature change over the course of the study (P < 0.001). Dentin temperature increased with both decreasing slab thickness and with increasing duration of instrumentation. However, only scaling without irrigation produced a rise in dentin temperature from baseline to a level reported as deleterious to pulpal and periodontal tissues. Bulb syringe irrigation delivered as a continuous drip and ultrasonic unit water spray minimized heat generation to physiologically tolerable levels. Intermittent bulb irrigation appears to be a satisfactory alternative to use of

  17. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  18. Applied epidemiology and public health: are we training the future generations appropriately?

    PubMed

    Brownson, Ross C; Samet, Jonathan M; Bensyl, Diana M

    2017-02-01

    To extend the reach and relevance of epidemiology for public health practice, the science needs be broadened beyond etiologic research, to link more strongly with emerging technologies and to acknowledge key societal transformations. This new focus for epidemiology and its implications for epidemiologic training can be considered in the context of macro trends affecting society, including a greater focus on upstream causes of disease, shifting demographics, the Affordable Care Act and health care system reform, globalization, changing health communication environment, growing centrality of team and transdisciplinary science, emergence of translational sciences, greater focus on accountability, big data, informatics, high-throughput technologies ("omics"), privacy changes, and the evolving funding environment. This commentary describes existing approaches to and competencies for training in epidemiology, maps macro trends with competencies, highlights an example of competency-based education in the Epidemic Intelligence Service of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and suggests expanded and more dynamic training approaches. A reexamination of current approaches to epidemiologic training is needed.

  19. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station - An option for future power generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept in nuclear power generation is being explored which essentially eliminates major objections to nuclear power. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station, remotely operated in synchronous orbit, would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space and no radioactive materials would ever be returned to earth. Even the worst possible accident to such a plant should have negligible effect on the earth. An exploratory study of a satellite nuclear power station to provide 10,000 MWe to the earth has shown that the system could weigh about 20 million pounds and cost less than $1000/KWe. An advanced breeder reactor operating with an MHD power cycle could achieve an efficiency of about 50% with a 1100 K radiator temperature. If a hydrogen moderated gas core reactor is used, its breeding ratio of 1.10 would result in a fuel doubling time of a few years. A rotating fluidized bed or NERVA type reactor might also be used. The efficiency of power transmission from synchronous orbit would range from 70% to 80%.

  20. Accounting for climate and air quality damages in future U.S. electricity generation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristen E; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2013-04-02

    The EPA-MARKAL model of the U.S. electricity sector is used to examine how imposing emissions fees based on estimated health and environmental damages might change electricity generation. Fees are imposed on life-cycle emissions of SO(2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases (GHG) from 2015 through 2055. Changes in electricity production, fuel type, emissions controls, and emissions produced under various fees are examined. A shift in fuels used for electricity production results from $30/ton CO(2)-equivalent GHG fees or from criteria pollutant fees set at the higher-end of the range of published damage estimates, but not from criteria pollutant fees based on low or midrange damage estimates. With midrange criteria pollutant fees assessed, SO(2) and NOx emissions are lower than the business as usual case (by 52% and 10%, respectively), with larger differences in the western U.S. than in the eastern U.S. GHG emissions are not significantly impacted by midrange criteria pollutant fees alone; conversely, with only GHG fees, NO(x) emissions are reduced by up to 11%, yet SO(2) emissions are slightly higher than in the business as usual case. Therefore, fees on both GHG and criteria pollutants may be needed to achieve significant reductions in both sets of pollutants.

  1. Next generation of elevated [CO2] experiments with crops: A critical investment for feeding the future world

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Rising demand for grain crops and an expanding biofuel industry are vastly increasing pressure to maximize productivity on agricultural land. Rising atmospheric [CO2] is increasing global temperature and altering precipitation patterns, which will challenge agricultural productivity in the future. Yet, rising [CO2] also provides a unique opportunity to markedly increase the productivity of C3 crops, but the average yield stimulation observed to date is well below the potential theoretical gains. This suggests there is significant room for improving productivity. There are tens of thousands of lines of wheat, rice, soybean and other crops available, but only a fraction of these have been tested for CO2 responsiveness in a production environment. Yield is a complex phenotypic trait determined by the interactions of a genotype with the environment. Selection of promising genotypes and characterization of physiological mechanisms will only be effective if the crop improvement and systems biology approaches are closely linked to actual production environments, i.e., on the farm within the major growing regions. Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiments can provide the platform upon which to conduct genetic screening as well as to elucidate the inheritance and mechanisms that underlie cultivar differences in productivity under elevated [CO2]. We propose a new generation of large scale, low-cost per unit area, FACE facilities and experiments to identify the most CO2-responsive genotypes and provide starting lines for future breeding programs. This is necessary if we are to realize the potential yield gains n the future.

  2. Factors affecting the pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas generation is a set of processes which taking place in the interior, the processes can't be observable in nature. In the process of dumping the source rock, organic matter is transformed into a complex of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Entering of a source column for specific thermobaric conditions, triggers the formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration within the source rock. For the experiment were selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition rocks from Domanic horizon South-Tatar arch. The main aim of experiment was heating the rocks in the pyrolyzer to temperatures which correspond katagenes stages. For monitoring changes in the morphology of the pore space X-ray microtomography method was used. As a result, when was made a study of the composition of mineral and organic content of the rocks, as well as textural and structural features, have been identified that the majority of the rock samples within the selected collection are identical. However, characteristics such as organic content and texture of rocks are different. Thus, the experiment was divided into two parts: 1) the study of the influence of organic matter content on the morphology of the rock in the process of thermal effects; 2) study the effect of texture on the primary migration processes for the same values of organic matter. Also, an additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space. At each stage of the experiment morphology of altered rocks characterized by the formation of new pores and channels connecting the primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. At the second stage of the research also revealed that the conversion of the pore

  3. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems.

    PubMed

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  4. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  5. LES of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction affected by microramp vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Laurent; Grebert, Arnaud; Jamme, Stéphane; Bodart, Julien; Aerodynamics, Energetics; Propulsion Dep. Team

    2016-11-01

    At large Mach numbers, the interaction of an oblique shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer (SWTBLI) developing over a flat plate gives rise to a separation bubble known to exhibit low-frequency streamwise oscillations around StL = 0 . 03 (a Strouhal number based on the separated region length). Because these oscillations yield wall pressure or load fluctuations, efforts are made to reduce their amplitude. We perform large eddy simulations to reproduce the experiments by Wang etal (2012) where a rake of microramp vortex generators (MVGs) were inserted upstream the SWTBLI with consequences yet to be fully understood. There is no consensus on the flow structure downstream MVGs and this is first clarified in the case of MVGs protruding by 0 . 47 δ in a TBL at Mach number M = 2 . 7 and Reynolds number Reθ = 3600 . Large-scale vortices intermittently shed downstream the MVGs are characterized by a streamwise period close to twice the TBL thickness and a frequency f 0 . 5Ue / δ , two orders of magnitude higher than the one of the uncontrolled SWTBLI. We then characterize the interaction between the unsteady wake of the MVGs with the SWTBLI resulting in the reduction of the interaction length and the high-frequency modulation of the shock feet motions.

  6. Future prospects for ECR plasma generators with improved charge state distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.

    1997-06-01

    The growing number and variety of fundamental, applied, and industrial uses for high intensity, high charge state ion beams continues to be the driving force behind efforts to develop Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources with superior performance characteristics. Incumbent with the advent of sub-micron electronic devices and their fabrication has been the demand for improved process control and optimization. These demands have led to the development of methods for cleaning, chemical etching, and deposition of thin films based on the use of plasma devices including ECR sources. Despite the steady advance in the technology, ECR plasma heating has not yet reached its full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width, single-frequency microwave radiation commonly used to heat the plasma electrons. This heating technique, coupled with conventional minimum-B configuration magnetic fields used for confining the electrons, resulting in the formation of the thin, ECR surfaces within the plasma volumes of these sources. This report identifies fundamentally important methods for enhancing the performances of ECR plasma generators by transforming the ECR zones from surfaces to volumes. Two methods are readily available for increasing the sizes of these zones. These techniques include: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR volume and; (2) the use of broadband-frequency domain techniques derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma surfaces of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma volumes.

  7. A Future Generation High Angular Resolution X-ray Telescope Based Upon Physical Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Although the highest priority objective for the next major X-ray mission is high resolution spectroscopy we will ultimately want the next generation high angular resolution X-ray observatory. This author believes that the 0.5 arc second angular resolution of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory is likely to be close to the best that can be obtained with grazing incidence optics, especially with larger effective area. Telescopes based upon physical optics, diffraction and refraction that transmit rather than reflect X-rays can have an angular resolution of a mili arc second or better. Combining the diffractive and refractive components into one unit can neutralize the chromatic aberration of each individually over a ~15% bandwidth at 6 keV. The aperture could be divided into several diffractive-refractive pairs to broaden the bandwidth. Furthermore these telescopes would be very low cost, very light weight, and more tolerant of figure errors and surface roughness than grazing incidence telescopes. However, focal lengths are of the order of 1000 km, which requires a new mission architecture consisting of long distance formation-flying between two spacecraft, one hosting the optics, the other, the detector. One of the spacecraft requires propulsion, provided by, for example, ion engines to maintain the optics-detector alignment by counteracting gravity gradient forces, and for changing targets. Although their effective area can be large and their angular resolution very high diffractive-refractive telescopes are not necessarily more sensitive than Chandra because their large focal plane scale (1 mili arc second ~ 1 mm) subjects them to a higher level of cosmic ray background and their opacity results in a lower energy limit of 2 keV. The intrinsic field of view is wide but the large focal length scale and practical limits on the size of the detector array results in a small field of view.

  8. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  9. IPY: An excellent opportunity to improve Arctic DEMs and document today's Arctic for future generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.

    2003-12-01

    create stunning orthorectified images. These SAR systems, flying on a LearJet, can rapidly acquire day or night in a wide range of weather, eliminating most of the logistical delays common to other systems. Airborne Lidar, a laser based system, is also advanced to the stage where near-shore coastal bathymetry can be measured, such that we could seamlessly integrate DEMs and bathymetry. While the price of such acquisitions is high, it is comparable to DEM acquisitions on the rest of the planet and Mars, and the benefits would be enormous to a wide variety of polar researchers - perfect for the IPY. Presented in this poster will be several examples of how new DEMs have improved our Arctic research at UAF. McCall Glacier was originally an IGY field site and now has the longest record of mass balance observations of any glacier in the US Arctic, but our measurement program is hampered by the lack of decent topographic maps there. Our research using a new DEM in the Kuparuk River watershed in Alaska has shown that these DEMs substantially improve our hydrological modeling in such low gradient watersheds. With DEMs of such high accuracy and resolution, we can also begin a program of repeat-topographic mapping, to document changes not only to glaciers, but subtler permafrost phenomena with decimeter-scale changes such as pingos, thermokarsts, polygons, and oriented lakes. The time to acquire such data is now, however, before widespread changes occur. Thus the upcoming IPY can perhaps leave no better legacy than to replace the IGY-era, mediocre topographic maps with an accurate, high-resolution digital elevation model representing today's Arctic, which will remain valuable to generations of polar scientists.

  10. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunpeng; Cramer, Megan; Lee, Chieh Allen; Tang, Jie; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Antonetti, David A.; Jin, Hui; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We studied the role of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the generation of superoxide by retina and 661W retinal cells in high glucose and of the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) on vascular lesions of the retinopathy in experimentally diabetic C57Bl/6J mice (and controls) after 2 and 8 months. Compared with 5 mM glucose, incubating cells or retinal explants in 30 mM glucose induced superoxide generation. This response was reduced or ablated by pharmacologic inhibition of the α1-AR (a Gq-coupled receptor) or Gs-coupled serotonin (5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7) receptors or by activation of the Gi-coupled α2-AR. In elevated glucose, the α1-AR produced superoxide via phospholipase C, inositol triphosphate-induced Ca2+ release, and NADPH oxidase, and pharmacologic inhibition of these reactions prevented the superoxide increase. Generation of retinal superoxide, expression of proinflammatory proteins, and degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes all were significantly inhibited with daily doxazosin or apocynin (inhibitors of α1-AR and NADPH oxidase, respectively), but increased vascular permeability was not significantly affected. Adrenergic receptors, and perhaps other GPCRs, represent novel targets for inhibiting the development of important features of diabetic retinopathy.—Du, Y., Cramer, M., Lee, C. A., Tang, J., Muthusamy, A., Antonetti, D. A., Jin, H., Palczewski, K., Kern, T. S. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. PMID:25667222

  11. Generation of a specific immunological response to FGF-2 does not affect wound healing or reproduction.

    PubMed

    Plum, Stacy M; Vu, Hong A; Mercer, Bobby; Fogler, William E; Fortier, Anne H

    2004-02-01

    in two models of pulmonary metastatic disease. In the present studies, we further characterize the immunological and physiological responses to this vaccine. Vaccinated animals generated a specific anti-FGF-2 antibody (titer of 1:5000) that was able to inhibit FGF-2 binding to heparin sulfate in a dose dependent fashion. Cell mediated immunity was evidenced by a delayed type hypersensitivity response following challenge with the heparin binding domain peptide. Despite an immune response toward FGF-2, vaccination with L(HBD) did not result in alterations in mean time to wound healing when compared to unvaccinated animals or those treated with a liposome control. In reproductive studies, vaccinated females were not impaired in their ability to: 1) become pregnant, 2) support the growth and development of their embryos, and 3) deliver viable offspring. Furthermore, when assessed histologically, these offspring did not demonstrate any alterations in organogenesis when compared to pups born to untreated or liposome control treated females. Thus, while vaccination against FGF-2 induces a specific FGF-2 antibody response, and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor development in a pathological setting, it does not adversely alter normal physiological events dependent on FGF-2.

  12. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  13. Elaboration of copper-oxygen mediated C-H activation chemistry in consideration of future fuel and feedstock generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yoon; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    To contribute solutions to current energy concerns, improvements in the efficiency of dioxygen mediated C-H bond cleavage chemistry, for example, selective oxidation of methane to methanol, could minimize losses in natural gas usage or produce feedstocks for fuels. Oxidative C-H activation is also a component of polysaccharide degradation, potentially affording alternative biofuels from abundant biomass. Thus, an understanding of active-site chemistry in copper monooxygenases, those activating strong C-H bonds is briefly reviewed. Then, recent advances in the synthesis-generation and study of various copper-oxygen intermediates are highlighted. Of special interest are cupric-superoxide, Cu-hydroperoxo and Cu-oxy complexes. Such investigations can contribute to an enhanced future application of C-H oxidation or oxygenation processes using air, as concerning societal energy goals.

  14. Advancing the Oxygen Generation Assembly Design to Increase Reliability and Reduce Costs for a Future Long Duration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takada, Kevin C.; Ghariani, Ahmed E.; Van Keuren,

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) has been reliably producing breathing oxygen for the crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for over eight years. Lessons learned from operating the ISS OGA have led to proposing incremental improvements to advance the baseline design for use in a future long duration mission. These improvements are intended to reduce system weight, crew maintenance time and resupply mass from Earth while increasing reliability. The proposed improvements include replacing the cell stack membrane material, deleting the nitrogen purge equipment, replacing the hydrogen sensors, deleting the wastewater interface, replacing the hydrogen dome and redesigning the cell stack power supply. The development work to date will be discussed and forward work will be outlined. Additionally, a redesigned system architecture will be proposed.

  15. Elaboration of Copper-Oxygen Mediated C–H Activation Chemistry in Consideration of Future Fuel and Feedstock Generation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yoon; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    To contribute solutions for current energy concerns, improvements in the efficiency of C-H bond cleavage chemistry, e.g., selective oxidation of methane to methanol, could minimize losses in natural gas usage or produce feedstocks for fuels. Oxidative C-H activation is also a component of polysaccharide degradation, affording alternative biofuels from abundant biomass. Thus, an understanding of active-site chemistry in copper monooxygenases, those activating strong C-H bonds is briefly reviewed. Then, recent advances in the synthesis-generation and study of various copper-oxygen intermediates are highlighted. Of special interest are cupric-superoxide, Cu-hydroperoxo and Cu-oxy complexes. Such investigations can contribute to an enhanced future application of C-H oxidation or oxygenation processes using air, as concerning societal energy goals. PMID:25756327

  16. Effects on incidental memory of affective tone in associated past and future episodes: influence of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of emotion elicited by episodes (past events or expected future events) and the relationship between individual differences in emotional intelligence and memory. Participants' emotional intelligence was assessed on the Japanese version of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire. They rated the pleasantness of episodes they associated with targets, and then performed unexpected free recall tests. When the targets were associated with episodes that were past events, all participants recalled more of the targets associated with pleasant and unpleasant episodes than those associated with neutral episodes. However, when the targets were associated with episodes expected to occur in the future, only participants with higher emotional intelligence scores recalled more of the targets associated with pleasant and unpleasant episodes. The participants with lower emotional intelligence scores recalled the three target types with similar accuracy. These results were interpreted as showing that emotional intelligence is associated with the processing of targets associated with future episodes as retrieval cues.

  17. To future generations....

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in the Netherlands in 1989. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first turbines several design modifications followed, e.g. rotor diameter was increased and a tip brake was added. After that polyester blades were introduced and rotor diameter was further increased. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept resulted in decreased cost and increased annual energy output. The 500 kW turbines serve in the first Dutch off-shore wind farm installed in 1994. This pilot project established proof that off-shore implementation is a promising option for the Dutch energy supply. Installation of megawatt turbines off-shore is currently being studied. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kilowatt-hours is the target.

  18. The creation of future daily gridded datasets of precipitation and temperature with a spatial weather generator, Cyprus 2020-2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Pashiardis, Stelios; Lange, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution gridded daily datasets are essential for natural resource management and the analysis of climate changes and their effects. This study aimed to create gridded datasets of daily precipitation and daily minimum and maximum temperature, for the future (2020-2050). The horizontal resolution of the developed datasets is 1 x 1 km2, covering the area under control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study is divided into two parts. The first consists of the evaluation of the performance of different interpolation techniques for daily rainfall and temperature data (1980-2010) for the creation of the gridded datasets. Rainfall data recorded at 145 stations and temperature data from 34 stations were used. For precipitation, inverse distance weighting (IDW) performs best for local events, while a combination of step-wise geographically weighted regression and IDW proves to be the best method for large scale events. For minimum and maximum temperature, a combination of step-wise linear multiple regression and thin plate splines is recognized as the best method. Six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the A1B SRES emission scenario from the EU ENSEMBLE project database were selected as sources for future climate projections. The RCMs were evaluated for their capacity to simulate Cyprus climatology for the period 1980-2010. Data for the period 2020-2050 from the three best performing RCMs were downscaled, using the change factors approach, at the location of observational stations. Daily time series were created with a stochastic rainfall and temperature generator. The RainSim V3 software (Burton et al., 2008) was used to generate spatial-temporal coherent rainfall fields. The temperature generator was developed in R and modeled temperature as a weakly stationary process with the daily mean and standard deviation conditioned on the wet and dry state of the day (Richardson, 1981). Finally gridded datasets depicting projected future climate conditions were

  19. Mental Health and Resilience in HIV/AIDS-Affected Children: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, T.S.; Meyers-Ohki, S.E.; Charrow, A.; Hansen, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding of modifiable protective processes that contribute to resilience in the mental health of children affected by HIV can inform the design of interventions that bolster naturally-occurring supports and contribute to early prevention or better management of risks. Methods We reviewed the recent literature on mental health and resilience in children and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS. Literature searches of PsycInfo and PubMed were conducted during July-December 2011 consistent with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included for review if primary research questions pertained to mental health and coping or protective processes in children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. All studies subject to full review were evaluated for quality using a modified Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) rating system. Results 171 unique studies were returned from online searches of the literature and bibliography mining. Of these, 29 were evaluated as pertaining directly to mental health and resilience in families and children living with HIV/AIDS. Eight studies presented qualitative analyses. Ten quantitative studies examined individual resources contributing to child resilience and four quantitative studies looked at family-level resources. Ten studies also investigated community-level interactions. Four presented findings from resilience-focused interventions. Conclusions There is a clear need for rigorous research on mental health and resilience in HIV-affected children and adolescents. The evidence base would greatly

  20. Ethanol exposure during embryogenesis decreases the radial glial progenitorpool and affects the generation of neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Gemma; Miñana, Rosa; Pascual, Maria; Guerri, Consuelo

    2006-08-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure induces functional abnormalities during brain development affecting neurogenesis and gliogenesis. We have previously reported that alcohol exposure during embryogenesis disrupts radial glia (RG) and gliogenesis. Taking into account the new role of RG as neural progenitors, we have investigated whether ethanol affects RG as a neural stem cell. We found that in utero ethanol exposure impairs cell proliferation and decreases neurons and astrocytes generated in cultured RG and in embryonic cerebral cortex. Telencephalic cultures obtained at E12 from ethanol-treated rats displayed a reduction in the proportion of actively dividing RG progenitors, as demonstrated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and in the percentage of brain lipid binding protein-positive RG. Consistently, neurosphere formation assay from E12 telencephalon showed a reduced number of multipotent progenitor cells in cultures isolated from ethanol-treated rats in comparison with pair-fed control group. Moreover, levels of activated Notch1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, which regulate the maintenance of the progenitor state of RG, are decreased by prenatal ethanol exposure. These findings demonstrate that ethanol reduces the telencephalic RG progenitor pool and its transformation into neurons and astrocytes, which may contribute to an explanation of the defects in brain function often observed in fetal alcohol syndrome.

  1. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S; Singh, Rajesh R; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-08-28

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  2. The Y.E.S. Network: An IYPE legacy for engaging future generations of early-career geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Govoni, D.; Micucci, L.; Gaines, S. M.; Venus, J.; Meng, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Y.E.S. Network, an association of early-career geoscientists who represent professional societies, geoscience companies, and geoscience departments from across the world, was formed as a direct result of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE). Currently the Y.E.S. Network has representatives in thirty-five countries from six continents. The goal of the network is to engage early-career representatives from geological associations and institutions, policy-makers, and delegates from administrative bodies to establish a worldwide network of future leaders, policy-makers and geoscientists who will work collaboratively to address the scientific challenges future generations will face. To this end, the Y.E.S. Network, in collaboration with IYPE and with the patronage of UNESCO, organized the first international Y.E.S. Congress which was hosted by the China University of Geosciences in Beijing. The conference focused on scientific and career challenges faced by early-career geoscientists, with a particular emphasis on how the Y.E.S. Network can work collaborative and internationally towards solving these challenges and furthering the IYPE motto of “Earth Sciences for Society”. The conference focused on the ten major themes of the IYPE (e.g. health, climate, groundwater, ocean, soils, deep earth, megacities, hazards, resources, and life) at its poster and oral sessions. Roundtable symposia engaged senior and early-career geoscientists via presentations, panel discussions, and working group sessions where strategies related to scientific challenges (i.e. climate change in the polar regions, natural hazards, natural resource sustainability) and academic and career pathway challenges (i.e. academic-industry linkages, gender parity in the geosciences, geoscience education sustainability, and international licensure issues) were developed. These strategies were then tasked to the Y.E.S. Network for further development and implementation. Future Y.E.S. Network

  3. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  4. Thrombin generation and whole blood viscoelastic assays in the management of hemophilia: current state of art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Young, Guy; Sørensen, Benny; Dargaud, Yesim; Negrier, Claude; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen; Key, Nigel S

    2013-03-14

    Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder that afflicts about 1 in 5000 males. Treatment relies upon replacement of the deficient factor, and response to treatment both in clinical research and practice is based upon subjective parameters such as pain and joint mobility. Existing laboratory assays quantify the amount of factor in plasma, which is useful diagnostically and prognostically. However, these assays are limited in their ability to fully evaluate the patient's clot-forming capability. Newer assays, known as global assays, provide a far more detailed view of thrombin generation and clot formation and have been studied in hemophilia for about 10 years. They have the potential to offer a more objective measure of both the hemophilic phenotype as well as the response to treatment. In particular, in patients who develop inhibitors to deficient clotting factors and in whom bypassing agents are required for hemostasis, these assays offer the opportunity to determine the laboratory response to these interventions where traditional coagulation assays cannot. In this article we review the existing literature and discuss several controversial issues surrounding the assays. Last, a vision of future clinical uses of these assays is briefly described.

  5. Procedure for generating global atmospheric engine emissions data from future supersonic transport aircraft. The 1990 high speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. A.; Stroup, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The input for global atmospheric chemistry models was generated for baseline High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations at Mach 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2. The input is supplied in the form of number of molecules of specific exhaust constituents injected into the atmosphere per year by latitude and by altitude (for 2-D codes). Seven exhaust constituents are currently supplied: NO, NO2, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, and THC (Trace Hydrocarbons). An eighth input is also supplied, NO(x), the sum of NO and NO2. The number of molecules of a given constituent emitted per year is a function of the total fuel burned by a supersonic fleet and the emission index (EI) of the aircraft engine for the constituent in question. The EIs for an engine are supplied directly by the engine manufacturers. The annual fuel burn of a supersonic fleet is calculated from aircraft performance and economic criteria, both of which are strongly dependent on basic design parameters such as speed and range. The altitude and latitude distribution of the emission is determined based on 10 Intern. Air Transport Assoc. (IATA) regions chosen to define the worldwide route structure for future HSCT operations and the mission flight profiles.

  6. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  7. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  8. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grundwald, Natalia J.; Brunton, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    with controls, with no differences in the F2 females. No differences in depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference or forced swim test) were observed in either sex. In conclusion, the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on HPA axis regulation and anxiety-like behavior can be transmitted to future generations in a sex-dependent manner. These data have implications for human neuropsychiatric disorders with developmental origins. PMID:26318631

  9. Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Steven; Ford, Chelcy R; Vose, James M

    2013-06-01

    Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) has caused widespread mortality of this key canopy species throughout much of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the past decade. Because eastern hemlock is heavily concentrated in riparian habitats, maintains a dense canopy, and has an evergreen leaf habit, its loss is expected to have a major impact on forest processes, including transpiration (E(t)). Our goal was to estimate changes in stand-level E(t) since HWA infestation, and predict future effects of forest regeneration on forest E(t) in declining eastern hemlock stands where hemlock represented 50-60% of forest basal area. We used a combination of community surveys, sap flux measurements, and empirical models relating sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (E(L)) to climate to estimate the change in E(t) after hemlock mortality and forecast how forest E(t) will change in the future in response to eastern hemlock loss. From 2004 to 2011, eastern hemlock mortality reduced annual forest E(t) by 22% and reduced winter E(t) by 74%. As hemlock mortality increased, growth of deciduous tree species--especially sweet birch (Betula lenta L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and the evergreen understory shrub rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.)--also increased, and these species will probably dominate post-hemlock riparian forests. All of these species have higher daytime E(L) rates than hemlock, and replacement of hemlock with species that have less conservative transpiration rates will result in rapid recovery of annual stand E(t). Further, we predict that annual stand E(t) will eventually surpass E(t) levels observed before hemlock was infested with HWA. This long-term increase in forest E(t) may eventually reduce stream discharge, especially during the growing season. However, the dominance of deciduous species in the canopy will result in a

  10. Societal and Commercial Issues Affecting the Future of Biotechnology in the United States: A Survey of Researchers' Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabino, Isaac

    A 1995 survey of 1,257 U.S. recombinant DNA researchers assessed how they view outside factors affecting their work, including public and media attention; regulation; funding; international competition; commercialization of research and university/industry collaboration; health care reform efforts; and patenting laws and policies. Generally, respondents view public attention as having had positive effects on biotechnology progress, but they are concerned about the decrease in R&D funding, especially from government; the loss of scientific openness and basic-research quality caused by academic/industrial collaboration; international competition, particularly from Japan and Germany; overly stringent regulations that control R&D processes rather than products; inefficient regulatory agencies focused on irrelevant criteria; and threats to basic biomedical research from the short-term cost focus of managed-care companies.

  11. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  12. Do targeted written comments and the rubric method of delivery affect performance on future human physiology laboratory reports?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Zachary S; Wilds, Gabriel P; Mangum, Joshua E; Hocker, Austin D; Dawson, Sierra M

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how students performed on weekly two-page laboratory reports based on whether the grading rubric was provided to the student electronically or in paper form and the inclusion of one- to two-sentence targeted comments. Subjects were registered for a 289-student, third-year human physiology class with laboratory and were randomized into four groups related to rubric delivery and targeted comments. All students received feedback via the same detailed grading rubric. At the end of the term, subjects provided consent and a self-assessment of their rubric viewing rate and preferences. There were no differences in laboratory report scores between groups (P = 0.86), although scores did improve over time (P < 0.01). Students receiving targeted comments self-reported viewing their rubric more often than students that received no comments (P = 0.02), but the viewing rate was independent of the rubric delivery method (P = 0.15). Subjects with high rubric viewing rates did not have higher laboratory report grades than subjects with low viewing rates (P = 0.64). When asked about their preference for the future, 43% of respondents preferred the same method again (electronic or paper rubric) and 25% had no preference. We conclude that although student laboratory report grades improved over time, the rate and degree of improvement were not related to rubric delivery method or to the inclusion of targeted comments.

  13. Predicting future wind power generation and power demand in France using statistical downscaling methods developed for hydropower applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najac, Julien

    2014-05-01

    For many applications in the energy sector, it is crucial to dispose of downscaling methods that enable to conserve space-time dependences at very fine spatial and temporal scales between variables affecting electricity production and consumption. For climate change impact studies, this is an extremely difficult task, particularly as reliable climate information is usually found at regional and monthly scales at best, although many industry oriented applications need further refined information (hydropower production model, wind energy production model, power demand model, power balance model…). Here we thus propose to investigate the question of how to predict and quantify the influence of climate change on climate-related energies and the energy demand. To do so, statistical downscaling methods originally developed for studying climate change impacts on hydrological cycles in France (and which have been used to compute hydropower production in France), have been applied for predicting wind power generation in France and an air temperature indicator commonly used for predicting power demand in France. We show that those methods provide satisfactory results over the recent past and apply this methodology to several climate model runs from the ENSEMBLES project.

  14. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    PubMed

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed.

  15. Meteorological Processes Affecting the Transport of Emissions from the Navajo Generating Station to Grand Canyon National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Charles G.; Chen, Jun; Dye, Timothy S.; Willard Richards, L.; Blumenthal, Donald L.

    1999-08-01

    During the 1990 Navajo Generating Station (NGS) Winter Visibility Study, a network of surface and upper-air meteorological measurement systems was operated in and around Grand Canyon National Park to investigate atmospheric processes in complex terrain that affected the transport of emissions from the nearby NGS. This network included 15 surface monitoring stations, eight balloon sounding stations (equipped with a mix of rawinsonde, tethersonde, and Airsonde sounding systems), three Doppler radar wind profilers, and four Doppler sodars. Measurements were made from 10 January through 31 March 1990. Data from this network were used to prepare objectively analyzed wind fields, trajectories, and streak lines to represent transport of emissions from the NGS, and to prepare isentropic analyses of the data. The results of these meteorological analyses were merged in the form of a computer animation that depicted the streak line analyses along with measurements of perfluorocarbon tracer, SO2, and sulfate aerosol concentrations, as well as visibility measurements collected by an extensive surface monitoring network. These analyses revealed that synoptic-scale circulations associated with the passage of low pressure systems followed by the formation of high pressure ridges accompanied the majority of cases when NGS emittants appeared to be transported to the Grand Canyon. The authors' results also revealed terrain influences on transport within the topography of the study area, especially mesoscale flows inside the Lake Powell basin and along the plain above the Marble Canyon.

  16. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Lavine, Jennie; Ellebedy, Ali; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza’s major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i) results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii) leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii) masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza. PMID:27336297

  17. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography

  18. Breeding experience and population density affect the ability of a songbird to respond to future climate variation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Scott; Norris, D. Ryan; Wilson, Amy G; Arcese, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Predicting how populations respond to climate change requires an understanding of whether individuals or cohorts within populations vary in their response to climate variation. We used mixed-effects models on a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population in British Columbia, Canada, to examine differences among females and cohorts in their average breeding date and breeding date plasticity in response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Climatic variables, age and population density were strong predictors of timing of breeding, but we also found considerable variation among individual females and cohorts. Within cohorts, females differed markedly in their breeding date and cohorts also differed in their average breeding date and breeding date plasticity. The plasticity of a cohort appeared to be due primarily to an interaction between the environmental conditions (climate and density) experienced at different ages rather than innate inter-cohort differences. Cohorts that expressed higher plasticity in breeding date experienced warmer El Niño springs in their second or third breeding season, suggesting that prior experience affects how well individuals responded to abnormal climatic conditions. Cohorts born into lower density populations also expressed higher plasticity in breeding date. Interactions between age, experience and environmental conditions have been reported previously for long-lived taxa. Our current results indicate that similar effects operate in a short-lived, temperate songbird. PMID:17698488

  19. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

  20. Assessment of present and future radwaste generation in Saudi Arabia for the design of treatment and storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Kutbi, I.I.; Al-Marshad, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Radwastes are produced in medical, industrial and educational institutions in Saudi Arabia. In medical centers many of the unsealed sources were low beta/gamma emitters of low radio-toxicity and less than about 4 months half-life. Significant radionuclides in this category were: {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 67}Ga and some of others. Longer lived sources such as {sup 57}Co, {sup 3}H, and {sup 14}C were also found in appreciable quantity. Delay and decay procedure followed by release to the sewerage or municipal landfill has been practiced for short-lived radwaste. Pretreatment and temporary storage were encouraged at large centers. Industrial sealed sources used primarily in radiography and well logging were mainly: {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 241}Am, {sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 252}Cf. It was agreed that radwastes whose half lives are above 138.4 days, the half life of {sup 210}Po, should be subject to conditioning treatment and permanent storage. It was anticipated that two main parameters affect the increase in radwaste in the future. The first is the increase of radionuclides use in hospitals in diagnosis and therapy in the country. The second is the increase in population which should be associated with increase in medical services in general. The annual long lived waste that need treatment, conditioning and storage as a function of time is expected to follow the relation: V= 10+0.48t{sup 2}, where V is the waste volume in m{sup 3} and t is the time in years after 1995. The expected long lived cumulative treated, conditioned, and liquid wastes in that year if not subject to volume reduction in m{sup 3} are expected to be: 500, 75, and 100 respectively. Comparisons were made with IAEA waste volume expectations for countries of similar conditions: the cumulative radwastes in m{sup 3} in 2020 are expected to be: 800, 125 and 175 respectively.

  1. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    PubMed

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed.

  2. Will anticipated future climatic conditions affect belowground C utilization? - Insights into the role of microbial functional groups in a temperate heath/grassland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Michelsen, Anders; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Egsgaard, Helge; Kappel Schmidt, Inger; Jakobsen, Iver; Ambus, Per

    2013-04-01

    The global terrestrial soil organic matter stock is the biggest terrestrial carbon pool (1500 Pg C) of which about 4 % is turned over annually. Thus, terrestrial ecosystems have the potential to accelerate or diminish atmospheric climate change effects via belowground carbon processes. We investigated the effect of elevated CO2 (510 ppm), prolonged spring/summer droughts and increased temperature (1 ˚C) on belowground carbon allocation and on the recovery of carbon by the soil microbial community. An in-situ 13C-carbon pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heath/grassland (Denmark) in May 2011. Recently assimilated 13C-carbon was traced into roots, soil and microbial biomass 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in roots. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were distinguished from the decomposer groups of actinomycetes (belonging to the group of gram-positive bacteria) and saprophytic fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi specific PLFAs were not detected probably due to limited sample size in combination with restricted sensitivity of the used GC-c-IRMS setup. Climate treatments did not affect 13C allocation into roots, soil and microbial biomass carbon and also the total microbial biomass size stayed unchanged as frequently observed. However, climate treatments changed the composition of the microbial community: elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy) but did not affect the abundance of decomposers. Drought favored the bacterial community whereas increased temperatures showed reduced abundance of gram-negative bacteria (19:0cy) and changed the actinomycetes community (10Me16:0, 10Me18:0). However, not only the microbial community composition was affected by the applied climatic conditions, but also the activity of microbial

  3. Four Generations of Maintenance Resource Management Programs in the United States: An Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James C.; Patankar, Manoj S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes four generations of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) programs implemented by aviation maintenance organizations in the United States. Data collected from over ten years of survey research and field observations are used for this analysis; they are presented in a case-study format. The first three generations of MRM programs were episodic efforts to increase safety through teamwork, focus group discussions, and awareness courses, respectively. Now, the fourth generation programs, characterized by a commitment to long-term communication and behavioral changes in maintenance, are set to build on those earlier generations, toward a culture of mutual trust between mechanics, their managers, and regulators.

  4. How does the Earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel

    2012-03-13

    The Earth's chemical composition far from chemical equilibrium is unique in our Solar System, and this uniqueness has been attributed to the presence of widespread life on the planet. Here, I show how this notion can be quantified using non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Generating and maintaining disequilibrium in a thermodynamic variable requires the extraction of power from another thermodynamic gradient, and the second law of thermodynamics imposes fundamental limits on how much power can be extracted. With this approach and associated limits, I show that the ability of abiotic processes to generate geochemical free energy that can be used to transform the surface-atmosphere environment is strongly limited to less than 1 TW. Photosynthetic life generates more than 200 TW by performing photochemistry, thereby substantiating the notion that a geochemical composition far from equilibrium can be a sign for strong biotic activity. Present-day free energy consumption by human activity in the form of industrial activity and human appropriated net primary productivity is of the order of 50 TW and therefore constitutes a considerable term in the free energy budget of the planet. When aiming to predict the future of the planet, we first note that since global changes are closely related to this consumption of free energy, and the demands for free energy by human activity are anticipated to increase substantially in the future, the central question in the context of predicting future global change is then how human free energy demands can increase sustainably without negatively impacting the ability of the Earth system to generate free energy. This question could be evaluated with climate models, and the potential deficiencies in these models to adequately represent the thermodynamics of the Earth system are discussed. Then, I illustrate the implications of this thermodynamic perspective by discussing the forms of renewable energy and planetary engineering that would

  5. How does the Earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?

    PubMed Central

    Kleidon, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's chemical composition far from chemical equilibrium is unique in our Solar System, and this uniqueness has been attributed to the presence of widespread life on the planet. Here, I show how this notion can be quantified using non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Generating and maintaining disequilibrium in a thermodynamic variable requires the extraction of power from another thermodynamic gradient, and the second law of thermodynamics imposes fundamental limits on how much power can be extracted. With this approach and associated limits, I show that the ability of abiotic processes to generate geochemical free energy that can be used to transform the surface–atmosphere environment is strongly limited to less than 1 TW. Photosynthetic life generates more than 200 TW by performing photochemistry, thereby substantiating the notion that a geochemical composition far from equilibrium can be a sign for strong biotic activity. Present-day free energy consumption by human activity in the form of industrial activity and human appropriated net primary productivity is of the order of 50 TW and therefore constitutes a considerable term in the free energy budget of the planet. When aiming to predict the future of the planet, we first note that since global changes are closely related to this consumption of free energy, and the demands for free energy by human activity are anticipated to increase substantially in the future, the central question in the context of predicting future global change is then how human free energy demands can increase sustainably without negatively impacting the ability of the Earth system to generate free energy. This question could be evaluated with climate models, and the potential deficiencies in these models to adequately represent the thermodynamics of the Earth system are discussed. Then, I illustrate the implications of this thermodynamic perspective by discussing the forms of renewable energy and planetary engineering that would

  6. Will changes in root-zone temperature in boreal spring affect recovery of photosynthesis in Picea mariana and Populus tremuloides in a future climate?

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Ensminger, Ingo; Bergeron, Yves; Gessler, Arthur; Berninger, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Future climate will alter the soil cover of mosses and snow depths in the boreal forests of eastern Canada. In field manipulation experiments, we assessed the effects of varying moss and snow depths on the physiology of black spruce (Picea -mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the boreal black spruce forest of western Québec. For 1 year, naturally regenerated 10-year-old spruce and aspen were grown with one of the following treatments: additional N fertilization, addition of sphagnum moss cover, removal of mosses, delayed soil thawing through snow and hay addition, or accelerated soil thawing through springtime snow removal. Treatments that involved the addition of insulating moss or snow in the spring caused lower soil temperature, while removing moss and snow in the spring caused elevated soil temperature and thus had a warming effect. Soil warming treatments were associated with greater temperature variability. Additional soil cover, whether moss or snow, increased the rate of photosynthetic recovery in the spring. Moss and snow removal, on the other hand, had the opposite effect and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially in spruce. Maximal electron transport rate (ETR(max)) was, for spruce, 39.5% lower after moss removal than with moss addition, and 16.3% lower with accelerated thawing than with delayed thawing. Impaired photosynthetic recovery in the absence of insulating moss or snow covers was associated with lower foliar N concentrations. Both species were affected in that way, but trembling aspen generally reacted less strongly to all treatments. Our results indicate that a clear negative response of black spruce to changes in root-zone temperature should be anticipated in a future climate. Reduced moss cover and snow depth could adversely affect the photosynthetic capacities of black spruce, while having only minor effects on trembling aspen.

  7. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T): Second Generation Advancements and the Future of SmallSat Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren; Martinez, Armando; SanSoucie, Michael; Johnson, Les; Laue, Greg; Farmer, Brandon; Smith, Joseph C.; Robertson, Barrett; Johnson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the second generation advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. LISA-T is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. A matrix of options are in development, including planar (pointed) and omnidirectional (non-pointed) arrays. The former is seeking the highest performance possible while the latter is seeking GN&C simplicity. In both cases, power generation ranges from tens of watts to several hundred with an expected specific power >250W/kg and a stowed power density >200kW/m(sub 3). Options for leveraging both high performance, 'typical cost' triple junction thin-film solar cells as well as moderate performance, low cost cells are being developed. Alongside, both UHF (ultra high frequency) and S-band antennas are being integrated into the array to move their space claim away from the spacecraft and open the door for omnidirectional communications and electronically steered phase arrays.

  8. The Legal Past, Present and Future of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Professional Liability and Other Legal Challenges Affecting Patient Access to Services.

    PubMed

    Pergament, Deborah; Ilijic, Katie

    2014-12-15

    This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments.

  9. The Legal Past, Present and Future of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Professional Liability and Other Legal Challenges Affecting Patient Access to Services

    PubMed Central

    Pergament, Deborah; Ilijic, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments. PMID:26237611

  10. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response

    PubMed Central

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physicsal process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, wich can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptualy simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology. PMID:26057576

  11. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    PubMed

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  12. Book Review: "The Road to Sustainability, GDP and Future Generations" Pulselli et al, WIT Press, Southhampton, UK 197p 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    “The Road to Sustainability, GDP and future generations” by Pulselli, F.M., Bastianoni, S., Marchettini, N. Tiezzi, E. was reviewed upon request by the journal’s editor. Briefly, this book presents the authors’ perspective on the complex and important topic of sustainability. Su...

  13. Next generation of elevated [CO2] experiments with crops: A critical investment for feeding the future world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising demand for grain crops and an expanding biofuel industry are vastly increasing pressure to maximize productivity on agricultural land. Rising atmospheric [CO2] is increasing global temperature and altering precipitation patterns, which will challenge agricultural productivity in the future. Y...

  14. Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF): Building the ICT in Education Capacity of the Next Generation of Teachers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Geoff; Lloyd, Margaret; Downes, Toni

    2012-01-01

    The "Teaching Teachers for the Future" (TTF) project is a unique nationally significant project funded by the Australian Government through the Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations (DEEWR, Au$8.8 million) and the Information and Communication Technology Innovation Fund (ICTIF). This 2011-2012 project has…

  15. Inspiring a future generation of Astronomer and Astrophysicists during the 48th and 49th annual Astro-Science Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynowycz, Michael; Ratliff, G.; Gyuk, G.; Hammergren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aging of the technological workforce and declining STEM interest among teens gives impetus to a more exciting, hands-on approach to science education. As one of the longest running astronomy & astrophysics programs for high school students in the country, the Adler Planetarium’s Astro-Science Workshop (ASW) has continually evolved to best serve the out-of-school time needs of science-interested teens in the region. More than a decade ago, ASW underwent a major shift in underlying philosophy from a traditional lecture-oriented program to one focused on hands-on, student led inquiry in which students design, build, and conduct their own experiments. This strategy capitalizes on the natural inclinations of curious youth, and has found a strong synergy with the emerging “maker” movement. Over the past two years, a very successful effort has been made to retain students following ASW as volunteers in the Adler’s Far Horizons high-altitude ballooning group. The necessity to continually inspire and spark interests in science futures in our youth has been ongoing; this intense program serves this niche while giving students experiences they will keep with them for their entire lives. Here, we share our successes, failures, and future perspectives on astronomy education and the mission of widening the future pipeline of young scientists in the nation.

  16. Assessment of the leak tightness integrity of the steam generator tubes affected by ODSCC at the tube support plates

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvelliez, Ch.; Roussel, G.

    1997-02-01

    An EPRI report gives a method for predicting a conservative value of the total primary-to-secondary leak rate which may occur during, a postulated steam generator depressurization accident such as a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) in a steam generator with axial through-wall ODSCC at the TSP intersections. The Belgian utility defined an alternative method deviating somewhat from the EPRI method. When reviewing this proposed method, the Belgian safety authorities performed some calculations to investigate its conservatism. This led them to recommend some modifications to the EPRI method which should reduce its undue conservatism while maintaining the objective of conservatism in the offsite dose calculations.

  17. What About the Children? The Threat of Nuclear War and Our Responsibility to Preserve this Planet for Future Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Glenn W.

    Part of a global effort, this brochure was written to increase understanding of the threat nuclear war poses to children. Several issues are raised and briefly discussed, including (1) the present capacity for annihilating the next generation or ending human life on this planet, (2) the inadequacy of deterrence, (3) the suffering of children after…

  18. The C3 Framework: A Powerful Tool for Preparing Future Generations for Informed and Engaged Civic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Levine, Peter

    2014-01-01

    As the C3 Framework for the social studies rolls out, it is hoped that its influence will grow, offering a vision and guidance for the development of a new generation of state social studies standards that promote deeper student learning and the acquisition of essentials skills for college, career, and civic life. In the interim, it can be an…

  19. Influences That Affect First-Generation College Students' College Choice: A Qualitative Inquiry of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell-Yeager, Tiffany J.

    2012-01-01

    College choice is the three-stage process of aspiring, searching and choosing to attend college. There are many models pertaining to college choice, however, this study uses the Hossler and Gallagher Model---aspiration, search and choice. This qualitative study explored first-generation college students' perceptions about the influences…

  20. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  1. Generation of Xeroderma Pigmentosum-A Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line for Use As Future Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Hiroe; Kawasaki, Takashi; Deguchi, Tomonori; Yuba, Shunsuke

    2015-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XP-A) is a genetic disorder in which there is an abnormality in nucleotide excision repair that causes hypersensitivity to sunlight and multiple skin cancers. The development of central and peripheral neurological disorders not correlated to ultraviolet light exposure is associated with XP-A. The genes responsible for XP-A have been identified and a XPA knockout mouse has been generated. These knockout mice exhibit cutaneous symptoms, but they do not show neurological disorders. The mechanism of pathogenesis of neurological disorders is still unclear and therapeutic methods have not been established. Therefore, we generated XP-A patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (XPA-iPSCs) to produce in vitro models of neurological disorders. We obtained iPSC lines from fibroblasts of two patients carrying different mutations. Drugs screened using XPA-iPSC lines can be helpful for treating XP-A patients in Japan. Additionally, we revealed that these iPSCs have the potential to differentiate into neural lineage cells, including dopaminergic neurons, which decrease in XP-A patients. Our results indicate that expression of the normal XPA gene without mutations is not required for generation of iPSCs and differentiation of iPSCs into neural lineage cells. XPA-iPSCs may become useful models that clarify our understanding of neurological pathogenesis and help to establish therapeutic methods.

  2. Increasing atmospheric [CO2] from glacial through future levels affects drought tolerance via impacts on leaves, xylem and their integrated function

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Juliana S.; Ward, Joy K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) affect plant carbon/water trade-offs, with implications for drought tolerance. Leaf-level studies often indicate that drought tolerance may increase with rising [CO2], but integrated leaf and xylem responses are not well understood in this respect. In addition, the influence of low [CO2] of the last glacial period on drought tolerance and xylem properties is not well understood.We investigated the interactive effects of a broad range of [CO2] and plant water potentials on leaf function, xylem structure and function and the integration of leaf and xylem function in Phaseolus vulgaris.Elevated [CO2] decreased vessel implosion strength, reduced conduit specific hydraulic conductance, and compromised leaf specific xylem hydraulic conductance under moderate drought. By contrast, at glacial [CO2], transpiration was maintained under moderate drought via greater conduit specific and leaf specific hydraulic conductance in association with increased vessel implosion strength.Our study involving the integration of leaf and xylem responses suggests that increasing [CO2] does not improve drought tolerance. We show that under glacial conditions changes in leaf and xylem properties could increase drought tolerance, while under future conditions greater productivity may only occur when higher water use can be accommodated. PMID:23668237

  3. Increasing atmospheric [CO2] from glacial to future concentrations affects drought tolerance via impacts on leaves, xylem and their integrated function.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Ward, Joy K

    2013-08-01

    Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) affect plant carbon/water tradeoffs, with implications for drought tolerance. Leaf-level studies often indicate that drought tolerance may increase with rising [CO2], but integrated leaf and xylem responses are not well understood in this respect. In addition, the influence of the low [CO2] of the last glacial period on drought tolerance and xylem properties is not well understood. We investigated the interactive effects of a broad range of [CO2] and plant water potentials on leaf function, xylem structure and function and the integration of leaf and xylem function in Phaseolus vulgaris. Elevated [CO2] decreased vessel implosion strength, reduced conduit-specific hydraulic conductance, and compromised leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductance under moderate drought. By contrast, at glacial [CO2], transpiration was maintained under moderate drought via greater conduit-specific and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in association with increased vessel implosion strength. Our study involving the integration of leaf and xylem responses suggests that increasing [CO2] does not improve drought tolerance. We show that, under glacial conditions, changes in leaf and xylem properties could increase drought tolerance, while under future conditions, greater productivity may only occur when higher water use can be accommodated.

  4. Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: effects of affective valence, response latency, and visual field.

    PubMed

    Stone, Anna; Valentine, Tim

    2005-09-01

    Participants who were unable to detect familiarity from masked 17 ms faces (Stone and Valentine, 2004 and Stone and Valentine, in press-b) did report a vague, partial visual percept. Two experiments investigated the relative strength of the visual percept generated by famous and unfamiliar faces, using masked 17 ms exposure. Each trial presented simultaneously a famous and an unfamiliar face, one face in LVF and the other in RVF. In one task, participants responded according to which of the faces generated the stronger visual percept, and in the other task, they attempted an explicit familiarity decision. The relative strength of the visual percept of the famous face compared to the unfamiliar face was moderated by response latency and participants' attitude towards the famous person. There was also an interaction of visual field with response latency, suggesting that the right hemisphere can generate a visual percept differentiating famous from unfamiliar faces more rapidly than the left hemisphere. Participants were at chance in the explicit familiarity decision, confirming the absence of awareness of facial familiarity.

  5. An electricity-focused economic input-output model: Life-cycle assessment and policy implications of future electricity generation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Joe

    The electricity industry is extremely important to both our economy and our environment. We would like to be able to examine the economic, environmental and policy implications of both future electricity scenarios which include advanced generation technologies such as gasified coal, and of the products and processes which will use them, along with the interaction of this industry with the rest of the economy. This work builds upon an existing economic input-output framework, by adding detail about the electricity industry, specifically by differentiating among the various functions of the sector, and the different means of generating power. The mix of electricity consumed at any stage in the life-cycle of a product, process or industrial sector has a significant effect on the associated inventory of emissions. Fossil fuel or nuclear generators, large-scale hydroelectric, and renewable options such as geothermal, wind and solar each have a unique set of issues---both in the production of electricity at the plant and throughout the supply chain. Decision makers need better information regarding the environmental and economic impact of the electricity industry, including full supply chain details---the interaction of the electricity industry with the other 500 sectors of the economy. A systematic method for creating updated state level and sector generation mixes is developed. The results show that most sector mixes are very close to the U.S. average due to geographic dispersion of industries, but that some sectors are different, and they tend to be important raw material extraction or primary manufacturing industries. We then build a flexible framework for creating new sectors, supply chains and emission factors for the generation, transmission and distribution portions of the electricity industry. We look at scenarios of the present and future, for electricity and for particular products, and develop results which show environmental impacts split up by generation

  6. Investigating Factors that Generate and Maintain Variation in Migratory Orientation: A Primer for Recent and Future Work

    PubMed Central

    Delmore, Kira E.; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The amazing accuracy of migratory orientation performance across the animal kingdom is facilitated by the use of magnetic and celestial compass systems that provide individuals with both directional and positional information. Quantitative genetics analyses in several animal systems suggests that migratory orientation has a strong genetic component. Nevertheless, the exact identity of genes controlling orientation remains largely unknown, making it difficult to obtain an accurate understanding of this fascinating behavior on the molecular level. Here, we provide an overview of molecular genetic techniques employed thus far, highlight the pros and cons of various approaches, generalize results from species-specific studies whenever possible, and evaluate how far the field has come since early quantitative genetics studies. We emphasize the importance of examining different levels of molecular control, and outline how future studies can take advantage of high-resolution tracking and sequencing techniques to characterize the genomic architecture of migratory orientation. PMID:26834592

  7. Investigating Factors that Generate and Maintain Variation in Migratory Orientation: A Primer for Recent and Future Work.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The amazing accuracy of migratory orientation performance across the animal kingdom is facilitated by the use of magnetic and celestial compass systems that provide individuals with both directional and positional information. Quantitative genetics analyses in several animal systems suggests that migratory orientation has a strong genetic component. Nevertheless, the exact identity of genes controlling orientation remains largely unknown, making it difficult to obtain an accurate understanding of this fascinating behavior on the molecular level. Here, we provide an overview of molecular genetic techniques employed thus far, highlight the pros and cons of various approaches, generalize results from species-specific studies whenever possible, and evaluate how far the field has come since early quantitative genetics studies. We emphasize the importance of examining different levels of molecular control, and outline how future studies can take advantage of high-resolution tracking and sequencing techniques to characterize the genomic architecture of migratory orientation.

  8. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tan, BoonFei; Ng, Charmaine; Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Loh, Lay Leng; Gin, Karina Y-H; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools.

  9. Plantarflexor training affects propulsive force generation during gait in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Misako; Higuchi, Yumi; Yonetsu, Ryo; Kitajima, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints after plantarflexor training in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Three boys aged 9, 10, and 13 years with spastic hemiplegic CP participated in the study. Gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion analysis device and a floor reaction force detection device before and after plantarflexor training. Data on gait speed and stride length for both sides were collected. Peak hip and ankle powers in the sagittal plane and ankle-to-hip power ratio (A2/H3 ratio) were calculated. Plantarflexor training comprised heel raises and exercise band resistance at the participant’s home (3 times/week for 12 weeks). [Results] The A2/H3 ratio increased significantly on both sides in two of three subjects after training. Peak A2 power increased significantly on both sides in subject 3 and on the affected side of subject 2. Peak H3 power decreased significantly on the non-affected side of subjects 1 and 2. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that two of three subjects demonstrated a trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints during gait after plantarflexor training. PMID:26157201

  10. SUMF1 mutations affecting stability and activity of formylglycine generating enzyme predict clinical outcome in multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schlotawa, Lars; Ennemann, Eva Charlotte; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Bernhard; Chakrapani, Anupam; Christen, Hans-Jürgen; Moser, Hugo; Steinmann, Beat; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible, which will be helpful for genetic counseling and developing therapeutic strategies aiming at enhancement of FGE.

  11. Considerations in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of radioisotopic thermo-photovoltaic (RTPV) generators for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Frazier, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    To increase energy output with a smaller size and mass than the radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that were previously used on deep space missions, a radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system is being developed for the {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express{close_quote}{close_quote} flyby mission. To minimize cost and development time, some facilities and components currently used for RTG production can be used to produce RTPVs. Production options also include out-sourcing and use of off-the-shelf hardware. Necessary modifications to tooling, production equipment, testing and shipping methods can be achieved in a timely manner so that the RTPV will be ready well before the planned launch of {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Understanding the role of maternal diet on kidney development; an opportunity to improve cardiovascular and renal health for future generations.

    PubMed

    Wood-Bradley, Ryan James; Barrand, Sanna; Giot, Anais; Armitage, James Andrew

    2015-03-12

    The leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide are cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, high cholesterol and renal disease), cancer and diabetes. It is increasingly obvious that the development of these diseases encompasses complex interactions between adult lifestyle and genetic predisposition. Maternal malnutrition can influence the fetal and early life environment and pose a risk factor for the future development of adult diseases, most likely due to impaired organogenesis in the developing offspring. This then predisposes these offspring to cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction in adulthood. Studies in experimental animals have further illustrated the significant impact maternal diet has on offspring health. Many studies report changes in kidney structure (a reduction in the number of nephrons in the kidney) in offspring of protein-deprived dams. Although the early studies suggested that increased blood pressure was also present in offspring of protein-restricted dams, this is not a universal finding and requires clarification. Importantly, to date, the literature offers little to no understanding of when in development these changes in kidney development occur, nor are the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive these changes well characterised. Moreover, the mechanisms linking maternal nutrition and a suboptimal renal phenotype in offspring are yet to be discerned-one potential mechanism involves epigenetics. This review will focus on recent information on potential mechanisms by which maternal nutrition   (focusing on malnutrition due to protein restriction, micronutrient restriction and excessive fat intake) influences kidney development and thereby function in later life.

  13. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tan, BoonFei; Ng, Charmaine; Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Loh, Lay Leng; Gin, Karina Y.-H.; Thompson, Janelle R.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools. PMID:26441948

  14. Scope for future CO{sub 2} emission reductions from electricity generation through the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Gibbins; Stuart Haszeldine; Sam Holloway; Jonathan Pearce; John Oakey; Simon Shackley; Carol Turley

    2006-02-15

    Ongoing work on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) from fossil fuel power stations in the UK suggests that this technology may be capable of supplying significant amounts of low-emission electricity within one or two decades. Renewable generation is also planned to increase over similar time scales and there is the additional possibility of nuclear replacements being built. If the political justification for significant UK CO{sub 2} emission reductions emerges from global post-Kyoto negotiations, it is therefore possible that large ({approximately}45%) reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from UK electricity generation could be achieved by as early as 2020. Both the technical and the political aspects are, however, changing rapidly, with perhaps the conclusion of the post-Kyoto negotiations in 2007 as the first clear pointer for the future. CCS technologies also have considerable potential for future emission reductions world wide, especially in regions where large numbers of new fossil fuel power plants are being built within {approximately}500 km of sedimentary basins. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation; An analysis of transitional strategies for reduction of carbon and sulfur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Tabors, R.D.; Monroe, B.L. III . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for reduction of both acid rain producing and global warming gasses. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System (EGEAS) utility optimization/simulation modeling structure and the EPRI developed regional utilities. It focuses on the North East and East Central region of the U.S. Strategies identified were fuel switching -- predominantly between coal and natural gas, mandated emission limits, and a carbon tax. The overall conclusions of the study are that using less (conservation) will always benefit Carbon Emissions but may or may not benefit Acid Rain emissions by the off setting forces of improved performance of new plant as opposed to reduced overall consumption of final product. Results of the study are highly utility and regional demand specific. The study showed, however, that significant reductions in both acid rain and global warming gas production could be achieved with relatively small increases in the overall cost of production of electricity and that the current dispatch logics available to the utility control rooms were adequate to reschedule dispatch to meet these objectives.

  16. Downscaling future precipitation extremes to urban hydrology scales using a spatio-temporal Neyman-Scott weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Steen Mikkelsen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal precipitation is modelled for urban application at 1 h temporal resolution on a 2 km grid using a spatio-temporal Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses weather generator (WG). Precipitation time series used as input to the WG are obtained from a network of 60 tipping-bucket rain gauges irregularly placed in a 40 km × 60 km model domain. The WG simulates precipitation time series that are comparable to the observations with respect to extreme precipitation statistics. The WG is used for downscaling climate change signals from regional climate models (RCMs) with spatial resolutions of 25 and 8 km, respectively. Six different RCM simulation pairs are used to perturb the WG with climate change signals resulting in six very different perturbation schemes. All perturbed WGs result in more extreme precipitation at the sub-daily to multi-daily level and these extremes exhibit a much more realistic spatial pattern than what is observed in RCM precipitation output. The WG seems to correlate increased extreme intensities with an increased spatial extent of the extremes meaning that the climate-change-perturbed extremes have a larger spatial extent than those of the present climate. Overall, the WG produces robust results and is seen as a reliable procedure for downscaling RCM precipitation output for use in urban hydrology.

  17. Downscaling future precipitation extremes to urban hydrology scales using a spatio-temporal Neyman-Scott weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørup, H. J. D.; Christensen, O. B.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Mikkelsen, P. S.

    2015-02-01

    Spatio-temporal precipitation is modelled for urban application at 1 h temporal resolution on a 2 km grid using a Spatio-Temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses weather generator (WG). Precipitation time series for fitting the model are obtained from a network of 60 tipping-bucket rain gauges irregularly placed in a 40 by 60 km model domain. The model simulates precipitation time series that are comparable to the observations with respect to extreme precipitation statistics. The WG is used for downscaling climate change signals from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) with spatial resolutions of 25 and 8 km respectively. Six different RCM simulations are used to perturb the WG with climate change signals resulting in six very different perturbation schemes. All perturbed WGs result in more extreme precipitation at the sub-daily to multi-daily level and these extremes exhibit a much more realistic spatial pattern than what is observed in RCM precipitation output. The WG seems to correlate increased extreme intensities with an increased spatial extent of the extremes meaning that the climate-change-perturbed extremes have a larger spatial extent than those of the present climate. Overall, the WG produces robust results and is seen as a reliable procedure for downscaling RCM precipitation output for use in urban hydrology.

  18. Rethinking evidence-based practice and two-generation programs to create the future of early childhood policy

    PubMed Central

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Half a century of research and program evaluation has fueled a diverse landscape of early childhood policies and practices that produce a range of positive effects on the life prospects of children who face the burdens of significant adversity. Drawing on advances in neurobiology, developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and prevention science, this paper presents a framework for elucidating underlying causal mechanisms that explain differences in outcomes, formulating enhanced theories of change about how to shift developmental trajectories, designing creative interventions and rethinking the concept of a two-generation strategy to produce breakthrough impacts, and launching a new era of investment in young children and their families that will achieve greater reductions in intergenerational disparities in learning, behavior, and health than those produced by current best practices. Particular attention is focused on the hypothesis that substantially better outcomes for vulnerable, young children could be achieved by greater attention to strengthening the resources and capabilities of the adults who care for them rather than by continuing to focus primarily on the provision of child-focused enrichment, parenting education, and informal support. Central to achieving this goal is the need to establish an innovation-friendly environment that embraces fast-cycle sharing, supports risk taking, and celebrates learning from failure. PMID:24342860

  19. Rethinking evidence-based practice and two-generation programs to create the future of early childhood policy.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Fisher, Philip A

    2013-11-01

    Half a century of research and program evaluation has fueled a diverse landscape of early childhood policies and practices that produce a range of positive effects on the life prospects of children who face the burdens of significant adversity. Drawing on advances in neurobiology, developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and prevention science, this paper presents a framework for elucidating underlying causal mechanisms that explain differences in outcomes, formulating enhanced theories of change about how to shift developmental trajectories, designing creative interventions and rethinking the concept of a two-generation strategy to produce breakthrough impacts, and launching a new era of investment in young children and their families that will achieve greater reductions in intergenerational disparities in learning, behavior, and health than those produced by current best practices. Particular attention is focused on the hypothesis that substantially better outcomes for vulnerable, young children could be achieved by greater attention to strengthening the resources and capabilities of the adults who care for them rather than by continuing to focus primarily on the provision of child-focused enrichment, parenting education, and informal support. Central to achieving this goal is the need to establish an innovation-friendly environment that embraces fast-cycle sharing, supports risk taking, and celebrates learning from failure.

  20. Post-entrapment genome engineering: first exon size does not affect the expression of fusion transcripts generated by gene entrapment.

    PubMed

    Osipovich, Anna B; Singh, Aparna; Ruley, H Earl

    2005-03-01

    Gene trap mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells has been widely used for genome-wide studies of mammalian gene function. However, while large numbers of genes can be disrupted, individual mutations may suffer from limitations due to the structure and/or placement of targeting vector. To extend the utility of gene trap mutagenesis, replaceable 3' [or poly(A)] gene trap vectors were developed that permit sequences inserted in individual entrapment clones to be engineered by Cre-mediated recombination. 3' traps incorporating different drug resistance genes could be readily exchanged, simply by selecting for the drug-resistance gene of the replacement vector. By substituting different 3' traps, we show that otherwise identical fusion genes containing a large first exon (804 nt) are not expressed at appreciably lower levels than genes expressing small first exons (384 and 151 nt). Thus, size appears to have less effect on the expression and processing of first exons than has been reported for internal exons. Finally, a retroviral poly(A) trap (consisting of a RNA polymerase II promoter, a neomycin-resistance gene, and 5'-splice site) typically produced mutagenized clones in which vector sequences spliced to the 3'-terminal exons of cellular transcription units, suggesting strong selection for fusion transcripts that evade nonsense-mediated decay. The efficient exchange of poly(A) traps should greatly extend the utility of mutant libraries generated by gene entrapment and provides new strategies to study the rules that govern the expression of exons inserted throughout the genome.

  1. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  2. The quality of our Nation's waters: factors affecting public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination: understanding observed water quality and anticipating future water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, Sandra M.; Thomas, Mary Ann; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    provides insight into the time lag between contaminant input at the water table and contaminant arrival at the well. It also provides insight into the potential for in-well dilution of contaminated water by unaffected groundwater of a different age that simultaneously enters the well. Preferential flow pathways—pathways that provide little resistance to flow—can influence how all other factors affect public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination. For example, preferential flow pathways can influence whether a contaminant source is physically linked to a well, whether contaminant concentrations are substantially altered before contaminated groundwater reaches a well, and whether contaminated groundwater can arrive at a well within a timeframe of concern to the well owner. Methods for recognizing the influence of preferential flow pathways on the quality of water from a public-supply well are presented in this circular and can provide opportunities to prevent or mitigate the deterioration of a water supply. Knowing what water-quality variables to measure, what spatial and temporal scales on which to measure them, and how to interpret the resulting data makes it possible for samples from public-supply wells to provide a broad window into a well’s past and present water quality—and possibly future water quality. Such insight can enable resource managers to prioritize actions for sustaining a high-quality groundwater source of drinking water.

  3. The Past, Present, and Future of Immune Repertoire Biology – The Rise of Next-Generation Repertoire Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Six, Adrien; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Maria Encarnita; Chaara, Wahiba; Magadan, Susana; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Mora, Thierry; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Boudinot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    T and B cell repertoires are collections of lymphocytes, each characterized by its antigen-specific receptor. We review here classical technologies and analysis strategies developed to assess immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) repertoire diversity, and describe recent advances in the field. First, we describe the broad range of available methodological tools developed in the past decades, each of which answering different questions and showing complementarity for progressive identification of the level of repertoire alterations: global overview of the diversity by flow cytometry, IG repertoire descriptions at the protein level for the identification of IG reactivities, IG/TR CDR3 spectratyping strategies, and related molecular quantification or dynamics of T/B cell differentiation. Additionally, we introduce the recent technological advances in molecular biology tools allowing deeper analysis of IG/TR diversity by next-generation sequencing (NGS), offering systematic and comprehensive sequencing of IG/TR transcripts in a short amount of time. NGS provides several angles of analysis such as clonotype frequency, CDR3 diversity, CDR3 sequence analysis, V allele identification with a quantitative dimension, therefore requiring high-throughput analysis tools development. In this line, we discuss the recent efforts made for nomenclature standardization and ontology development. We then present the variety of available statistical analysis and modeling approaches developed with regards to the various levels of diversity analysis, and reveal the increasing sophistication of those modeling approaches. To conclude, we provide some examples of recent mathematical modeling strategies and perspectives that illustrate the active rise of a “next-generation” of repertoire analysis. PMID:24348479

  4. Post-entrapment genome engineering: First exon size does not affect the expression of fusion transcripts generated by gene entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Osipovich, Anna B.; Singh, Aparna; Ruley, H. Earl

    2005-01-01

    Gene trap mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells has been widely used for genome-wide studies of mammalian gene function. However, while large numbers of genes can be disrupted, individual mutations may suffer from limitations due to the structure and/or placement of targeting vector. To extend the utility of gene trap mutagenesis, replaceable 3′ [or poly(A)] gene trap vectors were developed that permit sequences inserted in individual entrapment clones to be engineered by Cre-mediated recombination. 3′ traps incorporating different drug resistance genes could be readily exchanged, simply by selecting for the drug-resistance gene of the replacement vector. By substituting different 3′ traps, we show that otherwise identical fusion genes containing a large first exon (804 nt) are not expressed at appreciably lower levels than genes expressing small first exons (384 and 151 nt). Thus, size appears to have less effect on the expression and processing of first exons than has been reported for internal exons. Finally, a retroviral poly(A) trap (consisting of a RNA polymerase II promoter, a neomycin-resistance gene, and 5′-splice site) typically produced mutagenized clones in which vector sequences spliced to the 3′-terminal exons of cellular transcription units, suggesting strong selection for fusion transcripts that evade nonsense-mediated decay. The efficient exchange of poly(A) traps should greatly extend the utility of mutant libraries generated by gene entrapment and provides new strategies to study the rules that govern the expression of exons inserted throughout the genome. PMID:15741512

  5. ‘Second-Generation' Mephedrone Analogs, 4-MEC and 4-MePPP, Differentially Affect Monoamine Transporter Function

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kusumika; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Sandtner, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F; Sitte, Harald H; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The nonmedical use of synthetic cathinones is increasing on a global scale. 4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular synthetic cathinone that is now illegal in the United States and other countries. Since the legislative ban on mephedrone, a number of ‘second-generation' analogs have appeared in the street drug marketplace, including 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC) and 4′-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP). Here we characterized the interactions of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP with transporters for 5-HT (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays revealed that 4-MEC displays unusual ‘hybrid' activity as a SERT substrate (ie, 5-HT releaser) and DAT blocker, whereas 4-MePPP is a blocker at both transporters but more potent at DAT. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat brain demonstrated that 4-MEC (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced large increases in extracellular 5-HT, small increases in dopamine, and minimal motor stimulation. In contrast, 4-MePPP (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced selective increases in dopamine and robust motor stimulation. Consistent with its activity as a SERT substrate, 4-MEC evoked inward current in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes, whereas 4-MePPP was inactive in this regard. To examine drug–transporter interactions at the molecular level, we modeled the fit of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP into the binding pockets for DAT and SERT. Subtle distinctions in ligand–transporter binding were found that account for the differential effects of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP at SERT. Collectively, our results provide key information about the pharmacology of newly emerging mephedrone analogs, and give clues to structural requirements that govern drug selectivity at DAT vs SERT. PMID:25502630

  6. Intergenerational Cycle of Obesity and Diabetes: How Can We Reduce the Burdens of These Conditions on the Health of Future Generations?

    PubMed Central

    Battista, Marie-Claude; Hivert, Marie-France; Duval, Karine; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Prepregnancy overweight or obesity and excessive gestational weight gain have been associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications. Moreover, offspring from obese women are more likely to develop obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases in their lifetime. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications associated with obesity and appears to have a direct impact on the future metabolic health of the child. Fetal programming of metabolic function induced by obesity and GDM may have intergenerational effect and thus perpetuate the epidemic of cardiometabolic conditions. The present paper thus aims at discussing the impact of maternal obesity and GDM on the developmental programming of obesity and metabolic disorders in the offspring. The main interventions designed to reduce maternal obesity and GDM and their ability to break the vicious circle that perpetuates the transmission of obesity and metabolic conditions to the next generations are also addressed. PMID:22110473

  7. Assimilation of Cloud- and Land-Affected TOVS/ATOVS Level 1B Radiances in DAO's Next Generation Finite-Volume Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; daSilva, A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Physical-space/Finite-volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS) is the next generation global atmospheric data assimilation system in development at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. It is based on a new finite-volume general circulation model jointly developed by NASA and NCAR, and on the Physical-Space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) developed at the DAO. In this talk we will focus on the assimilation of data from the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), with emphasis on the impact of cloud- and land-affected level 1B radiances. Recently, it has been shown that the use of observations from satellite-borne microwave and infrared radiometers in data assimilation systems consistently increases forecast skill. Considerable effort has been expended over the past two decades, particularly with the (Advanced) TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), to achieve this result. The positive impact on forecast skill has resulted from improvements in quality control algorithms, systematic error correction schemes, and more sophisticated data assimilation algorithms. Despite these advances, there are still many issues regarding the use of satellite data in data assimilation systems that remain unresolved. In particular, most operational centers still do not assimilate cloud- and land-affected TOVS data. In this study, we evaluate the impact of assimilating cloud-and land-affected TOVS/ATOVS level 1B data in DAO's next generation fvDAS, using a 1D variational scheme. We will discuss the impact of these data on both tropospheric and stratospheric forecasts, as well as on the general aspects of the earth climate system.

  8. Critical Trends and Events Affecting the Future of Community Colleges: Proceedings of a Beyond 2000 Preconference Workshop (Orlando, Florida, February 26-28, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    The Beyond 2000 workshop held in February 1995 was designed to give participants experience in using strategic management techniques, such as critical trend and potential event identification, to examine the future of community colleges. This paper is intended as a guide for implementing similar workshops and summarizes the outcomes of workshop…

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  13. Generation of a Genome Scale Lentiviral Vector Library for EF1α Promoter-Driven Expression of Human ORFs and Identification of Human Genes Affecting Viral Titer

    PubMed Central

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer, Mareike; Purdon, Amy S.; Wilson, Benjamin M.; Ranall, Max V.; Blumenthal, Antje; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The bottleneck in elucidating gene function through high-throughput gain-of-function genome screening is the limited availability of comprehensive libraries for gene overexpression. Lentiviral vectors are the most versatile and widely used vehicles for gene expression in mammalian cells. Lentiviral supernatant libraries for genome screening are commonly generated in the HEK293T cell line, yet very little is known about the effect of introduced sequences on the produced viral titer, which we have shown to be gene dependent. We have generated an arrayed lentiviral vector library for the expression of 17,030 human proteins by using the GATEWAY® cloning system to transfer ORFs from the Mammalian Gene Collection into an EF1alpha promoter-dependent lentiviral expression vector. This promoter was chosen instead of the more potent and widely used CMV promoter, because it is less prone to silencing and provides more stable long term expression. The arrayed lentiviral clones were used to generate viral supernatant by packaging in the HEK293T cell line. The efficiency of transfection and virus production was estimated by measuring the fluorescence of IRES driven GFP, co-expressed with the ORFs. More than 90% of cloned ORFs produced sufficient virus for downstream screening applications. We identified genes which consistently produced very high or very low viral titer. Supernatants from select clones that were either high or low virus producers were tested on a range of cell lines. Some of the low virus producers, including two previously uncharacterized proteins were cytotoxic to HEK293T cells. The library we have constructed presents a powerful resource for high-throughput gain-of-function screening of the human genome and drug-target discovery. Identification of human genes that affect lentivirus production may lead to improved technology for gene expression using lentiviral vectors. PMID:23251614

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Oncomelania hupensis after Molluscicide Treatment by Next-Generation Sequencing: Implications for Biology and Future Snail Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin Ping; Xiong, Tao; Xu, Xing Jian; Jiang, Ming Sen; Dong, Hui Fen

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis. This disease is endemic in the Far East, especially in mainland China. Because niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN), the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used as the main snail control method for over two decades. Recently, a novel molluscicide derived from niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS), has been developed and proven to have the same molluscicidal effect as WPN, with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN. The mechanism by which these molluscicides cause snail death is not known. Here, we report the next-generation transcriptome sequencing of O. hupensis; 145,008,667 clean reads were generated and assembled into 254,286 unigenes. Using GO and KEGG databases, 14,860 unigenes were assigned GO annotations and 4,686 unigenes were mapped to 250 KEGG pathways. Many sequences involved in key processes associated with biological regulation and innate immunity have been identified. After the snails were exposed to LDS and WPN, 254 unigenes showed significant differential expression. These genes were shown to be involved in cell structure defects and the inhibition of neurohumoral transmission and energy metabolism, which may cause snail death. Gene expression patterns differed after exposure to LDS and WPN, and these differences must be elucidated by the identification and annotation of these unknown unigenes. We believe that this first large-scale transcriptome dataset for O. hupensis will provide an opportunity for the in-depth analysis of this biomedically important freshwater snail at the molecular level and accelerate studies of the O. hupensis genome. The data elucidating the molluscicidal mechanism will be of great

  15. Comprehensive assessment of the effective scope of modernization of thermal power plants to substantiate the rational structure of the generating capacities for the future until 2035

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, F. V.; Erokhina, I. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Khorshev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The article deals with issues of technical and economic substantiation of priorities and scopes of modernizing the existing thermal power plants (TPPs) in Russia to work out long-term forecasts of the development of the industry. The current situation in the TPP modernization trends is analyzed. The updated initial figures of the capital and operation costs are presented and the obtained estimates of the comparative efficiency of various investment decisions on modernization and equipment replacement at gas-and-oil-burning and coal-fired TPPs with regard to the main zones of the national Unified Power System (UPS) of Russia are cited. The results of optimization of the generating capacity structure underlie a study of alternative TPP modernization strategies that differ in the scope of switching to new technologies, capital intensity, and energy efficiency (decrease in the average heat rate). To provide an integral economic assessment of the above strategies, the authors modified the traditional approach based on determination of the overall discounted costs of power supply (least-cost planning) supplemented with a comparison by the weighted average wholesale price of the electricity. A method for prediction of the wholesale price is proposed reasoning from the direct and dual solutions of the optimization problem. The method can be adapted to various combinations of the mechanisms of payment for the electricity and the capacity on the basis of marginal and average costs. Energy and economic analysis showed that the opposite effects of reduction in the capital investment and fuel saving change in a nonlinear way as the scope of the switch to more advanced power generation technologies at the TPPs increases. As a consequence, a strategy for modernization of the existing power plants rational with respect to total costs of the power supply and wholesale electricity prices has been formulated. The strategy combines decisions on upgrade and replacement of the equipment

  16. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  17. Next generation sub-millimeter wave focal plane array coupling concepts: an ESA TRP project to develop multichroic focal plane pixels for future CMB polarization experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, N.; Bucher, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Deo, P.; DePetris, M.; Doherty, S.; Ghribi, A.; Gradziel, M.; Kuzmin, L.; Maffei, B.; Mahashabde, S.; Masi, S.; Murphy, J. A.; Noviello, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pagano, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Robinson, M.; Stompor, R.; Tartari, A.; van der Vorst, M.; Verhoeve, P.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this activity is to develop new focal plane coupling array concepts and technologies that optimise the coupling from reflector optics to the large number of detectors for next generation sub millimetre wave telescopes particularly targeting measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this 18 month TRP programme the consortium are tasked with developing, manufacturing and experimentally verifying a prototype multichroic pixel which would be suitable for the large focal plane arrays which will be demanded to reach the required sensitivity of future CMB polarization missions. One major development was to have multichroic operation to potentially reduce the required focal plane size of a CMB mission. After research in the optimum telescope design and definition of requirements based on a stringent science case review, a number of compact focal plane architecture concepts were investigated before a pixel demonstrator consisting of a planar mesh lens feeding a backend Resonant Cold Electron Bolometer RCEB for filtering and detection of the dual frequency signal was planned for manufacture and test. In this demonstrator the frequencies of the channels was chosen to be 75 and 105 GHz in the w band close to the peak CMB signal. In the next year the prototype breadboards will be developed to test the beams produced by the manufactured flat lenses fed by a variety of antenna configurations and the spectral response of the RCEBs will also be verified.

  18. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

  19. Annual Research Review: Mental Health and Resilience in HIV/AIDS-Affected Children--A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra; Hansen, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding…

  20. The Growing Importance of Teaching Philosophy Statements and What They Mean for the Future: Why Teaching Philosophy Statements Will Affect You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Niall

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the growing importance of Teaching Philosophy Statements (TPS) as a tool to positively impact teaching styles and methods. The changing landscape of teaching at the college level is addressed with an emphasis on the growing importance of accountability. How new and senior faculty are affected by the TPS is considered as well…

  1. Next generation workforce.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The health care industry has become a very complex business. CQsts are rising and resources such as funding and human capital are diminishing. Human capital resources are about to reach true crisis proportions. The vital workforce we have counted on is expected to begin thinning as large numbers of Boomers retire. Not only does this deplete the workforce from a pure numbers perspective, but it also affects intellectual capital and institutional memory. Generational trends and characteristics have affected the workforce environment and will continue to do so as another generation continues to enter the workforce. Generation Y, also tagged Nexter, offers core values that can bring positive changes to the health care workforce. Technology continues to change at lightning speed. Embracing new technology and using it to refine the way we do business will help deliver success. Meaningful strategic plans are needed to change the model of business delivery and employee care in our future workforce.

  2. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment Multi-Year Study—Highlights of Findings, Applications to Risk Assessment, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Ila; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Barone, Stanley; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Boekelheide, Kim; Bois, Frederic Y.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeVito, Michael; Devlin, Robert B.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Hattis, Dale; Judson, Richard S.; Knight, Derek; Krewski, Daniel; Lambert, Jason; Maull, Elizabeth Anne; Mendrick, Donna; Paoli, Gregory M.; Patel, Chirag Jagdish; Perkins, Edward J.; Poje, Gerald; Portier, Christopher J.; Rusyn, Ivan; Schulte, Paul A.; Simeonov, Anton; Smith, Martyn T.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Thomas, Russell S.; Thomas, Reuben; Tice, Raymond R.; Vandenberg, John J.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Wesselkamper, Scott; Whelan, Maurice; Whittaker, Christine; White, Ronald; Xia, Menghang; Yauk, Carole; Zeise, Lauren; Zhao, Jay; DeWoskin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    , Andersen ME, Ankley GT, Barone S, Birnbaum LS, Boekelheide K, Bois FY, Burgoon LD, Chiu WA, Crawford-Brown D, Crofton KM, DeVito M, Devlin RB, Edwards SW, Guyton KZ, Hattis D, Judson RS, Knight D, Krewski D, Lambert J, Maull EA, Mendrick D, Paoli GM, Patel CJ, Perkins EJ, Poje G, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, Schulte PA, Simeonov A, Smith MT, Thayer KA, Thomas RS, Thomas R, Tice RR, Vandenberg JJ, Villeneuve DL, Wesselkamper S, Whelan M, Whittaker C, White R, Xia M, Yauk C, Zeise L, Zhao J, DeWoskin RS. 2016. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment multiyear study—highlights of findings, applications to risk assessment, and future directions. Environ Health Perspect 124:1671–1682; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP233 PMID:27091369

  3. KONJAC1 and 2 Are Key Factors for GDP-Mannose Generation and Affect l-Ascorbic Acid and Glucomannan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sawake, Shota; Tajima, Noriaki; Mortimer, Jenny C; Lao, Jeemeng; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Yu, Xiaolan; Yamanashi, Yukiko; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kotake, Toshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Humans are unable to synthesize l-ascorbic acid (AsA), yet it is required as a cofactor in many critical biochemical reactions. The majority of human dietary AsA is obtained from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP), VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE1 (VTC1), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in AsA synthesis: the formation of GDP-Man. In this study, we identified two nucleotide sugar pyrophosphorylase-like proteins, KONJAC1 (KJC1) and KJC2, which stimulate the activity of VTC1. The kjc1kjc2 double mutant exhibited severe dwarfism, indicating that KJC proteins are important for growth and development. The kjc1 mutation reduced GMPP activity to 10% of wild-type levels, leading to a 60% reduction in AsA levels. On the contrary, overexpression of KJC1 significantly increased GMPP activity. The kjc1 and kjc1kjc2 mutants also exhibited significantly reduced levels of glucomannan, which is also synthesized from GDP-Man. Recombinant KJC1 and KJC2 enhanced the GMPP activity of recombinant VTC1 in vitro, while KJCs did not show GMPP activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that the stimulation of GMPP activity occurs via interaction of KJCs with VTC1. These results suggest that KJCs are key factors for the generation of GDP-Man and affect AsA level and glucomannan accumulation through the stimulation of VTC1 GMPP activity.

  4. Physical exercise and environment exploration affect synaptogenesis in adult-generated neurons in the rat dentate gyrus: possible role of BDNF.

    PubMed

    Ambrogini, P; Lattanzi, D; Ciuffoli, S; Betti, M; Fanelli, M; Cuppini, R

    2013-10-09

    A brief training in a pool maze, with or without cognitive tasks, modifies the synaptogenesis and maturation of newborn neurons in adult rat dentate gyrus. These types of trainings have many aspects, including physical activity and exploration. Therefore, to evaluate whether physical exercise and environment exploration are able to affect synapse formation and the maturation of adult-generated neurons, GFP-retrovirus infusion was performed on rats which, on the fourth day after injection, were housed under running conditions or allowed to explore an enriched environment briefly in the absence of exercise for the following three days. Afterward, at the end of the trainings, electrophysiological and morphological studies were conducted. Considering that neurotrophic factors increase after exercise or environment exploration, hippocampal BDNF levels and TrkB receptor activation were evaluated. In this study, we show that both spontaneous physical activity and enriched environment exploration induced synaptogenesis and T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents in very immature neurons. Hippocampal BDNF levels and TrkB receptor activation were determined to be increasing following physical activity and exploration. A possible contribution of BDNF signaling in mediating the observed effects was supported by the use of 7-8-dihydroxyflavone, a selective TrkB agonist, and of ANA-12, an inhibitor of TrkB receptors.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  6. Evaluation of a spatial rainfall generator and an interpolation methods for the creation of future gridded data sets over complex terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Michaelides, Silas; Lange, Manfred A.

    2015-04-01

    Space-time variability of precipitation plays a key role as a driver of many processes in different environmental fields like hydrology, ecology, biology, agriculture, and natural hazards. The objective of this study was to compare two approaches for statistical downscaling of precipitation from climate models. The study was applied to the island of Cyprus, an orographically complex terrain. The first approach makes use of a spatial temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP) model and a previously tested interpolation scheme (Camera et al., 2014). The second approach is based on the use of the single site NSRP model and a simplified gridded scheme based on scaling coefficients obtained from past observations. The rainfall generators were evaluated on the period 1980-2010. Both approaches were subsequently used to downscale three RCMs from the EU ENSEMBLE project to calculate climate projections (2020-2050). The main advantage of the spatial-temporal approach is that it allows creating spatially consistent daily maps of precipitation. On the other hand, due to the assumptions made using a stochastic generator based on homogeneous Poisson processes, it shows a smoothing out of all the rainfall statistics (except mean and variance) all over the study area. This leads to high errors when analyzing indices related to extremes. Examples are the number of days with rainfall over 50 mm (R50 - mean error 65%), the 95th percentile value of rainy days (RT95 - mean error 19%), and the mean annual rainfall recorded on days with rainfall above the 95th percentile (RA95 - mean error 22%). The single site approach excludes the possibility of using the created gridded data sets for case studies involving spatial connection between grid cells (e.g. hydrologic modelling), but it leads to a better reproduction of rainfall statistics and properties. The errors for the extreme indices are in fact much lower: 17% for R50, 4% for RT95, and 2% for RA95. Future projections show a

  7. Is the future blue-green? A review of the current model predictions of how climate change could affect pelagic freshwater cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J Alex

    2012-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that recent changes in climate have had an effect on lake phytoplankton communities and it has been suggested that it is likely that Cyanobacteria will increase in relative abundance under the predicted future climate. However, testing such a qualitative prediction is challenging and usually requires some form of numerical computer model. Therefore, the lake modelling literature was reviewed for studies that examined the impact of climate change upon Cyanobacteria. These studies, taken collectively, generally show an increase in relative Cyanobacteria abundance with increasing water temperature, decreased flushing rate and increased nutrient loads. Furthermore, they suggest that whilst the direct effects of climate change on the lakes can change the timing of bloom events and Cyanobacteria abundance, the amount of phytoplankton biomass produced over a year is not enhanced directly by these changes. Also, warmer waters in the spring increased nutrient consumption by the phytoplankton community which in some lakes caused nitrogen limitation later in the year to the advantage of some nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria. Finally, it is also possible that an increase in Cyanobacteria dominance of the phytoplankton biomass will lead to poorer energy flow to higher trophic levels due to their relatively poor edibility for zooplankton.

  8. Utilizing next-generation sequencing to resolve the backbone of the Core Goodeniaceae and inform future taxonomic and floral form studies.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew G; Sessa, Emily B; Michener, Pryce; Johnson, Eden; Shepherd, Kelly A; Howarth, Dianella G; Jabaily, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Though considerable progress has been made in inferring phylogenetic relationships of many plant lineages, deep unresolved nodes remain a common problem that can impact downstream efforts, including taxonomic decision-making and character reconstruction. The Core Goodeniaceae is a group affected by this issue: data from the plastid regions trnL-trnF and matK have been insufficient to generate adequate support at key nodes along the backbone of the phylogeny. We performed genome skimming for 24 taxa representing major clades within Core Goodeniaceae. The plastome coding regions (CDS) and nuclear ribosomal repeats (NRR) were assembled and complemented with additional accessions sequenced for nuclear G3PDH and plastid trnL-trnF and matk. The CDS, NRR, and G3PDH alignments were analyzed independently and topology tests were used to detect the alignments' ability to reject alternative topologies. The CDS, NRR, and G3PDH alignments independently supported a Brunonia (Scaevola s.l. (Coopernookia (Goodenia s.l.))) backbone topology, but within Goodenia s.l., the strongly-supported plastome topology (Goodenia A (Goodenia B (Velleia+Goodenia C))) contrasts with the poorly supported nuclear topology ((Goodenia A+Goodenia B) (Velleia+Goodenia C)). A fully resolved and maximally supported topology for Core Goodeniaceae was recovered from the plastome CDS, and there is excellent support for most of the major clades and relationships among them in all alignments. The composition of these seven major clades renders many of the current taxonomic divisions non-monophyletic, prompting us to suggest that Goodenia may be split into several segregate genera.

  9. A comparison of RANZCR and Singapore-designed radiation oncology practice audit instruments: how does reproducibility affect future approaches to revalidation?

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Thomas P; Mukherjee, Rahul K; Lu, Jiade J; Wynne, Christopher J; Kumar, Mahesh B; Back, Michael F

    2004-06-01

    Physician competency assessment requires the use of validated methods and instruments. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) developed a draft audit form to be evaluated as a competency assessment instrument for radiation oncologists (ROs) in Australasia. We evaluated the reliability of the RANZCR instrument as well as a separate The Cancer Institute (TCI) Singapore-designed instrument by having two ROs perform an independent chart review of 80 randomly selected patients seen at The Cancer Institute (TCI), Singapore. Both RANZCR and TCI Singapore instruments were used to score each chart. Inter- and intra-observer reliability for both audit instruments were compared using misclassification rates as the primary end-point. Overall, for inter-observer reproducibility, 2.3% of TCI Singapore items were misclassified compared to 22.3% of RANZCR items (P < 0.0001, 100.00% confidence that TCI instrument has less inter-observer misclassification). For intra-observer reproducibility, 2.4% of TCI Singapore items were misclassified compared to 13.6% of RANZCR items (P < 0.0001, 100.00% confidence that TCI instrument has less intra-observer misclassification). The proposed RANZCR RO revalidation audit instrument requires further refinement to improve validity. Several items require modification or removal because of lack of reliability, whereas inclusion of other important and reproducible items can be incorporated as demonstrated by the TCI Singapore instrument. The TCI Singapore instrument also has the advantage of incorporating a simple scoring system and criticality index to allow discrimination between ROs and comparisons against future College standards.

  10. Next-Generation Pyrosequencing Analysis of Microbial Biofilm Communities on Granular Activated Carbon in Treatment of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>109 gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds. PMID:25841014

  11. Next-generation pyrosequencing analysis of microbial biofilm communities on granular activated carbon in treatment of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-06-15

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>10(9) gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds.

  12. How do energy stores and changes in these affect departure decisions by migratory birds? A critical view on stopover ecology studies and some future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Schmaljohann, Heiko; Eikenaar, Cas

    2017-03-22

    In birds, accumulating energy is far slower than spending energy during flight. During migration, birds spend, therefore, most of the time at stopover refueling energy used during the previous flight. This elucidates why current energy stores and actual rate of accumulating energy are likely crucial factors influencing bird's decision when to resume migration in addition to other intrinsic (sex, age) and extrinsic (predation, weather) factors modulating the decision within the innate migration program. After first summarizing how energy stores and stopover durations are generally determined, we critically review that high-energy stores and low rates of accumulating energy were significantly related to high departure probabilities in several bird groups. There are, however, also many studies showing no effect at all. Recent radio-tracking studies highlighted that migrants leave a site either to resume migration or to search for a better stopover location, so-called "landscape movements". Erroneously treating such movements as departures increases the likelihood of type II errors which might mistakenly suggest no effect of either trait on departure. Furthermore, we propose that energy loss during the previous migratory flight in relation to bird's current energy stores and migration strategy significantly affects its urge to refuel and hence its departure decision.

  13. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Critical issues affecting the future of dairy industry: individual contributions in the scope of a global approach.

    PubMed

    Malcata, F X

    1999-08-01

    Several constraints that have been affecting the dairy industry are identified in a critical fashion, and directions are given with an emphasis on food processing implemented at the postproduction level. The rationale for modifications aimed at enhancing the appeal of condensed dairy products should be consubstantiated in strengthening of organoleptic characteristics, improvement of nutraceutical impact, and reduction of polluting power. This enumeration follows an order of increasing time scale required for consumer perception and increasing size scale associated with expected impact. Pursuance of such streamlines should lead to manufacture of dairy products that resemble nature more closely in terms of milk coagulation, milk fat modification, milk fermentation, whey fermentation, and starter culture addition. Directions for research and development anticipated as useful and effective in this endeavor, and which have been previously and consistently adopted in the development of an individual research program, are characterization and development of alternative rennets from plant sources, development of starter and nonstarter cultures from adventitious microflora, utilization of probiotic strains as starter cultures, upgrading of whey via physical or fermentation routes, and modification of milk fat via lipase-mediated interesterification reactions.

  14. Man-Made Climatic Changes: Man's activities have altered the climate of urbanized areas and may affect global climate in the future.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, H E

    1970-12-18

    Natural climatic fluctuations, even those of recent years, cover a considerable range. They can be characterized as a "noise" spectrum which masks possible global effects of man-caused increases of atmospheric CO(2) and particulates. Local modifications, either deliberate or inadvertent, measurably affect the microclimate. Some artificial alterations of the microlimate are beneficial in agriculture. Among the unplanned effects, those produced by urbanization on local temperature and on wind field are quite pronounced. The influences on rainfall are still somewhat controversial, but effects may extend considerably beyond the confines of metropolitan areas. They are the result of water vapor released by human activity and of the influence of condensation and freezing nuclei produced in overabundance by motor vehicles and other combustion processes. Therefore it appears that on the local scale man-made influences on climate are substantial but that on the global scale natural forces still prevail. Obviously this should not lead to complacency. The potential for anthropogenic changes of climate on a larger and even a global scale is real. At this stage activation of an adequate worldwide monitoring system to permit early assessment of these changes is urgent. This statement applies particularly to the surveillance of atmospheric composition and radiation balance at sites remote from concentrations of population, which is now entirely inadequate. In my opinion, man-made aerosols, because of their optical properties and possible influences on cloud and precipitation processes, constitute a more acute problem than CO(2). Many of their effects are promptly reversible; hence, one should strive for elimination at the source. Over longer intervals, energy added to the atmosphere by heat rejection and CO(2) absorption remain matters of concern.

  15. Demographic Trends Affecting the Future Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    This report reviews recent population and manpower projections and examines how they take into account certain unexpected shifts in demographic, social, and economic behavior. It also assesses how well the particular circumstances, trends, and problems of the nation's major minority groups have been brought into the purview of the projection…

  16. The quinolones: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Vincent T

    2005-07-15

    The quinolone class of antimicrobial agents has generated considerable interest since its discovery >40 years ago. Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the action of quinolones against pathogenic bacteria, the induction of resistance to quinolones in these organisms, and the potential of each quinolone compound to induce toxicity in treated patients. Here, these key discoveries are reviewed; the present indications approved by regulatory agencies are described in detail, with comments on adverse events caused by quinolones in treated patients; and speculation about the future of the quinolones is proffered, even though their future is difficult to predict, because many factors may affect their clinical usefulness. However, the emergence of bacterial resistance to the quinolones is a major factor that will determine the future clinical effectiveness of these agents, so that intense investigation of mechanisms to either prevent or curtail resistance to quinolones is of prime importance to their future.

  17. Growing America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  2. (Some) Computer Futures: Mainframes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Earl C.

    Possible futures for the world of mainframe computers can be forecast through studies identifying forces of change and their impact on current trends. Some new prospects for the future have been generated by advances in information technology; for example, recent United States successes in applied artificial intelligence (AI) have created new…

  3. Future of the Pacific: Inspiring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers Through Place-Based Problem-Solving Using Innovative STEM Curriculum and Technology Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    heating effect. As the initial system is observed and proven to be functional, student groups are asked to discuss possible variables affecting...enough that students merely know their solar hot water system works, although that is certainly important. They learn how the sun is heating water by...reliance on renewable energy sources in the islands, such as wind, solar, geothermal , and wave energy.7 In 2008, Hawaii made a public commitment to

  4. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  5. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  6. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, David

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  7. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto Martin; Blanco-Jimenez, Salvador; Sepulveda-Sanchez, Jose David; Bernabe-Cabanillas, Rosa Maria; Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Ceballos, Guillermo; Hicks, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5). Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises. PMID:19563660

  8. Investigation of the pump reshaping effect on the thermally-affected Helmholtz-Gauss beams generated by a solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadgaran, H.; Fallah, R.

    2015-08-01

    Reshaping is the gradual adaptation of the pump profile toward the laser output profile. This work investigates the effects of pump reshaping on the generation of Bessel-Gauss (BG), Mathieu-Gauss (MG) and cosine-Gauss (CG) beams. The study uses our previous thermal model and compares the outcome of the model for three different cases, with and without pump reshaping. The results show that in a high power regime, inclusion of reshaping effects in any thermal model is necessary for comprehensive analysis of the thermal problem, whereas this effect can be safely neglected in models describing low power lasers.

  9. The methodological approach for the generation of human dendritic cells from monocytes affects the maturation state of the resultant dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Ilaria; Legitimo, Annalisa; Compagnino, Marta; Consolini, Rita; Migliaccio, Pasquale; Metelli, Maria Rita; Scatena, Fabrizio

    2009-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are effective as antigen-presenting cells in the immune system and are present at two functional stages depending on their maturation state. For experimental investigation of this concept, CD14(+) monocytes from blood are isolated and cultured to generate in vitro the DCs needed for functional analysis. For positive selection of CD14(+) monocytes we compared two immunomagnetic bead technologies: MACS Separation, created by Miltenyi Biotec, and EasySep Selection, created by StemCell Technologies. The monocytes provided dendritic cells for their functional analysis. Lipopolysaccharide was added to cultured DCs to induce maturation. Although both systems generated DCs from the positively selected CD14(+) cells, there were certain differences between them. Morphological, phenotypic, and functional analysis showed that MACS-selection provided DCs that have typical features corresponding to day 6 or 7 of maturation. EasySep-DCs exist in a partially-mature state from day 6 onward, even without the addition of a maturation stimulus. The reason behind this partial maturation is possibly based on the dextran-coated beads that are associated with the EasySep product. Both methods provide pure and viable DCs, but we would recommend using the MACS system for obtaining DCs suitable for functional studies.

  10. Future directions.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Kress, W John

    2012-01-01

    It is a risky task to attempt to predict the direction that DNA barcoding and its applications may take in the future. In a very short time, the endeavor of DNA barcoding has gone from being a tool to facilitate taxonomy in difficult to identify species, to an ambitious, global initiative that seeks to tackle such pertinent and challenging issues as quantifying global biodiversity, revolutionizing the forensic identifications of species, advancing the study of interactions among species, and promoting the reconstruction of evolutionary relationships within communities. The core element of DNA barcoding will always remain the same: the generation of a set of well-identified samples collected and genotyped at one or more genetic barcode markers and assembled into a properly curated database. But the application of this body of data will depend on the creativity and need of the research community in using a "gold standard" of annotated DNA sequence data at the species level. We foresee several areas where the application of DNA barcode data is likely to yield important evolutionary, ecological, and societal insights, and while far from exclusive, provide examples of how DNA barcode data will continue to empower scientists to address hypothesis-driven research. Three areas of immediate and obvious concern are (1) biodiversity inventories, (2) phylogenetic applications, and (3) species interactions.

  11. Creating state of the art, next-generation Virtual Reality exposure therapies for anxiety disorders using consumer hardware platforms: design considerations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Philip; Miloff, Alexander; Hamilton, William; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Powers, Mark B; Carlbring, Per

    2017-03-08

    Decades of research and more than 20 randomized controlled trials show that Virtual Reality exposure therapy (VRET) is effective in reducing fear and anxiety. Unfortunately, few providers or patients have had access to the costly and technical equipment previously required. Recent technological advances in the form of consumer Virtual Reality (VR) systems (e.g. Oculus Rift and Samsung Gear), however, now make widespread use of VRET in clinical settings and as self-help applications possible. In this literature review, we detail the current state of VR technology and discuss important therapeutic considerations in designing self-help and clinician-led VRETs, such as platform choice, exposure progression design, inhibitory learning strategies, stimuli tailoring, gamification, virtual social learning and more. We illustrate how these therapeutic components can be incorporated and utilized in VRET applications, taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of virtual environments, and showcase some of these features by describing the development of a consumer-ready, gamified self-help VRET application for low-cost commercially available VR hardware. We also raise and discuss challenges in the planning, development, evaluation, and dissemination of VRET applications, including the need for more high-quality research. We conclude by discussing how new technology (e.g. eye-tracking) can be incorporated into future VRETs and how widespread use of VRET self-help applications will enable collection of naturalistic "Big Data" that promises to inform learning theory and behavioral therapy in general.

  12. Familial late-onset Alzheimer's disease: description of an Italian family with four affected siblings and one case of early-onset dementia in the preceding generation.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Carlo; Arosio, Beatrice; Cantatore, Alessandra; Viti, Niccolò; Giunco, Fabrizio; Bagarolo, Renzo; Nicolini, Paola; Gussago, Cristina; Ferri, Evelyn; Casati, Martina; Rossi, Paolo Dionigi; Casè, Alessandra; Bergamaschini, Luigi; Vergani, Carlo; Mari, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We describe a family composed of six siblings, four of which affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We constructed the family pedigree, evaluated mutations usually associated with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (APP, PSEN1, PSEN2), and assessed polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene and in cytokine genes that we had previously found to be associated with a higher risk of LOAD (IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α). Results showed that all subjects carried one ε4 allele of the APOE gene and those with the earliest age of onset exhibited the AA (-1082) IL-10 and the CC (-174) IL-6 genotypes. The only male had a genetic profile which also included the A (-308) TNF-α allele. These data confirm the role of the APOE gene as genetic risk factor in LOAD, and suggest that the risk of developing AD may be governed by a "susceptibility profile" involving polymorphisms in inflammatory genes.

  13. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  14. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  15. Structural factors affecting pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiments and X-ray microtomography/SEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Oil and gas generation is a complex superposition of processes which take place in the interiors and are not readily observable in nature in human life time-frames. During burial of the source rocks organic matter is transformed into a mixture of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Specific thermobaric conditions trigger formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration. For series of our experiments we selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition shale rocks from Domanic horizon of South-Tatar arch. Rock samples were heated in the pyrolyzer to temperatures closely corresponding to different catagenesis stages. X-ray microtomography method was used to monitor changes in the morphology of the pore space within studied shale rocks. By routine measurements we made sure that all samples (10 in total) had similar composition of organic and mineral phases. All samples in the collection were grouped according to initial structure and amount of organics and processed separately to: 1) study the influence of organic matter content on the changing morphology of the rock under thermal effects; 2) study the effect of initial structure on the primary migration processes for samples with similar organic matter content. An additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space and prove the validity of our approach. At each stage of heating the morphology of altered rocks was characterized by formation of new pores and channels connecting primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. Second part of the study also revealed significant differences in resulting pore structures depending on initial structure of the unaltered rocks and connectivity of original

  16. Comparison of gel properties and biochemical characteristics of myofibrillar protein from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) affected by frozen storage and a hydroxyl radical-generation oxidizing system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Han; Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qingzheng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-15

    We wanted to clarify whether gel properties can be affected by in vivo or in vitro myofibrillar protein oxidation and, thus, to provide relevant information and a scientific foundation for the processing of gel products. To accomplish this, we measured the changes in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), total disulfide (SS) content, surface hydrophobicity (So-ANS), carbonyl content, and gel texture and water-holding capacity (WHC) of isolated myofibrillar protein from bighead carp fillets during frozen storage and under different H2O2 concentrations, which were used to represent in vivo and in vitro conditions, respectively. The results indicated that a certain range in content of disulfide crosslinks (0.91mol/10(5)g protein) would promote gel hardness. Mild protein oxidation caused by a certain degree of frozen storage and hydroxyl radicals can promote gel texture and WHC. Based on those results, freezing bighead carp for a certain period can be used to produce gel products.

  17. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains.

  18. Predictive role of gene polymorphisms affecting thrombin-generation pathway in variable efficacy of photodynamic therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Gemmati, Donato; Costagliola, Ciro; Sebastiani, Adolfo; Incorvaia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) represents the leading cause of central blindness in developed countries. The majority of severe vision loss occurs in the neovascular form of AMD, generally characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) beneath the fovea. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT-V) and drugs acting against vascular endothelial growth factor are the most commonly employed treatments for AMD-related subfoveal CNV. The combined use of both these strategies is the most promising therapeutic approach towards this harmful disease. The therapeutic action of PDT-V depends to a photochemical perturbation of thrombo-coagulative processes within CNV. Predictive correlations between peculiar coagulation-balance gene polymorphisms and different levels of post-PDT-V benefit have been recently documented in Caucasian patients with neovascular AMD. Particularly, heterozygous A-allele carriers of factor V Leiden 1691 or prothrombin 20210 gene are characterized by a greater possibility to exhibit clinical benefit after PDT-V. Both mutations induce thrombophilia increasing the thrombin generation in plasma and, thus, they can consistently intensify the photothrombotic phase of the therapeutic CNV occlusion. In prospect, considering the different individual susceptibility to PDT-V, a preoperative assessment of the genotypic thrombophilic background could optimize the eligibility criteria of this intriguing treatment. This review summarizes some of the recent published patents on treatment of neovascular AMD, with a particular attention to PDT-V application in combined therapeutic modalities.

  19. Vital to future generations. The Bali Conference has recommended that 4% of all official development assistance be earmarked for population programs.

    PubMed

    Ward, R

    1993-03-01

    The Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was held in Bali, Indonesia, in August 1992. The highlights included: sustainable population and economic growth in a region with three-fifths of the world's population; the threat to the environment from the consumption of natural resources; high fertility; high dependency ratios and aging; land degradation; and migration. The Director of UNFPA revealed that the average rate of population growth had fallen to 1.7% annually since 1963, but an estimated 17.7 million persons were still being added to the region each year. The Conference urged improvement in reproductive health care to reduce maternal illness and death and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS, and women-centered programs. Both long- and short-term rural-to-urban and international migration affects the development dynamic. The Conference viewed urbanization as inevitable, but cautioned against neglect of rural development. Improving the status of women through education will help reduce discrimination. The success of family planning efforts in the region is attributable to the changing behavior of women, age at marriage, and the number and spacing of children. 86% of the developing world's elderly will reside in Asia by the year 2000. The Conference recommended economic incentives and tax exemptions to assist families caring for older relatives, but stopped short of pension plans and social security systems. Mortality, however, may be reduced by increasing HIV infection and AIDS prevention. Poverty alleviation figured among agenda items. Robert McNamara noted in a 1991 address that over 1 million people suffer from hunger and over 900 million remain illiterate worldwide. To counter this, education, nutrition, and health services for the poor are needed; also needed are human resources

  20. Inhibition of glutamate receptors reduces the homocysteine-induced whole blood platelet aggregation but does not affect superoxide anion generation or platelet membrane fluidization.

    PubMed

    Karolczak, Kamil; Pieniazek, Anna; Watala, Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an excitotoxic amino acid. It is potentially possible to prevent Hcy-induced toxicity, including haemostatic impairments, by antagonizing glutaminergic receptors. Using impedance aggregometry with arachidonate and collagen as platelet agonists, we tested whether the blockade of platelet NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate), AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) and kainate receptors with their inhibitors: MK-801 (dizocilpine hydrogen maleate, [5R,10S]-[+]-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine), CNQX (7-nitro-2,3-dioxo-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-6-carbonitrile) and UBP-302 (2-{[3-[(2S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-2,6-dioxo-3,6-dihydropyrimidin 1(2H)-yl]methyl}benzoic acid) may hamper Hcy-dependent platelet aggregation. All the tested compounds significantly inhibited Hcy-augmented aggregation of blood platelets stimulated either with arachidonate or collagen. Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion in whole blood samples in a concentration-dependent manner; however, this process appeared as independent on ionotropic glutamate receptors, as well as on NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C, and was not apparently associated with the extent of either arachidonate- or collagen-dependent platelet aggregation. Moreover, Hcy acted as a significant fluidizer of surface (more hydrophilic) and inner (more hydrophobic) regions of platelet membrane lipid bilayer, when used at the concentration range from 10 to 50 µmol/l. However, this effect was independent on the Hcy action through glutamate ionotropic receptors, since there was no effects of MK-801, CNQX or UBP-302 on Hcy-mediated membrane fluidization. In conclusion, Hcy-induced changes in whole blood platelet aggregation are mediated through the ionotopic excitotoxic receptors, although the detailed mechanisms underlying such interactions remain to be elucidated.

  1. Next-generation sequencing-based user-friendly platforms for drug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis: A promise for the near future.

    PubMed

    Dolinger, David L; Colman, Rebecca E; Engelthaler, David M; Rodwell, Timothy C

    2016-12-01

    Since 2002, there has been a gradual worldwide 1.3% annual decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis (TB). This is an encouraging statistic; however, it will not achieve the World Health Organization's goal of eliminating TB by 2050, and it is being compounded by the persistent global incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) acquired by transmission and by treatment pressure. One key to effectively control tuberculosis and the spread of multiresistant strains is accurate information pertaining to drug resistance and susceptibility. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to effectively change global health and the management of TB. Industry has focused primarily on using NGS for oncology diagnostics and human genomics, but the area in which NGS can rapidly impact health care is in the area of infectious disease diagnostics in low- and middle-income countries. To date, there has been a failure as a community to capitalize on the potential of NGS, especially at the reference laboratory level where it can provide actionable information pertaining to treatment options for patients. The rapid evolution of knowledge about the genetic foundations of tuberculosis drug resistance makes sequencing a versatile technology platform for providing rapid, accurate, and actionable results for treating this disease. No "plug-and-play" and "end-to-end" NGS solutions exist that provide clinically relevant sequence data from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genome from primary clinical samples (e.g., sputum) in high-burden country reference laboratories, which is where they are most needed. However, such a system-based solution is underdeveloped by Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics (FIND), in collaboration with partners from academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. The solution is modular and is designed and developed to perform targeted amplicon sequencing directly from a patient's primary sputum sample. This solution will initially allow

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  3. Is there a future for electricity futures?

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, J.R.; Chittenden, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    The market for electricity based commodity trading, including futures and options, is in its infancy in the United States. Formal trading of electricity futures started on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) on March 29, 1996 with Options trading following on April 26, 1996. NYMEX started two new contracts, one based at the California-Oregon border (COB) and one based at the Palo Verde switchyard (Palo Verde). NYMEX is the commodity futures exchange in the United States that specializes in energy contracts, historically launching futures contracts in energy sectors immediately after the deregulation of the market and after the formation of a competitive cash or spot market. In the case of electricity, NYMEX established the new electricity futures contracts prior to the deregulation of the market and in the middle of the formation of a working spot market. Several questions remain including if there is enough interest in the market, who will be the participants, how will the physical properties of electricity mold the terms for futures contracts, and how will deregulation affect the outcome?

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  5. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  6. Campus Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Most people in the United States, no matter how extensive their education, have never had a course dealing primarily with the future. But they have had at least one course, and probably many courses, dealing with the past. Most also have never questioned why the past is so emphasized in formal education while the future--the only arena over which…

  7. Creative Ventures: The Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book, published in 1987, provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the future, asking students to predict future…

  8. Sustainability and Alternative Futures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 is “. . .to create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations.”...

  9. Technologies of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Joseph I.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

    1985-01-01

    In the future, the requirements of industry will generate a wide range of hardware devices and software programs that will significantly alter and improve the quality of education. The driving forces behind the development of new technological devices include economics; emotional factors, e.g., the desire to develop aids for the handicapped;…

  10. Future Generation Network Architecture (New Arch)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Kulik, Xiaowei Yang, Robert Braden, Ted Faber, Aaron Falk, Venkata Pingali, Mark Handley, Noel Chiappa , Steve Bellovin 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C...independent contributor (Noel Chiappa ). This report is a combined final report on the work done at MIT and at ISI, since the effort was highly

  11. New ARCH: Future Generation Internet Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Joanna Kulik, Xiaowei Yang, Ted Faber, Aaron Falk, Venkata Pingali, Mark Handley, Noel Chiappa 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-00-2-0553 PE...and an independent contributor (Noel Chiappa ). This report is a combined final report on the work done at MIT and at ISI, since the effort was

  12. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  13. The future of robotics in radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Adler, John R

    2013-01-01

    After emerging from and transforming the practice of neurosurgery, stereotactic radiosurgery is increasingly affecting all surgical disciplines. The first generation of frame-based devices limited radiosurgery treatment to lesions of the brain where the rigidity of the skull provided adequate skeletal purchase. In an effort to surmount such anatomic limitations, robotic radiosurgery was developed. After almost 2 decades of existence, the technology and clinical application of image-guided robotic radiosurgery have evolved considerably, and today a range of treatments with such technology have become commonplace. Nevertheless, the timeless allure of a truly noninvasive, yet highly effective, therapy promises that further refinements in robotic radiosurgery will be forthcoming well into the future.

  14. Sustainable Futures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  15. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  16. FORUM: Affective Learning. Students' Affective Learning as Affective Experience: Significance, Reconceptualization, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  18. Eight Skills in Future Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    This article elaborates eight skills in future work which are based on three main changes and are available to different domains of professions. The first change is an increasing technological world for the future. Technology becomes a part of human being's life and affects people's daily life. Mastering relevant competences is necessary to boost…

  19. Starter/generator testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anon

    1994-10-01

    Sundstrand Aerospace and GE Aircraft Engines have studied the switched reluctance machine for use as an integral starter/generator for future aircraft engines. They have conducted an initial, low-power testing of the starter/generator, which is based on power inverters using IGBT-technology semiconductors, to verify its feasibility in the externally mounted version of the integral starter/generator. This preliminary testing of the 250-kW starter/generator reveals favorable results.

  20. Population Change and California's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; Martin, Philip

    This report examines how demographic changes, particularly in immigration and fertility, have affected and will continue to affect every segment of California's population. Three points are emphasized in the report: the number and type of Californians in future years, the size and composition of the labor force and the related issues resulting…

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  2. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively.

  3. Future contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Alexander, N J

    1995-09-01

    This article looks at the improvements that may occur in contraceptives in the near future. While no product currently under study would be ideal (highly effective, safe, readily reversible, free of side effects, coitally independent, counteract the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and inexpensive), several would come closer than those available today. For men, the condom is the only currently available contraception, and a thinner version has recently been introduced in response to the criticism that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. Methods under study for men include manipulating hormones to halt sperm production by the intramuscular injection of an androgen in combination with a progestin or by blocking the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In the future, long-acting reversible agents should be available to directly halt sperm production or maturation. In men and women, vaccines should become available that would use antibodies to disrupt reproduction. Additional hormonal options in women should include hormone-releasing vaginal rings, a simplified contraceptive implant delivery system, a hormone-releasing IUD, and a monthly pill. Vaginal chemicals could be used to impede some of the necessary changes that sperm undergo after ejaculation. Spermicides will also be available with the ability to prevent STDs. The order of appearance of these new contraceptives will probably be nonlatex condoms, vaginal rings, and new implants, followed by disease-reducing spermicides, hormone-releasing IUDs, new emergency contraceptives, a three-month injectable for men, biodegradable implants for women, and immunocontraceptives (if they receive the backing of the industry).

  4. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  5. Generativity and Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The psychological construct of "generativity" was introduced by Erik Erikson in "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This rich and complex notion encompasses the constellation of desires, concerns and commitments that motivate individuals and societies to pass on legacies to future generations. "Flourishing," which means,…

  6. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, Eduard; Wright, Alan; Gevorgian, Vahan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  7. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  8. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  9. Geodesy: A look to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The report deals with the current and future uses of contemporary geodetic data and poses some questions and possibilities for the future. It is anticipated that the document will generate interest in present and future geodetic data for the solution of problems in Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences.

  10. Future food.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  11. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  12. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  13. Portal to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Evalyn

    2011-04-01

    Museums are a portal connecting us to a deeper understanding of the world in which we live, from our own backyards to the most distant galaxies; an access point to the incredible discoveries we have made about the natural world and a flashpoint for inspiring the next generation of explorers. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History is poised to redefine what a natural history museum can be, offering visitors an opportunity to travel through space and time to explore the origins of our planet, follow the evolution of life on Earth and project into -- and plan for -- the future. The Museum will launch visitors into the future this summer via SmartHome Cleveland -- an extremely energy-efficient "passive house" that will demonstrate the future of green building technology. This unique exhibit is part of a special series of exhibits, programs and workshops on sustainability, including a major exhibit on Climate Change, which will be featured at the Museum this summer and fall.

  14. Racquet sports. The future.

    PubMed

    Woods, R B

    1995-01-01

    The future of sports medicine and the affiliated sciences is extremely promising within the world of tennis. Players and coaches have recognized the important role of science in supporting tennis training and development. The USTA has established the sport sciences as a basis for all programs and policies. The challenges for the future appear clear: 1. To promote tennis specific research that specifically addresses the training, development, and competitive needs of coaches and athletes. 2. To access sport science information generated in other countries or by other sports that maybe useful to tennis in the United States. 3. To disseminate sport science information in user-friendly language to the widest possible audience. 4. To support all classifications of tennis players with sport science information relevant to their group including all ages and skill levels. Much has been accomplished in the past 10 years to support athlete development, but the promise of the future is exciting and will require teamwork within the tennis and scientific communities by people who love tennis.

  15. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 4, appendix C: Identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks yielded useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  16. Future Trends in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.; Muthukrishnan, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, teachers were the primary medium of instruction and communication for their students. The teacher's role in the classroom is changing due to developments in technology. This article discusses the ways in which technology will change education in the future, and how these changes will affect the interactions between students and…

  17. Does affective touch influence the virtual reality full body illusion?

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jutta R; Keizer, Anouk; Engel, Manja M; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2017-03-13

    The sense of how we experience our physical body as our own represents a fundamental component of human self-awareness. Body ownership can be studied with bodily illusions which are generated by inducing a visuo-tactile conflict where individuals experience illusionary ownership over a fake body or body part, such as a rubber hand. Previous studies showed that different types of touch modulate the strength of experienced ownership over a rubber hand. Specifically, participants experienced more ownership after the rubber hand illusion was induced through affective touch vs non-affective touch. It is, however, unclear whether this effect would also occur for an entire fake body. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate whether affective touch modulates the strength of ownership in a virtual reality full body illusion. To elicit this illusion, we used slow (3 cm/s; affective touch) and fast (30 cm/s; non-affective touch) stroking velocities on the participants' abdomen. Both stroking velocities were performed either synchronous or asynchronous (control condition), while participants viewed a virtual body from a first-person-perspective. In our first study, we found that participants experienced more subjective ownership over a virtual body in the affective touch condition, compared to the non-affective touch condition. In our second study, we found higher levels of subjective ownership for synchronous stimulation, compared to asynchronous, for both touch conditions, but failed to replicate the findings from study 1 that show a difference between affective and non-affective touch. We, therefore, cannot conclude unequivocally that affective touch enhances the full-body illusion. Future research is required to study the effects of affective touch on body ownership.

  18. Future Air Force systems.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, S A

    1986-10-01

    Planning for the future is under way in earnest at the Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It has been statistically established that it takes from 14-16 years from the generation of a new system idea to enter into engineering development. With this unpleasing, but realistic, schedule in mind, ASD has, during the last 3 years, been initiating long-term planning projects that are pre-starts for new system ideas. They are generated from throughout the Air Force and are locally managed and funded. Through this process, which spans from 12-14 months, specific and revolutionary new ideas for the systems of the future are generated. This article addresses more than a dozen specific new ideas in work at ASD today. These ideas range from a need to replace the C-130 type aircraft after the year 2000 to planning a follow-on to the B-18 well into the 21st century. Among other specific projects are investigation into an immortal fighter intended to be free of reliability and maintenance demands for an especially long period of operation, a new training system and advanced trainer to replace the T-38, a transatmospheric vehicle that could operate in the 100,000-500,000 foot flight region (30,480-152,400 m), and a new means of defending against hostile cruise missile launchers and cruise missiles. Other ideas are also addressed. The article concludes with emphasis on systems that can operate hypersonically in and out of the known atmosphere and greater use of airbreathing propulsion systems operating between Mach 3 and Mach 6.

  19. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  20. Next Generation Power and Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    Cells Advanced Generators Direct Conversion Photovoltaics Future Fuels Energy Storage Batteries Capacitors Flywheels Motors & Actuators Motors Actuators...Generation Power Distribution Energy Storage Power Conversion Propulsion Ship’s Power Sources Mission Systems Industry Competes for Components; ‘Submit...Chiller Technologies / HVAC ONR Maintaining Robust S&T Investment Power LoadSystem Control Power Generation Power Distribution Energy Storage Power

  1. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  3. Decisions That Affect Outcomes in the Distant Future.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    75-030-0713 and #78-072-0721 NSF Grant #FNn-72-04149-AO1 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK The Board of...lng expoctat in- about the. outcomes by charging or rebat in ; i, each cuotomr. P The concept of a social brokerage ftrm i sinilar to that ,f , charity ...contributes to charities . For this reason, we would ask the individual questions about other decisions and tradeoffs 104 .0. -e e ’. ". ’*- . " 0 Lvd 6 . he has

  4. A Brighter Future: Solutions to Policy Issues Affecting America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This collection of papers explains why deep reforms are necessary if today's children are to reach their full potential as productive, independent, and responsible adults. The papers are: (1) "Orphanages as Villages" (Richard B. McKenzie); (2) "Medicating Children" (Linda Gorman); (3) "Government Drug Pushers and the…

  5. How Kindergarten Readiness Affects the Future Academic Achievement of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensey Hover, Ashlee B.

    2014-01-01

    This research study was conducted to examine the effects of the Kindergarten Readiness program in a large suburban school district in Tennessee as measured by third grade Reading and Mathematics TCAP Achievement Test scores. In addition, the study examined the relationships between the chronological ages of the students at kindergarten entry and…

  6. Can a future choice affect a past measurement's outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-01

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell's theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement's outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  7. Future affective technology for autism and emotion communication.

    PubMed

    Picard, Rosalind W

    2009-12-12

    People on the autism spectrum often experience states of emotional or cognitive overload that pose challenges to their interests in learning and communicating. Measurements taken from home and school environments show that extreme overload experienced internally, measured as autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation, may not be visible externally: a person can have a resting heart rate twice the level of non-autistic peers, while outwardly appearing calm and relaxed. The chasm between what is happening on the inside and what is seen on the outside, coupled with challenges in speaking and being pushed to perform, is a recipe for a meltdown that may seem to come 'out of the blue', but in fact may have been steadily building. Because ANS activation both influences and is influenced by efforts to process sensory information, interact socially, initiate motor activity, produce meaningful speech and more, deciphering the dynamics of ANS states is important for understanding and helping people on the autism spectrum. This paper highlights advances in technology that can comfortably sense and communicate ANS arousal in daily life, allowing new kinds of investigations to inform the science of autism while also providing personalized feedback to help individuals who participate in the research.

  8. Theme: Trends and Issues Affecting the Future of Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Articles discuss trends and issues in agricultural education, community and technical colleges, career/technical studies, Australian agriculture, agricultural science and technology programs in urban areas, genetic engineering, the impact of changing technologies on agricultural education, volunteers, and performance-based assessment. (JOW)

  9. Future affective technology for autism and emotion communication

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Rosalind W.

    2009-01-01

    People on the autism spectrum often experience states of emotional or cognitive overload that pose challenges to their interests in learning and communicating. Measurements taken from home and school environments show that extreme overload experienced internally, measured as autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation, may not be visible externally: a person can have a resting heart rate twice the level of non-autistic peers, while outwardly appearing calm and relaxed. The chasm between what is happening on the inside and what is seen on the outside, coupled with challenges in speaking and being pushed to perform, is a recipe for a meltdown that may seem to come ‘out of the blue’, but in fact may have been steadily building. Because ANS activation both influences and is influenced by efforts to process sensory information, interact socially, initiate motor activity, produce meaningful speech and more, deciphering the dynamics of ANS states is important for understanding and helping people on the autism spectrum. This paper highlights advances in technology that can comfortably sense and communicate ANS arousal in daily life, allowing new kinds of investigations to inform the science of autism while also providing personalized feedback to help individuals who participate in the research. PMID:19884152

  10. 'Emotional Hangover' Is Real and Affects Future Experiences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Memory Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Memory About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email ... MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  11. Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

  12. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders.

  13. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  14. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  15. The future is 'ambient'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  16. Climatic Change--Past, Present & Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Roy C.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of studies investigating factors affecting climatic changes in the Earth's atmosphere--past, present, and future. Dating methods, particularly the Oxygen 18/16 method, are discussed. (SL)

  17. Survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, non-0157 shiga toxin producing E.coli, and potential surrogate bacteria in crop soil as affected by the addition of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fast pyrolysis of switchgrass (and resultant biochar) can be used for bio-fuel production, soil amendments for fertilizing crops, binding heavy metals, and sequestering environmental biocarbon. To determine the influence of fast pyrolysis-generated switchgrass biochar on survival of foodborne path...

  18. Future of PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchdoerfer, Richard G.

    1997-05-01

    This paper attempts to forecast tow to five years to understand the future PACS environment and is the result of reviews of literature and interviews with nearly thirty organization sand individuals representing the PACS community. Two to five years was set as a realistic limit to projections although thoughts for the future of digital medical imaging beyond five years are included. The variance in projections even in the short term is significant and any projection beyond five years will be even more uncertain. The organizations that contributed to the interviews include academic centers, the federal government, consultants and vendors of PACS technology. The vendor products span the industry to include capture of images at the modality level, image management and distribution systems, services, and speech recognition. This paper will place the changes that will occur in PACS within the context of the larger changes that are occurring in health care, the practice of image acquisition and interpretation, and information systems. Selected technologies that will influence PACS are reviewed in more depth with a view towards the affect that they will have on PACS and the interpretation of images.

  19. The Ocean: Our Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  20. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  1. Episodic future thinking in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD.

  2. America's Electricity Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2006-03-01

    Where will America's future electricity supply come from? According to Vice President Cheney's energy task force, the U.S. needs to build about one 1 GW generating facilty a week in perpetuity.^(1) What sort of facilities will they be? Can the economy sustain such growth? Are there other possibilities? One possibility that strikes a chord with physicists is conservation as a source of energy. In this regard, Vice President Cheney famously said that conservation is``a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis---all by itself---for a sound, comprehensive energy policy,''^(2) echoing the Ayn Rand Instituite's view that ``Conservation is not a long- or short-term solution to the energy crisis. Conservation is the un-American idea of resigning oneself to doing with less.''^(3) This poster will explore the possible energy futures, their advantages and disadvantages, with and without conservation. 1. National Energy Policy Development Group (R. Cheney, C. L. Powell, P. O'Neill, G. Norton, A. M. Veneman, D. L. Evans, N. Y. Mineta, S. Abraham, J. M. Allbaugh, C. T. Whitman, J. B. Bolten, M. E. Daniels, L. B. Lindsey, and R. Barrales), National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001). 2. M. Allen, ``Bush energy plan will emphasize production,'' The Washington Post, 1 May 2001 3. R. Pool, ``Saving power deemed immoral,'' The Los Angeles Times, 12 May 2001.

  3. Future User Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Lee

    2002-10-01

    The southeastern part of the U.S. is blessed with an array of national user facilities that are accessible to scientists in the region. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates 17 officially designated user facilities for the Department of Energy, the Jefferson Lab operates the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), and a number of universities have forefront experimental facilities that are widely accessible. The long lead time necessary to originate and construct new user facilities makes it imperative to consider the needs of the physical sciences 10 to 20 years in the future. The construction of the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL positions the southeast to lead in neutron science. Upgrades are desired for CEBAF and the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (ORNL). The more future possibilities are less clear, but are becoming a focus of strategic planning among the national laboratories. Possibilities may arise in the U.S. for next-generation light sources, large computational centers, advanced fusion devices, nanotechnology centers, and perhaps facilities that are not yet contemplated. A regional discussion of the needs for large-scale user facilities in the southeast is important.

  4. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  5. Influence of SST biases on future climate change projections

    SciTech Connect

    Ashfaq, Moetasim; Skinner, Chris B; Cherkauer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We use a quantile-based bias correction technique and a multi-member ensemble of the atmospheric component of NCAR CCSM3 (CAM3) simulations to investigate the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) biases on future climate change projections. The simulations, which cover 1977 1999 in the historical period and 2077 2099 in the future (A1B) period, use the CCSM3-generated SSTs as prescribed boundary conditions. Bias correction is applied to the monthly time-series of SSTs so that the simulated changes in SST mean and variability are preserved. Our comparison of CAM3 simulations with and without SST correction shows that the SST biases affect the precipitation distribution in CAM3 over many regions by introducing errors in atmospheric moisture content and upper-level (lower-level) divergence (convergence). Also, bias correction leads to significantly different precipitation and surface temperature changes over many oceanic and terrestrial regions (predominantly in the tropics) in response to the future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. The differences in the precipitation response from SST bias correction occur both in the mean and the percent change, and are independent of the ocean atmosphere coupling. Many of these differences are comparable to or larger than the spread of future precipitation changes across the CMIP3 ensemble. Such biases can affect the simulated terrestrial feedbacks and thermohaline circulations in coupled climate model integrations through changes in the hydrological cycle and ocean salinity. Moreover, biases in CCSM3-generated SSTs are generally similar to the biases in CMIP3 ensemble mean SSTs, suggesting that other GCMs may display a similar sensitivity of projected climate change to SST errors. These results help to quantify the influence of climate model biases on the simulated climate change, and therefore should inform the effort to further develop approaches for reliable climate change projection.

  6. Present and Future Supply of Registered Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Stuart H.

    During the 1960's, nursing education shifted dramatically away from hospital-operated diploma schools toward associate degree and baccalaureate programs. This report examines the nature of this shift in training and its anticipated impact on future supply. Other important factors affecting the future supply of nurses are analyzed, including the…

  7. Macomb 2000: Toward a Brighter Economic Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomb County Community Coll., Warren, MI.

    Based on more than a year of research on factors affecting the economic future of Macomb County in Michigan, this paper examines employment and population trends, looks at the ways in which these trends influence the workplace, and identifies factors in the county's future growth and economic development. The first section considers trends that…

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  9. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  10. An Insider's View on the Future of Farming and Rural Communities: Participant Observation by a Lifetime Rural Sociologist/Iowa Farmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The constant flow of wealth from the countryside to the city arises from farms being bought out by co-heirs, educating children to move away, rents paid to absentee landlords, profits generated locally but landing elsewhere, and overreliance on property taxes. Overviews problems specific to northwestern Iowa and how they will affect the future of…

  11. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  12. A taxonomy of prospection: introducing an organizational framework for future-oriented cognition.

    PubMed

    Szpunar, Karl K; Spreng, R Nathan; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-30

    Prospection--the ability to represent what might happen in the future--is a broad concept that has been used to characterize a wide variety of future-oriented cognitions, including affective forecasting, prospective memory, temporal discounting, episodic simulation, and autobiographical planning. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of prospection to initiate the important and necessary process of teasing apart the various forms of future thinking that constitute the landscape of prospective cognition. The organizational framework that we propose delineates episodic and semantic forms of four modes of future thinking: simulation, prediction, intention, and planning. We show how this framework can be used to draw attention to the ways in which various modes of future thinking interact with one another, generate new questions about prospective cognition, and illuminate our understanding of disorders of future thinking. We conclude by considering basic cognitive processes that give rise to prospective cognitions, cognitive operations and emotional/motivational states relevant to future-oriented cognition, and the possible role of procedural or motor systems in future-oriented behavior.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  14. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  15. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  16. DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN ANDRA'S ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT BY RADIOACTIVE WASTE GENERATORS AND AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF IL-LL SHORT-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES AND HL-IL LONG-LIVED WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Trentesaux, C.; Cairon, P.; Dumont, J.-N.; Felix, B.; Losada, F.

    2003-02-27

    In both cases of packages for either low-level and intermediate-level short-lived (LL-IL/SL) or high-level and intermediate-level long-lived (HL-IL/LL) radioactive waste, Andra has defined a quality reference system, manages it, follows up its appropriate implementation in production plants and verifies its effectiveness in production. The purpose of such a reference system is to ensure, in the first case, that waste packages comply with the Centre de l'Aube's acceptance criteria and, in the second case, that the characteristics submitted by the waste generators to Andra as input data for the deep geological repository project reflect the actual production conditions. In that context, the three management steps of the quality reference system include differences due to the fact that HL-IL/SL packages have not been submitted yet to any technical acceptance criterion. Compliance with any such criterion should be the subject of a characterization report during the qualification phase and of a examination during the verification phase. The management of the quality reference system also involves similarities that facilitate the joint work carried out by Andra with the waste generators, especially in the facilities where both package types are produced.

  17. Climate change and human health: present and future risks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Woodruff, Rosalie E; Hales, Simon

    2006-03-11

    There is near unanimous scientific consensus that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity will change Earth's climate. The recent (globally averaged) warming by 0.5 degrees C is partly attributable to such anthropogenic emissions. Climate change will affect human health in many ways-mostly adversely. Here, we summarise the epidemiological evidence of how climate variations and trends affect various health outcomes. We assess the little evidence there is that recent global warming has already affected some health outcomes. We review the published estimates of future health effects of climate change over coming decades. Research so far has mostly focused on thermal stress, extreme weather events, and infectious diseases, with some attention to estimates of future regional food yields and hunger prevalence. An emerging broader approach addresses a wider spectrum of health risks due to the social, demographic, and economic disruptions of climate change. Evidence and anticipation of adverse health effects will strengthen the case for pre-emptive policies, and will also guide priorities for planned adaptive strategies.

  18. Some Aspects of Futurism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangchai, Samporn

    1975-01-01

    The article, an overview, surveys various schools of futures research with reference to futurism's dimensions (methodologies, typologies, and distance in time); planning for alternative futures; orientations; and inner-future orientations (mysticism vs. science). Developing nations are advised to adapt developed nations' learnings selectively, and…

  19. Options for Kentucky's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    Three important imperatives are being pursued by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: ? Developing a viable economic future for the highly trained and experienced workforce and for the Paducah area that today supports, and is supported by, the operations of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Currently, the PGDP is scheduled to be taken out of service in May, 2013. ? Restructuring the economic future for Kentucky’s most abundant indigenous resource and an important industry – the extraction and utilization of coal. The future of coal is being challenged by evolving and increasing requirements for its extraction and use, primarily from the perspective of environmental restrictions. Further, it is important that the economic value derived from this important resource for the Commonwealth, its people and its economy is commensurate with the risks involved. Over 70% of the extracted coal is exported from the Commonwealth and hence not used to directly expand the Commonwealth’s economy beyond the severance taxes on coal production. ? Ensuring a viable energy future for Kentucky to guarantee a continued reliable and affordable source of energy for its industries and people. Today, over 90% of Kentucky’s electricity is generated by burning coal with a delivered electric power price that is among the lowest in the United States. Anticipated increased environmental requirements necessitate looking at alternative forms of energy production, and in particular electricity generation.

  20. The impact of future climate on historic interiors.

    PubMed

    Lankester, Paul; Brimblecombe, Peter

    2012-02-15

    The socio-economic significance of climate change is widely recognised. However, its potential to affect our cultural heritage has not been discussed in detail (i.e. not explicit in IPCC 4) even though the cultural impacts of future outdoor climate have been the focus of some European Commission projects (e.g. NOAH'S ARK) and World Heritage Centre reports. Recently there have been a few projects that have examined the changing environmental threats to tangible heritage indoors (e.g. Preparing Historic Collections for Climate Change and Climate for Culture). Here we predict future indoor temperature and humidity, and damage arising from changes to climate in historic rooms in Southern England with little climate control, using simple building simulations coupled with high resolution (~5 km) climate predictions. The calculations suggest an increase in indoor temperature over the next century that is slightly less than that outdoors. Annual relative humidity shows little change, but the seasonal cycles suggest drier summers and slightly damper winters indoors. Damage from mould growth and pests is likely to increase in the future, while humidity driven dimensional change to materials (e.g. wood) should decrease somewhat. The results allow collection managers to prepare for the impact of long-term climate change, putting strategic measures in place to prevent increased damage, and thus preserve our heritage for future generations.

  1. Future developments in maritime satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steciw, A.

    1981-11-01

    Future developments in maritime satellite communications, which could be provided by a second-generation maritime space segment are discussed. Current weaknesses such as high costs and bulky equipment are given, and basic terminal standards that could be embodied in a second generation system are considered, including three scenarios based on traffic, terminal characteristics, and mission requirements. The aeronautical satellite service is also summarized.

  2. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  3. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems, Volume 4. Appendix C: Design and performance of standardized fixed bed air-blown gasifier IGCC systems for future electric power generation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This appendix is a compilation of work done to predict overall cycle performance from gasifier to generator terminals. A spreadsheet has been generated for each case to show flows within a cycle. The spreadsheet shows gaseous or solid composition of flow, temperature of flow, quantity of flow, and heat heat content of flow. Prediction of steam and gas turbine performance was obtained by the computer program GTPro. Outputs of all runs for each combined cycle reviewed has been added to this appendix. A process schematic displaying all flows predicted through GTPro and the spreadsheet is also added to this appendix. The numbered bubbles on the schematic correspond to columns on the top headings of the spreadsheet.

  4. Do future thoughts reflect personal goals? Current concerns and mental time travel into the past and future.

    PubMed

    Cole, Scott N; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Our overriding hypothesis was that future thinking would be linked with goals to a greater extent than memories; conceptualizing goals as current concerns (i.e., uncompleted personal goals). We also hypothesized that current-concern-related events would differ from non-current-concern-related events on a set of phenomenological characteristics. We report novel data from a study examining involuntary and voluntary mental time travel using an adapted laboratory paradigm. Specifically, after autobiographical memories or future thoughts were elicited (between participants) in an involuntary and voluntary retrieval mode (within participants), participants self-generated five current concerns and decided whether each event was relevant or not to their current concerns. Consistent with our hypothesis, compared with memories, a larger percentage of involuntary and voluntary future thoughts reflected current concerns. Furthermore, events related to current concerns differed from non-concern-related events on a range of cognitive, representational, and affective phenomenological measures. These effects were consistent across temporal direction. In general, our results agree with the proposition that involuntary and voluntary future thinking is important for goal-directed cognition and behaviour.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Sandor, Debra; Wiser, Ryan; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  6. The changing face of international power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, I.

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  7. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  8. Electricity Generation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; Marcy, Cara; McCall, James; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Bloom, Aaron; Aabakken, Jorn; Cole, Wesley; Jenkin, Thomas; Porro, Gian; Liu, Chang; Ganda, Francesco; Boardman, Richard; Tarka, Thomas; Brewer, John; Schultz, Travis

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of national laboratory analysts over the period October 2015 to May 2016 and is part of a series of studies that provide background material to inform development of the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). The report focuses specifically on U.S. power sector generation. The report limits itself to the generation sector and does not address in detail parallel issues in electricity end use, transmission and distribution, markets and policy design, and other important segments. The report lists 15 key findings about energy system needs of the future.

  9. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  10. Generation X

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    service or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GENERATION X BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL NEIL YAMASHIRO United States Army National Guard CVI...WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 ■"""" mimmm n USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Generation X by LTC Neil Yamashiro COL Paul...is unlimited. 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: LTC Neil Yamashiro TITLE: Generation X FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 7 April 1998 PAGES: 26

  11. Future perspective and healthy lifestyle choices in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Strickland-Hughes, Carla M; Bluck, Susan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-09-01

    Regardless of age, making healthy lifestyle choices is prudent. Despite that, individuals of all ages sometimes have difficulty choosing the healthy option. We argue that individuals' view of the future and position in the life span affects their current lifestyle choices. We capture the multidimensionality of future thinking by assessing 3 types of future perspective. Younger and older men and women (N = 127) reported global future time perspective, future health perspective, and perceived importance of future health-related events. They also rated their likelihood of making healthy lifestyle choices. As predicted, older participants indicated greater intention to make healthy choices in their current life than did younger participants. Compared to younger participants, older participants reported shorter global future time perspective and anticipated worse future health but perceived future health-related events as more important. Having a positive view of one's future health and seeing future health-related events as important were related to greater intention to make healthy lifestyle choices, but greater global future time perspective was not directly related to healthy choices. However, follow-up analyses suggested that greater global future time perspective indirectly affected healthy choices via a more positive view of future health. None of these relations were moderated by age. Individuals' perspective on the future is shown to be an important multidimensional construct affecting everyday healthy lifestyle choices for both younger and older adults. Implications for encouraging healthy choices across the adult life span are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Insights into the future generation of veterinarians: perspectives gained from the 13- and 14-year-olds who attended Michigan State University's veterinary camp, and conclusions about our obligations.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, David J

    2004-01-01

    Veterinary medicine is at a crossroads: the future of the profession will be determined by those who join it and by those who select who will join it. Veterinary schools are the gatekeepers of the profession, and the entire veterinary profession is responsible for ensuring that the image it presents to those who will join it matches the social needs that it must serve. The application process for a Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine (MSUCVM) academic summer camp provided an opportunity to discern attributes of the 314 eighth-grade students who attended in 2000-2002. A re-reading of their application essays allowed clustering of similar descriptions and comments about motivations to attend the camp, interests in science, interactions with animals, and exposure to veterinarians and veterinary medicine. Many veterinary camp attendees will be undergraduate students by 2005/2006 and will be applying to colleges of veterinary medicine between 2008 and 2010. There-fore, an understanding of their attributes is germane to discussions about desirable characteristics of veterinary college applicants. Although the camp was designed to attract eighth graders interested in science and curious about veterinary medicine, attendees frequently described veterinary medicine as their career goal. These students (89.5% female, 95.6% residents of Michigan) enjoyed science, but their interest in veterinary medicine related to emotions such as a love of animals and sympathy for sick or injured animals (96.1%). They discussed having pets in their homes (75.5%), involvement with horseback riding (20.7%), experiences with animal-related projects and activities in 4-H (17.2%), and husbandry experience at farms or stables (16.2%). Although 22.6% had already shadowed a veterinarian and 12.8% described receiving other forms of veterinary mentoring, 22.9% commented on their inability to gain shadowing exposures prior to age 16. Based on the results of this survey and years

  13. A taxonomy of prospection: Introducing an organizational framework for future-oriented cognition

    PubMed Central

    Szpunar, Karl K.; Spreng, R. Nathan; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Prospection—the ability to represent what might happen in the future—is a broad concept that has been used to characterize a wide variety of future-oriented cognitions, including affective forecasting, prospective memory, temporal discounting, episodic simulation, and autobiographical planning. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of prospection to initiate the important and necessary process of teasing apart the various forms of future thinking that constitute the landscape of prospective cognition. The organizational framework that we propose delineates episodic and semantic forms of four modes of future thinking: simulation, prediction, intention, and planning. We show how this framework can be used to draw attention to the ways in which various modes of future thinking interact with one another, generate new questions about prospective cognition, and illuminate our understanding of disorders of future thinking. We conclude by considering basic cognitive processes that give rise to prospective cognitions, cognitive operations and emotional/motivational states relevant to future-oriented cognition, and the possible role of procedural or motor systems in future-oriented behavior. PMID:25416592

  14. Photoconductive switching for high power microwave generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Hofer, W.W.

    1990-10-01

    Photoconductive switching is a technology that is being increasingly applied to generation of high power microwaves. Two primary semiconductors used for these devices are silicon and gallium arsenide. Diamond is a promising future candidate material. This paper discusses the important material parameters and switching modes, critical issues for microwave generation, and future directions for this high power, photoconductive switching technology.

  15. Nursing's Preferred Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydelotte, Myrtle K.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses future trends for society and relates them to future roles and characteristics of nursing. She presents strategies that nursing professionals should use to be prepared for the stated trends. (CH)

  16. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  17. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  18. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  19. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  1. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  2. Forecasting the Educational Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdin, Joel L., Comp.; And Others

    This collection of essays on futurism is intended to open avenues for exploration, raise pertinent issues, and direct attention to new considerations. In "The Future: Implications for the Preparation of Educational Personnel," Dean C. Corrigan focuses on conditions that seem pertinent to development in future education and comments about two areas…

  3. 12th Man in Space Symposium: The Future of Humans in Space. Abstract Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pleased to host the 12th IAA Man in Space Symposium. A truly international forum, this symposium brings together scientists, engineers, and managers interested in all aspects of human space flight to share the most recent research results and space agency planning related to the future of humans in space. As we look out at the universe from our own uniquely human perspective, we see a world that we affect at the same time that it affects us. Our tomorrows are highlighted by the possibilities generated by our knowledge, our drive, and our dreams. This symposium will examine our future in space from the springboard of our achievements.

  4. Hypothetical Scenario Generator for Fault-Tolerant Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Hypothetical Scenario Generator for Fault-tolerant Diagnostics (HSG) is an algorithm being developed in conjunction with other components of artificial- intelligence systems for automated diagnosis and prognosis of faults in spacecraft, aircraft, and other complex engineering systems. By incorporating prognostic capabilities along with advanced diagnostic capabilities, these developments hold promise to increase the safety and affordability of the affected engineering systems by making it possible to obtain timely and accurate information on the statuses of the systems and predicting impending failures well in advance. The HSG is a specific instance of a hypothetical- scenario generator that implements an innovative approach for performing diagnostic reasoning when data are missing. The special purpose served by the HSG is to (1) look for all possible ways in which the present state of the engineering system can be mapped with respect to a given model and (2) generate a prioritized set of future possible states and the scenarios of which they are parts.

  5. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert

    2011-06-01

    , etc., radioprotection measures and treatment for the "transuranic" elements. For a long period of time, France was in the forefront of nuclear breeder power generation science, technological research and also in the knowledge base related to breeder reactors. It is in the country's interest to pursue these efforts and this could per se constitute one of the national priorities. Nous sommes naturellement bien conscients de l'énorme problème qui se pose au Japon actuellement comme suite au tremblement de terre et au tsunami de mars 2011 et leurs conséquences, notamment sur des installations électronucléaires. Le texte que nous présentons concerne des conditions totalement générales, indépendantes des problèmes spécifiques de sûreté qu'il faudra, de toute façon, traiter dans le cadre d'un développement éventuel de l'énergie nucléaire.We are aware, of course, of the huge problem that Japan has to deal with the aftermath of the quake and tsunami of March 2011 and their consequences on electronuclear power plants. The text that we present here concerns general physical topics independent of the specific safety problems, general physical topics which will have to be solved in the case of a contingent development of electronuclear power plants.

  6. Reconciling cognitive and affective neuroscience perspectives on the brain basis of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak; Lane, Richard D; Solms, Mark; Smith, Ryan

    2016-09-15

    The "affective" and "cognitive" neuroscience approaches to understanding emotion (AN and CN, respectively) represent potentially synergistic, but as yet unreconciled, theoretical perspectives, which may in part stem from the methods that these distinct perspectives routinely employ-one focusing on animal brain emotional systems (AN) and one on diverse human experimental approaches (CN). Here we present an exchange in which each approach (1) describes its own theoretical perspective, (2) offers a critique of the other perspective, and then (3) responds to each other's critique. We end with a summary of points of agreement and disagreement, and describe possible future experiments that could help resolve the remaining controversies. Future work should (i) further characterize the structure/function of subcortical circuitry with respect to its role in generating emotion, and (ii) further investigate whether sub-neocortical activations alone are sufficient (as opposed to merely necessary) for affective experiences, or whether subsequent cortical representation of an emotional response is also required.

  7. Episodic future thinking is impaired in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Remembering the past and imagining the future are complex endeavours proposed to rely on a core neurobiological brain system. In the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), regional patterns of brain atrophy affect medial prefrontal and temporal cortices of this core network. While autobiographical memory impairments have been documented in bvFTD, it remains unknown whether the ability to imagine future events is also compromised. Here, we investigated episodic future thinking in 10 bvFTD patients and contrasted their performance with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 10) and healthy matched Control (n = 10) participants. Participants were asked to remember 3 events from the previous year and to envisage 3 possible events that could occur in the next year. Both patient groups showed equivalent episodic detail performance for the retrieval of past events and the simulation of possible future episodes. Patients with bvFTD, however, showed additional impairments for the generation of external (non-episodic) details irrespective of condition. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed divergent neural correlates of episodic past and future thinking performance specific to each patient group. Atrophy in the posterior cingulate cortex was implicated in the disruption of past and future thinking in AD. In contrast, in bvFTD, disruption of past retrieval correlated with atrophy in medial prefrontal regions, whereas future thinking deficits were associated with atrophy of frontopolar, medial temporal regions including the right hippocampus, and lateral temporal and occipital cortices. Our results point to the involvement of multiple brain regions in facilitating retrieval of past, and simulation of future, events. Damage to any of these key regions thus adversely affects the ability to engage in personally relevant mental time travel.

  8. Future Spacelift Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses future space applications and the derived requirements these potential applications will have on future spacelift systems. This NASA sponsored activity is a comprehensive study of potential missions including those of the military, civil, and commercial users. The study objectively evaluated the key architectural requirements for future launch systems. The results of this study are technical, economic, and policy analyses of future spacelift systems. It is intended to assist NASA and DOD decision-makers in planning technical investments and establishing policy for future U.S. spacelift systems.

  9. Energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a power booster. It comprises: at least one pendulum means suspended at one end to oscillate about the point of suspension; power generating means; mass means connected to one end of the pendulum means; spring means disposed in operative cooperation with the mass means to impart energy into the pendulum means and assist the pendulum means in oscillating about the point of suspension; and energy transfer linkage means between the pendulum means and the power generating means for transferring energy between the pendulum means and the power generating means.

  10. Historic and Future Ice Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ice storm losses from business interruption as well as transportation and health damages can range into billions of dollars. For instance, the December 2008 New England and Upstate New York ice storm caused four deaths and monetary damages between 2.5 and 3.7 billion, and the 2008 Chinese winter storms resulted in over 130 deaths and over 20 billion in damages. Informal discussions with ice storm experts indicate that due to competing temperature and precipitation effects as well as local topographic effects, it is unclear how exactly climate change will affect ice storms. Here we ask how incident frequencies might change in a future climate at four weather stations prone to ice storms. Using historical atmospheric soundings, we conduct a thought experiment where we perturb the temperatures as might be expected in a future climate. We then discuss changes in monthly frequency of ice storms.

  11. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Garret; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Skytland, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Are you familiar with the famed Generation Y, or "Gen Yers?" Generation Y is projected to be 47 percent of the workforce by 2014. They were born roughly between 1977 and 2000, but that is definitely not their only defining factor. But who is this group, and what do they have to do with the future of the space program and the Johnson Space Center (JSC)? During 2007, a group of Gen Yers at JSC participated on a committee to address the NASA Headquarters strategic communications plan. Fitzpatrick, along with his co-authors, created a presentation to share the Gen Yers' perspective on their generation in conjunction with the strategic communications strategy released. This knowledge capture (KC) event is that presentation.

  12. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  13. Assessment of future natural gas vehicle concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groten, B.; Arrigotti, S.

    1992-10-01

    The development of Natural Gas Vehicles is progressing rapidly under the stimulus of recent vehicle emission regulations. The development is following what can be viewed as a three step progression. In the first step, contemporary gasoline or diesel fueled automobiles are retrofitted with equipment enabling the vehicle to operate on either natural gas or standard liquid fuels. The second step is the development of vehicles which utilize traditional internal combustion engines that have been modified to operate exclusively on natural gas. These dedicated natural gas vehicles operate more efficiently and have lower emissions than the dual fueled vehicles. The third step is the redesigning, from the ground up, of a vehicle aimed at exploiting the advantages of natural gas as an automotive fuel while minimizing its disadvantages. The current report is aimed at identifying the R&D needs in various fuel storage and engine combinations which have potential for providing increased efficiency, reduced emissions, and reductions in vehicle weight and size. Fuel suppliers, automobile and engine manufacturers, many segments of the natural gas and other industries, and regulatory authorities will influence or be affected by the development of such a third generation vehicle, and it is recommended that GRI act to bring these groups together in the near future to begin, developing the focus on a 'designed-for-natural-gas' vehicle.

  14. The nursing shortage. Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Murray, Marilyn Kettering

    2002-02-01

    According to healthcare experts, the present nursing shortage is going to extend to 2020 with an estimated 400,000 RN vacancies. A number of factors are contributing to the shortage: an increase in the age of registered nurses, decreased school enrollment, increased career opportunities for women, changes in the healthcare delivery system, nurse "burn-out," and the public's misunderstanding of what nurses do. Additionally, a number of social and economic trends are going to affect the healthcare delivery system in the future, such as: aging of the population, increased technology, the increase of the health/wellness movement, changes in employee's work ethic, influence of Generation X and dot.com workers, and scarcity of entry-level and low-wage workers. If nursing is going to be a major player in the healthcare delivery system in 2020, nurses must take an active role in developing and implementing a strategic plan. We need to look beyond solutions used in the past, such as increasing compensation and modifying school curriculums.

  15. Future atmospheric neutrino measurements with PINGU

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino oscillations, first measured in 1998 via atmospheric neutrinos, have provided the only current direct evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. The full neutrino mixing, described by six parameters, has been measured in the last decade with the exception of the charge-parity phase and the ordering of the mass eigenstates (the neutrino mass hierarchy – NMH). A relatively large mixing-angle between the first and third mass eigenstates has opened the possibility of measuring the mass hierarchy via atmospheric neutrinos using very large volume detectors. A leading proposal to perform this measurement is the future low-energy extension to the IceCube–DeepCore detector, called PINGU (the Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade). By increasing the photocathode density in the DeepCore region, it is possible to lower the energy threshold in the fiducial volume to the region that is affected by the MSW [1, 2], and thus permits extraction of the hierarchy. Here we discuss the design of the PINGU detector, its sensitivity to the mass hierarchy (approximately 3σ in 3.5 years) and measurements of ν{sub μ} disappearance and ν{sub τ} appearance.

  16. Hydrogen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Adlhart, O. J.

    1985-04-23

    This disclosure relates to a replaceable cartridge hydrogen generator of the type which relies at least partially on the process of anodic corrosion to produce hydrogen. A drum contains a plurality of the cartridges.

  17. Generation Wrecked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Noshua

    2002-01-01

    Young adults in Generation X are facing financial problems. Because of their college and credit card debt, many in worse financial shape than anyone since the Depression and have little or no retirement savings. (JOW)

  18. Imagining the personal past: Episodic counterfactuals compared to episodic memories and episodic future projections.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-04-01

    Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person's past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content have been few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, and rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to a cultural life script), and how these were affected by temporal distance (1 month, 1 year, 5+ years). The findings showed that the three types of events differed phenomenologically. First, episodic memories were remembered more easily, with more sensory details, and from a dominantly field perspective, as compared to both future projections and episodic counterfactuals. Second, episodic future projections were more positive, more voluntarily rehearsed, and more central to life story and identity than were both episodic memories and episodic counterfactuals. Third, episodic counterfactuals differed from both episodic memories and future projections by neither having the positivity bias of the future events nor the enhanced sensory details of the past events. Across all three event types, sensory details decreased, whereas importance, reference to a cultural life script, and centrality increased with increasing temporal distance. The findings show that imagined events are phenomenologically different from memories of experienced events, consistent with reality-monitoring theory, and that imagined future events are different from both actual and imagined past events, consistent with some theories of motivation.

  19. The future of organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Katherine A; Luscombe, Christine K

    2015-01-07

    Increasing global demand for energy, along with dwindling fossil fuel resources and a better understanding of the hidden costs associated with these energy sources, have spurred substantial political, academic, and industrial interest in alternative energy resources. Photovoltaics based on organic semiconductors have emerged as promising low-cost alternatives for electricity generation that relies on sunlight. In this tutorial review we discuss the relevance of these organic photovoltaics beginning with some of the economic drivers for these technologies. We then examine the basic properties of these devices, including operation and materials requirements, in addition to presenting the development of the field from a historical perspective. Potential future directions are also briefly discussed. This tutorial review is intended to be an essential overview of the progress of the field, in addition to aiding in the discussion of the future of OPV technologies.

  20. Vibration generators

    SciTech Connect

    Lerwill, W.E.

    1980-09-16

    Apparatus for generating vibrations in a medium, such as the ground, comprises a first member which contacts the medium, means , preferably electromagnetic, which includes two relatively movable members for generating vibrations in the apparatus and means operatively connecting the said two members to said first member such that the relatively amplitudes of the movements of said three members can be adjusted to match the impedances of the apparatus and the medium.

  1. Hydrogen Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  2. Theory, Implementation, and the Future of Airpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    future of war. To individuals like Giulio Douhet, Hugh Trenchard, Billy Mitchell, and John Warden, aircraft have revolutionized warfare, and the theories...it to achieve; the perceptions of those who apply airpower, of those on the receiving end of its application, and of those on the rest of the planet ...but the rationale—the logic—for using it comes from the desired political goals. Before examining the factors likely to affect future airpower, one

  3. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  4. Window generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William K.; May, Roger A.

    1989-03-01

    The present invention relates generally to video target recognition systems and more specifically to a window generator which receives a field of video data and applies an identification code to rectangular subregions to identify distinct target areas within a given background area. The present invention comprises a window generator which provides a 6 bit target identification number for up to 63 target areas and one background area in a frame of serially scanned data. The window generator receives a field of video data from an image data source. This video data consists of digitized frames of serially scanned data similar to a conventional television screen image, which is divided horizontally in pixels, and vertically in lines. The window generator permits any given frame to be subdivided into specific rectangular subregions, which may be located anywhere on the video picture. By allowing statistics to be collected on the individual subregions (or target areas) the window generator permits local processing of video data within the specified target areas as opposed to processing of video data over the entire video field. One embodiment of the window generator is composed of: a microprocessor, a random access memory (RAM), a comparator, a line memory, two counters, an OR gate, a frame initialization circuit, and a buffer. These elements function as described below.

  5. Affective processing requires awareness.

    PubMed

    Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Hyönä, Jukka; Koivisto, Mika; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Studies using backward masked emotional stimuli suggest that affective processing may occur outside visual awareness and imply primacy of affective over semantic processing, yet these experiments have not strictly controlled for the participants' awareness of the stimuli. Here we directly compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization of biologically relevant stimuli in 5 experiments (n = 178) using explicit (semantic and affective discrimination; Experiments 1-3) and implicit (semantic and affective priming; Experiments 4-5) measures. The same stimuli were used in semantic and affective tasks. Visual awareness was manipulated by varying exposure duration of the masked stimuli, and subjective level of stimulus awareness was measured after each trial using a 4-point perceptual awareness scale. When participants reported no awareness of the stimuli, semantic and affective categorization were at chance level and priming scores did not differ from zero. When participants were even partially aware of the stimuli, (a) both semantic and affective categorization could be performed above chance level with equal accuracy, (b) semantic categorization was faster than affective categorization, and (c) both semantic and affective priming were observed. Affective categorization speed was linearly dependent on semantic categorization speed, suggesting dependence of affective processing on semantic recognition. Manipulations of affective and semantic categorization tasks revealed a hierarchy of categorization operations beginning with basic-level semantic categorization and ending with superordinate level affective categorization. We conclude that both implicit and explicit affective and semantic categorization is dependent on visual awareness, and that affective recognition follows semantic categorization.

  6. [The future of oncohematology].

    PubMed

    de Tezanos Pinto, M

    2000-01-01

    The last 40 years have witnessed important changes in the understanding and treatment of oncohematological affections. Palliative therapy was gradually replaced by chemotherapy (CT) which rapidly proved unexpectedly effective. In 1948, the first antifolic drugs, aminopterin and methotrexate, were discovered, followed in 1950 by the corticoids and in 1953 by antipurine agents. By 1967, a combination of these drugs yielded a survival index of 50% in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with a progressive increase in all important cancer centers today, including in GATLA (Argentine Group for Acute Leukemia). As for acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) the CT results were not as spectacular although now there is a 25% survival index which reaches 40-50% in young adults. As for allogeneic transplant in acute leukemia, its use must be evaluated for each patient and for each circumstance. Leukemias are genetic diseases for which gene therapy undoubtedly has potential value. However, the problems raised by the election of the right gene or gene marker and specially of the adequate vector have not yet been solved. In Hodgkin's disease, the results obtained with CT since the decade of the 60s have been spectacular and today different combinations of drugs have yielded a survival rate above 80%. Immunotherapy with or without CT has opened up a completely new and promising field. The route from basic research to clinical application has been long and arduous but the results obtained in leukemia and lymphomas have undoubtedly been life-saving and hopefully will open up even better possibilities in the near future.

  7. Future therapies for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M.; Mousallem, Talal; Burks, A. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and sublingual immunotherapy with native food protein as well as recombinant food proteins. Allergen non-specific therapies include a Chinese herbal formula (FAHF-2) and the use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy. Although none of these treatments are ready for clinical use, these therapeutic strategies present promising options for the future of food allergy. PMID:22894951

  8. Future Exploration of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Titan Decadal Panel Collaboration

    2001-11-01

    Titan promises to be the Mars of the Outer Solar System - the focus of not only the broadest range of investigations in planetary science but also the focus of public attention. The reasons for exploring Titan are threefold: 1. Titan and Astrobiology : Titan ranks with Mars and Europa as a prime body for astrobiological study due to its abundant organics. Like Europa, it may well have a liquid water interior. 2. Titan - A world in its own right. Titan deserves study even only to put other satellites (its remarkably smaller Saturnian siblings, and its same-sized but volatile-poor Jovian counterparts) in context. The added dimension of an atmosphere makes Titan's origin and evolution particularly interesting. 3. Titan - an environmental laboratory for Earth. Titan will be an unrivalled place to investigate meteorological, oceanographical and other processes. Many of these (e.g. wave generation by wind) are only empirically parameterized - the very different physical parameters of the Titan environment will bring new insights to these phenomena. While Cassini-Huygens will dramatically boost our knowledge of Titan, it will likely only whet our appetite for more. The potential for prebiotic materials at various locations (in particular where liquid water has interacted with photochemical deposits) and the need to monitor Titan's meteorology favor future missions that may exploit Titan's unique thick-atmosphere, low-gravity environment - a mobile platform like an airship or helicopter, able to explore on global scales, but access the surface for in-situ chemical analysis and probe the interior by electromagnetic and seismic means. Such missions have dramatic potential to capture the public's imagination, on both sides of the Atlantic.

  9. Simultaneous verbal and affective laterality effects.

    PubMed

    Bulman-Fleming, M B; Bryden, M P

    1994-07-01

    By analyzing the error scores of normal participants asked to identify a specific word spoken in a specific tone of voice (for example, the word "tower" spoken in a happy tone of voice), we have been able to demonstrate concurrent verbal and affective cerebral laterality effects in a dichotic listening task. The targets comprised the 16 possible combinations of four two-syllable words spoken in four different tones of voice. There were 128 participants equally divided between left- and right-handers, with equal numbers of each sex within each handedness group. Each participant responded to 144 trials on the dichotic task, and filled in the 32-item Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire. Analysis of false positive responses on the dichotic task (responding "yes" when only the verbal or only the affective component of the target was present, or when both components were present but were at opposite ears) indicated that significantly more errors were made when the verbal aspect of the target appeared at the right ear (left hemisphere) and the emotional aspect was at the left ear (right hemisphere) than when the reverse was the case. A single task has generated both effects, so that differences in participants' strategies or the way in which attention is biased cannot account for the results. While the majority of participants showed a right-ear advantage for verbal material and a left-ear advantage for nonverbal material, these two effects were not correlated, suggesting that independent mechanisms probably underly the establishment of verbal and affective processing. We found no significant sex or handedness effects, though left-handers were much more variable than were right-handers. There were no significant correlations between degree of handedness as measured on the handedness questionnaire and extent of lateralization of verbal or affective processing on the dichotic task. We believe that this general technique may be able to provide information as to the nature and

  10. Informing the next nuclear generation - how does the Ginna plant branch do it?

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, A.

    1995-12-31

    Most of us are familiar with the latest advertising phrase, ``Our children are our future.`` This phrase has been used in so many instances - from concerns about waste, Social Security, and the federal deficit to drug abuse and violence. One more area can be added to the list and advertised nuclear power. Since the establishment of the Ginna plant branch (GPB) in 1992, our target audience has been the next nuclear generation (our children), but our vehicle for dissemination has been the current generation (the adults). Have you ever thought about how often your opinions affect the children you come in contact with? One of GPB`s goals is to provide as much information as possible to teachers, neighbors, and civic organizations of our community so that there is a nuclear future that can be carried on by the next generation.

  11. Laser acceleration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2010-01-01

    Laser acceleration is based on the concept to marshal collective fields that may be induced by laser. In order to exceed the material breakdown field by a large factor, we employ the broken-down matter of plasma. While the generated wakefields resemble with the fields in conventional accelerators in their structure (at least qualitatively), it is their extreme accelerating fields that distinguish the laser wakefield from others, amounting to tiny emittance and compact accelerator. The current research largely falls on how to master the control of acceleration process in spatial and temporal scales several orders of magnitude smaller than the conventional method. The efforts over the last several years have come to a fruition of generating good beam properties with GeV energies on a table top, leading to many applications, such as ultrafast radiolysis, intraoperative radiation therapy, injection to X-ray free electron laser, and a candidate for future high energy accelerators. PMID:20228616

  12. Future Facilities Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albert De Roeck, Rolf Ent

    2009-10-01

    For the session on future facilities at DIS09 discussions were organized on DIS related measurements that can be expected in the near and medium –or perhaps far– future, including plans from JLab, CERN and FNAL fixed target experiments, possible measurements and detector upgrades at RHIC, as well as the plans for possible future electron proton/ion colliders such as the EIC and the LHeC project.

  13. Future Training Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    Based on this analysis of the Army’s current operational enviromnent, national strategy documents, and the future operational enviromnent, the Army...three areas which impact future training are the requirements given to Army from the Army’s current operations, national strategy documents, and...national strategy documents, and the future operational environment, the Army should prepare for the next mission or conflict by training on core tasks

  14. Happiness by association: breadth of free association influences affective states.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Gagnon, Stephanie A; Paczynski, Martin; Shenhav, Amitai; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that affective states influence the number of associations formed between remotely related concepts. Someone in a neutral or negative affective state might draw the association between cold and hot, whereas someone in a positive affective state might spontaneously form the more distant association between cold and sneeze. Could the reverse be true, that generating increasingly broad or narrow associations will put someone in a more or less positive affective state? We test this possibility by using verbal free association tasks, and asking whether the breadth of semantic associativity between cue words and generated responses might predict resulting affective states. Two experiments show that generating broader associations, regardless of their valence, changes affect; specifically, broader associations lowered negative affect and marginally increased positive affect over time. These findings carry implications for theories positing interactions between brain areas mediating associative processing and affect, and may hold promise for enhancing affect in clinical contexts.

  15. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  16. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  17. Hydrogen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.R.

    1984-06-19

    A hydrogen generator decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen, and includes an induction coil which is electrically heated to a temperature sufficient to decompose water passing therethrough. A generator coil is connected in communicating relation to the induction coil, and is positioned in a fire resistant crucible containing ferrous oxide pellets. Oxygen and hydrogen produced by decomposition of water pass through the ferrous oxide pellets where the oxygen reacts with the ferrous oxide and the hydrogen is burned to produce heat for heating a building, such as a conventional home.

  18. Solar Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Vanguard I dish-Stirling module program, initiated in 1982, produced the Vanguard I module, a commercial prototype erected by the Advanco Corporation. The module, which automatically tracks the sun, combines JPL mirrored concentrator technology, an advanced Stirling Solar II engine/generator, a low cost microprocessor-controlled parabolic dish. Vanguard I has a 28% sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. If tests continue to prove the system effective, Advanco will construct a generating plant to sell electricity to local utilities. An agreement has also been signed with McDonnell Douglas to manufacture a similar module.

  19. Generational mentoring.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Della W

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare organizations struggle with the best way to integrate new staff members, including novice and experienced nurses returning to practice, into the organization. One way of accomplishing this integration is mentoring. Mentoring is a process of guiding the development of another person. The methods used to mentor staff members can be influenced by the generation to which they belong. Each generation typically experiences different events that shape their expectations and responses. Consideration of the influence of these events can improve the effectiveness of the mentoring process.

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF COATINGS FOR FUTURE POWER GENERATION TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, Maryanne; Klotz, K.; McMordie, B.; Gleeson, B.; Zhu, D.; Warnes, B.; Kang, B.; Tannenbaum, J.

    2012-01-01

    The NETL-Regional University Alliance (RUA) continues to advance technology development critical to turbine manufacturer efforts for achieving DOE Fossil Energy (FE's) Advanced Turbine Program Goals. In conjunction with NETL, Coatings for Industry (CFI), the University of Pittsburgh, NASA GRC, and Corrosion Control Inc., efforts have been focused on development of composite thermal barrier coating (TBC) architectures that consist of an extreme temperature coating, a commercially applied 7-8 YSZ TBC, a reduced cost bond coat, and a diffusion barrier coating that are applied to nickel-based superalloys or single crystal airfoil substrate materials for use at temperatures >1450 C (> 2640 F). Additionally, construction of a unique, high temperature ({approx}1100 C; {approx}2010 F), bench-scale, micro-indentation, nondestructive (NDE) test facility at West Virginia University (WVU) was completed to experimentally address in-situ changes in TBC stiffness during extended cyclic oxidation exposure of coated single crystal coupons in air or steam containing environments. The efforts and technical accomplishments in these areas are presented in the following sections of this paper.

  1. Today's Children. Creating a Future for a Generation in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, David A.

    This book argues that many U.S. children are at risk because of poverty, drug and alcohol abuse, poor health, illiteracy, racial prejudice, and the eruption of unprecedented levels of violence both in inner cities and across the country. It provides a comprehensive overview of the crises young children and adolescents face and the decisions that…

  2. The Future of Empathy: Teaching the Millennial Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Recent research points to a 40% decline in college students' capacity for empathy over the past 4 decades (Konrath, O'Brien, & Hsing, 2011). In this article, the author reflects on undergraduates' reaction to the case study "Toys for Haiti," which the author created and designed to foster empathy in her students. She…

  3. A Future Generation Cheated? Some Primary Difficulties in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Elizabeth Porges

    1977-01-01

    Two areas of concern are addressed: comprehension and expression. It is suggested that an increasing number of students in Great Britain show lower levels of academic achievement in these two areas. (LBH)

  4. Bioethanol and Biodiesel: Alertnative Liquid Fuels for Future Generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global population is expected to increase by approximately three billion by 2050 and with this increase in population, industry, transportation, and the cost of fossil fuels will increase dramatically . New technology is needed for fuel extraction using feedstocks which do not threaten food security...

  5. Reexamining Fourth Generation War as a Paradigm for Future War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    Overpopulation , Tribalism, and Disease are Rapidly Destroying the Social Fabric of Our Planet,” Atlantic Monthly, February 1, 1994. 82 Thomas Barnett...Coming Anarchy: How Scarcity, Crime, Overpopulation , Tribalism, and Disease are Rapidly Destroying the Social Fabric of Our Planet.” Atlantic Monthly

  6. The Racial Generation Gap and the Future for Our Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Children are not faring well in America. Over the course of the current campaign cycle, eight million children will be born in this country. If our nation's elected leaders do nothing, more than 75,000 of those children below the age of 2 will be abused or neglected, over 500,000 will be uninsured, and nearly two million will live in poverty.…

  7. Performance-Enhancing Materials for Future Generation Explosives and Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-25

    greater than AP, m.p. > 150°C, sensitivity no worse than that of PETN , low hydrogen and carbon (high nitrogen and oxygen), and ability to be synthesized...HCIA H2N- ^NH2 H02C C02H 2)Na0H H,N N / HN - // w C02H N % -NH NH2 2) H,N 3) 02N // // C02H NaN02 H2S04 0,N C02H HNO3

  8. The Next Generation of Technicians Prepare for Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    For Phoenix's East Valley Institute of Technology's (EVIT) automotive technology program, a unique partnership with local industry leaders is a key to success. Due to a highly successful partnership with Automotive Youth Educational Systems (AYES), EVIT has been named the number one high school automotive program in the United States for placement…

  9. Characteristics of a future aeronautical satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip Y.; Stern, Alan; Schmidt, Fred

    1991-01-01

    A possible operational system scenario for providing satellite communications services to the future aviation community was analyzed. The system concept relies on a Ka-band (20/30 GHz) satellite that utilizes multibeam antenna (MBA) technology. The aircraft terminal uses an extremely small aperture antenna as a result of using this higher spectrum at Ka-band. The satellite functions as a relay between the aircraft and the ground stations. The ground stations function as interfaces to the existing terrestrial networks such as the Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN). Various system tradeoffs are first examined to ensure optimized system parameters. High level performance specifications and design approaches are generated for the space, ground, and aeronautical elements in the system. Both technical and economical issues affecting the feasibility of the studied concept are addressed with the 1995 timeframe in mind.

  10. Building intelligence in third-generation training and battle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Dennis; Anderson, Don; von Borries, Vance; Elmaghraby, Adel; Kantardzic, Mehmed; Ragade, Rammohan

    2003-09-01

    Current war games and simulations are primarily attrition based, and are centered on the concept of force on force. They constitute what can be defined as "second generation" war games. So-called "first generation" war games were focused on strategy with the primary concept of mind on mind. We envision "third generation" war games and battle simulations as concentrating on effects with the primary concept being system on system. Thus the third generation systems will incorporate each successive generation and take into account strategy, attrition and effects. This paper will describe the principal advantages and features that need to be implemented to create a true "third generation" battle simulation and the architectural issues faced when designing and building such a system. Areas of primary concern are doctrine, command and control, allied and coalition warfare, and cascading effects. Effectively addressing the interactive effects of these issues is of critical importance. In order to provide an adaptable and modular system that will accept future modifications and additions with relative ease, we are researching the use of a distributed Multi-Agent System (MAS) that incorporates various artificial intelligence methods. The agent architecture can mirror the military command structure from both vertical and horizontal perspectives while providing the ability to make modifications to doctrine, command structures, inter-command communications, as well as model the results of various effects upon one another, and upon the components of the simulation. This is commonly referred to as "cascading effects," in which A affects B, B affects C and so on. Agents can be used to simulate units or parts of units that interact to form the whole. Even individuals can eventually be simulated to take into account the affect to key individuals such as commanders, heroes, and aces. Each agent will have a learning component built in to provide "individual intelligence" based on

  11. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets.

    PubMed

    Reeck, Crystal; Egner, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features.

  12. Fifth generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-12-01

    Coherent light sources are one of the most fundamental research tools in biology, technology and in other areas. Synchrotron light source consists of a few basic parts: energy source - which is an electron beam accelerator, energy converter between electron and photon beams - which is an undulator, and photon user experimental lines. Each of these parts is separately a complex system, which is currently a subject to fast technological development. Future light sources of the fifth generation are based on completely new solutions of these fundamental parts, in comparison with the sources of the previous generations. Energy source is a new generation laser - plasma accelerator with electrical field in the area of multiple GV/m. A miniature undulator is tested in the MEMS technology from new materials. Classical light beam lines, vacuum, and difficult for management and beam distribution, change their meaning in the case of availability of miniature undulators positioned immediately at or even inside the experimental stations. After an introduction concerning the light sources of the previous generations, the article shows current research efforts on the mentioned key components of the fifth generation light sources. In some cases this is a continuation and modernization of the previous technologies, in the majority it is a brave endeavour to apply completely new technologies, like laser - plasma acceleration.

  13. Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-07

    Ocean Jurisdictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 In a presentation titled Overview: EPRI Ocean Energy Program, the...overall in the United States, although significant potential exists in some areas, such as New England, northern California, and the CRS-3 6 EPRI ...Overview: EPRI Ocean Energy Program the Possibilities in California (June 2006). See [http://www.epri.com/oceanenergy/attachments/ocean/briefing

  14. The Future of Futurism: Creating a New Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Barbara Marx

    1983-01-01

    By combining the best of three different approaches to futurism--crisis futurism, evolutionary futurism, and spiritual futurism--we can realize vast human potentials and, perhaps, even attain the next stage of human evolution. (Author/RM)

  15. Generative Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  16. Generation Next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of accounting professors with Ph.D.s who can prepare the next generation. To help reverse the faculty deficit, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) has created the new Accounting Doctoral Scholars program by pooling more than $17 million and soliciting commitments from more than 70 of the nation's…

  17. Gender and generational influences on the pediatric workforce and practice.

    PubMed

    Spector, Nancy D; Cull, William; Daniels, Stephen R; Gilhooly, Joseph; Hall, Judith; Horn, Ivor; Marshall, Susan G; Schumacher, Daniel J; Sectish, Theodore C; Stanton, Bonita F

    2014-06-01

    In response to demographic and other trends that may affect the future of the field of pediatrics, the Federation of Pediatric Organizations formed 4 working groups to participate in a year's worth of research and discussion preliminary to a Visioning Summit focusing on pediatric practice, research, and training over the next 2 decades. This article, prepared by members of the Gender and Generations Working Group, summarizes findings relevant to the 2 broad categories of demographic trends represented in the name of the group and explores the interface of these trends with advances in technology and social media and the impact this is likely to have on the field of pediatrics. Available data suggest that the trends in the proportions of men and women entering pediatrics are similar to those over the past few decades and that changes in the overall ratio of men and women will not substantially affect pediatric practice. However, although women may be as likely to succeed in academic medicine and research, fewer women than men enter research, thereby potentially decreasing the number of pediatric researchers as the proportion of women increases. Complex generational differences affect both the workforce and interactions in the workplace. Differences between the 4 generational groups comprising the pediatric workforce are likely to result in an evolution of the role of the pediatrician, particularly as it relates to aspects of work-life balance and the use of technology and social media.

  18. Studying the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahanty, B. David

    1973-01-01

    Four means of studying the future are discussed: through extrapolation, or the study of trends; by writing scenarios of the future; through the use of games and through the utilization of the Delphi technique, making predictions in a specific field over a period of time. (JB)

  19. The Future College Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA.

    This conference report examines various problems facing university administrators and discusses the future role of the executive in American colleges and universities. Conference papers concern the future college executive; efficiency, accountability and the college executive; administrative concerns; and the rights of college administrators. (MJM)

  20. Futurism in Education: Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hencley, Stephen P.; Yates, James R.

    This book is one expression of the trend to achieve a more systematic study of the future within the specific context of educational futures and their environments. It is intended to bring to educational leaders in a practical manner many of the technological forecasting techniques previously familiar only to science, the military, and industry.…