Science.gov

Sample records for affect future generations

  1. Future generation CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Walter, Deborah; De Man, Bruno; Iatrou, Maria; Edic, Peter M

    2004-02-01

    X-ray CT technology has been available for more than 30 years, yet continued technological advances have kept CT imaging at the forefront of medical imaging innovation. Consequently, the number of clinical CT applications has increased steadily. Other imaging modalities might be superior to CT imaging for some specific applications, but no other single modality is more often used in chest imaging today. Future technological developments in the area of high-resolution detectors, high-capacity x-ray tubes, advanced reconstruction algorithms, and improved visualization techniques will continue to expand the imaging capability. Future CT imaging technology will combine improved imaging capability with advanced and specific computer-assisted tools, which will expand the usefulness of CT imaging in many areas.

  2. Responsibilities to future generations: environmental ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, E.

    1980-01-01

    The moral question of our responsibilities to future generations, which have no voice in the decision, is addressed in this anthology of 25 essays. The essays focus on such issues as our duty to posterity and our motivation to provide for future generations, the rights of future generations, and how policies relating to food, energy, population, and eugenics should apply to these issues. The authors note that we know and can monitor the threats to our world that are resulting from our activities. This obligates us to develop the historical consciousness and moral judgement to ensure future generations the necessities of life. 356 references. (DCK)

  3. Sustainability protects resources for future generations

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the steps necessary to provide livable urban centers for future generations through sustainable development, or sustainability. To illustrate this concept, nonsustainable cities and sustainable cities are compared. Sustainable city projects for several major US cites are reviewed.

  4. EIDA Next Generation: ongoing and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strollo, Angelo; Quinteros, Javier; Sleeman, Reinoud; Trani, Luca; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html) is the distributed Data Centre system within ORFEUS, providing transparent access and services to high quality, seismic data across (currently) 9 large data archives in Europe. EIDA is growing, in terms of the number of participating data centres, the size of the archives, the variability of the data in the archives, the number of users, and the volume of downloads. The on-going success of EIDA is thus providing challenges that are the driving force behind the design of the next generation (NG) of EIDA, which is expected to be implemented within EPOS IP. EIDA ORFEUS must cope with further expansion of the system and more complex user requirements by developing new techniques and extended services. The EIDA NG is being designed to work on standard FDSN web services and two additional new web services: Routing Service and QC (quality controlled) service. This presentation highlights the challenges EIDA needs to address during the EPOS IP and focuses on these 2 new services. The Routing Service can be considered as the core of EIDA NG. It was designed to assist users and clients to locate data within a federated, decentralized data centre (e.g. EIDA). A detailed, FDSN-compliant specification of the service has been developed. Our implementation of this service will run at every EIDA node, but is also capable of running on a user's computer, allowing anyone to define virtual or integrate existing data centres. This (meta)service needs to be queried in order to locate the data. Some smart clients (in a beta status) have been also provided to offer the user an integrated view of the whole EIDA, hiding the complexity of its internal structure. The service is open and able to be queried by anyone without the need of credentials or authentication. The QC Service is developed to cope with user requirements to query for relevant data only. The web service provides detailed information on the

  5. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  6. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Rich; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aviation relies almost entirely on subsonic fixed wing aircraft to constantly move people and goods from one place to another across the globe. While air travel is an effective means of transportation providing an unmatched combination of speed and range, future subsonic aircraft must improve substantially to meet efficiency and environmental targets.The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The paper will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe

  7. Renewable Energy Education for Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the constantly growing use of technology, modern society requires increasing amounts of electrical power. Acknowledging the global efforts to increase the use of renewable energy sources, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy, a school in Hong Kong, plans to provide the opportunity for students to explore the applications of various forms of renewable energy through a Renewable Energy Education Centre (REEC). Two students are involved in the designing and construction of the Renewable Energy Education Centre to understand the technologies, processes, and provide insight from the students' perspective. The REEC will incorporate various uses of renewable energy, including a solar photovoltaic system, hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system, vertical windmill, hot water heater, and heat pump. As a means to enrich students' learning experiences, the REEC will be open to access by science students for a wide range of investigations, such as science experiments related to renewable energy and energy efficiency, providing opportunities for student led research projects, Personal Projects and IB Extended Essays. In short, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy aims to allow students to familiarize themselves with various forms of renewable energy from a young age, and develop a deeper understanding of technologies that will become primary sources of electrical power in the near future.

  8. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  9. Communication and Affect: Thoughts, Feelings, and Issues for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, James Price; Wilson, Barbara J.

    1993-01-01

    Introduces this special issue on the role of affect in persuading and informing. Discusses conceptualizing affect, affect and message processing, affect and message production, and operationalizing affect. (SR)

  10. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  11. Effects of self-generated versus experimenter-provided cues on the representation of future events.

    PubMed

    Neroni, Maria Adriana; Gamboz, Nadia; de Vito, Stefania; Brandimonte, Maria Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Most experimental studies of prospection focused on episodic forms of future events prompted by means of verbal cues. However, there is evidence suggesting that future events differ considerably according to whether they are produced in response to external, experimenter-provided verbal cues or they are self-generated. In the present study, we compared the quality, the phenomenal characteristics, the temporal distribution, and the content of imagined events prompted by experimenter-provided cues (i.e., cue-words and short verbal sentences) or elicited by means of verbal cues that were self-generated in an autobiographical fluency task. The results showed that future events prompted by means of self-generated cues contained fewer event-specific details than future events prompted by experimenter-provided cues. However, future events elicited by means of self-generated and by experimenter-provided cues did not differ with respect to their phenomenal characteristics. The temporal distribution and the thematic content of future representations were also affected by the type of cue used to elicit prospection. These results offer a holistic view of the properties of future thinking and suggest that the content and the characteristics of envisioned future events may be affected by the method used to elicit prospection.

  12. Effects of self-generated versus experimenter-provided cues on the representation of future events.

    PubMed

    Neroni, Maria Adriana; Gamboz, Nadia; de Vito, Stefania; Brandimonte, Maria Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Most experimental studies of prospection focused on episodic forms of future events prompted by means of verbal cues. However, there is evidence suggesting that future events differ considerably according to whether they are produced in response to external, experimenter-provided verbal cues or they are self-generated. In the present study, we compared the quality, the phenomenal characteristics, the temporal distribution, and the content of imagined events prompted by experimenter-provided cues (i.e., cue-words and short verbal sentences) or elicited by means of verbal cues that were self-generated in an autobiographical fluency task. The results showed that future events prompted by means of self-generated cues contained fewer event-specific details than future events prompted by experimenter-provided cues. However, future events elicited by means of self-generated and by experimenter-provided cues did not differ with respect to their phenomenal characteristics. The temporal distribution and the thematic content of future representations were also affected by the type of cue used to elicit prospection. These results offer a holistic view of the properties of future thinking and suggest that the content and the characteristics of envisioned future events may be affected by the method used to elicit prospection. PMID:26444043

  13. Future trends in computer waste generation in India.

    PubMed

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R K

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the future projection of computer waste in India and to subsequently analyze their flow at the end of their useful phase. For this purpose, the study utilizes the logistic model-based approach proposed by Yang and Williams to forecast future trends in computer waste. The model estimates future projection of computer penetration rate utilizing their first lifespan distribution and historical sales data. A bounding analysis on the future carrying capacity was simulated using the three parameter logistic curve. The observed obsolete generation quantities from the extrapolated penetration rates are then used to model the disposal phase. The results of the bounding analysis indicate that in the year 2020, around 41-152 million units of computers will become obsolete. The obsolete computer generation quantities are then used to estimate the End-of-Life outflows by utilizing a time-series multiple lifespan model. Even a conservative estimate of the future recycling capacity of PCs will reach upwards of 30 million units during 2025. Apparently, more than 150 million units could be potentially recycled in the upper bound case. However, considering significant future investment in the e-waste recycling sector from all stakeholders in India, we propose a logistic growth in the recycling rate and estimate the requirement of recycling capacity between 60 and 400 million units for the lower and upper bound case during 2025. Finally, we compare the future obsolete PC generation amount of the US and India.

  14. Adolescent social cognitive and affective neuroscience: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review three areas of research within adolescent social cognitive and affective neuroscience: (i) emotion reactivity and regulation, (ii) mentalizing and (iii) peer relations, including social rejection or acceptance as well as peer influence. The review provides a context for current contributions to the special issue of Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience on Adolescence, and highlights three important themes that emerge from the special issue, which are relevant to future research. First, the age of participants studied (and labels for these age groups) is a critical design consideration. We suggest that it might be logical to reduce the reliance on convenience samples of undergraduates to represent adults in psychology and cognitive neuroscience studies, since there is substantial evidence that the brain is still developing within this age range. Second, developmental researchers are broadening their scope of inquiry by testing for non-linear effects, via increased use of longitudinal strategies or much wider age ranges and larger samples. Third, there is increasing appreciation for the interrelatedness of the three areas of focus in this special issue (emotion reactivity and regulation, mentalizing, and peer relations), as well as with other areas of interest in adolescent development.

  15. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  16. Leading into the future: coaching and mentoring Generation X employees.

    PubMed

    Weston, M J

    2001-09-01

    Managers who recognize that Generation X employees are looking for workplaces that allow them to develop their competencies as well as have a balance in their personal and professional lives, are more successful in attracting and retaining employees in this age group. Savvy managers understand that adapting to meet the needs of Generation X employees also assists the manager in transitioning into the Information Age and the workplace of the future.

  17. Mobilizing Political Action on Behalf of Future Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Our failure to mobilize sufficient effort to fight climate change reflects a combination of political and economic forces, on both the national and the global level. To state the problem in its simplest terms, writes Joseph Aldy, future, unborn generations would enjoy the benefits of policies to reduce carbon emissions whereas the current…

  18. Estimating future generation of obsolete household appliances in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-11-01

    The estimate of future obsolete streams is one of the crucial issues for the establishment of an efficient waste collection and recycling system in China. Due to low availability of reliable data, information on discarded household appliances (HAs) is deficient in China. This study adopts a stocks-based prediction model based on material flow analysis. The model firstly models the lifetime distribution of HAs, and then the future stocks of HAs are extrapolated. By determining the initial year of calculation, the model makes a prediction of future obsolete HAs in China in the time period from 2010-2030. The results show that the discarded amount of the five major kinds of HAs will increase from 130 million units in 2010 to 216 to 221 million units by 2020, and 259 to 282 million units by 2030. A total of 4370 to 4528 million units (149 to 155 million tonnes) of obsolete HAs will be generated in China over the next 20 years. Urban households will generate significantly more obsolete HAs (about 2619 to 2723 million units) than rural households, mainly due to the difference in their HAs possession levels. Thus recycling capacity must increase if the rising quantity of domestic obsolete HAs is to be handled properly. The results of this study can help to develop the collection and recycling systems and facilities needed for the obsolete HAs generated in the future. From a methodological perspective, the stock-based model provides a suitable tool to predict the generation of discarded HAs in the future.

  19. Assessing Vulnerability of Electricity Generation Under Potential Future Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, the western US experienced increased sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues, which raised questions as to how electricity sector might be vulnerable to future droughts. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and individual power plants within the context of current and future characteristics of power system and water resource system.The study identified three potential drought scenarios based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Pacific Northwest River Basin and California River Basin. The hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and all major reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and hydroelectric power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and reservoirs are used as input to power-plant specific models to quantify potential risk of curtailment at each power plant. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of vulnerable power plants and watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios. Beyond impacts to the existing

  20. Impacts of Potential Future Droughts on Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tidwell, V. C.; King, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the state of Texas experienced the worst single-year drought on record. This recent extreme climate event raised questions as to how future droughts might impact ERCOT operations. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential future droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and power plants within the context of long-term transmission planning. The study identified three potential drought scenarios (single- and multiple-year droughts) based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Texas-Gulf river basin. The Texas-Gulf hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and 125 reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and cooling water for power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds (such as evapotranspiration, soil water, water yield from watersheds, stream flow, and water storage in reservoirs) provide a bases to assess if power plants potentially at risk of being of derated and watersheds are vulnerable to droughts. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of power plants at risk and vulnerable watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation. Beyond impacts to the existing

  1. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  2. A Better Life for Future Generations: Amsterdam Declaration, November 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains the text of the Amsterdam Declaration "A Better Life for Future Generations," which was issued on November 9, 1989, by the International Forum on Population in the Twenty-First Century. The Declaration opens with a preamble which emphasizes our responsibilities towards future generations; acknowledges the interdependent nature of population size, resources, and development; expresses concern about rapid growth; recognizes the central position occupied by women in development and population growth; and recognizes that the goal of development is to improve quality of life. The Declaration continues by presenting current population figures and their implications. Other topics considered include population and sustainable development; population goals, objectives, and program priorities; and resource requirements. The Declaration issued a call to action asking all governments, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to increase their financial commitments to fulfill ongoing and emerging population needs. Specific requests were then directed to all countries; all developing countries; all donors; parliamentarians and community leaders; the press and media; the UN and its specialized agencies; the World Bank and regional development banks; the UN Population Fund and its governing bodies; nongovernmental, professional, and other voluntary organizations; and women's organizations.

  3. Analysis of terahertz generation characteristic affected by injured photoconductive antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Fan, Wen-hui; Liu, Jia

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we deployed a home-made THz time-domain system and experimentally investigated the influence of impairment on photoconductive antenna. The low temperature grown GaAs photoconductive antenna (PCA) was used as THz emitter and a <110< ZnTe crystal modulating the probe beam to detect the THz field based on electro-optic sampling. By adjusting the position of laser spot on PCA gap, we found that the generated THz signal was quite different as the laser beam irradiating on different position of the antenna's gap. Moreover, we found that the small burned holes on the edge of both metal electrodes may affect the electric field of the antenna. Furthermore, we simulated the electric field of the PCA with a DC biased voltage applied across the electrodes, and found that the simulation results agreed with the experimental phenomenon, which can well demonstrated that the impairments on the antenna electrodes have a great influence on THz generation.

  4. Social ecological factors associated with future orientation of children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui

    2016-07-01

    From a social ecological perspective, this study examined the effects of stigma (societal level), trusting relationships with current caregivers (familial level), and self-esteem (individual level) on future orientation of children affected by HIV infection and AIDS. Comparing self-report data from 1221 children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS and 404 unaffected children, affected children reported greater stigma and lower future orientation, trusting relationships, and self-esteem. Based on structural equation modeling, stigma experiences, trusting relationships, and self-esteem had direct effects on future orientation, with self-esteem and trusting relationships partially mediating the effect of stigma experiences on children's future orientation. Implications are discussed.

  5. Extreme Rivers for Future Climates - Simulation Using Spatial Weather Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchar, Leszek; Kosierb, Ryszard; Iwański, Sławomir; Jelonek, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an application of spatial weather generator for estimation of probability distributions changes of river flows for selected climate change scenarios and different time horizons are presented. The main studies for the Kaczawa river basin located in Southwest region of Poland are carried out. For the estimation of probability distribution river flow, daily data of SR solar radiation, maximum and minimum air temperature, and total precipitation were obtained for sixteen stations of hydrological network from Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. In addition, daily data of flows from 6 closing water-gauges (partial catchments) were collected. Idea of flow simulation in the Kaczawa river catchment for future climate conditions given by different scenario shall be presented in the paper. First, on the basis of 25-years data series (1981-2005) for 16 stations of meteorological network within or around the Kaczawa river catchment basic climatology characteristics required by weather generator are computed. Then, spatial correlations between variables and stations are added to the characteristics. Next, on the basis of information coming from three climate change scenarios (GISS, GFDL and CCCM) for years 2040, 2060 and 2080 basic climatology characteristics are modified. Then, spatial weather generator SWGEN is used to produce 500 years of synthetic data for 16 stations, given time horizon and scenario. The year 2000 as the background of potential changes in river flow is used together with 500 years of synthetic data. Next, generated data are applied to hydrological model Mike SHE to simulate daily flows for closing water-gauges. The flow are evaluated with different temporal step and characterized by pdf functions. The application of spatial weather generator SWGEN combined with hydrological rainfall-runoff model (Mike SHE Ed. 2008) and climate change scenario, gives various possibilities to study changes in the river catchment coming up to 60

  6. European Regulation Affecting Nanomaterials - Review of Limitations and Future Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2012-01-01

    After learning about the potential risks associated with various specific nanomaterials, concerns have been raised about adequacy of existing regulation in Europe and what should be done to address any potential regulatory gaps related to nanomaterials. Understanding the limitations of the current regulation in regard to nanomaterials is a starting point in a democratic and transparent process towards adapting existing laws and facilitating an informed discussion about which kind of regulatory options best address the identified limitations. In the following we will introduce key pieces of European legislation affecting nanomaterials, analyze their limitations, and provide a number of recommendations on how these can be overcome. We find that, although nanomaterials are in principle covered by the scope of many of the existing legislative frameworks, it is often unclear, if current regulations are actually applicable when it comes to specific nanomaterials and their diverse applications. Main limitations seem to be: that requirements to do safety evaluations are triggered by production volumes by tonnage not tailored to the nanoscale, the profound lack of (eco)toxicological data, and that thresholds values and occupational exposure limits cannot be established with existing methodologies. PMID:22942870

  7. Environmental risks and future generations: Criteria for public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.

    1992-10-01

    This paper examines alternative normative approaches to the policy challenges posed by long-term environmental problems such as toxic and radioactive waste disposal, stratospheric ozone depletion, and climate change. The paper argues that cost-benefit analysis is limited in its ability to handle the issues of intergenerational equity and uncertainty that are intrinsic to such problems. Also considered is the precautionary principle, which holds that policies should seek to reduce threats to the welfare of future generations if the costs of doing so would not significantly reduce the subjective well-being of existing persons. Although the precautionary principle depends on an explicit value judgement, it yields a policy criterion that is operationally decisive under a wide array of circumstances.

  8. Resourcing Future Generations - Challenges for geoscience: a new IUGS initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Lambert, Ian

    2014-05-01

    In a world with rapidly increasing population and technological development new space based remote sensing tools allowed for new discoveries and production of water, energy- and mineral-resources, including minerals, soils and construction materials. This has impact on politics, socio-economic development and thus calls for a strong involvement of geosciences because one of humanities biggest challenges will be, to rise living standards particularly in less developed countries. Any growth will lead to an increase of demand for natural resources. But especially for readily available mineral resources supply appears to be limited. Particularly demand for so called high-tech commodities - platinum group or rare earth elements - increased. This happened often faster than new discoveries were made. All this, while areas available for exploration decreased as the need for urban and agricultural use increased. Despite strong efforts in increasing efficiency of recycling, shortage in some commodities has to be expected. A major concern is that resources are not distributed evenly on our planet. Thus supplies depend on political stability, socio-economic standards and pricing. In the light of these statements IUGS is scoping a new initiative, Resourcing Future Generations (RFG), which is predicated on the fact that mining will continue to be an essential activity to meet the needs of future generations. RFG is aimed at identifying and addressing key challenges involved in securing natural resources to meet global needs post-2030. We consider that mineral resources should be the initial focus, but energy, soils, water resources and land use should also be covered. Addressing the multi-generational needs for mineral and other natural resources requires data, research and actions under four general themes: 1. Comprehensive evaluation and quantification of 21st century supply and demand. 2. Enhanced understanding of subsurface as it relates to mineral (energy and groundwater

  9. Preservation of Near-Earth Space for Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, John A.

    2007-05-01

    debris - current status Howard A. Baker; 22. Who should regulate the space environment: the laissez-faire, national and multinational options Diane P. Wood; Part VI. A Multilateral Treaty: 23. Orbital debris: prospects for international cooperation Jeffrey Maclure and William C. Bartley; 24. Preservation of near Earth space for future generations: current initiatives on space debris in the United Nations Stephen Gorove; 25. A legal regime for orbital debris: elements of a multilateral treaty Pamela L. Meredith; Part VII. Panel Discussions: 26. Panel discussion led by Diane Wood; 27. Panel discussion led by Paul Uhlir; 28. Suggested further reading on orbital debris.

  10. Noggin 1 overexpression in retinal progenitors affects bipolar cell generation.

    PubMed

    Messina, Andrea; Bridi, Simone; Bozza, Angela; Bozzi, Yuri; Baudet, Marie-Laure; Casarosa, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Waves of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists are present during initial eye development, but their possible roles in retinogenesis are still unknown. We have recently shown that noggin 1, a BMP antagonist, renders pluripotent cells able to differentiate into retinal precursors, and might be involved in the maintenance of retinal structures in the adult vertebrate eye. Here, we report that noggin 1, differently from noggin 2 and noggin 4, is expressed during all phases of Xenopus laevis retinal development. Gain-of-function experiments by electroporation in the optic vesicle show that overexpression of noggin 1 significantly decreases the number of bipolar cells in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, without significantly affecting the generation of the other retinal cell types. Our data suggest that BMP signaling could be involved in the differentiation of retinal progenitors into specific retinal subtypes during late phases of vertebrate retinal development. PMID:27389985

  11. Preserving Dark Skies in National Parks for Future Generations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duriscoe, C. S.; Duriscoe, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The United States National Park Service (NPS) has formed a team of professional scientists and naturalists to monitor the effects of light pollution in parks throughout the country, from sources both within and outside the parks. The NPS Night Sky Team is using a wide field CCD camera to quantify sky quality by imaging the entire sky under varying optical extinction conditions. A component of the program utilizes these images and other materials to convey the National Park Service mission of protecting the night sky "unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." This education outreach effort includes the dissemination of results from the research and monitoring, brochures for the general public, astronomy activity guide for grades 6-12 emphasizing light pollution and dark skies as one of the national parks' primary resources, and astronomy activities for the public in parks, often in collaboration with local amateur astronomy groups. Other potential accomplishments include the location of observatories in parks, a website for the Night Sky Team, and the instigation of lighting retrofits within parks. This program is funded primarily by the United States Department of Interior, National Park Service

  12. Future tense: call for a new generation of artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlmann, Dietmar

    1995-02-01

    Some people try hard to educate others about the beauty and technical benefits of holographic applications but another generation is already waiting to learn more about the media which talk to them about the future. Today the most common question is 'How can I do holograms with a computer?' 'Can I do it with an Amiga?' For the MIT specialists these are now very simple questions. We can expect to see the present shape of the holographic laboratory pass into history. I personally like to work with a VHS camera and mix it with CAD/CAM images, but computer and video are not the only media which will change the face of holography. The He.Ne. will be exchanged by diode laser. In a wavelength of 690 nm, some of them bring 40 mW in single mode and single line, not bigger than your little finger. Having such energy in so little a container, and the state of the art drifts rapidly into more flexibility. Using new media and introducing it in our societies give us a new responsibility. Would too much media kill the art? I do not think so, because I like the variety of media which give new possibility of expression. The game with new media is the power of creativity and it will find its meaning by itself.

  13. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  14. Automatic optimism: the affective basis of judgments about the likelihood of future events.

    PubMed

    Lench, Heather C

    2009-05-01

    People generally judge that the future will be consistent with their desires, but the reason for this desirability bias is unclear. This investigation examined whether affective reactions associated with future events are the mechanism through which desires influence likelihood judgments. In 4 studies, affective reactions were manipulated for initially neutral events. Compared with a neutral condition, events associated with positive reactions were judged as likely to occur, and events associated with negative reactions were judged as unlikely to occur. Desirability biases were reduced when participants could misattribute affective reactions to a source other than future events, and the relationship between affective reactions and judgments was influenced when approach and avoidance motivations were independently manipulated. Together, these findings demonstrate that positive and negative affective reactions to potential events cause the desirability bias in likelihood judgments and suggest that this effect occurs because of a tendency to approach positive possibilities and avoid negative possibilities.

  15. Financing Education for Children Affected by Conflict: Lessons from Save the Children's Rewrite the Future Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Janice; Ndaruhutse, Susy

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Save the Children, a non-governmental organization, prioritized education for children affected by conflict through its Rewrite the Future Campaign. By significantly scaling up the resources allocated to programmes in conflict-affected countries, the organization has grown its education programmes in these contexts. Thus it has…

  16. Wind Generation in the Future Competitive California Power Market

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Marnay, C.; Bretz, S.

    1998-03-01

    The goal of this work is to develop improved methods for assessing the viability of wind generation in competitive electricity markets. The viability of a limited number of possible wind sites is assessed using a geographic information system (GIS) to determine the cost of development, and Elfin, an electric utility production costing and capacity expansion model, to estimate the possible revenues and profits of wind farms at the sites. This approach improves on a simple profitability calculation by using a site-specific development cost calculation and by taking the effect of time varying market prices on revenues into account. The first component of the work is to develop data characterizing wind resources suitable for use in production costing and capacity expansion models, such as Elfin, that are capable of simulating competitive electricity markets. An improved representation of California wind resources is built, using information collected by the California Energy Commission (CE C) in previous site evaluations, and by using a GIS approach to estimating development costs at 36 specific sites. These sites, which have been identified as favorable for wind development, are placed on Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs) and development costs are calculated based on distances to roads and transmission lines. GIS is also used to develop the potential capacity at each site by making use of the physical characteristics of the terrain, such as ridge lengths. In the second part of the effort, using a previously developed algorithm for simulating competitive entry to the California electricity market, the Elfin model is used to gauge the viability of wind farms at the 36 sites. The results of this exercise are forecasts of profitable development levels at each site and the effects of these developments on the electricity system as a whole. Under best guess assumptions, including prohibition of new nuclear and coal capacity, moderate increase in gas prices and some decline in

  17. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Landis, G.; Raffaelle, R.; Hepp, A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent NASA program, Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT), investigated the technologies needed to provide cost-competitive ground baseload electrical power from space based solar energy conversion. This goal mandated low cost, light weight gigawatt (GW) power generation. Investment in solar power generation technologies would also benefit high power military, commercial and science missions. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the moon or mars, space based lasers or radar, or as large earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or as in the SERT program, potentially beaming power to the earth itself. This paper will discuss requirements for the two latter options, the current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies which may impact the future choice of space solar cells for a high power mission application. The space world has primarily transitioned to commercially available III-V (GaInP/GaAs/Ge) cells with 24-26% air mass zero (AMO) efficiencies. Research in the III-V multi-junction solar cells has focused on fabricating either lattice-mismatched materials with optimum stacking bandgaps or new lattice matched materials with optimum bandgaps. In the near term this will yield a 30% commercially available space cell and in the far term possibly a 40% cell. Cost reduction would be achieved if these cells could be grown on a silicon rather than a germanium substrate since the substrate is ~65% of the cell cost or, better yet, on a polyimide or possibly a ceramic substrate. An overview of multi-junction cell characteristics will be presented here. Thin film cells require substantially less material and have promised the advantage of large area, low cost manufacturing. However, space cell requirements

  18. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  19. Literature Review: Factors Affecting the Development of Generation X and Millennials. Societal Factors Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Thomas J.; adbow, Nancy

    Generation X, or "Xers," refers to those born in the United States between 1960 and 1980 and Generation Y, also known as "Millennials," refers to those born between 1980 and 2000. An examination of these two generations is important to educators as the new generation of Millennials begins to access higher education. A large and growing body of…

  20. Listeners discern affective variation in computer-generated musical sounds.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Freya; Dean, Roger T

    2009-01-01

    We carried out two experiments to test the relationship between real-time perception of structural change in stylistically unusual musical sounds, and perception of its affect (arousal and valence). Computer music was used because of its unfamiliarity and our capacity to control it in ecologically appropriate ways. In experiment 1, thirteen participants unselected for musical training participated in tasks to detect segmentation and changes in affect. Changes in affect occurred upon detection of segmentation; but not all algorithmically distinct segments conveyed distinct affect. Short segments followed by long segments led to greater changes in arousal and valence at the point of segmentation than vice versa. In experiment 2, intra-segment sound transitions were introduced. Sixteen musicians performed the same affect task as in experiment 1, and a novel change in sound task. Participants were slow to respond to a continuous transition, but quick to respond to instantaneous transitions. Contrary to literature on the perception of affect in more familiar music, the musician participants in experiment 2 differed more in their ratings of arousal than of valence, in spite of a strong correlation of arousal with the composition of the stimuli. These findings are discussed in relation to the positive valence attributed to the more familiar sounds in both experiments.

  1. To Our Indian Youth - Generation With a Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seneca Nation Educational Foundation, Salamanca, NY.

    The Seneca Nation Educational Foundation has compiled this document for the Indian Youth of New York State who will graduate from high school in the next few years. Information relating to their future occupational and educational opportunities, such as lists of schools and scholarships of specific interest to Indian youth, is presented. Programs…

  2. A Bill of Rights for Future Generations. Proceedings Number 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousteau, Jacques-Yves

    This monograph stresses the need for environmental protection and identifies principles for a global policy to preserve the world's oceans. It is hypothesized that unbridled technological development pollutes the environment, and particularly oceans, to such a degree that it threatens the future of mankind. Factors identified as being largely…

  3. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses requirements for large earth orbiting power stations that can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or for beaming power to the earth itself. The current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies that may impact the future choice of space solar cells for high power mission applications are addressed.

  4. Popular Imagination and Identity Politics: Reading the Future in "Star Trek: The Next Generation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Brian L.; Aoki, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the television series "Star Trek: The Next Generation." Theorizes the relationship between collective visions of the future and the identity politics of the present. Argues that "The Next Generation" invites audiences to participate in a shared sense of the future that constrains human agency and (re)produces the current cultural hegemony…

  5. Neural changes associated with the generation of specific past and future events in depression.

    PubMed

    Hach, Sylvia; Tippett, Lynette J; Addis, Donna Rose

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that individuals affected by depression experience difficulty in remembering the past and imagining the future. This impairment is evident in increased rumination on non-specific, generic events and in the generation of fewer specific events during tasks tapping past and future thinking. The present fMRI study investigated whether neural changes during the construction of autobiographical events was evident in depression, even when key aspects of performance (event specificity, vividness) were matched. We employed a multivariate technique (Spatiotemporal Partial Least Squares) to examine whether task-related whole brain patterns of activation and functional connectivity of the hippocampus differed between depressed participants and non-depressed controls. Results indicate that although the depression group retained the ability to recruit the default network during the autobiographical tasks, there was reduced activity in regions associated with episodic richness and imagery (e.g., hippocampus, precuneus, cuneus). Moreover, patterns of hippocampal connectivity in the depression group were comparable to those of the control group, but the strength of this connectivity was reduced in depression. These depression-related reductions were accompanied by increased recruitment of lateral and medial frontal regions in the depression group, as well as distinct patterns of right hippocampal connectivity with regions in the default and dorsal attention networks. The recruitment of these additional neural resources may reflect compensatory increases in post-retrieval processing, greater effort and/or greater self-related referential processing in depression that support the generation of specific autobiographical events.

  6. NASA Fixed Wing Project: Green Technologies for Future Aircraft Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advances in multidisciplinary technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the FW Project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve the challenging goals of aviation. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  7. [From the "screen" society to concern for future generations].

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The youth of today is evolving in an unprecedented sociocultural context marked by the rapid development of new virtual technologies. Young people are constantly looking at screens, big and small, tactile and digital, which have invaded their social sphere. Connected, logged on, overstimulated, the new generation lives surrounded by reactivity and electronic interactions. It is adults' responsibility to expand the range of their cultural and outdoor activities in order to avoid the risk of their capacity for personal expression wasting away.

  8. [From the "screen" society to concern for future generations].

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The youth of today is evolving in an unprecedented sociocultural context marked by the rapid development of new virtual technologies. Young people are constantly looking at screens, big and small, tactile and digital, which have invaded their social sphere. Connected, logged on, overstimulated, the new generation lives surrounded by reactivity and electronic interactions. It is adults' responsibility to expand the range of their cultural and outdoor activities in order to avoid the risk of their capacity for personal expression wasting away. PMID:25771594

  9. The Future of Web Maps in Next Generation Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, D.; Prasad, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reformation of the "Object Formerly Known as Textbook" (coined by the Chronicle of Higher Education) toward a digital future is underway. Emerging nextgen texts look less like electronic books ("ebooks") and more like online courseware. In addition to text and illustrations, nextgen textbooks for STEM subjects are likely to combine quizzes, grade management tools, support for social learning, and interactive media including web maps. Web maps are interactive, multi-scale, online maps that enable teachers and learners to explore, interrogate, and mash up the wide variety of map layers available in the cloud. This presentation will show how web maps coupled with interactive quizzes enable students' purposeful explorations and interpretations of spatial patterns related to humankind's interactions with the earth. Attendees will also learn about Esri's offer to donate ArcGIS Online web mapping subscriptions to every U.S. school as part of the President Obama's ConnectED initiative.

  10. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  12. [How generativity affects motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Megumi; Gondo, Yasuyuki

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify a model of motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people. Erikson's developmental task theory and concept of "generativity" was used as the basis of a hypothetic model. We assumed that memory about parents in childhood has a direct impact on motivation for participating in child-support, and has an indirect impact through generativity and the view of child rearing. Also, the view of child rearing has an indirect impact through generativity. Data was analyzed from questionnaires completed by 236 elderly people (M=68.35 years old, SD=7.64 years). Structural equation modeling showed that the effect of memory about parents and the view of child rearing on the motivation for participating in child-support were mediated by generativity. These results suggested that generativity is a key concept in explaining the motivation for altruistic behavior toward the young generation in elderly people.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  14. High Hopes in a Grim World. Emerging Adults' Views of Their Futures and "Generation X."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2000-01-01

    Explores views of the future among young adults age 21-28 years, focusing on quality of life, financial well-being, career achievements, and personal relationships. Data from interviews and questionnaires show a sharp distinction between how respondents view their personal futures (with high hopes) and how they view their generation's perspective…

  15. Sowing Seeds for Future Generations: Development of Generative Concern and Its Relation to Environmental Narrative Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Fanli; Soucie, Kendall; Alisat, Susan; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the trajectory of generative concern measured at ages 23, 26 and 32 and environmental narrative identity at age 32. Canadian participants completed a questionnaire on generative concern at ages 23, 26 and 32 and were then interviewed about their personal experiences with the…

  16. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  17. Feeling the future: experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect.

    PubMed

    Bem, Daryl J

    2011-03-01

    The term psi denotes anomalous processes of information or energy transfer that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. Two variants of psi are precognition (conscious cognitive awareness) and premonition (affective apprehension) of a future event that could not otherwise be anticipated through any known inferential process. Precognition and premonition are themselves special cases of a more general phenomenon: the anomalous retroactive influence of some future event on an individual's current responses, whether those responses are conscious or nonconscious, cognitive or affective. This article reports 9 experiments, involving more than 1,000 participants, that test for retroactive influence by "time-reversing" well-established psychological effects so that the individual's responses are obtained before the putatively causal stimulus events occur. Data are presented for 4 time-reversed effects: precognitive approach to erotic stimuli and precognitive avoidance of negative stimuli; retroactive priming; retroactive habituation; and retroactive facilitation of recall. The mean effect size (d) in psi performance across all 9 experiments was 0.22, and all but one of the experiments yielded statistically significant results. The individual-difference variable of stimulus seeking, a component of extraversion, was significantly correlated with psi performance in 5 of the experiments, with participants who scored above the midpoint on a scale of stimulus seeking achieving a mean effect size of 0.43. Skepticism about psi, issues of replication, and theories of psi are also discussed. PMID:21280961

  18. Motives for Smoking in Movies Affect Future Smoking Risk in Middle School Students: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven; Setodji, Claude; Haviland, Amelia; Primack, Brian; Scharf, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking in movies has been linked to adolescent smoking uptake. However, beyond linking amount of exposure to smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, whether the way that smoking is portrayed in movies matters for influencing adolescent smoking has not been investigated. This study experimentally examined how motivation for smoking depicted in movies affects self-reported future smoking risk (a composite measure with items that assess smoking refusal self-efficacy and smoking intentions) among early adolescents. Methods A randomized laboratory experiment was used. Adolescents were exposed to movie scenes depicting one of three movie smoking motives: social smoking motive (characters smoked to facilitate social interaction); relaxation smoking motive (characters smoked to relax); or no smoking motive (characters smoked with no apparent motive, i.e., in neutral contexts and/or with neutral affect). Responses to these movie scenes were contrasted (within subjects) to participants’ responses to control movie scenes in which no smoking was present; these control scenes matched to the smoking scenes with the same characters in similar situations but where no smoking was present. A total of 358 adolescents, aged 11–14 years, participated. Results Compared with participants exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking with no clear motive, adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for social motives and adolescents exposed to movie scenes depicting characters smoking for relaxation motives had significantly greater chances of having increases in their future smoking risk. Conclusions Exposure to movies that portray smoking motives places adolescents at particular risk for future smoking. PMID:22074766

  19. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  20. The next generation - How are we equipping our young generation for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, Corhyn

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear industry until a few years ago was perceived to be a dying breed in the UK. As the lifetime of our operating station comes to a close younger engineers and scientists favoured other industries such as IT, manufacturing or banking. As we enter a nuclear renaissance in the UK it is becoming increasingly more important to attract and retain the best scientists and engineers to secure our energy requirements for the future as well as decommission the current liabilities. This paper discusses 3 groups focusing on graduate recruitment and retention, Companies, YGN and NDA. All three need to work together to not only promote the nuclear industry and encourage graduates but also to develop them for the future. Companies are continuously refocusing their schemes to the changing requirements of the industry, the YGN are a link between these companies assisting with career developing of new recruits and the NDA have launched a programme to encourage a national graduate programme. All three elements are discussed and required to evolve together to ensure the successful development of the industry on a national level. (author)

  1. The Impact of Exposure to Addictive Drugs on Future Generations: Physiological and Behavioral Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vassoler, F.M.; Byrnes, E.M.; Pierce, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to drug addiction. Recent evidence indicating trans-generational influences of drug abuse highlight potential epigenetic factors as well. Specifically, mounting evidence suggests that parental ingestion of abused drugs influence the physiology and behavior of future generations even in the absence of prenatal exposure. The goal of this review is to describe the trans-generational consequences of preconception exposure to drugs of abuse for five major classes of drugs: alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, opioids, and cocaine. The potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying the transmission of these phenotypes across generations also are detailed. PMID:23810828

  2. The future in clinical genetics: affective forecasting biases in patient and clinician decision making.

    PubMed

    Peters, S A; Laham, S M; Pachter, N; Winship, I M

    2014-04-01

    When clinicians facilitate and patients make decisions about predictive genetic testing, they often base their choices on the predicted emotional consequences of positive and negative test results. Research from psychology and decision making suggests that such predictions may often be biased. Work on affective forecasting-predicting one's future emotional states-shows that people tend to overestimate the impact of (especially negative) emotional events on their well-being; a phenomenon termed the impact bias. In this article, we review the causes and consequences of the impact bias in medical decision making, with a focus on applying such findings to predictive testing in clinical genetics. We also recommend strategies for reducing the impact bias and consider the ethical and practical implications of doing so.

  3. Domestic and world trends (1980 - 2000) affecting the future of aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, N.; Overholt, W.; Thomas, J.; Wiener, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Variables affecting aviation in the United States during the last fifth of the twentieth century are studied. Estimates of relevant future developments are presented and their probable impact on the aviation industry in this country are identified. A series of key trends relating to economic, social, political, technological, ecological and environmental developments are identified and discussed with relation to their possible effects on aviation. From this analysis, a series of scenarios are developed representing an array of possibilities ranging from severe economic depression and high international tension on the one hand, to a world of detente which enjoys an unprecedented economic growth rate and relaxation of tensions on the other. A surprise free scenario is presented which represents the best judgment of the manner in which events will most probably develop and the effect on the aviation industry such developments will likely produce.

  4. An offspring signal of quality affects the timing of future parental reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Flore; Kölliker, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Solicitation signals by offspring are well known to influence parental behaviour, and it is commonly assumed that this behavioural effect translates into an effect on residual reproduction of parents. However, this equivalence assumption concerning behavioural and reproductive effects caused by offspring signals remains largely untested. Here, we tested the effect of a chemical offspring signal of quality on the relative timing and amount of future reproduction in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia). We manipulated the nutritional condition of earwig nymphs and exposed females to their extract, or to solvent as a control. There were no significant main effects of exposure treatment on 2nd clutch production, but exposure to extracts of well-fed nymphs induced predictable timing of the 2nd relative to the 1st clutch. This result demonstrates for the first time that an offspring signal per se, in the absence of any maternal behaviour, affects maternal reproductive timing, possibly through an effect on maternal reproductive physiology. PMID:21208942

  5. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: associations with future substance use.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Molfese, Peter J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Klein, Laura Cousino; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth's lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6-12 months later). PCE × Gender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  7. Sensitivity of Regional Hydropower Generation to the Projected Changes in Future Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower is a key contributor to the renewable energy portfolio due to its established development history and the diverse benefits it provides to the electric power systems. With the projected change in the future watershed hydrology, including shift of snowmelt timing, increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation, and change in drought frequencies, there is a need to investigate how the regional hydropower generation may change correspondingly. To evaluate the sensitivity of watershed storage and hydropower generation to future climate change, a lumped Watershed Runoff-Energy Storage (WRES) model is developed to simulate the annual and seasonal hydropower generation at various hydropower areas in the United States. For each hydropower study area, the WRES model use the monthly precipitation and naturalized (unregulated) runoff as inputs to perform a runoff mass balance calculation for the total monthly runoff storage in all reservoirs and retention facilities in the watershed, and simulate the monthly regulated runoff release and hydropower generation through the system. The WRES model is developed and calibrated using the historic (1980-2009) monthly precipitation, runoff, and generation data, and then driven by a large set of dynamically- and statistically-downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections to simulate the change of watershed storage and hydropower generation under different future climate scenarios. The results among different hydropower regions, storage capacities, emission scenarios, and timescales are compared and discussed in this study.

  8. Transfer of the Kenyan Kikuyu Male Circumcision Ritual to Future Generations Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbito, Michael N.; Malia, Julia A.

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological research report from analysis of interviews with 18 participants focuses on the theme of transferring an age-old initiation-into-manhood circumcision ritual to future generations of Kenyan Kikuyu who are living in the US. We identified three subthemes and found a strong indication that, while personally meaningful to the…

  9. The impact of H2S emissions on future geothermal power generation - The Geysers region, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    The future potential for geothermal power generation in the Geysers region of California is as much as 10 times the current 502 MW(e) capacity. However, environmental factors such as H2S emissions and institutional considerations may play the primary role in determining the rate and ultimate level of development. In this paper a scenario of future geothermal generation capacity and H2S emissions in the Geysers region is presented. Problem areas associated with H2S emissions, H2S abatement processes, plant operations, and government agency resources are described. The impact of H2S emissions on future development and the views of effected organizations are discussed. Potential actions needed to remove these constraints are summarized.

  10. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, T. Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being’s ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  11. Cognitive and Affective Aspects of Creative Option Generation in Everyday Life Situations.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, T Sophie; Schmalenberger, Katja M; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Mojzisch, Andreas; Kaiser, Stefan; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Which factors influence a human being's ability to develop new perspectives and be creative? This ability is pivotal for any context in which new cognitions are required, such as innovative endeavors in science and art, or psychotherapeutic settings. In this article, we seek to bring together two research programs investigating the generation of creative options: On the one hand, research on option generation in the decision-making literature and, on the other hand, cognitive and clinical creativity research. Previous decision-making research has largely neglected the topic of generating creative options. Experiments typically provided participants with a clear set of options to choose from, but everyday life situations are less structured and allow countless ways to react. Before choosing an option, agents have to self-generate a set of options to choose from. Such option generation processes have only recently moved to the center of attention. The present study examines the creative quality of self-generated options in daily life situations. A student sample (N = 48) generated options for action in 70 briefly described everyday life scenarios. We rated the quality of the options on three dimensions of creativity- originality, feasibility, and divergence -and linked these qualities to option generation fluency (speed and number of generated options), situational features like the familiarity and the affective valence of the situation in which the options were generated, and trait measures of cognitive performance. We found that when situations were familiar to the participant, greater negative affective valence of the situation was associated with more originality and divergence of generated options. We also found that a higher option generation fluency was associated with a greater maximal originality of options. We complete our article with a joint research agenda for researchers in the decision-making field focusing on option generation and, on the other hand

  12. Assessment of a stochastic downscaling methodology in generating an ensemble of hourly future climate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Caporali, E.

    2013-04-01

    This study extends a stochastic downscaling methodology to generation of an ensemble of hourly time series of meteorological variables that express possible future climate conditions at a point-scale. The stochastic downscaling uses general circulation model (GCM) realizations and an hourly weather generator, the Advanced WEather GENerator (AWE-GEN). Marginal distributions of factors of change are computed for several climate statistics using a Bayesian methodology that can weight GCM realizations based on the model relative performance with respect to a historical climate and a degree of disagreement in projecting future conditions. A Monte Carlo technique is used to sample the factors of change from their respective marginal distributions. As a comparison with traditional approaches, factors of change are also estimated by averaging GCM realizations. With either approach, the derived factors of change are applied to the climate statistics inferred from historical observations to re-evaluate parameters of the weather generator. The re-parameterized generator yields hourly time series of meteorological variables that can be considered to be representative of future climate conditions. In this study, the time series are generated in an ensemble mode to fully reflect the uncertainty of GCM projections, climate stochasticity, as well as uncertainties of the downscaling procedure. Applications of the methodology in reproducing future climate conditions for the periods of 2000-2009, 2046-2065 and 2081-2100, using the period of 1962-1992 as the historical baseline are discussed for the location of Firenze (Italy). The inferences of the methodology for the period of 2000-2009 are tested against observations to assess reliability of the stochastic downscaling procedure in reproducing statistics of meteorological variables at different time scales.

  13. How climate, migration ability and habitat fragmentation affect the projected future distribution of European beech.

    PubMed

    Saltré, Frédérik; Duputié, Anne; Gaucherel, Cédric; Chuine, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Recent efforts to incorporate migration processes into species distribution models (SDMs) are allowing assessments of whether species are likely to be able to track their future climate optimum and the possible causes of failing to do so. Here, we projected the range shift of European beech over the 21st century using a process-based SDM coupled to a phenomenological migration model accounting for population dynamics, according to two climate change scenarios and one land use change scenario. Our model predicts that the climatically suitable habitat for European beech will shift north-eastward and upward mainly because (i) higher temperature and precipitation, at the northern range margins, will increase survival and fruit maturation success, while (ii) lower precipitations and higher winter temperature, at the southern range margins, will increase drought mortality and prevent bud dormancy breaking. Beech colonization rate of newly climatically suitable habitats in 2100 is projected to be very low (1-2% of the newly suitable habitats colonised). Unexpectedly, the projected realized contraction rate was higher than the projected potential contraction rate. As a result, the realized distribution of beech is projected to strongly contract by 2100 (by 36-61%) mainly due to a substantial increase in climate variability after 2050, which generates local extinctions, even at the core of the distribution, the frequency of which prevents beech recolonization during more favourable years. Although European beech will be able to persist in some parts of the trailing edge of its distribution, the combined effects of climate and land use changes, limited migration ability, and a slow life-history are likely to increase its threat status in the near future.

  14. Factors affecting waste generation: a study in a waste management program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hanaki, Keisuke; Tudin, Rabaah

    2011-08-01

    Information on waste generation, socioeconomic characteristics, and willingness of the households to separate waste was obtained from interviews with 402 respondents in Dhaka city. Ordinary least square regression was used to determine the dominant factors that might influence the waste generation of the households. The results showed that the waste generation of the households in Dhaka city was significantly affected by household size, income, concern about the environment, and willingness to separate the waste. These factors are necessary to effectively improve waste management, growth and performance, as well as to reduce the environmental degradation of the household waste. PMID:21046234

  15. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed.

  16. The role of advanced technology in the future of the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1994-10-01

    This presentation reviews the directions that technology has given the power generation industry in the past and how advanced technology will be the key for the future of the industry. The topics of the presentation include how the industry`s history has defined its culture, how today`s economic and regulatory climate has constrained its strategy, and how certain technology options might give some of the players an unfair advantage.

  17. Efficiency and economics of large scale hydrogen liquefaction. [for future generation aircraft requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen is being considered as a substitute for conventional hydrocarbon-based fuels for future generations of commercial jet aircraft. Its acceptance will depend, in part, upon the technology and cost of liquefaction. The process and economic requirements for providing a sufficient quantity of liquid hydrogen to service a major airport are described. The design is supported by thermodynamic studies which determine the effect of process arrangement and operating parameters on the process efficiency and work of liquefaction.

  18. Ventromedial prefrontal-subcortical systems and the generation of affective meaning

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mathieu; Shohamy, Daphna; Wager, Tor D.

    2012-01-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) comprises a set of interconnected regions that integrate information from affective sensory and social cues, long-term memory, and representations of the ‘self’. Though the vmPFC is implicated in a variety of seemingly disparate processes, these processes are organized around a common theme. The vmPFC is not necessary for affective responses per se, but is critical when affective responses are shaped by conceptual information about specific outcomes. The vmPFC thus functions as a hub that links concepts with brainstem systems capable of coordinating organism-wide emotional behavior, a process we describe in terms of the generation of affective meaning, and which could explain the common role played by the vmPFC in a range of experimental paradigms. PMID:22310704

  19. Simulation of an ensemble of future climate time series with an hourly weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Kim, J.

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence that climate change is occurring in many regions of the world. The necessity of climate change predictions at the local scale and fine temporal resolution is thus warranted for hydrological, ecological, geomorphological, and agricultural applications that can provide thematic insights into the corresponding impacts. Numerous downscaling techniques have been proposed to bridge the gap between the spatial scales adopted in General Circulation Models (GCM) and regional analyses. Nevertheless, the time and spatial resolutions obtained as well as the type of meteorological variables may not be sufficient for detailed studies of climate change effects at the local scales. In this context, this study presents a stochastic downscaling technique that makes use of an hourly weather generator to simulate time series of predicted future climate. Using a Bayesian approach, the downscaling procedure derives distributions of factors of change for several climate statistics from a multi-model ensemble of GCMs. Factors of change are sampled from their distributions using a Monte Carlo technique to entirely account for the probabilistic information obtained with the Bayesian multi-model ensemble. Factors of change are subsequently applied to the statistics derived from observations to re-evaluate the parameters of the weather generator. The weather generator can reproduce a wide set of climate variables and statistics over a range of temporal scales, from extremes, to the low-frequency inter-annual variability. The final result of such a procedure is the generation of an ensemble of hourly time series of meteorological variables that can be considered as representative of future climate, as inferred from GCMs. The generated ensemble of scenarios also accounts for the uncertainty derived from multiple GCMs used in downscaling. Applications of the procedure in reproducing present and future climates are presented for different locations world-wide: Tucson (AZ

  20. Dentinogenesis Imperfecta : A Family which was Affected for Over Three Generations.

    PubMed

    Surendra, Poornima; Shah, Rohan; N M, Roshan; Reddy, V V Subba

    2013-08-01

    Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DI) or hereditary opalescent dentin is inherited in a simple autosomal dominant mode with high penetrance and low mutation rates. It generally affects both the deciduous and the permanent dentitions. DI corresponds to a localized form of mesodermal dysplasia which is observed in the histo-differentiation. An early diagnosis and treatment are therefore fundamental, which aim at obtaining a favourable prognosis, since at late intervention makes the treatment more complex. We are presenting here a case of DI in which the disease affected the three generations of a family in India.

  1. NASA Workshop on future directions in surface modeling and grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandalsem, W. R.; Smith, R. E.; Choo, Y. K.; Birckelbaw, L. D.; Vogel, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a summary of the paper sessions and panel discussions of the NASA Workshop on Future Directions in Surface Modeling and Grid Generation held a NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, December 5-7, 1989. The purpose was to assess U.S. capabilities in surface modeling and grid generation and take steps to improve the focus and pace of these disciplines within NASA. The organization of the workshop centered around overviews from NASA centers and expert presentations from U.S. corporations and universities. Small discussion groups were held and summarized by group leaders. Brief overviews and a panel discussion by representatives from the DoD were held, and a NASA-only session concluded the meeting. In the NASA Program Planning Session summary there are five recommended steps for NASA to take to improve the development and application of surface modeling and grid generation.

  2. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of

  3. Prereproductive stress in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticosterone levels in second-generation offspring.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Hiba; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2015-08-01

    Human and animal studies indicate that vulnerability to stress may be heritable. We have previously shown that chronic, mild prereproductive stress (PRS) in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) expression in the brain of first-generation (F1) offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of PRS on anxiogenic behavior and CRF1 expression in male and female second-generation (F2) offspring. Furthermore, we assessed levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), a direct marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in PRS females and their F1 and F2 progeny. F2 offspring demonstrated decreased CRF1 mRNA expression at birth, and alterations in anxiogenic behavior in adulthood. CORT levels were elevated in PRS females and in their F1 female, but not male, offspring. In F2, CORT levels in PRS offspring also varied in a sex-dependent manner. These findings indicate that PRS in adolescent females leads to behavioral alterations that extend to second-generation offspring, and has transgenerational effects on endocrine function. Together with our previous findings, these data indicate that PRS to adolescent females affects behavior and HPA axis function across three generations, and highlight the importance of examining the transgenerational effects of stress in both male and female offspring.

  4. Statistical downscaling and future scenario generation of temperatures for Pakistan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmi, Dildar Hussain; Li, Jianping; Rasul, Ghulam; Tong, Jiang; Ali, Gohar; Cheema, Sohail Babar; Liu, Luliu; Gemmer, Marco; Fischer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Finer climate change information on spatial scale is required for impact studies than that presently provided by global or regional climate models. It is especially true for regions like South Asia with complex topography, coastal or island locations, and the areas of highly heterogeneous land-cover. To deal with the situation, an inexpensive method (statistical downscaling) has been adopted. Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM) employed for downscaling of daily minimum and maximum temperature data of 44 national stations for base time (1961-1990) and then the future scenarios generated up to 2099. Observed as well as Predictors (product of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) data were calibrated and tested on individual/multiple basis through linear regression. Future scenario was generated based on HadCM3 daily data for A2 and B2 story lines. The downscaled data has been tested, and it has shown a relatively strong relationship with the observed in comparison to ECHAM5 data. Generally, the southern half of the country is considered vulnerable in terms of increasing temperatures, but the results of this study projects that in future, the northern belt in particular would have a possible threat of increasing tendency in air temperature. Especially, the northern areas (hosting the third largest ice reserves after the Polar Regions), an important feeding source for Indus River, are projected to be vulnerable in terms of increasing temperatures. Consequently, not only the hydro-agricultural sector but also the environmental conditions in the area may be at risk, in future.

  5. Operation of hydropower generation systems in the Alps under future climate and socio-economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are an important source of renewable energy for many countries in Europe. In Switzerland, for instance, they represent the most important domestic source of renewable energy (around 55%). However, future hydropower production may be threatened by unprecedented challenges, such as a decreasing water availability, due to climate change (CC) and associated glacier retreat, and uncertain operating conditions, such as future power needs and highly fluctuating demand on the energy market. This second aspect has gained increasingly relevance since the massive introduction of solar and wind generating systems in the portfolios of many European countries. Because hydropower systems have the potential to provide backup storage of energy to compensate for fluctuations that are typical, for instance, of solar and wind generation systems, it is important to investigate how the increased demand for flexible operation, together with climate change challenge and fluctuating markets, can impact their operating policies. The Swiss Competence Center on Supply of Electricity (www.sccer-soe.ch) has been recently established to explore new potential paths for the development of future power generation systems. In this context, we develop modelling and optimization tools to design and assess new operation strategies for hydropower systems to increase their reliability, flexibility, and robustness to future operation conditions. In particular, we develop an advanced modelling framework for the integrated simulation of the operation of hydropower plants, which accounts for CC-altered streamflow regimes, new demand and market conditions, as well as new boundary conditions for operation (e.g., aquatic ecosystem conservation). The model construction consists of two primary components: a physically based and spatially distributed hydrological model, which describes the relevant hydrological processes at the basin scale, and an agent based decision model, which

  6. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed. PMID:22642420

  7. Why We Explore: The Value of Space Exploration for Future Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Armstrong, Robert C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its industry partners are making measurable progress toward delivering new human space transportation capabilities to serve as the catalyst for a new era of discovery, as directed by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. In the interest of ensuring prolonged support, the Agency encourages space advocates of all stripes to accurately portray both the tangible and intangible benefits of space exploration, especially its value for future generations. This may be done not only by emphasizing the nation's return on its aerospace investment, but also by highlighting enabling security features and by promoting the scientific and technological benefits that accrue from the human exploration of space. As America embarks on a new era of leadership and international partnership on the next frontier, we are poised to master space by living off-planet on the Moon to prepare astronauts for longer journeys to Mars. These and other relevant facts should be clearly in the view of influential decision-makers and the American taxpayers, and we must increasingly involve those on whom the long-term sustainability of space exploration ultimately depends: America's youth. This paper will examine three areas of concrete benefits for future generations: fundamental security, economic enterprise, and high-technology advancements spurred by the innovation that scientific discovery demands.

  8. NASA's Vision for Potential Energy Reduction from Future Generations of Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Through a robust partnership with the aviation industry, over the past 50 years NASA programs have helped foster advances in propulsion technology that enabled substantial reductions in fuel consumption for commercial transports. Emerging global trends and continuing environmental concerns are creating challenges that will very likely transform the face of aviation over the next 20-40 years. In recognition of this development, NASA Aeronautics has established a set of Research Thrusts that will help define the future direction of the agency's research technology efforts. Two of these thrusts, Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles and Transition to Low-Carbon Propulsion, serve as cornerstones for the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) project. The AATT project is exploring and developing high-payoff technologies and concepts that are key to continued improvement in energy efficiency and environmental compatibility for future generations of fixed-wing, subsonic transports. The AATT project is primarily focused on the N+3 timeframe, or 3 generations from current technology levels. As should be expected, many of the propulsion system architectures technologies envisioned for N+3 vary significantly from todays engines. The use of batteries in a hybrid-electric configuration or deploying multiple fans distributed across the airframe to enable higher bypass ratios are just two examples of potential advances that could enable substantial energy reductions over current propulsion systems.

  9. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate ``fundamental`` limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  10. The generation and acceleration of low emittance flat beams for future linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Many future linear collider designs call for electron and positron beams with normalized rms horizontal and vertical emittances of {gamma}{epsilon}{sub x} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}6} m-rad and {gamma}{epsilon}{sub y} = 3{times}10{sup {minus}8} m-rad; these are a factor of 10 to 100 below those observed in the Stanford Linear Collider. In this dissertation, we examine the feasibility of achieving beams with these very small vertical emittances. We examine the limitations encountered during both the generation and the subsequent acceleration of such low emittance beams. We consider collective limitations, such as wakefields, space charge effects, scattering processes, and ion trapping; and also how intensity limitations, such as anomalous dispersion, betatron coupling, and pulse-to-pulse beam jitter. In general, the minimum emittance in both the generation and the acceleration stages is limited by the transverse misalignments of the accelerator components. We describe a few techniques of correcting the effect of these errors, thereby easing the alignment tolerances by over an order of magnitude. Finally, we also calculate fundamental'' limitations on the minimum vertical emittance; these do not constrain the current designs but may prove important in the future.

  11. Spontaneous miniature hyperpolarizations affect threshold for action potential generation in mudpuppy cardiac neurons.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Rodney L; Barstow, Karen L; Scornik, Fabiana S

    2002-09-01

    Mudpuppy parasympathetic neurons exhibit spontaneous miniature hyperpolarizations (SMHs) that are generated by potassium currents, which are spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs), flowing through clusters of large conductance voltage- and calcium (Ca(2+))-activated potassium (BK) channels. The underlying SMOCs are initiated by a Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) mechanism. Perforated-patch whole cell voltage recordings were used to determine whether activation of SMHs contributed to action potential (AP) repolarization or affected the latency to AP generation. Blockade of BK channels by iberiotoxin (IBX, 100 nM) slowed AP repolarization and increased AP duration. Treatment with omega-conotoxin GVIA (3 microM) or nifedipine (10 microM) to inhibit Ca(2+) influx through N- or L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), respectively, also decreased the rate of AP repolarization and increased AP duration. Elimination of CICR by treatment with either thapsigargin (1 microM) or ryanodine (10 microM) produced no significant change in AP repolarization or duration. Blockade of BK channels with IBX and inhibition of N-type VDCCs with omega-conotoxin GVIA, but not inhibition of L-type VDCCs with nifedipine, decreased the latency of AP generation. A decrease in latency to AP generation occurred with elimination of SMHs by inhibition of CICR following treatment with thapsigargin. Ryanodine treatment decreased AP latency in three of six cells. Apamin (100 nM) had no affect on AP repolarization, duration, or latency to AP generation, but did decrease the hyperpolarizing afterpotential (HAP). Inhibition of L-type VDCCs by nifedipine also decreased HAP amplitude. Inhibition of CICR by either thapsigargin or ryanodine treatment increased the number of APs generated with long depolarizing current pulses, whereas exposure to IBX or omega-conotoxin GVIA depressed excitability. We conclude that CICR, the process responsible for SMH generation, represents a unique

  12. Report on Future Factors Affecting the Department of Defense Dependents Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Ted; And Others

    The second volume of a comprehensive study of the Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS), this report identifies emerging and future trends that will influence DoDDS operations in coming years. Chapter 1, "Changing Student Population," forecasts effects on DoDDS of predicted youth population decline, changing racial/ethnic composition,…

  13. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  14. Agricultural pests under future climate conditions: downscaling of regional climate scenarios with a stochastic weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stöckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Rotach, M. W.; Calanca, P.; Samietz, J.

    2010-09-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously unaffected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests have been developed, which model the infestation depending on actual weather conditions. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages therefore requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. In particular, pest forecast models are often not based on screen temperature and precipitation alone (i.e., the most generally projected climate variables), but might require input variables such as soil temperature, in-canopy net radiation or leaf wetness. Here, we use a stochastic weather and a re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather data from regional climate change scenarios for 2050 in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios were derived from multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly temperature, precipitation and radiation data were produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather time series were then used for modeling important phases in the lifecycle of codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. First results indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of phases relevant for pest disease control for projected as compared to current climate (e.g. the flight of the codling moth starts about ten days earlier in future climate), continuing an already observed trend towards more favorable conditions for this insect during the last 20 years.

  15. Model and Scenario Variations in Predicted Number of Generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on Peanut during Future Climate Change Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, Mathukumalli; Swathi, Pettem; Rama Rao, Chitiprolu Anantha; Rao, K. V.; Raju, B. M. K.; Srinivas, Karlapudi; Manimanjari, Dammu; Maheswari, Mandapaka

    2015-01-01

    The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)—2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1–2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18–22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods. PMID:25671564

  16. Model and scenario variations in predicted number of generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on peanut during future climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Swathi, Pettem; Rao, Chitiprolu Anantha Rama; Rao, K V; Raju, B M K; Srinivas, Karlapudi; Manimanjari, Dammu; Maheswari, Mandapaka

    2015-01-01

    The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)-2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1-2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18-22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.

  17. Future Generation Magneto-Optical Media from a Manufacturing Point of View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Norio

    1993-11-01

    Future-generation magneto-optical (MO) media are studied from a manufacturing point of view. The first priority to expand MO media application is to realize low-cost technology. Of course, high capacity and high-speed capability are necessary to compete with other memories. Non-overwriting media provide a major stream for higher capacity disks such as 2×(two times the memory capacity of the first-generation disk) and 3×, because of their cost-effective production line using fine-tuned, already-repaid sputtering machines. Concerning overwriting schemes, field modulation media are very attractive in terms of media cost and high-density recording, but is limited to a single-sided disk. Light intensity modulation has an advantage for high-speed overwriting. In this paper, I propose an attractive scheme for a drastic reduction of cost per MByte. Field modulation writing and magnetic superresolution (MSR) readout are combined to increase memory density. More than 700 MB is possible on a 3.5-inch single-sided disk using a 780 nm current-generation laser.

  18. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2008-11-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months. Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  20. The CO2 inhibition of terrestrial isoprene emission significantly affects future ozone projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. J.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Zeng, G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Simulations of future tropospheric composition often include substantial increases in biogenic isoprene emissions arising from the Arrhenius-like leaf emission response and warmer surface temperatures, and from enhanced vegetation productivity in response to temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, a number of recent laboratory and field data have suggested a direct inhibition of leaf isoprene production by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, notwithstanding isoprene being produced from precursor molecules that include some of the primary products of carbon assimilation. The cellular mechanism that underlies the decoupling of leaf photosynthesis and isoprene production still awaits a full explanation but accounting for this observation in a dynamic vegetation model that contains a semi-mechanistic treatment of isoprene emissions has been shown to change future global isoprene emission estimates notably. Here we use these estimates in conjunction with a chemistry-climate model to compare the effects of isoprene simulations without and with a direct CO2-inhibition on late 21st century O3 and OH levels. The impact on surface O3 was significant. Including the CO2-inhibition of isoprene resulted in opposing responses in polluted (O3 decreases of up to 10 ppbv) vs. less polluted (O3 increases of up to 10 ppbv) source regions, due to isoprene nitrate and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) chemistry. OH concentration increased with relatively lower future isoprene emissions, decreasing methane lifetime by ~7 months (6.6%). Our simulations underline the large uncertainties in future chemistry and climate studies due to biogenic emission patterns and emphasize the problems of using globally averaged climate metrics (such as global radiative forcing) to quantify the atmospheric impact of reactive, heterogeneously distributed substances.

  1. Past and future climate patterns affecting temperate, sub-tropical and tropical horticultural crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...

  2. Trends that will affect your future...: nonlocal linkage and the social dimension.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2010-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  3. Trends that will affect your future... A secret in plain sight.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2009-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  4. Trends that will affect your future ... Mr South Whidbey, globalization, and the worship of profit.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2010-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives.

  5. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words.

    PubMed

    Portch, Emma; Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke 'specific' emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective 'context' is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., 'sadness', 'anger', Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or 'typical', action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., "If you are feeling 'sad' how likely would you be to act in the following way?" … 'cry.' Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring affective grounding, it may then be

  6. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  7. The Italian Spacegate: Study and innovative approaches to future generation transportation based on High Altitude Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Francesco; Bellomo, Alessandro; Bolle, Andrea; Vittori, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the pre-feasibility studies carried out in 2012 on the concept of sub orbital and hypersonic, high altitude flight in support of future generation transportation. Currently, while the High Altitude Flight is mostly instrumental to touristic purposes and emphasizes the so called Spaceports as futuristic, customers-luring airports featured with all the support services, the “Spacegate” concept deals with scheduled traveling in the upper part of the atmosphere between two points over the Earth surface, with significant reduction of the transfer time. The first part of the paper provides a theoretical approach to the matter, by proposing an “operational” mapping of the atmosphere as well as of the different kinds of flight occurring at High Altitude. The second part of the paper addresses the problem of the limited human capability of maintaining an active control of the vehicle during the re-entry phase and introduces the “Spacegate” concept as the conical portion of the atmosphere above the landing site, whose surface delimits the spiral-descending trajectories that the pilot can travel for a safe re-entry. This paper further outlines the results of the preliminary definition of top level operational requirements and derived architecture functional modules in support to the “Spacegate” implementation. Special attention was given to the favorable geographic and climatic conditions of Italy that make this Country suitable enough for future experimental sub orbital flights and related operations. An initial analysis was performed on the regulatory backbone that has to be built to properly operate High Altitude Flight vehicles in Italy according to the concept of an Italian “Spacegate”. A Preliminary Master Plan/Road Map for the “Spacegate” has been laid out, with special emphasis to selected near term activities and support infrastructures necessary to be carried out to better refine the study in preparation

  8. Quantifying future changes affecting dry and wet states of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is at the heart of many processes connected to water cycle, climate, ecosystem and societal conditions. The study we present investigates the impact of future climate change scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) for the 21st century on soil moisture intra- and inter- annual patterns, and for both wet and dry conditions. From a relatively simple analytical soil-moisture model we explore the temporal dynamics in long-term projected data series within and across 81 large catchments worldwide. We quantify changes in mean seasonal soil moisture and its inter-annual variability, as well as in the frequency of dry and wet events. Results show large changes in the intra-annual variability of the mean soil moisture, especially for the dry season. Also, in some parts of the globe, the frequency of dry events increases to nearly double by the end of the century. Finally, this study shows that both the direction of change in soil moisture conditions and its magnitude for mainly the dry conditions depend greatly on climate scenario (representative concentration pathway) assumed for the future.

  9. Solid images generated from UAVs to analyze areas affected by rock falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Manconi, Andrea; Allasia, Paolo; Baldo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The study of rock fall affected areas is usually based on the recognition of principal joints families and the localization of potential instable sectors. This requires the acquisition of field data, although as the areas are barely accessible and field inspections are often very dangerous. For this reason, remote sensing systems can be considered as suitable alternative. Recently, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been proposed as platform to acquire the necessary information. Indeed, mini UAVs (in particular in the multi-rotors configuration) provide versatility for the acquisition from different points of view a large number of high resolution optical images, which can be used to generate high resolution digital models relevant to the study area. By considering the recent development of powerful user-friendly software and algorithms to process images acquired from UAVs, there is now a need to establish robust methodologies and best-practice guidelines for correct use of 3D models generated in the context of rock fall scenarios. In this work, we show how multi-rotor UAVs can be used to survey areas by rock fall during real emergency contexts. We present two examples of application located in northwestern Italy: the San Germano rock fall (Piemonte region) and the Moneglia rock fall (Liguria region). We acquired data from both terrestrial LiDAR and UAV, in order to compare digital elevation models generated with different remote sensing approaches. We evaluate the volume of the rock falls, identify the areas potentially unstable, and recognize the main joints families. The use on is not so developed but probably this approach can be considered the better solution for a structural investigation of large rock walls. We propose a methodology that jointly considers the Structure from Motion (SfM) approach for the generation of 3D solid images, and a geotechnical analysis for the identification of joint families and potential failure planes.

  10. Study of methane hydrate as a future energy resource: low emission extraction and power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Yamada, H.; Kanda, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Okajima, J.; Iga, Y.; Komiya, A.; Maruyama, S.

    2016-08-01

    With the fast increase of world energy consumption in recent years, new and sustainable energy sources are becoming more and more important. Methane Hydrate is one promising candidate for the future energy supply of humankind, due to its vast existence in permafrost regions and near-coast seabed. This study is focused on the effective low emission utilization of methane hydrate from deep seabed. The Nankai Trough of Japan is taken as the target region in this study for methane hydrate extraction and utilization system design. Low emission system and power generation system with CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) processes are proposed and analyzed for production rate and electricity generation efficiency problem study. It is found that the gas production price can reach the current domestic natural gas supply price level if the production rate can be improved. The optimized system is estimated to have power efficiency about 35%. In addition, current development and analysis from micro-to-macro scale methane hydrate production and dissociation dynamics are also discussed into detail in this study.

  11. Thermoelectric Power Generation System for Future Hybrid Vehicles Using Hot Exhaust Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-Kook; Won, Byeong-Cheol; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Kim, Shi-Ho; Yoo, Jeong-Ho; Jang, Ju-Chan

    2011-05-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates a new exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for hybrid vehicles, using a thermoelectric module (TEM) and heat pipes to produce electric power. It proposes a new thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, working with heat pipes to produce electricity from a limited hot surface area. The current TEG system is directly connected to the exhaust pipe, and the amount of electricity generated by the TEMs is directly proportional to their heated area. Current exhaust pipes fail to offer a sufficiently large hot surface area for the high-efficiency waste heat recovery required. To overcome this, a new TEG system has been designed to have an enlarged hot surface area by the addition of ten heat pipes, which act as highly efficient heat transfer devices and can transmit the heat to many TEMs. As designed, this new waste heat recovery system produces a maximum 350 W when the hot exhaust gas heats the evaporator surface of the heat pipe to 170°C; this promises great possibilities for application of this technology in future energy-efficient hybrid vehicles.

  12. [In vitro generation of blood red cells from stem cells: a sketch of the future].

    PubMed

    Mazurier, Christelle; Douay, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Human adult pluripotent stem cells, stem cells of embryonic origin and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) provide cellular sources for new promising regenerative medicine approaches. Because these cells can be patient-specific, they allow considering a personalized medicine appropriate to the diagnosis of each. The generation of cultured red blood cells (cRBC) derived from stem cells is emblematic of personalized medicine. Indeed, these cells have the advantage of being selected according to a blood phenotype of interest and they may provide treatments to patients in situation of impossible transfusion (alloimmunized patients, rare phenotypes). Essential progresses have established proof of concept for this approach, still a concept some years ago. From adult stem cells, all steps of upstream research were successfully achieved, including the demonstration of the feasibility of injection into human. This leads us to believe that Red Blood Cells generated in vitro from stem cells will be the future players of blood transfusion. However, although theoretically ideal, these stem cells raise many biological challenges to overcome, although some tracks are identified. PMID:27286576

  13. Approaches to Future Generation Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels: Quantum Dots, Arrays, and Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Semonin, O.; Luther, J.; Beard, M.; Johnson, J.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A.

    2012-01-01

    One potential, long-term approach to more efficient and lower cost future generation solar cells for solar electricity and solar fuels is to utilize the unique properties of quantum dots (QDs) to control the relaxation pathways of excited states to enhance multiple exciton generation (MEG). We have studied MEG in close-packed PbSe QD arrays where the QDs are electronically coupled in the films and thus exhibit good transport while still maintaining quantization and MEG. We have developed simple, all-inorganic solution-processable QD solar cells that produce large short-circuit photocurrents and power conversion efficiencies above 5% via nanocrystalline p-n junctions. These solar cells show QYs for photocurrent that exceed 100% in the photon energy regions where MEG is possible; the photocurrent MEG QYs as a function of photon energy match those determined via time-resolved spectroscopy Recent analyses of the major effect of MEG combined with solar concentration on the conversion efficiency of solar cells will also be discussed.

  14. Glycemic targets in pregnancies affected by diabetes: historical perspective and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2015-01-01

    The definition of optimal glycemic control in pregnancies affected by diabetes remains enigmatic. Diabetes phenotypes are heterogeneous. Moreover, fetal macrosomia insidiously occurs even with excellent glycemic control. Current blood glucose (BG) targets (FBG ≤95, 1-h post-prandial <140, 2 h <120 mg/dL) have improved perinatal outcomes, but arguably they have not normalized. The conventional management approach has been to replicate a pattern of glycemia in normal pregnancy. Although these patterns are lower than previously appreciated, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) has never compared current vs. lower glucose targets powered on maternal/fetal outcomes. This paper provides historical context to the current targets by reviewing evidence supporting their evolution. Using lower targets (FBG <90, 1 h <122, 2 h <110, mean BG ≤95 mg/dL) may help normalize outcomes, but phenotypic differences (type 1 vs. type 2 vs. gestational diabetes) might require different glycemic goals. There remains a critical need for well-designed RCTs to confirm optimal glycemic control that minimizes both small for and large for gestational age across pregnancies affected by diabetes. PMID:25398204

  15. Domestic and world trends affecting the future of aviation (1980 - 2000), appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of variables affecting aviation in the United States during the last fifth of the twentieth century. A series of key trends relating to economic, social, political, technological, ecological, and environmental developments are identified and discussed with relation to their possible effects on aviation. From this analysis a series of scenarios is developed representing an array of possibilities ranging from severe economic depression and high international tension on the one hand to a world of detente which enjoys an unprecedented economic growth rate and relaxation of tensions on the other. A scenario is presented which represents the manner in which events will most probably develop and their effect on the aviation industry.

  16. Current developments affecting future availability of oil and gas in the free world

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1981-03-17

    This review focuses on developments during the last 18 months likely to affect the availability of oil and gas in coming decades. These developments include new discoveries (Hibernia, Beaufort Sea, Ivory Coast, the Western and Eastern Overthrust Belts, and the Gulf of Suez). They also include new energy policies of both producer and consumer nations that will ultimately affect supply. New policies and a rapidly increasing domestic demand may stabilize Mexico's exports at their present level, even if production reaches 4 to 5 million barrels per day (b/d). Canada's new policy toward foreign oil companies operating within her borders may well stifle exploration and investment in both oil and tar sand deposits. OPEC contract and pricing schemes are profoundly altering distribution systems and markets. OPEC plans to allocate oil arbitrarily in times of shortage could disrupt the industrial world. Inability to reassign oil contracted for from OPEC nations is forcing buyers to increase storage capacity. The oil inventories reported are not equivalent to availability, since 50 to 90% is essentially unavailable. Thus, stock equivalent to 110 days of imports may include only a few weeks of primary usable stocks. Only Sweden and South Africa have federally owned oil reserves that could meet demand for periods of months or years. Natural gas from the USSR will probably comprise 30% of Western Europe's total supply in the 1990s, if plans to import gas from the Yamal Peninsula come to fruition. Soviet gas is seen as an acceptable alternative to undependable OPEC oil supplies and similarly unreliable gas supplies from North Africa. However, the proposed, increased dependency on the USSR may add a new dimension to Soviet and Western European politics.

  17. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  18. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  19. Next-generation sequencing: the future of molecular genetics in poultry production and food safety.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, S; Hanning, I; Pendleton, Sean; D'Souza, Doris

    2013-02-01

    The era of molecular biology and automation of the Sanger chain-terminator sequencing method has led to discovery and advances in diagnostics and biotechnology. The Sanger methodology dominated research for over 2 decades, leading to significant accomplishments and technological improvements in DNA sequencing. Next-generation high-throughput sequencing (HT-NGS) technologies were developed subsequently to overcome the limitations of this first generation technology that include higher speed, less labor, and lowered cost. Various platforms developed include sequencing-by-synthesis 454 Life Sciences, Illumina (Solexa) sequencing, SOLiD sequencing (among others), and the Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing technologies that use different detection principles. As technology advances, progress made toward third generation sequencing technologies are being reported, which include Nanopore Sequencing and real-time monitoring of PCR activity through fluorescent resonant energy transfer. The advantages of these technologies include scalability, simplicity, with increasing DNA polymerase performance and yields, being less error prone, and even more economically feasible with the eventual goal of obtaining real-time results. These technologies can be directly applied to improve poultry production and enhance food safety. For example, sequence-based (determination of the gut microbial community, genes for metabolic pathways, or presence of plasmids) and function-based (screening for function such as antibiotic resistance, or vitamin production) metagenomic analysis can be carried out. Gut microbialflora/communities of poultry can be sequenced to determine the changes that affect health and disease along with efficacy of methods to control pathogenic growth. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the principles of these current technologies and their potential application to improve poultry production and food safety as well as public health.

  20. Concentrated solar power generation: Firm and dispatchable capacity for Brazil's solar future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Jan; Haasz, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    The Brazilian electricity mix is currently dominated by renewable energy forms, foremost hydropower. Large additional capacity demands are expected in the mid-term future but additional potential for hydro power is limited. In addition it is planned to construct more than 17 GW of wind power and additional capacity of photovoltaics (PV). Due to the fluctuating nature of such renewables, however, wind and PV are hardly able to provide firm capacity. Concentrated solar power (CSP) might be a feasible option to provide firm and dispatchable capacity at low carbon emissions. This study analyses the opportunities for integrating CSP into the Brazilian energy system. Making use of the TiPS-B model, a novel application of the optimization model generator TIMES, we compare different climate protection strategies with a reference scenario and analyze the contribution of CSP to the electricity mix. The analysis covers various types of CSP power plants with molten salt energy storage where we look at possible dispatch strategies considering the fluctuations in electricity supply and use. The consideration of solar water heaters (SWH) is the first step to transfer the power system model to an energy system model that is capable of showing the benefits of energy saving measures on the demand side. It can be demonstrated that the Brazilian power system is likely to change significantly in future. This development would go hand in hand with a strong increase in carbon emissions if no mitigation actions are taken and fossil fueled power plants are used to fill the gap in capacity. CSP power plants are found as a feasible alternative for covering the demand while taking carbon mitigation actions. In a scenario, aiming at 4 and 2 degrees global warming, CSP provides for 7.6 GW and 14.6 GW capacity in 2050, respectively. Different storage configurations are used to provide energy in the evening hours to cover the demand peak providing a strong benefit over photovoltaic electricity

  1. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    PubMed

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier. PMID:24548171

  2. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    PubMed

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier.

  3. Future increase in temperature more than decrease in litter quality can affect microbial litter decomposition in streams.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Verónica; Chauvet, Eric

    2011-09-01

    The predicted increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration for this century is expected to lead to increases in temperature and changes in litter quality that can affect small woodland streams, where water temperature is usually low and allochthonous organic matter constitutes the basis of the food web. We have assessed the individual and interactive effect of water temperature (5 and 10°C) and alder litter quality produced under ambient CO(2) levels (ambient litter) or under CO(2) concentrations predicted for 2050 (elevated litter) on litter decomposition and on fungal activity and assemblage structure. Litter decomposition rates and fungal respiration rates were significantly faster at 10 than at 5°C, but they were not affected by litter quality. Litter quality affected mycelial biomass accrual at 5 but not at 10°C, while increases in temperature stimulated biomass accrual on ambient but not on elevated litter. A similar pattern was observed for conidial production. All variables were stimulated on elevated litter at 10°C (future scenario) compared with ambient litter at 5°C (present scenario), but interactions between temperature and litter quality were additive. Temperature was the factor that most strongly affected the structure of aquatic hyphomycete assemblages. Our results indicate that if future increases in atmospheric CO(2) lead to only slight modifications in litter quality, the litter decomposition and fungal activities and community structure will be strongly controlled by increased water temperature. This may have serious consequences for aquatic systems as faster litter decomposition may lead to food depletion for higher trophic levels. PMID:21461934

  4. Next-generation environmental diversity surveys of foraminifera: preparing the future.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Esling, P

    2014-10-01

    Foraminifera are commonly defined as marine testate protists, and their diversity is mainly assessed on the basis of the morphology of their agglutinated or mineralized tests. Diversity surveys based on environmental DNA (eDNA) have dramatically changed this view by revealing an unexpected diversity of naked and organic-walled lineages as well as detecting foraminiferal lineages in soil and freshwater environments. Moreover, single-cell analyses have allowed discrimination among genetically distinctive types within almost every described morphospecies. In view of these studies, the foraminiferal diversity appeared to be largely underestimated, but its accurate estimation was impeded by the low speed and coverage of a cloning-based eDNA approach. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, these limitations disappeared in favor of exhaustive descriptions of foraminiferal diversity in numerous samples. Yet, the biases and errors identified in early HTS studies raised some questions about the accuracy of HTS data and their biological interpretation. Among the most controversial issues affecting the reliability of HTS diversity estimates are (1) the impact of technical and biological biases, (2) the sensitivity and specificity of taxonomic sequence assignment, (3) the ability to distinguish rare species, and (4) the quantitative interpretation of HTS data. Here, we document the lessons learned from previous HTS surveys and present the current advances and applications focusing on foraminiferal eDNA. We discuss the problems associated with HTS approaches and predict the future trends and avenues that hold promises for surveying foraminiferal diversity accurately and efficiently.

  5. An Idea for Generating Diversity Conversations: Physics Jeopardy and the Future Faces of Physics Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, Kendra; White, Gary

    2008-10-01

    Is there a way to engage typical physics undergraduates in a conversation about under-represented groups in physics that doesn't result in rolled-eyes or fingers-in-the-ears? The Society of Physics Students (SPS) has begun an experiment using a jeopardy-like game at physics meetings in an attempt to generate conversations about diversity. The physics jeopardy game is part of a "Future Faces of Physics" kit that includes a variety of materials that are of interest to those wanting to address under-represented audiences in physics, such as video clips exhibiting common physics words in sign language, tactile representations of the lunar surface for blind students, guidelines regarding lab procedures for the wheel-chair bound, and the book, Einstein on Race and Racism with a challenge letter directed at SPS chapters from the authors. While attempts to assess the impact of the game are modest, we report anecdotally some of the qualitative features seen in the discussions when the game is played. We also strive to indulge in a few physics jeopardy game moments to give a sense of how the game works. If you are hosting a meeting, large or small, and would like to receive this kit for use at your meeting, notify Kendra Rand, SPS Program Coordinator at krand@aip.org.

  6. The Impact of the Next Generation Science Standards on Future Professional Development and Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn

    2013-06-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards will have a profound impact on the future science education of students and professional development for teachers. The science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas laid out in the Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2011) will change the focus and methods of how we prepare teachers to meet these new standards. Extending beyond just the use of inquiry in the classroom, teachers will need support designing and implementing integrated experiences for students that require them to apply knowledge of content and practices. Integrating the three dimensions central to the new standards will pose curricular challenges and create opportunities for innovative space science projects and instruction. The science research and technology community will have an important role in supporting authentic classroom practices as well as training and support of teachers in these new ways of presenting science and technology. These changes will require a new focus for teacher professional development and new ways to research impacts of teacher training and changes in classroom practice. In addition, new and innovative tools will be needed to assess mastery of students’ knowledge of practices and the ways teachers effectively help students achieve these new goals. The astronomy education community has much to offer as K-12 and undergraduate level science educators rethink and redefine what it means to be scientifically literate and figure out how to truly measure the success of these new ways of teaching science.

  7. Cardioprotective cryptides derived from fish and other food sources: generation, application, and future markets.

    PubMed

    Mora, Leticia; Hayes, Maria

    2015-02-11

    The primary function of dietary protein is to provide amino acids for protein synthesis. However, protein is also a source of latent bioactive peptides or cryptides with potential health benefits including the control and regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension or high blood pressure is one of the major, controllable risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is also implicated in the development of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and end-stage diabetes. Cryptides can act on various systems of the body including the circulatory, gastrointestinal (GI), nervous, skeletal, and respiratory systems. A number of studies carried out to date have examined the health benefits of food protein isolates and hydrolysates. This review provides an overview of existing blood pressure regulating peptides and products derived from fish and other protein sources and hydrolysates. It discusses the methods used currently to generate and identify cryptides from these sources and their application in food and pharmaceutical products. It also looks at the current market for protein-derived peptides and peptide-containing products, legislation governing their use, and the future development of research in this area. PMID:25597264

  8. Experimental testicular tissue banking to generate spermatogenesis in the future: A multidisciplinary team approach.

    PubMed

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; McLean, Thomas W; Kogan, Stanley; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Crowell, Kathryn; Yousif, Mustafa Q; Hodges, Steve J; Petty, John; Pranikoff, Thomas; Sieren, Leah; Zeller, Kristen; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-15

    Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) loss due to cancer treatment, developmental disorder or genetic abnormality may cause permanent infertility. Cryopreservation of ejaculated sperm is an effective method of fertility preservation in adult males at risk of infertility. However this is not an option in pre-pubertal boys because spermatogenesis has not yet started, and it is difficult in adolescents who are not sexually mature. Therefore testicular tissue cryopreservation to preserve SSCs for future generation of spermatogenesis, either in vivo or in vitro, could be an option for these groups of patients. Although SSC transplantation has been successful in several species including non-human primates, it is still experimental in humans. There are several remaining concerns which need to be addressed before initiating trials of human SSC autotransplantation. Establishment of a testicular tissue banking system is a fundamental step towards using SSC technology as a fertility preservation method. It is important to understand the consultation, harvesting the testicular tissue, histological evaluation, cryopreservation, and long term storage aspects. We describe here a multidisciplinary approach to establish testicular tissue banking for males at risk of infertility.

  9. A Review of the Empirical Generations at Work Research: Implications for School Leaders and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Most schools currently employ three generations of teachers and leaders: Baby Boomers (1946-65), Generation X (1966-80) and Generation Y (1981-2003). However, the implications for school leaders of multi-generational schools remain relatively unexplored. This paper examines the empirical multi-disciplinary generations at work evidence to identify…

  10. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  12. A humanitarian preparedness toolbox: estimating flood affected figures and exposure of livelihoods to future floods events, using freely available datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; von Hagen, Craig; Peppino Disperati, Stefano; Hermansyah, Budi; Shaheen, Imra; Jan, Qasim; Berloffa, Andrea; Khan, Ruby; Fakhre, Alam

    2013-04-01

    Pakistan is highly disaster-prone, with three major flood disasters occurred in the past three years, yet major losses are not inevitable. Farming-based families still struggling to recover from 2010 and 2011 floods have again faced another bad monsoon season in 2012. Meanwhile, the likelihood of yet more natural disasters in the future is high as the phenomenon of climate change is increasing the prevalence of extreme weather conditions. Even with less rainfall, the risk of flooding this year remains high, while many villages have not fully recovered from the 2011-2012 floods. It is of utmost importance to support the most vulnerable rural communities to recover their flood-affected livelihoods. In the meantime, prioritizing disaster preparedness through flood hazard and population mapping is crucial to ensure that realistic contingency plans are in place to deliver an effective and timely response and reduce the impact of floods before they strike. To increase preparedness in future floods, an integrated approach that builds the resilience of flood affected community and enhances emergency preparedness based on reliable data is critical. We present here the innovative methodology developed for estimating population and livelihood that could potentially be affected by a future flood scenario, as well as a methodology for knowing where these people are located, along with an overview of their livelihood pattern. This project has used only freely available dataset, due to the urgency of providing a toolbox to the humanitarian community and the absence of readily available detailed information on natural hazards and exposure in Pakistan. The estimated figures resulting from this project, would provide the Food Security stakeholders with adequate information and data for programming a tailored response in case of floods during future monsoon season. For the purpose of preparedness, understanding the risks, and its potential magnitude, is crucial to provide decision

  13. American Indian Millennium: Renewing Our Way of Life for Future Generations. Proceedings (Ithaca, New York, November 29-December 2, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiro, Jose, Ed.; Johnson, Tim, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In November 2001, elders, youth, educators, culture bearers, and community members came together to speak from within their own experiences about the critical issues and challenges facing Native people in the 21st century and to envision the positive thinking required for future generations. This proceedings documents 34 oral presentations and…

  14. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  15. Temporary versus permanent group membership: how the future prospects of newcomers affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence.

    PubMed

    Rink, Floor A; Ellemers, Naomi

    2009-06-01

    Three studies examine how the future prospects of new group members affect newcomer acceptance and newcomer influence. In Study 1, participants anticipate accepting temporary newcomers less easily than permanent newcomers because they expect temporary newcomers to differ from the group. In Study 2, the effects of newcomer entry in three-person groups are examined. Results show that groups perceived temporary newcomers as more involved in a judgmental decision-making process than permanent newcomers. In Study 3, a hidden profile task confirms that temporary newcomers indeed shared more unique knowledge during discussions than permanent newcomers and that this enhanced the groups' decision quality. However, compared to permanent newcomers, temporary newcomers caused teams to experience more conflict and less group identification, illustrating the tension between innovative group performance and group cohesion. The results are discussed in light of the social identity perspective and research on minority influence.

  16. Talkin' 'Bout Meta-Generation: ACT UP History and Queer Futurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The transmission of ACT UP's movement histories is indispensable to the potential for what Jose Esteban Munoz calls "queer futurity," or "a temporal arrangement in which the past is a field of possibility in which subjects can act in the present in the service of a new futurity." Roger Hallas argues that ACT UP's material and visual archive alone…

  17. Cardio-Pulmonary Parasitic Nematodes Affecting Cats in Europe: Unraveling the Past, Depicting the Present, and Predicting the Future

    PubMed Central

    Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Various cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes infecting cats have recently been fascinating and stimulating the attention of the Academia, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary practitioners. This is the case of the metastrongyloids: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, the trichuroid: Capillaria aerophila (syn. Eucoleus aerophilus), and the filarioid: Dirofilaria immitis. Apparently, these parasites have been emerging in several European countries, thus, gaining an important role in feline parasitology and clinical practice. Under a practical standpoint, a sound knowledge of the biological, epidemiological, and clinical impact of cardio-respiratory parasitoses affecting cats, in addition to a potential risk of introduction, establishment, and spreading of “new” parasites in Europe is mandatory in order to understand the present and future impact for feline medicine and to address new strategies of control and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to review the current knowledge of heartworm and lungworm infections in cats, discussing and comparing past and present issues, and predicting possible future scenarios. PMID:26664917

  18. Today's Millennial Generation: A Look Ahead to the Future They Create

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2009-01-01

    It's 2009: The current millennial generation, the i-Kids, the "Digital Natives," the Net Generation students are now approximately ages 8 to 27. Many of these students are entering their years of career exploration while others are actively involved in career and technical education (CTE) programs in school or college. The millennial generation is…

  19. Stochastic Hourly Weather Generator HOWGH: Validation and its Use in Pest Modelling under Present and Future Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Hirschi, M.; Spirig, C.

    2014-12-01

    To quantify impact of the climate change on a specific pest (or any weather-dependent process) in a specific site, we may use a site-calibrated pest (or other) model and compare its outputs obtained with site-specific weather data representing present vs. perturbed climates. The input weather data may be produced by the stochastic weather generator. Apart from the quality of the pest model, the reliability of the results obtained in such experiment depend on an ability of the generator to represent the statistical structure of the real world weather series, and on the sensitivity of the pest model to possible imperfections of the generator. This contribution deals with the multivariate HOWGH weather generator, which is based on a combination of parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Here, HOWGH is used to generate synthetic hourly series of three weather variables (solar radiation, temperature and precipitation) required by a dynamic pest model SOPRA to simulate the development of codling moth. The contribution presents results of the direct and indirect validation of HOWGH. In the direct validation, the synthetic series generated by HOWGH (various settings of its underlying model are assumed) are validated in terms of multiple climatic characteristics, focusing on the subdaily wet/dry and hot/cold spells. In the indirect validation, we assess the generator in terms of characteristics derived from the outputs of SOPRA model fed by the observed vs. synthetic series. The weather generator may be used to produce weather series representing present and future climates. In the latter case, the parameters of the generator may be modified by the climate change scenarios based on Global or Regional Climate Models. To demonstrate this feature, the results of codling moth simulations for future climate will be shown. Acknowledgements: The weather generator is developed and validated within the frame of projects WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry

  20. Future trends in electrical energy generation economics in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. W.; Fox, G. R.; Shah, R. P.; Stewart, P. J.; Vermilyea, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Developments related to the economics of coal-fired systems in the U.S. are mainly considered. The historical background of the U.S. electric generation industry is examined and the U.S. electrical generation characteristics in the year 1975 are considered. It is pointed out that coal-fired power plants are presently the largest source of electrical energy generation in the U.S. Questions concerning the availability and quality of coal are investigated. Currently there are plans for converting some 50 large oil and gas-fired generating plants to coal, and it is expected that coal will be the fuel used in almost all fossil-fired base load additions to generating capacity. Aspects of advanced energy conversion from coal are discussed, taking into account the performance and economic potential of the energy conversion systems.

  1. Characterization of deuterium beam operation on RHEPP-1 for future neutron generation applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Schall, Michael; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Renk, Timothy Jerome

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the potential for neutron generation using the 1 MeV RHEPP-1 intense pulsed ion beam facility at Sandia National Laboratories for a number of emerging applications. Among these are interrogation of cargo for detection of special nuclear materials (SNM). Ions from single-stage sources driven by pulsed power represent a potential source of significant neutron bursts. While a number of applications require higher ion energies (e.g. tens of MeV) than that provided by RHEPP-1, its ability to generate deuterium beams allow for neutron generation at and below 1 MeV. This report details the successful generation and characterization of deuterium ion beams, and their use in generating up to 3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons into 4{pi} per 5kA ion pulse.

  2. Global River Flood Exposure Assessment Under Climate Change: How Many Asians Are Affected By Flood in the Future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Iwami, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Physical exposure assessment in this study shows a methodological possibility to be used as a preliminary case study based on a global approach for flood risk assessment consisting of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The purpose of this preliminary study is to estimate potential flood inundation areas as a hazard (both present and future condition), and flood exposure change over the Asia region with consideration of climate change impacts. A flood hazard was characterized by inundation area at the high-resolution of 500 m, location (lowland around rivers), and probability (floods with the 50-year return period). This study introduced a new approach to moderate the global flood hazard and the exposure calculation with significant limitations of current models for continental-scale flood risk assessment by using the flood inundation depth (FID) model based on Manning's steady, uniform flow resistance formula in extreme case during 25-year simulations based on the global BTOP distributed hydrological model using precipitations from the MRI-AGCM 3.2S with SRES A1B emissions scenarios for present-day (daily data from 1980 to 2004), and end-of-the-21st century (daily data from 2075 to 2099). It effectively simplified the complexity between hydrological and topological variables in a flood risk-prone area with assumption of the effects of natural or artificial levees. Exposure was obtained by combining the hazards at the same resolution to identify affected population by calculating with urbanization ratio and population change ratio of Asian countries from a distributed data of global population (Landscan by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory). As a result of the physical exposure assessment from present to the end-of-the-21st century, potential hazards area and affected population are projected to increase 4.2 % (approximately 75,900 km2) and 3.4 % (approximately 35.1 million people) respectively, because Asian population increases about 43% in the future. We found

  3. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  4. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment. PMID:27585068

  5. Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, F. J.

    A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (α, n) reactions between the α particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious α disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

  6. Stimulus-dependent amygdala involvement in affective theory of mind generation.

    PubMed

    Schmitgen, Mike M; Walter, Henrik; Drost, Sarah; Rückl, Sarah; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Successful social interaction requires knowledge about another person's emotional states, represented in an affective theory of mind (ToM). This information can be acquired either directly or indirectly, i.e., by observing emotional facial expressions (EFE) or indirectly by inferring emotions through cognitive perspective taking. Therefore, it is of great interest how the function of the cortical ToM network and the limbic system in affective ToM depends on the presence of facial expressions. We addressed this question in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The experimental paradigm applied a well-established ToM cartoon task to test functional effects of EFE on the activation of the amygdala and the anterior ToM network during affective ToM judgments. During the task, 22 healthy participants had to judge the changes of the emotional state of the stories protagonist in the presence or absence of EFE. After quality control, 21 data sets entered the final analyses. The presence of EFE during affective ToM judgments was associated with shorter reaction times as well as increased activation of the right amygdala, most probably located in the basolateral nucleus (BLA), coincident with reduced activation of ToM-related regions of the prefrontal cortex. Psychophysiological interactions (PPI) revealed EFE-dependent modulation of connectivity between the right BLA and the contralateral ToM network regions. In combination with the functional interaction of EFE and affective ToM in the right amygdala, our data suggest a complementary but parallel organization of EFE processing and affective ToM. In this framework, the amygdala seems to act as an EFE detector when affective ToM judgments are demanded. Additionally, the facts that EFE induced exclusively right-sided amygdala activation and modulated the connectivity with the contralateral ToM network support the idea of a functional lateralization of stimulus driven components of affective ToM. PMID:26803059

  7. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Edith M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0–1.75 m s−1 and ran at speeds of 2.0–5.0 m s−1. We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force–length and force–velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle–tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running. PMID:23470656

  8. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edith M; Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L

    2013-06-01

    The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle-tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0-1.75 m s(-1) and ran at speeds of 2.0-5.0 m s(-1). We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force-length and force-velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle-tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running.

  9. Educational Generations and the Futures of Adult Education: A Nordic Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antikainen, Ari; Kauppila, Juha

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of life stories of Finnish adults identified three cohorts with distinct life/education experiences (born pre-1935, 1936-55, post-1955). Core experiences were summarized as narratives of national culture and economic structural change. Three future scenarios for adult education were developed: formal rationality and bureaucracy, material…

  10. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  11. Changes in forcing factors affecting coastal and shallow water erosion in the future Arctic climate change projections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Razumov, Sergey; Brovkin, Victor; Ilyina, Tatiana; Grigoriev, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Driving factors of seabed and coastal erosion in the Arctic can be classified as thermal and mechanical. Thermal factors such as air and ocean temperatures affect the seabed and coastal ground temperatures. Mechanical factors such as ocean currents and surface gravity waves contribute to the seabed and costal erosion due to shear stress. Due to polar amplification, the Arctic experiences strong increase in air and water temperature, sea-ice loss and changes in the ocean and atmospheric circulation, temperature and wind distribution. These climatic changes lead to changes in factors driving seabed and coastal erosion, which is expected to accelerate in the shallow Arctic regions such as the Laptev sea and East Siberian sea. In these regions, the coastal line to a large extent consists of frozen rocks, sediments and organic soils including ground ice. The increase of erosion rate of the coastal line will increase the release of organic and inorganic matter from thawed permafrost. Dynamics of thermal and mechanical drivers of seabed and coastal erosion in the present and future climate change (RCP8.5 scenario) simulated by the CMIP5 version of the MPI Earth system model and wave model WAM will be presented. Special attention will be given to changes in the air temperature, wind dynamics and development of new waves system in the ``ice-free'' Arctic and its role in the seabed and coastal erosion.

  12. Next-generation invaders? Hotspots for naturalised sleeper weeds in Australia under future climates.

    PubMed

    Duursma, Daisy Englert; Gallagher, Rachael V; Roger, Erin; Hughes, Lesley; Downey, Paul O; Leishman, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    Naturalised, but not yet invasive plants, pose a nascent threat to biodiversity. As climate regimes continue to change, it is likely that a new suite of invaders will emerge from the established pool of naturalised plants. Pre-emptive management of locations that may be most suitable for a large number of potentially invasive plants will help to target monitoring, and is vital for effective control. We used species distribution models (SDM) and invasion-hotspot analysis to determine where in Australia suitable habitat may occur for 292 naturalised plants. SDMs were built in MaxEnt using both climate and soil variables for current baseline conditions. Modelled relationships were projected onto two Representative Concentration Pathways for future climates (RCP 4.5 and 8.5), based on seven global climate models, for two time periods (2035, 2065). Model outputs for each of the 292 species were then aggregated into single 'hotspot' maps at two scales: continental, and for each of Australia's 37 ecoregions. Across Australia, areas in the south-east and south-west corners of the continent were identified as potential hotspots for naturalised plants under current and future climates. These regions provided suitable habitat for 288 and 239 species respectively under baseline climates. The areal extent of the continental hotspot was projected to decrease by 8.8% under climates for 2035, and by a further 5.2% by 2065. A similar pattern of hotspot contraction under future climates was seen for the majority of ecoregions examined. However, two ecoregions - Tasmanian temperate forests and Australian Alps montane grasslands - showed increases in the areal extent of hotspots of >45% under climate scenarios for 2065. The alpine ecoregion also had an increase in the number of naturalised plant species with abiotically suitable habitat under future climate scenarios, indicating that this area may be particularly vulnerable to future incursions by naturalised plants.

  13. Co-benefits and trade-offs between future electricity generation and water use on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, N.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential to electricity generation. Power plant cooling water is responsible for 40-50% of total freshwater withdrawals in Europe (Rübbelke et al., 2011) and the United States (Kenny et al., 2009). In accordance with growing demands for electricity generation, water demands could be increased. There is concern that the water demands for electricity generation could compete with other major water users. Additionally, many countries are required reviewing energy policies to mitigate climate change. Thermal power replaced low carbon power like renewable energy, nuclear power, Carbon Capture and Storage as a mitigation technology. However, influences of such climate change mitigation technologies on water demands are still uncertain. In this study, we calculated freshwater demands for electricity generation by using the data set of future electricity generation in the twenty-first century which estimated by the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model, and assessed the overall effects of electricity generation on water demands under the Shared Socio-Economic Pathways and the Representative Concentration Pathways which were adopted by IPCC AR5. Water demands for electricity generation depends on cooling types, such as once-through cooling and recirculating cooling. We also took into account cooling system pathways. The result might be useful for deciding energy policies which aim for reduction of water demands, especially in regions experiencing water scarcity.

  14. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    PubMed

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  15. Factors affecting alkalinity generation by successive alkalinity-producing systems: regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Jage, C R; Zipper, C E; Noble, R

    2001-01-01

    Use of successive alkalinity-producing systems (SAPS) for treatment of acidic mine drainage (AMD) has grown in recent years. However, inconsistent performance has hampered widespread acceptance of this technology. This research was conducted to determine the influence of system design and influent AMD chemistry on net alkalinity generation by SAPS. Monthly observations were obtained from eight SAPS cells in southern West Virginia and southwestern Virginia. Analysis of these data revealed strong, positive correlations between net alkalinity generation and three variables: the natural log of limestone residence time, influent dissolved Fe concentration, and influent non-Mn acidity. A statistical model was constructed to describe SAPS performance. Subsequent analysis of data obtained from five systems in western Pennsylvania (calibration data set) was used to reevaluate the model form, and the statistical model was adjusted using the combined data sets. Limestone residence time exhibited a strong, positive logarithmic correlation with net alkalinity generation, indicating net alkalinity generation occurs most rapidly within the first few hours of AMD-limestone contact and additional residence time yields diminishing gains in treatment. Influent Fe and non-Mn acidity concentrations both show strong positive linear relationships with net alkalinity generation, reflecting the increased solubility of limestone under acidic conditions. These relationships were present in the original and the calibration data sets, separately, and in the statistical model derived from the combined data set. In the combined data set, these three factors accounted for 68% of the variability in SAPS systems performance. PMID:11401248

  16. "We're not in Oz anymore": shifting generational perspectives and tensions of gay community, identity, and future.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Dustin Bradley

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyzes the writings from a gay male intergenerational project, wherein the process of generating creative prose, poetry, and fiction are used to explore differing understandings of age, aging, and future across gay male cohorts in Chicago. The project suggests one's age strongly informs one's perception of power dynamics and one's perceived access to power. Specifically, youthist logics and lingering cultural myths surrounding the aging gay male shape and constrain intergenerational relations. Furthermore, the study marks and theorizes an emergent generational divide in the conceptualization and articulation of "gay identity" as well as how this identity is understood in relation to "the gay community." The essay concludes by examining the implications and potential of this research to expand models and logics for meaningful gay male intergenerational exchange, or a queered form of generativity. PMID:25102125

  17. "We're not in Oz anymore": shifting generational perspectives and tensions of gay community, identity, and future.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Dustin Bradley

    2014-01-01

    This essay analyzes the writings from a gay male intergenerational project, wherein the process of generating creative prose, poetry, and fiction are used to explore differing understandings of age, aging, and future across gay male cohorts in Chicago. The project suggests one's age strongly informs one's perception of power dynamics and one's perceived access to power. Specifically, youthist logics and lingering cultural myths surrounding the aging gay male shape and constrain intergenerational relations. Furthermore, the study marks and theorizes an emergent generational divide in the conceptualization and articulation of "gay identity" as well as how this identity is understood in relation to "the gay community." The essay concludes by examining the implications and potential of this research to expand models and logics for meaningful gay male intergenerational exchange, or a queered form of generativity.

  18. [Electrode configuration as a factor affecting electricity generation in air-cathode microbial fuel cell].

    PubMed

    You, Shi-Jie; Zhao, Qing-Liang; Jiang, Jun-Qiu

    2006-11-01

    In air-cathode microbial fuel cell (ACMFC), oxygen diffused into the reactor from cathode without PEM can be reduced as electron acceptor via aerobic respiration by facultative microorganisms, resulting in either a decreasing of power generation or electron loss. In this study, ACMFC1 and ACMFC2 with different electrode configuration were compared to examine power density and electron recovery from glucose. The results showed that ACMFC1 generated a maximum power density of 3 070mW/m3 with internal resistance of 302.141 and anode potential of -323mV; while maximum power density of 9 800mW/m3 for ACMFC2 was obtained with internal resistance of 107.79omega and anode potential of -442mV. ACMFC2 could sustain generating electricity for nearly 220 h (ERE of 30.1%), comparing with ACMFC1 of less than 50 h (ERE of 9.78%) under batch operation. Therefore, an improved design for electrode configuration of ACMFC can be performed to generate higher power with low internal resistance, meanwhile, achieve increasing electron recovery simultaneously.

  19. Four Generations of Machine Translation Research and Prospects for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Yorick

    This paper begins with a description of four generations of research in machine translation: the original efforts of 1957 to 1965 and three types of surviving and sometimes competing present projects. The three types of present projects include those relying on "brute force" methods involving larger and faster computers; those based on a…

  20. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  1. Multiple exciton generation in nanocrystal quantum dots--controversy, current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Binks, David J

    2011-07-28

    Multiple exciton generation is a process that can occur in quantum dots by which the energy of an absorbed photon in excess of the bandgap can be used to create one or more additional excitons instead of being wasted as heat. This effect has received considerable interest because it has the potential to significantly enhance the performance of solar cells, nanocrystal lasers, high speed electronic devices and photocatalysts. However, measuring the efficiency of multiple exciton generation is experimentally challenging and the results of these measurements have been the subject of some controversy. This Perspective describes the techniques used to determine the quantum yield of multiexcitons in nanocrystals and also details the experimental artefacts that can confuse these measurements and have been the source of much of the recent debate. The greater understanding of these artefacts that has emerged recently and the experimental techniques developed to eliminate their effects on quantum yield measurements will also be described. The efficiency of multiple exciton generation currently obtainable from nanocrystals and its potential impact on solar cell performance is assessed in the light of this improved experimental understanding. Whilst it is found the quantum yields thus far reported are insufficient to result in more than a modest increase in solar cell efficiency, an analysis of the expected performance of a nanocrystal engineered to maximise multiple exciton generation indicates that a significant improvement in solar cell performance is possible. Moreover, a nanocrystal design is proposed for optimised efficiency of multiple exciton generation which would allow its potential benefit to solar power production to be realised.

  2. Low power laser irradiation does not affect the generation of signals in a sensory receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeberg, T.; Zhou, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low power Helium-Neon (He-Ne) and Gallium-Arsenide (Ga-As) laser on the slowly adapting crustacean stretch receptor was studied. The results showed that low power laser irradiation did not affect the membrane potential of the stretch receptor. These results are discussed in relation to the use of low power laser irradiation on the skin overlaying acupuncture points in treatment of pain syndrome.

  3. NFPA, 1996 revisions to National Electrical Code, NFPA 110, and NFPA 99 that affect on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Bell, J.; Whittall, H.

    1995-12-31

    The three most important NFPA standards for the on-site power industry are: NFPA 70-The National Electrical Code, NFPA 110 Emergency and Standby Power Systems and NFPA 99-Health Care Facilities. This paper will cover the important revisions affecting on-site power generation systems for the 1996 editions. Each of the three authors is a member of one or more of the technical committees that have responsibility for writing these standards.

  4. Factors affecting eluation characteristics of sorption generators of technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Chernov, V. I.; Sadkin, V. L.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Rogov, A. S.; Nesterov, E. A.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Medvedeva, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the adsorbed mass of molybdenum on the width of eluation profiles of generators and the patterns of molybdenum distribution in the amount of chromatographic columns by scanning them on the germanium-gallium detector using collimating device are studied. The boundary conditions under which the maximum value of 99mTc yield from generators Ye = 1 are defined. After scanning the columns, it was found out that the degree of filling the columns with molybdenum Q and the value of its maximum adsorption depend naturally on the total weight of the adsorbed mass. In order to achieve the condition Ye = 1 the value of Q should be at least 85%.

  5. Infection before pregnancy affects immunity and response to social challenge in the next generation.

    PubMed

    Curno, Olivia; Reader, Tom; McElligott, Alan G; Behnke, Jerzy M; Barnard, Chris J

    2011-12-12

    Natural selection should favour parents that are able to adjust their offspring's life-history strategy and resource allocation in response to changing environmental and social conditions. Pathogens impose particularly strong and variable selective pressure on host life histories, and parental genes will benefit if offspring are appropriately primed to meet the immunological challenges ahead. Here, we investigated transgenerational immune priming by examining reproductive resource allocation by female mice in response to direct infection with Babesia microti prior to pregnancy. Female mice previously infected with B. microti gained more weight over pregnancy, and spent more time nursing their offspring. These offspring generated an accelerated response to B. microti as adults, clearing the infection sooner and losing less weight as a result of infection. They also showed an altered hormonal response to novel social environments, decreasing instead of increasing testosterone production upon social housing. These results suggest that a dominance-resistance trade-off can be mediated by cues from the previous generation. We suggest that strategic maternal investment in response to an infection leads to increased disease resistance in the following generation. Offspring from previously infected mothers downregulate investment in acquisition of social dominance, which in natural systems would reduce access to mating opportunities. In doing so, however, they avoid the reduced disease resistance associated with increased testosterone and dominance. The benefits of accelerated clearance of infection and reduced weight loss during infection may outweigh costs associated with reduced social dominance in an environment where the risk of disease is high.

  6. Current Grid Generation Strategies and Future Requirements in Hypersonic Vehicle Design, Analysis and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Prabhu, Dinesh; Loomis, Mark P.; Olynick, Dave; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in computational power enable computational fluid dynamic modeling of increasingly complex configurations. A review of grid generation methodologies implemented in support of the computational work performed for the X-38 and X-33 are presented. In strategizing topological constructs and blocking structures factors considered are the geometric configuration, optimal grid size, numerical algorithms, accuracy requirements, physics of the problem at hand, computational expense, and the available computer hardware. Also addressed are grid refinement strategies, the effects of wall spacing, and convergence. The significance of grid is demonstrated through a comparison of computational and experimental results of the aeroheating environment experienced by the X-38 vehicle. Special topics on grid generation strategies are also addressed to model control surface deflections, and material mapping.

  7. New Insights into the Generation of CD4 Memory May Shape Future Vaccine Strategies for Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Bautista, Bianca; Vong, Allen M.; McKinstry, Karl Kai; Strutt, Tara M.; Swain, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viral evolution presents a formidable challenge to vaccination due to the virus’ ability to rapidly mutate to evade immune responses. Live influenza infections generate large and diverse CD4 effector T cell responses that yield highly protective, long-lasting CD4 T cell memory that can target conserved viral epitopes. We review advances in our understanding of mechanisms involved in generating CD4 T cell responses against the influenza A virus (IAV), focusing on specialized follicular helper (TFH) and CD4 cytotoxic (ThCTL) effector subsets and on CD4 T cell memory. We also discuss two recent findings in context of enhancing vaccine responses. First, helper T cells require priming with APC secreting high levels of IL-6. Second, the transition of IAV-generated effectors to memory depends on IL-2, costimulation and antigen signals, just before effectors reach peak numbers, defined as the “memory checkpoint.” The need for these signals during the checkpoint could explain why many current influenza vaccines are poorly effective and elicit poor cellular immunity. We suggest that CD4 memory generation can be enhanced by re-vaccinating at this time. Our best hope lies in a universal vaccine that will not need to be formulated yearly against seasonal antigenically novel influenza strains and will also be protective against a pandemic strain. We suggest a vaccine approach that elicits a powerful T cell response, by initially inducing high levels of APC activation and later providing antigen at the memory checkpoint, may take us a step closer to such a universal influenza vaccine. PMID:27148257

  8. Comparative health and safety assessment of alternative future electrical-generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The report is an analysis of health and safety risks of seven alternative electrical generation systems, all of which have potential for commercial availability in the post-2000 timeframe. The systems are compared on the basis of expected public and occupational deaths and lost workdays per year associated with 1000 MWe average unit generation. Risks and their uncertainties are estimated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The technologies include: the SPS; a low-Btu coal gasification system with an open-cycle gas turbine combined with a steam topping cycle (CG/CC); a light water fission reactor system without fuel reprocessing (LWR); a liquid metal fast breeder fission reactor system (LMFBR); a central station terrestrial photovoltaic system (CTPV); and a first generation fusion system with magnetic confinement. For comparison with the baseload technologies, risk from a decentralized roof-top photovoltaic system with 6 kWe peak capacity and battery storage (DTPV) was also evaluated.

  9. Current status and future prospects of power generators using dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Seiki; Waki, Mikio; Kornbluh, Roy; Pelrine, Ron

    2011-12-01

    Electroactive polymer artificial muscle (EPAM), known collectively as dielectric elastomers in the literature, has been shown to offer unique capabilities as an actuator and is now being developed for a wide variety of generator applications. EPAM has several characteristics that make it potentially well suited for wave, water current, wind, human motion, and other environmental energy harvesting systems including a high energy density allowing for minimal EPAM material quantities, high energy conversion efficiency independent of frequency of operation and non-toxic and low-cost materials not susceptible to corrosion. Experiments have been performed on push-button and heel-mounted generator devices powered by human motion, ocean wave power harvesters mounted on buoys and water turbines. While the power output levels of such demonstration devices is small, the performance of these devices has supported the potential benefits of EPAM. For example, an electrical energy conversion efficiency of over 70% was achieved with small wave heights. The ability of EPAM to produce hydrogen fuel for energy storage was also demonstrated. Because the energy conversion principle of EPAM is capacitive in nature, the performance is largely independent of size and it should eventually be possible to scale up EPAM generators to the megawatt level to address a variety of electrical power needs.

  10. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  11. Institutional Profile: Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics and Drug Safety: educating future generations of healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Krynetskiy, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    The Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics and Drug Safety operates in the Temple University School of Pharmacy and serves as an educational and research facility for professional pharmacy students, graduate students, residents, postdoctoral fellows and faculties. The Center is involved in educational and investigational projects in a setting that includes an inner city research/teaching hospital and the Temple University Schools of Pharmacy, Medicine, Dentistry and Health Professions. The mission of the Haines Center is to facilitate the basic science approach to the problems of pharmacotherapy, and to provide education for future healthcare professionals in the genetics of drug response. With the expanding role of genetic analysis in preventing adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, we are working towards truly personalized pharmacotherapy that fully exploits the advances of modern biomedical science. PMID:23556444

  12. Detector Noise Susceptibility Issues for the Future Generation of High Energy Physics Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Esteban, C.; Iglesias, M.; Rivetta, C.; Arcega, F.J.; /Zaragoza U.

    2011-11-22

    The front-end electronics (FEE) noise characterization to electromagnetic interference and the compatibility of the different subsystems are important topics to consider for the LHC calorimeter upgrades. A new power distribution scheme based on switching power converters is under study and will define a noticeable noise source very close to the detector's FEE. Knowledge and experience with both FFE noise and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues from previous detectors are important conditions to guarantee the design goals and the good functionality of the upgraded LHC detectors. This paper shows an overview of the noise susceptibility studies performed in different CMS subdetectors. The impact of different FEE topologies in the final sensitivity to electromagnetic interference of the subsystem is analyzed and design recommendations are presented to increase the EMC of the detectors to the future challenging power distribution topologies.

  13. The next-generation sequencing technology: a technology review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhou, XiaoGuang; Ren, LuFeng; Li, YunTao; Zhang, Meng; Yu, YuDe; Yu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in biomedical research, DNA sequencing not only has been improving its productivity in an exponential growth rate but also been evolving into a new layout of technological territories toward engineering and physical disciplines over the past three decades. In this technical review, we look into technical characteristics of the next-gen sequencers and provide prospective insights into their future development and applications. We envisage that some of the emerging platforms are capable of supporting the $1000 genome and $100 genome goals if given a few years for technical maturation. We also suggest that scientists from China should play an active role in this campaign that will have profound impact on both scientific research and societal healthcare systems.

  14. Future's operation areas: new-generation suppression enemy air defence (SEAD) elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazinedar, Ä.°lker

    2015-05-01

    Since air vehicles took place in the theater of operations, they have become the indispensable elements and the strongest attack power of armed forces. In the following period, with technological development, supersonic aircrafts took place in the operation area and this increased effectiveness of air vehicles much more. Air forces have used these aircrafts during important missions like strategic attack and air defense operations. On the other hand, decision makers understood that it was not feasible to intercept fighter aircrafts by executing combat air patrol flight missions. Since there is not enough reaction time to intercept the high speed aircrafts, ground stationed Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) system requirement has emerged. Therefore, SAM systems took place in the operation scene as well. Due to the fact that SAM systems emerged against the attack power, the attack aircrafts are to keep away from the fire of the ground stationed SAM systems. Hence, the requirement of Suppression Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) arose. SEAD elements take under suppression the radar of the SAM systems. In this way, attack aircrafts are able to attack without the risk of SAM systems. The purpose of this study is to find new methods or concepts in order to protect friendly attack aircrafts against ground based surface to air missiles' fires. Modernization of SAM systems and new generation SAM system producing activities have proceeded with positive acceleration. So, current SEAD elements and concepts are not able to cover the requirements due to the increased SAM system ranges. According to the concepts, SEAD weapons` ranges must be longer than the SAM weapons' ranges to protect friendly aircrafts. In this study, new concept was offered to overcome the deficiencies of current SEAD concept. The elements of new concepts were put forward. Classic SEAD concept and new generation concepts were assessed by using SWOT analysis technique. As a result, this study has revealed that, air forces

  15. Quantitative models of sediment generation and provenance: State of the art and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltje, Gert Jan

    2012-12-01

    An overview of quantitative approaches to analysis and modelling of sediment generation and provenance is presented, with an emphasis on major framework components as determined by means of petrographic techniques. Conceptual models of sediment provenance are shown to be consistent with two classes of numerical-statistical models, i.e. linear mixing models and compositional linear models. These cannot be placed within a common mathematical framework, because the former requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of proportions, whereas the latter requires that sediment composition is expressed in terms of log-ratios of proportions. Additivity of proportions, a fundamental assumption in linear mixing models, cannot be readily expressed in log-ratio terms. Linear mixing models may be used to describe compositional variability in terms of physical and conceptual (un)mixing. Models of physical (un)mixing are appropriate for describing compositional variation within transport-invariant subpopulations of grains as a result of varying rates of supply of detritus from multiple sources. Conceptual (un)mixing governs the relations among chemical, mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of sediments, which represent different descriptive levels within a compositional hierarchy. Compositional linear process models may be used to describe compositional and/or textural evolution resulting from selective modifications induced by sediment transport, as well as chemical and mechanical weathering. Current approaches to modelling of surface processes treat the coupled evolution of source areas and sedimentary basins in terms of bulk mass transfer only, and do not take into account compositional and textural sediment properties. Moving from the inverse modelling approach embodied in provenance research to process-based forward models of sediment generation which provide detailed predictions of sediment properties meets with considerable (albeit not insurmountable

  16. The Future of Alumina-Forming Alloys: Challenges and Applications for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Alumina-forming alloys have been studied for over 50 years and are now needed for high efficiency power generation applications operating at higher temperatures. Especially in the presence of water vapor, alumina-forming alloys outperform conventional chromia-forming alloys above 1000 C. However, alloy mechanical behavior is a significant issue and alumina-forming alloy development has been limited. The opportunity for alloy development is discussed as well as the factors that limit oxidation resistance, including alloy thermal expansion and optimizing reactive element additions. Finally, lifetime modeling is discussed for thick section components together with the need to address performance in more complex environments.

  17. The weaver gene expression affects neuronal generation patterns depending on age and encephalic region.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Carmen Santa-Cruz, M; Bayer, Shirley A; Hervás, José P

    2006-04-01

    Cell generation and survival are investigated in three different neuronal populations of weaver mice: Purkinje and fastigial neurons in the cerebellum, and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Tritiated thymidine was supplied to pregnant females at the time that these neurons were being produced. Autoradiography was then applied on brain sections obtained from the control and weaver offspring at postnatal (P) day 8 and 90. This makes it possible to assess the differential survival of neurons that were born at distinct embryonic times on the basis of the proportion of labeled cells at two postnatal ages. When labeling profiles were measured at P8, the inferred time of origin was similar between +/+ and wv/wv genotypes for each neuronal population considered. The same occurred at P90 for Purkinje or fastigial neurons, but the labeling profiles of midbrain neurons were different between wild type and weaver homozygotes. There is already a substantial reduction in the number of Purkinje and fastigial cells at P8, but loss of dopaminergic neurons was only detected in 90-day-old weavers and, therefore, vulnerability is built into this midbrain neural system during its late postnatal development. Our results show that depletion of Purkinje and fastigial cells is random with respect to the time of their birth, whereas the weaver gene seems to be specifically targeting the late-generated dopaminergic neurons.

  18. Unconventional Shale-Gas Resource Systems and Processes Affecting Gas Generation, Retention, Storage, and Flow Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvie, D. M.; Philp, R. P.; Jarvie, B. M.

    2009-04-01

    Geochemical and petrophysical characterization of various shale-gas systems in the U.S. indicates a variety of unconventional shale-gas system types. The most basic distinction is gas type: biogenic and thermogenic, although there can also be mixtures of the two gas types. Thermogenic shale-gas systems are further segregated into various sub-types depending on geochemistry and geology. The shale-gas system categories are: (1) high thermal maturity shale; (2) low thermal maturity shales; (3) mixed lithology intra-formational systems containing shale, sands, and silts; (4) inter-formational systems where gas is generated in a mature shale and stored in a less mature shale, and (5) mixed systems. A key difference among these shale-gas systems are initial gas flow rates. High thermal maturity systems tend to have much higher gas flow rates than low maturity systems because of gas charge and storage mechanisms. Certainly other non-geochemical factors, such as shale mineralogy, are extremely important in being able to stimulate these shales to flow gas. Geochemical comparison of the Antrim Shale (Michigan Basin), New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin), and Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin) are used to illustrate these different systems as well as other systems. These systems show significant differences in gas type, organic richness, thermal maturity, and gas flow rates. Gas flow rates are then dependent upon the amount of gas stored (or generated) and the ability to release gas from adsorption sites as well as connecting to micro-reservoir compartments.

  19. Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines: current options and future strategies for vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Fruscalzo, Arrigo; Londero, Ambrogio P; Bertozzi, Serena; Lellè, Ralf J

    2016-02-01

    Two vaccines focused on the prevention of HPV-related diseases have been introduced in the last decade, the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil and the bivalent vaccine Cervarix. They are targeted to prevent precancerous and cancerous lesions not only of the cervix, but also of the vulva, vagina, anal and head-neck region. Furthermore, the protection of the quadrivalent vaccine Gardasil includes also genital warts and recurrent respiratory Papillomatosis, two benign conditions with high socio-economic impact. Although their efficacy in reducing the burden of HPV-related pathologies has been already documented, second-generation HPV vaccines are being developed in order to overcome major limitations, above all the cost of production, distribution and acceptance, thus promoting an easier access to vaccination, especially in developing countries. Recently a new multivalent VLP vaccine active against nine HPV subtypes, called Gardasil 9 (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), has been approved, showing promising preliminary results. In this article, we outline the strategies adopted for second-generation HPV vaccine engineering, the latest HPV vaccines available at this time, as well as those currently in development.

  20. Training the next generation of vascular specialists: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kwolek, Christopher J; Crawford, Robert S

    2009-02-01

    Several challenges exist with respect to training the current and next generation of vascular specialists. Current advances in technology have led to changes in the length and type of training required to master new endovascular techniques. At the same time, the number of open surgical cases being provided to trainees may not be sufficient to allow them to manage complex open procedures. This growth is occurring at a time when increased external pressures are being applied to shorten training programs. Finally, the next generation of vascular specialists will come from medical students who are accruing a large educational debt during their course of training. Vascular specialists outside the US have already begun to successfully deal with many of these issues, and insight can be gained from their successes and difficulties. In this article, we review the current status of training for vascular and endovascular specialists and discuss the need for changes in current US training paradigms. While this will touch on initiatives in other specialties, including cardiology, vascular medicine, and interventional and neuroradiology, we will focus primarily on changes that are occurring with respect to the training of surgical specialists who manage vascular disease. PMID:19317585

  1. 25 CFR 1000.335 - How will retrocession affect the Tribe's/Consortium's existing and future AFAs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... include retroceded programs in future AFAs or through a self-determination contract. ... existing and future AFAs? 1000.335 Section 1000.335 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT...

  2. Factors Affecting Medial Temporal Lobe Engagement for Past and Future Episodic Events: An ALE Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viard, Armelle; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis; Piolino, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Remembering the past and envisioning the future are at the core of one's sense of identity. Neuroimaging studies investigating the neural substrates underlying past and future episodic events have been growing in number. However, the experimental paradigms used to select and elicit episodic events vary greatly, leading to disparate results,…

  3. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights: protecting future generations and the quest for a global consensus.

    PubMed

    Salako, Solomon E

    2008-12-01

    Since the coining of the term 'ectogenesis' by Haldane in 1924, we have witnessed sensational biotechnological triumphs such as in vitro fertilisation, the cloning of "Dolly" the sheep, and the publication of the human genetic code. These triumphs mix benefits with portents in one seamless package. The object of this article is to assess critically the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. It is argued that the Declaration is not a suitable international instrument for regulating biotechnology and protecting future generations. Finally, the feasibility of a legally binding international instrument based on a global consensus is evaluated. PMID:19202858

  4. Overview of Proteasome Inhibitor-Based Anti-cancer Therapies: Perspective on Bortezomib and Second Generation Proteasome Inhibitors versus Future Generation Inhibitors of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Q. Ping; Zonder, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, proteasome inhibition has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma (MM) and some lymphomas. In 2003, Bortezomib (BTZ) became the first proteasome inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). BTZ-based therapies have become a staple for the treatment of MM at all stages of the disease. The survival rate of MM patients has improved significantly since clinical introduction of BTZ and other immunomodulatory drugs. However, BTZ has several limitations. Not all patients respond to BTZ-based therapies and relapse occurs in many patients who initially responded. Solid tumors, in particular, are often resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, BTZ can induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy (PN). The second generation proteasome inhibitor Carfizomib (CFZ; U.S. FDA approved in August 2012) induces responses in a minority of MM patients relapsed from or refractory to BTZ. There is less PN compared to BTZ. Four other second-generation proteasome inhibitors (Ixazomib, Delanzomib, Oprozomib and Marizomib) with different pharmacologic properties and broader anticancer activities, have also shown some clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant cancers. While the mechanism of resistance to bortezomib in human cancers still remains to be fully understood, targeting the immunoproteasome, ubiquitin E3 ligases, the 19S proteasome and deubiquitinases in pre-clinical studies represents possible directions for future generation inhibitors of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the treatment of MM and other cancers. PMID:25092212

  5. The next generation of data capturing - digital ink for the data stewards of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerniak, A.; Fleischer, D.; Schirnick, C.

    2012-12-01

    Data stewardship of the future requires the continuation from an expert driven discipline into a general scientific routine. One solution how this expansion can be done is the use of data management infrastructures already in the student education. Unsurprisingly, well-known drawbacks in terms of data stewardship from the scientific use complicate this expansion into the educational programs. The advantage of educational programs usually based on the application of standard methods is depleted by the general data capturing process at the point of publication or end of project lifetime. Considering student courses as short projects there are no publications and the end of the course exams keep students just like scientists away from data stewardship tasks. The Kiel Data Management Infrastructure brings the data capturing right in the data creation process. With this approach student education courses can be just another use case of data capturing. Smoothing the data capturing process and making use of available technologies drove the Kiel Data Management Infrastructure into a prototype testing of the use of 'digital ink' and the later on possible handwriting recognition. Making the data digitalization as easy as possible without abandoning the standards of paper-based protocols is the use case 'Smart Pens'. This technology fills the gap between the very long-lasting paper protocols and the effort depending digitalization of field and sampling data but it's also robust enough to work with battery powered devices. The combination of the Kiel Data Management Infrastructure with the 'digital ink' technology enables the data capturing from student education to high-end scientific lab work. Valuing educational data equally to scientific lab data is a strong signal to the researchers of the future while their work is recognized all the way from their undergraduate stage to their post-doc position. Students memorize that their data work is not neglected at any time and so

  6. Relative prospects of children as they age: Canadians and Americans in midlife in the great recession frame future generations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Susan A; Gazso, Amber; Duncan, Karen A

    2016-04-01

    Studies of intergenerational relations in aging and changing families often focus on the present, how generations interact, relate or depend on each other in families. Less often is the focus on the prospective, on projected perceptions of life course prospects for future generations as they age. In this paper, part of a large multi-method project, we adopt this focus. We rely on interviews conducted in 2013 with midlife respondents in two socioeconomic classes in comparable cities in the United States and Canada, We specifically explore whether and how Canadians and Americans in midlife discuss life course prospects for their children (or younger relatives) in ways that map onto wider discursive frames of aging. Through a combined discourse and frame analysis of our interview data, we find that frames of "The Dream" and "Intergenerational Contract" construct and reflect competing models of intergenerational shifts in life course spaces as well as suggest intergenerational changes in mobility and opportunities. PMID:27131280

  7. How run-of-river operation affects hydropower generation and value.

    PubMed

    Jager, Henriette I; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2007-12-01

    Regulated rivers in the United States are required to support human water uses while preserving aquatic ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of hydropower license requirements nationwide has not been demonstrated. One requirement that has become more common is "run-of-river" (ROR) operation, which restores a natural flow regime. It is widely believed that ROR requirements (1) are mandated to protect aquatic biota, (2) decrease hydropower generation per unit flow, and (3) decrease energy revenue. We tested these three assumptions by reviewing hydropower projects with license-mandated changes from peaking to ROR operation. We found that ROR operation was often prescribed in states with strong water-quality certification requirements and migratory fish species. Although benefits to aquatic resources were frequently cited, changes were often motivated by other considerations. After controlling for climate, the overall change in annual generation efficiency across projects because of the change in operation was not significant. However, significant decreases were detected at one quarter of individual hydropower projects. As expected, we observed a decrease in flow during peak demand at 7 of 10 projects. At the remaining projects, diurnal fluctuations actually increased because of operation of upstream storage projects. The economic implications of these results, including both producer costs and ecologic benefits, are discussed. We conclude that regional-scale studies of hydropower regulation, such as this one, are long overdue. Public dissemination of flow data, license provisions, and monitoring data by way of on-line access would facilitate regional policy analysis while increasing regulatory transparency and providing feedback to decision makers.

  8. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas.

  9. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas. PMID:26260965

  10. Sir John Charnley (1911-1982): inspiration to future generations of orthopaedic surgeons.

    PubMed

    Donald, S M

    2007-05-01

    For young doctors embarking on a career in medicine, the decision on which path to take is often influenced by their experiences as an undergraduate student and, in particular, by those doctors and teachers who have stimulated and encouraged them. Likewise, inspiration can be derived from studying the life and work of eminent practitioners of the past. A final year elective module provided me with the opportunity to undertake a detailed critique of an aspect of the history of medicine of my choosing, which enabled me to investigate the history of hip replacement. This opened my eyes to the prodigious contribution of Sir John Charnley in the field of orthopaedics. His commitment to the practice and advancement of medical science is indeed an inspiration. This account of John Charnley's work is a testimony to the lifetime achievements of one man, whose hard work and dedication have brought enormous benefit to generations of patients the world over.

  11. Generation of Evidence and Translation Into Practice: Lessons Learned and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Aileen Mairéad; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-12-01

    The generation, validation, and then translation of definitive evidence to bedside evidence-based practice is inconsistent and presents many challenges to emergency department (ED) researchers and clinicians. This is particularly true for diagnostic imaging in the ED, where benefits and drawbacks may be difficult to assess in the chaotic ED setting. This article describes, in large part, the experience of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) in deriving and validating the traumatic brain injury prediction rules and how PECARN is translating these prediction rules into clinical practice. Furthermore, we discuss the potential for patient/parent shared decision-making with a focus on patient-centered outcomes in ED research and the role this shared decision-making may play in enhancing knowledge translation and implementation of evidence-based care in the ED. PMID:26568167

  12. Preconditioning in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization in coral larvae under future climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    Coral reefs are globally threatened by climate change-related ocean warming and ocean acidification (OA). To date, slow-response mechanisms such as genetic adaptation have been considered the major determinant of coral reef persistence, with little consideration of rapid-response acclimatization mechanisms. These rapid mechanisms such as parental effects that can contribute to trans-generational acclimatization (e.g. epigenetics) have, however, been identified as important contributors to offspring response in other systems. We present the first evidence of parental effects in a cross-generational exposure to temperature and OA in reef-building corals. Here, we exposed adults to high (28.9°C, 805 µatm P(CO2)) or ambient (26.5°C, 417 µatm P(CO2)) temperature and OA treatments during the larval brooding period. Exposure to high treatment negatively affected adult performance, but their larvae exhibited size differences and metabolic acclimation when subsequently re-exposed, unlike larvae from parents exposed to ambient conditions. Understanding the innate capacity corals possess to respond to current and future climatic conditions is essential to reef protection and maintenance. Our results identify that parental effects may have an important role through (1) ameliorating the effects of stress through preconditioning and adaptive plasticity, and/or (2) amplifying the negative parental response through latent effects on future life stages. Whether the consequences of parental effects and the potential for trans-generational acclimatization are beneficial or maladaptive, our work identifies a critical need to expand currently proposed climate change outcomes for corals to further assess rapid response mechanisms that include non-genetic inheritance through parental contributions and classical epigenetic mechanisms.

  13. Chronic Social Stress Affects Synaptic Maturation of Newly Generated Neurons in the Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic stress has been found to suppress adult neurogenesis, but it remains unclear whether it may affect the maturation process of adult-born neurons. Here, we examined the influence of chronic social defeat stress on the morphological and electrophysiological properties of adult-born dentate granule cells at different developmental stages. Methods: Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 10 days of chronic social defeat stress followed by a social interaction test 24 hours after the last defeat. Defeated mice were segregated into susceptible and unsusceptible subpopulations based on a measure of social interaction test. Combining electrophysiology with retrovirus-mediated birth-dating and labeling, we examined the impact of chronic social defeat stress on temporal regulation of synaptic plasticity of adult-born dentate granule cells along their maturation. Results: Chronic social defeat stress decreases the survival and dendritic complexity of adult-born dentate granule cells. While chronic social defeat stress doesn’t alter the intrinsic electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission of surviving adult-born dentate granule cells, it promotes the developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors from predominant GluN2B- to GluN2A-containing receptors, which transform the immature synapse of adult-born dentate granule cells from one that exhibits enhanced long-term potentiation to one that has normal levels of long-term potentiation. Furthermore, chronic social defeat stress increases the level of endogenous repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor mRNA in adult-born dentate granule cells, and knockdown of the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor in adult-born dentate granule cells rescues chronic social defeat stress-induced morphological deficits and accelerated developmental switch in synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit composition. Conclusions: These results uncover a previously

  14. Factors affecting the pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Korost, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    Oil and gas generation is a set of processes which taking place in the interior, the processes can't be observable in nature. In the process of dumping the source rock, organic matter is transformed into a complex of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Entering of a source column for specific thermobaric conditions, triggers the formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration within the source rock. For the experiment were selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition rocks from Domanic horizon South-Tatar arch. The main aim of experiment was heating the rocks in the pyrolyzer to temperatures which correspond katagenes stages. For monitoring changes in the morphology of the pore space X-ray microtomography method was used. As a result, when was made a study of the composition of mineral and organic content of the rocks, as well as textural and structural features, have been identified that the majority of the rock samples within the selected collection are identical. However, characteristics such as organic content and texture of rocks are different. Thus, the experiment was divided into two parts: 1) the study of the influence of organic matter content on the morphology of the rock in the process of thermal effects; 2) study the effect of texture on the primary migration processes for the same values of organic matter. Also, an additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space. At each stage of the experiment morphology of altered rocks characterized by the formation of new pores and channels connecting the primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. At the second stage of the research also revealed that the conversion of the pore

  15. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems.

    PubMed

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  16. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso-González, P.; Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D.; Martínez-Murillo, J. F.; Lavee, H.

    2015-01-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCottem hydroabsorbent polymer (HP); and sewage sludge (RU). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha- 1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism. On one hand, the high macroporosity of SM and PM, together with the fact that soil moisture increased with depth, explains weak overland flow and thus low sediment yield due to saturation conditions. Therefore, regarding overland flow and sediment yield, RU behaves similarly to SM and PM. On the other hand, when HP was applied, overland flow developed quickly with relatively high amounts. This, together with the decrease downward in soil moisture along the soil profile, proved that mechanisms of overland flow are of the Hortonian type.

  17. Accounting for climate and air quality damages in future U.S. electricity generation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristen E; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2013-04-01

    The EPA-MARKAL model of the U.S. electricity sector is used to examine how imposing emissions fees based on estimated health and environmental damages might change electricity generation. Fees are imposed on life-cycle emissions of SO(2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases (GHG) from 2015 through 2055. Changes in electricity production, fuel type, emissions controls, and emissions produced under various fees are examined. A shift in fuels used for electricity production results from $30/ton CO(2)-equivalent GHG fees or from criteria pollutant fees set at the higher-end of the range of published damage estimates, but not from criteria pollutant fees based on low or midrange damage estimates. With midrange criteria pollutant fees assessed, SO(2) and NOx emissions are lower than the business as usual case (by 52% and 10%, respectively), with larger differences in the western U.S. than in the eastern U.S. GHG emissions are not significantly impacted by midrange criteria pollutant fees alone; conversely, with only GHG fees, NO(x) emissions are reduced by up to 11%, yet SO(2) emissions are slightly higher than in the business as usual case. Therefore, fees on both GHG and criteria pollutants may be needed to achieve significant reductions in both sets of pollutants.

  18. The future of specific immunotherapy: strategies and challenges for the next generation of allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, P

    2011-07-01

    : The use of specific immunotherapy (SIT) for allergic disorders has recently been extended by introduction of a convenient, tablet-based, disease-modifying vaccine against grass pollen allergy. Allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT) programmes targeting house dust mite and other allergies are currently in late-phase development. Next-generation allergy vaccines can have optimised potency and onset of action without compromising safety or convenience. Key to achieving these objectives is a combination of evidence-based mode-of-action studies and biomarker-centric translational research approaches. This will rely on using biobank and bioinformatics resources for multi-omic characterisations of the 'immunome' of allergic disease. Other important areas are ongoing paediatric trials and long-term studies in adults for further defining the potential role of SIT in allergic disease and primary prevention of asthma. Finally, combining cellular- and serological-based assays, and developments in targeted delivery platforms and component-resolved diagnostics will lead to increased ability to stratify patients, with more personalised diagnosis and treatment.

  19. A novel process of etching EUV masks for future generation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay; Chandrachood, Madhavi; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Sabharwal, Amitabh

    2006-10-01

    Studies on pattern transfer of next generation lithographic (EUV) photomask were carried out. Based on current absorber layer material candidates, thermodynamic calculations were performed and plasma etch gas system and composition were investigated. The gas systems have the advantage of all etch products being in volatile condition. This is helpful to keep the etch process and etch chamber clean. For etch CD bias challenge in EUV photomask etch, self-mask concept was investigated, which makes anti-reflective (AR) sub-layer of the absorber layer function as a hard mask for the bulk absorber layer beneath. It significantly reduces etch CD bias and improves pattern transfer fidelity. For common candidates of EUV mask absorber layers such as TaBO/TaBN and TaSiON/TaSi, reactive gas systems were proposed according to thermodynamic calculations with all products volatile. AR sub-layers were etched in one gas composition with volatiles. Once the AR sub-layer is etched through, gas composition was changed so that the bulk absorber sub-layer beneath is etched selectively with volatile products. Excellent results in profiles, CD bias, CD uniformity, and underneath buffer/capping layer impact have been demonstrated.

  20. Accounting for climate and air quality damages in future U.S. electricity generation scenarios.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristen E; Henze, Daven K; Milford, Jana B

    2013-04-01

    The EPA-MARKAL model of the U.S. electricity sector is used to examine how imposing emissions fees based on estimated health and environmental damages might change electricity generation. Fees are imposed on life-cycle emissions of SO(2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases (GHG) from 2015 through 2055. Changes in electricity production, fuel type, emissions controls, and emissions produced under various fees are examined. A shift in fuels used for electricity production results from $30/ton CO(2)-equivalent GHG fees or from criteria pollutant fees set at the higher-end of the range of published damage estimates, but not from criteria pollutant fees based on low or midrange damage estimates. With midrange criteria pollutant fees assessed, SO(2) and NOx emissions are lower than the business as usual case (by 52% and 10%, respectively), with larger differences in the western U.S. than in the eastern U.S. GHG emissions are not significantly impacted by midrange criteria pollutant fees alone; conversely, with only GHG fees, NO(x) emissions are reduced by up to 11%, yet SO(2) emissions are slightly higher than in the business as usual case. Therefore, fees on both GHG and criteria pollutants may be needed to achieve significant reductions in both sets of pollutants. PMID:23465362

  1. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station - An option for future power generation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept in nuclear power generation is being explored which essentially eliminates major objections to nuclear power. The Satellite Nuclear Power Station, remotely operated in synchronous orbit, would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space and no radioactive materials would ever be returned to earth. Even the worst possible accident to such a plant should have negligible effect on the earth. An exploratory study of a satellite nuclear power station to provide 10,000 MWe to the earth has shown that the system could weigh about 20 million pounds and cost less than $1000/KWe. An advanced breeder reactor operating with an MHD power cycle could achieve an efficiency of about 50% with a 1100 K radiator temperature. If a hydrogen moderated gas core reactor is used, its breeding ratio of 1.10 would result in a fuel doubling time of a few years. A rotating fluidized bed or NERVA type reactor might also be used. The efficiency of power transmission from synchronous orbit would range from 70% to 80%.

  2. Next generation of elevated [CO2] experiments with crops: A critical investment for feeding the future world

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Rising demand for grain crops and an expanding biofuel industry are vastly increasing pressure to maximize productivity on agricultural land. Rising atmospheric [CO2] is increasing global temperature and altering precipitation patterns, which will challenge agricultural productivity in the future. Yet, rising [CO2] also provides a unique opportunity to markedly increase the productivity of C3 crops, but the average yield stimulation observed to date is well below the potential theoretical gains. This suggests there is significant room for improving productivity. There are tens of thousands of lines of wheat, rice, soybean and other crops available, but only a fraction of these have been tested for CO2 responsiveness in a production environment. Yield is a complex phenotypic trait determined by the interactions of a genotype with the environment. Selection of promising genotypes and characterization of physiological mechanisms will only be effective if the crop improvement and systems biology approaches are closely linked to actual production environments, i.e., on the farm within the major growing regions. Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiments can provide the platform upon which to conduct genetic screening as well as to elucidate the inheritance and mechanisms that underlie cultivar differences in productivity under elevated [CO2]. We propose a new generation of large scale, low-cost per unit area, FACE facilities and experiments to identify the most CO2-responsive genotypes and provide starting lines for future breeding programs. This is necessary if we are to realize the potential yield gains n the future.

  3. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy Affects Symptom Generation and Brain-Gut Axis

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Christina; Søfteland, Eirik; Gunterberg, Veronica; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Lelic, Dina; Brock, Birgitte; Dimcevski, Georg; Gregersen, Hans; Simrén, Magnus; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-term diabetes leads to severe peripheral, autonomous, and central neuropathy in combination with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. The brain-gut axis thus expresses a neurophysiological profile, and heart rate variability (HRV) can be correlated with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifteen healthy volunteers and 15 diabetic patients (12 with type 1 diabetes) with severe gastrointestinal symptoms and clinical suspicion of autonomic neuropathy were included. Psychophysics and evoked brain potentials were assessed after painful rectosigmoid electrostimulations, and brain activity was modeled by brain electrical source analysis. Self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms (per the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorder Severity Symptom Index) and quality of life (SF-36 Short Form Survey) were collected. RESULTS Diabetic patients had autonomous neuropathy, evidenced by decreased electrocardiographic R-R interval (P = 0.03) and lower HRV (P = 0.008). Patients were less sensitive to painful stimulation (P = 0.007), had prolonged latencies of evoked potentials (P ≤ 0.001), and showed diminished amplitude of the N2–P2 component in evoked potentials (P = 0.01). There was a caudoanterior shift of the insular brain source (P = 0.01) and an anterior shift of the cingulate generator (P = 0.01). Insular source location was associated with HRV assessments (all P < 0.02), and the shift (expressed in mm) correlated negatively with physical health (P < 0.001) and positively with nausea (P = 0.03) and postprandial fullness (P = 0.03). Cingulate source shift was correlated negatively with physical health (P = 0.005) and positively with postprandial fullness (P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This study provides evidence for interaction between autonomic neuropathy and peripheral nervous degeneration, as well as changes in dipole sources in diabetic patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings may lead to improved

  4. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  5. Future prospects for ECR plasma generators with improved charge state distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.

    1997-06-01

    The growing number and variety of fundamental, applied, and industrial uses for high intensity, high charge state ion beams continues to be the driving force behind efforts to develop Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources with superior performance characteristics. Incumbent with the advent of sub-micron electronic devices and their fabrication has been the demand for improved process control and optimization. These demands have led to the development of methods for cleaning, chemical etching, and deposition of thin films based on the use of plasma devices including ECR sources. Despite the steady advance in the technology, ECR plasma heating has not yet reached its full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width, single-frequency microwave radiation commonly used to heat the plasma electrons. This heating technique, coupled with conventional minimum-B configuration magnetic fields used for confining the electrons, resulting in the formation of the thin, ECR surfaces within the plasma volumes of these sources. This report identifies fundamentally important methods for enhancing the performances of ECR plasma generators by transforming the ECR zones from surfaces to volumes. Two methods are readily available for increasing the sizes of these zones. These techniques include: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR volume and; (2) the use of broadband-frequency domain techniques derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma surfaces of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma volumes.

  6. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yunpeng; Cramer, Megan; Lee, Chieh Allen; Tang, Jie; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Antonetti, David A.; Jin, Hui; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kern, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We studied the role of adrenergic and serotonin receptors in the generation of superoxide by retina and 661W retinal cells in high glucose and of the α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) on vascular lesions of the retinopathy in experimentally diabetic C57Bl/6J mice (and controls) after 2 and 8 months. Compared with 5 mM glucose, incubating cells or retinal explants in 30 mM glucose induced superoxide generation. This response was reduced or ablated by pharmacologic inhibition of the α1-AR (a Gq-coupled receptor) or Gs-coupled serotonin (5-HT2, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7) receptors or by activation of the Gi-coupled α2-AR. In elevated glucose, the α1-AR produced superoxide via phospholipase C, inositol triphosphate-induced Ca2+ release, and NADPH oxidase, and pharmacologic inhibition of these reactions prevented the superoxide increase. Generation of retinal superoxide, expression of proinflammatory proteins, and degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetes all were significantly inhibited with daily doxazosin or apocynin (inhibitors of α1-AR and NADPH oxidase, respectively), but increased vascular permeability was not significantly affected. Adrenergic receptors, and perhaps other GPCRs, represent novel targets for inhibiting the development of important features of diabetic retinopathy.—Du, Y., Cramer, M., Lee, C. A., Tang, J., Muthusamy, A., Antonetti, D. A., Jin, H., Palczewski, K., Kern, T. S. Adrenergic and serotonin receptors affect retinal superoxide generation in diabetic mice: relationship to capillary degeneration and permeability. PMID:25667222

  7. Approaches to Future Generation Photovoltaics and Solar Fuels: Multiple Exciton Generation in Quantum Dots, Quantum Dot Arrays, Molecular Singlet Fission, and Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.; Beard, M. C.; Johnson, J. C.; Hanna, M. C.; Luther, J. M.; Midgett, A.; Semonin, O.; Michel, J.

    2012-01-01

    One potential, long-term approach to more efficient future generation solar cells is to utilize the unique properties of quantum dots (QDs) and unique molecular chromophores to control the relaxation pathways of excited states to produce enhanced conversion efficiency through efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation from single photons . We have observed efficient multiple exciton generation (MEG) in PbSe, PbS, PbTe, and Si QDs and efficient singlet fission (SF) in molecules that satisfy specific requirements for their excited state energy level structure to achieve carrier multiplication. We have studied MEG in close-packed QD arrays where the QDs are electronically coupled in the films and thus exhibit good transport while still maintaining quantization and MEG. We have developed simple, all-inorganic QD solar cells that produce large short-circuit photocurrents and power conversion efficiencies in the 3-5% range via both nanocrystalline Schottky junctions and nanocrystalline p-n junctions. These solar cells also show QYs for photocurrent that exceed 100% in the photon energy regions where MEG is possible; the photocurrent MEG QYs as a function of photon energy match those determined via time-resolved spectroscopy. We have also observed very efficient SF in thin films of molecular crystals of 1,3 diphenylisobenzofuran with quantum yields of 200% at the optimum SF threshold of 2Eg (HOMO-LUMO for S{sub 0}-S{sub 1}), reflecting the creation of two excited triplet states from the first excited singlet state. Various possible configurations for novel solar cells based on MEG in QDs and SF in molecules that could produce high conversion efficiencies will be presented, along with progress in developing such new types of solar cells. Recent analyses of the effect of MEG or SF combined with solar concentration on the conversion efficiency of solar cells will be discussed.

  8. Effects on incidental memory of affective tone in associated past and future episodes: influence of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of emotion elicited by episodes (past events or expected future events) and the relationship between individual differences in emotional intelligence and memory. Participants' emotional intelligence was assessed on the Japanese version of Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire. They rated the pleasantness of episodes they associated with targets, and then performed unexpected free recall tests. When the targets were associated with episodes that were past events, all participants recalled more of the targets associated with pleasant and unpleasant episodes than those associated with neutral episodes. However, when the targets were associated with episodes expected to occur in the future, only participants with higher emotional intelligence scores recalled more of the targets associated with pleasant and unpleasant episodes. The participants with lower emotional intelligence scores recalled the three target types with similar accuracy. These results were interpreted as showing that emotional intelligence is associated with the processing of targets associated with future episodes as retrieval cues.

  9. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  10. Assessing the variables affecting on the rate of solid waste generation and recycling: An empirical analysis in Prespa Park.

    PubMed

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2016-02-01

    Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards increase the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste. Comprehensive study of the variables influencing household solid waste production and recycling rate is crucial and fundamental for exploring the generation mechanism and forecasting future dynamics of household solid waste. The present study is employed in the case study of Prespa Park. A model, based on the interrelationships of economic, demographic, housing structure and waste management policy variables influencing the rate of solid waste generation and recycling is developed and employed. The empirical analysis is based on the information derived from a field questionnaire survey conducted in Prespa Park villages for the year 2014. Another feature of this study is to test whether a household's waste generation can be decoupled from its population growth. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation analysis and F-tests are used to know the relationship between variables. One-way and two-way fixed effects models data analysis techniques are used to identify variables that determine the effectiveness of waste generation and recycling at household level in the study area. The results reveal that households with heterogeneous characteristics, such as education level, mean building age and income, present different challenges of waste reduction goals. Numerically, an increase of 1% in education level of population corresponds to a waste reduction of 3kg on the annual per capita basis. A village with older buildings, in the case of one year older of the median building age, corresponds to a waste generation increase of 12kg. Other economic and policy incentives such as the mean household income, pay-as-you-throw, percentage of population with access to curbside recycling, the number of drop-off recycling facilities available per 1000 persons and cumulative expenditures on recycling education per capita are also found to be effective

  11. Recall of vegetable eating affects future predicted enjoyment and choice of vegetables in British University undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    Predictions about enjoyment of future experiences are influenced by recalling similar past experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between hedonic memories of past eating episodes and future eating behavior. We investigated recall of previous experiences of eating vegetables and the effect of recall on future predicted liking for and consumption of vegetables. British University undergraduate students were asked to retrieve memories of previous occasions when they ate vegetables and were asked to rate how enjoyable those experiences were (Study 1, n=54). The effect of different types of memory recall (including vegetable eating recall) and visualization of someone else eating vegetables (to control for priming effects) on predicted likelihood of choosing vegetables and predicted enjoyment of eating vegetables was examined (Study 2, n=95). Finally, the effect of recalling vegetable eating memories on actual food choice from a buffet was assessed (Study 3, n=63). It is reported that people recall positive memories of past vegetable consumption (P<0.05) and that reminding people of these experiences results in higher predicted future liking for vegetables (P<0.05) and choice of a larger portion size of vegetables (P<0.05) compared with recall of a personal nonfood memory, a nonvegetable food memory, or visualization of someone else enjoying eating vegetables (increase of approximately 70% in vegetable portion size compared to controls). The results suggest that recall of previous eating experiences could be a potential strategy for altering food choices.

  12. Pseudo-inflammatory chorioretinal degeneration of the posterior pole. Study of a family of four affected generations, associated with tapetoretinal amaurosis (Leber) in the fifth generation.

    PubMed

    Babel, J; Cabernard, E; Klein, D; Korol, S; Kräuchi, H; Schafroth, P

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of a large family in which a particular form of posterior pole dystrophy occurs, but in which (except for one 21-year-old patient) no symptoms occur before the age of forty. Although it is of dominant transmission through four generations with a high degree of penetrance, slight forms do occur. The disease evolves in 2-4 years and in serious cases there is total loss of the central vision. Peripheral vision is conserved, so that affected patients are never entirely disabled and dependent. Early or slight cases may be precociously detected by angiography or sensitive functional tests (EOG, VER, and perhaps colour vision). The rapid evolution is due to exudative or haemorrhagic phenomena. This observation corresponds with the description of the disease individualized by Sorsby (pseudo-inflammatory posterior pole dystrophy) and is related to colloid degeneration. In the fifth generation a case of Leber's congenital amaurosis occurs, which is difficult to relate to the late posterior pole dystrophy.

  13. Advancing the Oxygen Generation Assembly Design to Increase Reliability and Reduce Costs for a Future Long Duration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takada, Kevin C.; Ghariani, Ahmed E.; Van Keuren,

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) has been reliably producing breathing oxygen for the crew aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for over eight years. Lessons learned from operating the ISS OGA have led to proposing incremental improvements to advance the baseline design for use in a future long duration mission. These improvements are intended to reduce system weight, crew maintenance time and resupply mass from Earth while increasing reliability. The proposed improvements include replacing the cell stack membrane material, deleting the nitrogen purge equipment, replacing the hydrogen sensors, deleting the wastewater interface, replacing the hydrogen dome and redesigning the cell stack power supply. The development work to date will be discussed and forward work will be outlined. Additionally, a redesigned system architecture will be proposed.

  14. Elaboration of Copper-Oxygen Mediated C–H Activation Chemistry in Consideration of Future Fuel and Feedstock Generation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yoon; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    To contribute solutions for current energy concerns, improvements in the efficiency of C-H bond cleavage chemistry, e.g., selective oxidation of methane to methanol, could minimize losses in natural gas usage or produce feedstocks for fuels. Oxidative C-H activation is also a component of polysaccharide degradation, affording alternative biofuels from abundant biomass. Thus, an understanding of active-site chemistry in copper monooxygenases, those activating strong C-H bonds is briefly reviewed. Then, recent advances in the synthesis-generation and study of various copper-oxygen intermediates are highlighted. Of special interest are cupric-superoxide, Cu-hydroperoxo and Cu-oxy complexes. Such investigations can contribute to an enhanced future application of C-H oxidation or oxygenation processes using air, as concerning societal energy goals. PMID:25756327

  15. To future generations....

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, H.M.

    1997-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in the Netherlands in 1989. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first turbines several design modifications followed, e.g. rotor diameter was increased and a tip brake was added. After that polyester blades were introduced and rotor diameter was further increased. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept resulted in decreased cost and increased annual energy output. The 500 kW turbines serve in the first Dutch off-shore wind farm installed in 1994. This pilot project established proof that off-shore implementation is a promising option for the Dutch energy supply. Installation of megawatt turbines off-shore is currently being studied. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kilowatt-hours is the target.

  16. Trends that will affect your future … the coming food crisis-the social tsunami headed our way.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2011-01-01

    The Schwartzreport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives. PMID:21907151

  17. Mental Health and Resilience in HIV/AIDS-Affected Children: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, T.S.; Meyers-Ohki, S.E.; Charrow, A.; Hansen, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding of modifiable protective processes that contribute to resilience in the mental health of children affected by HIV can inform the design of interventions that bolster naturally-occurring supports and contribute to early prevention or better management of risks. Methods We reviewed the recent literature on mental health and resilience in children and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS. Literature searches of PsycInfo and PubMed were conducted during July-December 2011 consistent with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included for review if primary research questions pertained to mental health and coping or protective processes in children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. All studies subject to full review were evaluated for quality using a modified Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) rating system. Results 171 unique studies were returned from online searches of the literature and bibliography mining. Of these, 29 were evaluated as pertaining directly to mental health and resilience in families and children living with HIV/AIDS. Eight studies presented qualitative analyses. Ten quantitative studies examined individual resources contributing to child resilience and four quantitative studies looked at family-level resources. Ten studies also investigated community-level interactions. Four presented findings from resilience-focused interventions. Conclusions There is a clear need for rigorous research on mental health and resilience in HIV-affected children and adolescents. The evidence base would greatly

  18. Use of a Weather Generator for analysis of projections of future daily temperature and its validation with climate change indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.; Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.

    2012-04-01

    selected from the list recommended by the World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology (WMO-CCL) and the Research Programme on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) project's Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI). Each index was applied to both observed (and processed) data and to synthetic time series produced by the Weather Generator, over the thirty year reference period 1981-2010, in order to validate the procedure. Climate projections were statistically downscaled for a selection of sites for the two 30-year periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2099 of the European project "Ensembles" multi-model output (scenario A1B). The use of several climatic indices strengthens the trend analysis of both the generated synthetic series and future climate projections.

  19. Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers: Effective Professional Development Experiences for Future Members of Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, D.; Bleacher, L.; Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Noble, S. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Next Generation Lunar Scientists and Engineers (NGLSE) group is a grass roots effort devoted to growing the community of early career lunar scientists and engineers. Recent lunar missions, along with an increase in funding opportunities for lunar science, have resulted in a substantial increase in the number of early career lunar scientists and engineers in recent years. With plans for future US and international lunar missions, the Moon will continue to be a place of intense scientific study. The lunar community is fortunate to be in a position to develop the next generation of lunar researchers and engineers with the support of the first generation of lunar scientists and engineers, ensuring continuity of lunar knowledge and expertise. Established informally in 2008 by early career scientists and education and public outreach (E/PO) professionals, the NGLSE group has since grown tremendously. With over 190 current members from academia, industry, and NASA, the NGLSE is building a representative cross-section of the lunar science and engineering communities. The group's founders have received funding to formally design and implement experience-building and networking activities for group members, such as professional development workshops and other community-building events. The professional development opportunities provided to the NGLSE group enable the members to become better equipped to contribute to the current and future success of the lunar program. The NGLSE has received NASA funding, as well as support from the NASA Lunar Science Institute, to host workshops and meetings for its members, including providing small travel stipends for student participants, in association with major lunar conferences, such as the NASA Lunar Science Forum (LSF) and the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC). The goals of the workshops are to provide attendees with professional development, to familiarize them with best practices for communicating their science to

  20. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S.; Singh, Rajesh R.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-01-01

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects. PMID:26343728

  1. An examination of the factors affecting people's participation in future health examinations based on community health exam interventions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shih-Kai; Liao, Hung-En

    2014-01-01

    Community-based intervention health examinations were implemented at a health care facility to comply with the government's primary health care promotion policy. The theory of planned behavior model was applied to examine the effect that community-based health examinations had on people's health concepts regarding seeking future health examinations. The research participants were individuals who had received a health examination provided at two branches of a hospital in central Taiwan in 2012. The hospital's two branches held a total of 14 free community-based health examination sessions. The hospital provided health examination equipment and staff to perform health examinations during public holidays. We conducted an exploratory questionnaire survey to collect data and implemented cross-sectional research based on anonymous self-ratings to examine the public's intention to receive future community-based or hospital-based health examinations. Including of 807 valid questionnaires, accounting for 89.4% of the total number of questionnaires distributed. The correlation coefficients of the second-order structural model indicate that attitudes positively predict behavioral intentions (γ = .66, p < .05), and subjective norms also positively predict behavioral intentions (γ = .66, p < .01). By contrast, perceived behavioral control has no significant relationship with behavioral intentions (γ = -.71, p > .05). The results of the first-order structural model indicated that the second-order constructs had a high explanatory power for the first-order constructs. People's health concepts regarding health examinations and their desire to continue receiving health examinations must be considered when promoting health examinations in the community. Regarding hospital management and the government's implementation of primary health care, health examination services should address people's medical needs to increase coverage and participation rates and reduce the waste of

  2. The Y.E.S. Network: An IYPE legacy for engaging future generations of early-career geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Govoni, D.; Micucci, L.; Gaines, S. M.; Venus, J.; Meng, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Y.E.S. Network, an association of early-career geoscientists who represent professional societies, geoscience companies, and geoscience departments from across the world, was formed as a direct result of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE). Currently the Y.E.S. Network has representatives in thirty-five countries from six continents. The goal of the network is to engage early-career representatives from geological associations and institutions, policy-makers, and delegates from administrative bodies to establish a worldwide network of future leaders, policy-makers and geoscientists who will work collaboratively to address the scientific challenges future generations will face. To this end, the Y.E.S. Network, in collaboration with IYPE and with the patronage of UNESCO, organized the first international Y.E.S. Congress which was hosted by the China University of Geosciences in Beijing. The conference focused on scientific and career challenges faced by early-career geoscientists, with a particular emphasis on how the Y.E.S. Network can work collaborative and internationally towards solving these challenges and furthering the IYPE motto of “Earth Sciences for Society”. The conference focused on the ten major themes of the IYPE (e.g. health, climate, groundwater, ocean, soils, deep earth, megacities, hazards, resources, and life) at its poster and oral sessions. Roundtable symposia engaged senior and early-career geoscientists via presentations, panel discussions, and working group sessions where strategies related to scientific challenges (i.e. climate change in the polar regions, natural hazards, natural resource sustainability) and academic and career pathway challenges (i.e. academic-industry linkages, gender parity in the geosciences, geoscience education sustainability, and international licensure issues) were developed. These strategies were then tasked to the Y.E.S. Network for further development and implementation. Future Y.E.S. Network

  3. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-07-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  4. Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Steven; Ford, Chelcy R; Vose, James M

    2013-06-01

    Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) has caused widespread mortality of this key canopy species throughout much of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the past decade. Because eastern hemlock is heavily concentrated in riparian habitats, maintains a dense canopy, and has an evergreen leaf habit, its loss is expected to have a major impact on forest processes, including transpiration (E(t)). Our goal was to estimate changes in stand-level E(t) since HWA infestation, and predict future effects of forest regeneration on forest E(t) in declining eastern hemlock stands where hemlock represented 50-60% of forest basal area. We used a combination of community surveys, sap flux measurements, and empirical models relating sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (E(L)) to climate to estimate the change in E(t) after hemlock mortality and forecast how forest E(t) will change in the future in response to eastern hemlock loss. From 2004 to 2011, eastern hemlock mortality reduced annual forest E(t) by 22% and reduced winter E(t) by 74%. As hemlock mortality increased, growth of deciduous tree species--especially sweet birch (Betula lenta L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and the evergreen understory shrub rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.)--also increased, and these species will probably dominate post-hemlock riparian forests. All of these species have higher daytime E(L) rates than hemlock, and replacement of hemlock with species that have less conservative transpiration rates will result in rapid recovery of annual stand E(t). Further, we predict that annual stand E(t) will eventually surpass E(t) levels observed before hemlock was infested with HWA. This long-term increase in forest E(t) may eventually reduce stream discharge, especially during the growing season. However, the dominance of deciduous species in the canopy will result in a

  5. Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Steven; Ford, Chelcy R; Vose, James M

    2013-06-01

    Infestation of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) with hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae) has caused widespread mortality of this key canopy species throughout much of the southern Appalachian Mountains in the past decade. Because eastern hemlock is heavily concentrated in riparian habitats, maintains a dense canopy, and has an evergreen leaf habit, its loss is expected to have a major impact on forest processes, including transpiration (E(t)). Our goal was to estimate changes in stand-level E(t) since HWA infestation, and predict future effects of forest regeneration on forest E(t) in declining eastern hemlock stands where hemlock represented 50-60% of forest basal area. We used a combination of community surveys, sap flux measurements, and empirical models relating sap flux-scaled leaf-level transpiration (E(L)) to climate to estimate the change in E(t) after hemlock mortality and forecast how forest E(t) will change in the future in response to eastern hemlock loss. From 2004 to 2011, eastern hemlock mortality reduced annual forest E(t) by 22% and reduced winter E(t) by 74%. As hemlock mortality increased, growth of deciduous tree species--especially sweet birch (Betula lenta L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and the evergreen understory shrub rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum L.)--also increased, and these species will probably dominate post-hemlock riparian forests. All of these species have higher daytime E(L) rates than hemlock, and replacement of hemlock with species that have less conservative transpiration rates will result in rapid recovery of annual stand E(t). Further, we predict that annual stand E(t) will eventually surpass E(t) levels observed before hemlock was infested with HWA. This long-term increase in forest E(t) may eventually reduce stream discharge, especially during the growing season. However, the dominance of deciduous species in the canopy will result in a

  6. Societal and Commercial Issues Affecting the Future of Biotechnology in the United States: A Survey of Researchers' Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabino, Isaac

    A 1995 survey of 1,257 U.S. recombinant DNA researchers assessed how they view outside factors affecting their work, including public and media attention; regulation; funding; international competition; commercialization of research and university/industry collaboration; health care reform efforts; and patenting laws and policies. Generally, respondents view public attention as having had positive effects on biotechnology progress, but they are concerned about the decrease in R&D funding, especially from government; the loss of scientific openness and basic-research quality caused by academic/industrial collaboration; international competition, particularly from Japan and Germany; overly stringent regulations that control R&D processes rather than products; inefficient regulatory agencies focused on irrelevant criteria; and threats to basic biomedical research from the short-term cost focus of managed-care companies.

  7. Prenatal stress programs neuroendocrine stress responses and affective behaviors in second generation rats in a sex-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Grundwald, Natalia J.; Brunton, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    with controls, with no differences in the F2 females. No differences in depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference or forced swim test) were observed in either sex. In conclusion, the effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on HPA axis regulation and anxiety-like behavior can be transmitted to future generations in a sex-dependent manner. These data have implications for human neuropsychiatric disorders with developmental origins. PMID:26318631

  8. Procedure for generating global atmospheric engine emissions data from future supersonic transport aircraft. The 1990 high speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. A.; Stroup, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The input for global atmospheric chemistry models was generated for baseline High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations at Mach 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2. The input is supplied in the form of number of molecules of specific exhaust constituents injected into the atmosphere per year by latitude and by altitude (for 2-D codes). Seven exhaust constituents are currently supplied: NO, NO2, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, and THC (Trace Hydrocarbons). An eighth input is also supplied, NO(x), the sum of NO and NO2. The number of molecules of a given constituent emitted per year is a function of the total fuel burned by a supersonic fleet and the emission index (EI) of the aircraft engine for the constituent in question. The EIs for an engine are supplied directly by the engine manufacturers. The annual fuel burn of a supersonic fleet is calculated from aircraft performance and economic criteria, both of which are strongly dependent on basic design parameters such as speed and range. The altitude and latitude distribution of the emission is determined based on 10 Intern. Air Transport Assoc. (IATA) regions chosen to define the worldwide route structure for future HSCT operations and the mission flight profiles.

  9. Evaluation of Ancient and Future Submarine Landslides Along the Central California Coast and Their Potential to Generate Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, H. G.; Paull, C. K.; Ward, S.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.

    2001-12-01

    Submarine landslides have been located along the central California continental margin with the use of multibeam bathymetric and sub-bottom profiling data. These features are primarily concentrated on the lower continental slope and in submarine canyons. Recent evaluation of these landslides indicates that they are of various ages and types and formed in different ways. For example, the extensive slope failure morphology on the lower Point Sur slope range from subtle to very sharp geomorphic shapes that suggest these landslides have occurred over a long period of time. These landslides are large features (up to 215 km2) and form primarily from bottom-up processes in a retrogressive fashion. In contrast, some of the landslide scars located on flanks of submarine canyons appear youthful indicating recent activity. Several landslide scars and blocks are also located in the headward parts of Ascension and Monterey canyons. If these scars were generated by catastrophic slope failure, they are of the size (greater than 2 km2) and depth (lie at water depths less than 400 m) to have produced a tsunamis. Based on the presence of possible incipient crown scarps, we have also identified areas within the Ascension-Monterey submarine canyons system where wall failures may occur in the future. We are in the process of using computer simulations to assess the size and extent of tsunamis that these landslides might induce. On the horizon, we hope to develop a full probabilistic hazard estimate for landslide tsunamis run-up around Monterey Bay.

  10. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  11. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  12. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  13. Do targeted written comments and the rubric method of delivery affect performance on future human physiology laboratory reports?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Zachary S; Wilds, Gabriel P; Mangum, Joshua E; Hocker, Austin D; Dawson, Sierra M

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how students performed on weekly two-page laboratory reports based on whether the grading rubric was provided to the student electronically or in paper form and the inclusion of one- to two-sentence targeted comments. Subjects were registered for a 289-student, third-year human physiology class with laboratory and were randomized into four groups related to rubric delivery and targeted comments. All students received feedback via the same detailed grading rubric. At the end of the term, subjects provided consent and a self-assessment of their rubric viewing rate and preferences. There were no differences in laboratory report scores between groups (P = 0.86), although scores did improve over time (P < 0.01). Students receiving targeted comments self-reported viewing their rubric more often than students that received no comments (P = 0.02), but the viewing rate was independent of the rubric delivery method (P = 0.15). Subjects with high rubric viewing rates did not have higher laboratory report grades than subjects with low viewing rates (P = 0.64). When asked about their preference for the future, 43% of respondents preferred the same method again (electronic or paper rubric) and 25% had no preference. We conclude that although student laboratory report grades improved over time, the rate and degree of improvement were not related to rubric delivery method or to the inclusion of targeted comments. PMID:27445286

  14. Do targeted written comments and the rubric method of delivery affect performance on future human physiology laboratory reports?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Zachary S; Wilds, Gabriel P; Mangum, Joshua E; Hocker, Austin D; Dawson, Sierra M

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how students performed on weekly two-page laboratory reports based on whether the grading rubric was provided to the student electronically or in paper form and the inclusion of one- to two-sentence targeted comments. Subjects were registered for a 289-student, third-year human physiology class with laboratory and were randomized into four groups related to rubric delivery and targeted comments. All students received feedback via the same detailed grading rubric. At the end of the term, subjects provided consent and a self-assessment of their rubric viewing rate and preferences. There were no differences in laboratory report scores between groups (P = 0.86), although scores did improve over time (P < 0.01). Students receiving targeted comments self-reported viewing their rubric more often than students that received no comments (P = 0.02), but the viewing rate was independent of the rubric delivery method (P = 0.15). Subjects with high rubric viewing rates did not have higher laboratory report grades than subjects with low viewing rates (P = 0.64). When asked about their preference for the future, 43% of respondents preferred the same method again (electronic or paper rubric) and 25% had no preference. We conclude that although student laboratory report grades improved over time, the rate and degree of improvement were not related to rubric delivery method or to the inclusion of targeted comments.

  15. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography

  16. Breeding experience and population density affect the ability of a songbird to respond to future climate variation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott; Norris, D Ryan; Wilson, Amy G; Arcese, Peter

    2007-10-22

    Predicting how populations respond to climate change requires an understanding of whether individuals or cohorts within populations vary in their response to climate variation. We used mixed-effects models on a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population in British Columbia, Canada, to examine differences among females and cohorts in their average breeding date and breeding date plasticity in response to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Climatic variables, age and population density were strong predictors of timing of breeding, but we also found considerable variation among individual females and cohorts. Within cohorts, females differed markedly in their breeding date and cohorts also differed in their average breeding date and breeding date plasticity. The plasticity of a cohort appeared to be due primarily to an interaction between the environmental conditions (climate and density) experienced at different ages rather than innate inter-cohort differences. Cohorts that expressed higher plasticity in breeding date experienced warmer El Niño springs in their second or third breeding season, suggesting that prior experience affects how well individuals responded to abnormal climatic conditions. Cohorts born into lower density populations also expressed higher plasticity in breeding date. Interactions between age, experience and environmental conditions have been reported previously for long-lived taxa. Our current results indicate that similar effects operate in a short-lived, temperate songbird.

  17. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    PubMed

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed.

  18. Factors affecting the appreciation generated through applying human factors/ergonomics (HFE) principles to systems of work.

    PubMed

    So, R H Y; Lam, S T

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the levels of appreciation (applause) given by clients to Human Factors/Ergonomic (HFE) specialists after they have modified the systems of work. Thirteen non-academic projects were chosen because the HFE interventions involved changed the way workers work at their workplaces. Companies involved range from multi-national corporations and military organizations with thousands of employees to small trading companies with less than 10 employees. In 5 cases the HFE recommendations were fully adopted and well appreciated. In 4 they were largely ignored and not appreciated, with partial adoption and some appreciation in the other 4 cases. Three factors that predict appreciation were identified: (i) alignment between the benefits HFE can provide and the project's key performance indices; (ii) awareness of HFE among the client's senior management; and (iii) a team organization appropriate for applying HFE recommendations. Having an HFE specialist on the client's side can greatly increase levels of appreciation, but lack of such a specialist will not affect levels of appreciation. A clear contractual requirement for HFE intervention does not promote appreciation significantly, but its absence can greatly reduce levels of appreciation. These relationships are discussed using the Kano's model of quality. Means to generate greater appreciation of the benefits of HFE are discussed. PMID:23726141

  19. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Lavine, Jennie; Ellebedy, Ali; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza’s major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i) results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii) leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii) masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza. PMID:27336297

  20. Predicting future wind power generation and power demand in France using statistical downscaling methods developed for hydropower applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najac, Julien

    2014-05-01

    For many applications in the energy sector, it is crucial to dispose of downscaling methods that enable to conserve space-time dependences at very fine spatial and temporal scales between variables affecting electricity production and consumption. For climate change impact studies, this is an extremely difficult task, particularly as reliable climate information is usually found at regional and monthly scales at best, although many industry oriented applications need further refined information (hydropower production model, wind energy production model, power demand model, power balance model…). Here we thus propose to investigate the question of how to predict and quantify the influence of climate change on climate-related energies and the energy demand. To do so, statistical downscaling methods originally developed for studying climate change impacts on hydrological cycles in France (and which have been used to compute hydropower production in France), have been applied for predicting wind power generation in France and an air temperature indicator commonly used for predicting power demand in France. We show that those methods provide satisfactory results over the recent past and apply this methodology to several climate model runs from the ENSEMBLES project.

  1. Evaluation of docosahexaenoic acid deficiency as a preventable risk factor for recurrent affective disorders: current status, future directions, and dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Major recurrent affective disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder, represent a growing public health crisis in the United States. Evidence from cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys, comparative peripheral and central composition studies, and placebo-controlled intervention trials suggest that n-3 fatty acid deficiency may contribute to the pathoaetiology of affective disorders. These data are reviewed with the objective of estimating a daily docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) intake value that is projected to be efficacious in mitigating vulnerability. It is proposed that daily DHA intake sufficient to increase erythrocyte DHA composition to a level found in healthy subjects from Japan (7%), where the lifetime prevalence rates of MDD and bipolar disorder are several fold lower than the US, represents an appropriate target. To achieve this target, preliminary DHA intervention trials indicate that a daily dose of 400-700 mg/d in children and 700-1000 mg/d in adults would be required. Based on the results of placebo-controlled intervention trials, a higher daily DHA dose in the order of 1000-1500 mg/d in a 2:1 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3):DHA ratio may be optimal for the treatment of established affective disorders. These recommendations are intended to guide future dose-ranging placebo-controlled DHA intervention trials in patients with established affective disorders, as well as in asymptomatic subjects at elevated risk for developing affective disorders. Such early intervention studies are currently feasible and will ultimately be required to definitively evaluate whether DHA is a required nutrient for the prevention of affective disorders.

  2. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    including fields of: urban planning revision, river flow measures, revision of operation mode of dams, modification of waterworks' conception in areas liable to flooding and finally a program of power sources prevention during emergency situation (this program had been started before the floods). Regional establishment puts emphasis on preparation of preventive projects and management mentioned. An international co-operation of regions affected by floods and possibly building of joint teams for prevention measures proposal would be very effective and useful.

  3. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  4. ν generation: Present and future constraints on neutrino masses from global analysis of cosmology and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbino, Martina; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    We perform a joint analysis of current data from cosmology and laboratory experiments to constrain the neutrino mass parameters in the framework of Bayesian statistics, also accounting for uncertainties in nuclear modeling, relevant for neutrinoless double β decay (0 ν 2 β ) searches. We find that a combination of current oscillation, cosmological, and 0 ν 2 β data constrains mβ β<0.045 eV (0.014 eV affected by uncertainties related to the interpretation of 0 ν 2 β data, like nuclear modeling, or the exact particle physics mechanism underlying the process. We then perform forecasts for forthcoming and next-generation experiments, and find that in the case of normal hierarchy, given a total mass of 0.1 eV, and assuming a factor-of-two uncertainty in the modeling of the relevant nuclear matrix elements, it will be possible to measure the total mass itself, the effective Majorana mass and the effective electron mass with an accuracy (at 95% C.L.) of 0.05, 0.015, 0.02 eV, respectively, as well as to be sensitive to one of the Majorana phases. This assumes that neutrinos are Majorana particles and that the mass mechanism gives the dominant contribution to 0 ν 2 β decay. We argue that more precise nuclear modeling will be crucial to improve these sensitivities.

  5. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    PubMed

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:26164820

  6. Metacognitive deficits predict future levels of negative symptoms in schizophrenia controlling for neurocognition, affect recognition, and self-expectation of goal attainment.

    PubMed

    Lysaker, Paul H; Kukla, Marina; Dubreucq, Julien; Gumley, Andrew; McLeod, Hamish; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Minor, Kyle S; Luther, Lauren; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Belanger, Elizabeth A; Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-10-01

    The recalcitrance of negative symptoms in the face of pharmacologic treatment has spurred interest in understanding the psychological factors that contribute to their formation and persistence. Accordingly, this study investigated whether deficits in metacognition, or the ability to form integrated ideas about oneself, others, and the world, prospectively predicted levels of negative symptoms independent of deficits in neurocognition, affect recognition and defeatist beliefs. Participants were 53 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Prior to entry into a rehabilitation program, all participants completed concurrent assessments of metacognition with the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, negative symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, neurocognition with the MATRICS battery, affect recognition with the Bell Lysaker Emotion Recognition Task, and one form of defeatist beliefs with the Recovery Assessment Scale. Negative symptoms were then reassessed one week, 9weeks, and 17weeks after entry into the program. A mixed effects regression model revealed that after controlling for baseline negative symptoms, a general index of neurocognition, defeatist beliefs and capacity for affect recognition, lower levels of metacognition predicted higher levels of negative symptoms across all subsequent time points. Poorer metacognition was able to predict later levels of elevated negative symptoms even after controlling for initial levels of negative symptoms. Results may suggest that metacognitive deficits are a risk factor for elevated levels of negative symptoms in the future. Clinical implications are also discussed.

  7. Assessment of present and future radwaste generation in Saudi Arabia for the design of treatment and storage facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Kutbi, I.I.; Al-Marshad, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Radwastes are produced in medical, industrial and educational institutions in Saudi Arabia. In medical centers many of the unsealed sources were low beta/gamma emitters of low radio-toxicity and less than about 4 months half-life. Significant radionuclides in this category were: {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 67}Ga and some of others. Longer lived sources such as {sup 57}Co, {sup 3}H, and {sup 14}C were also found in appreciable quantity. Delay and decay procedure followed by release to the sewerage or municipal landfill has been practiced for short-lived radwaste. Pretreatment and temporary storage were encouraged at large centers. Industrial sealed sources used primarily in radiography and well logging were mainly: {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 241}Am, {sup 241}Am-Be and {sup 252}Cf. It was agreed that radwastes whose half lives are above 138.4 days, the half life of {sup 210}Po, should be subject to conditioning treatment and permanent storage. It was anticipated that two main parameters affect the increase in radwaste in the future. The first is the increase of radionuclides use in hospitals in diagnosis and therapy in the country. The second is the increase in population which should be associated with increase in medical services in general. The annual long lived waste that need treatment, conditioning and storage as a function of time is expected to follow the relation: V= 10+0.48t{sup 2}, where V is the waste volume in m{sup 3} and t is the time in years after 1995. The expected long lived cumulative treated, conditioned, and liquid wastes in that year if not subject to volume reduction in m{sup 3} are expected to be: 500, 75, and 100 respectively. Comparisons were made with IAEA waste volume expectations for countries of similar conditions: the cumulative radwastes in m{sup 3} in 2020 are expected to be: 800, 125 and 175 respectively.

  8. Will changes in root-zone temperature in boreal spring affect recovery of photosynthesis in Picea mariana and Populus tremuloides in a future climate?

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Ensminger, Ingo; Bergeron, Yves; Gessler, Arthur; Berninger, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Future climate will alter the soil cover of mosses and snow depths in the boreal forests of eastern Canada. In field manipulation experiments, we assessed the effects of varying moss and snow depths on the physiology of black spruce (Picea -mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the boreal black spruce forest of western Québec. For 1 year, naturally regenerated 10-year-old spruce and aspen were grown with one of the following treatments: additional N fertilization, addition of sphagnum moss cover, removal of mosses, delayed soil thawing through snow and hay addition, or accelerated soil thawing through springtime snow removal. Treatments that involved the addition of insulating moss or snow in the spring caused lower soil temperature, while removing moss and snow in the spring caused elevated soil temperature and thus had a warming effect. Soil warming treatments were associated with greater temperature variability. Additional soil cover, whether moss or snow, increased the rate of photosynthetic recovery in the spring. Moss and snow removal, on the other hand, had the opposite effect and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially in spruce. Maximal electron transport rate (ETR(max)) was, for spruce, 39.5% lower after moss removal than with moss addition, and 16.3% lower with accelerated thawing than with delayed thawing. Impaired photosynthetic recovery in the absence of insulating moss or snow covers was associated with lower foliar N concentrations. Both species were affected in that way, but trembling aspen generally reacted less strongly to all treatments. Our results indicate that a clear negative response of black spruce to changes in root-zone temperature should be anticipated in a future climate. Reduced moss cover and snow depth could adversely affect the photosynthetic capacities of black spruce, while having only minor effects on trembling aspen. PMID:22021010

  9. Will changes in root-zone temperature in boreal spring affect recovery of photosynthesis in Picea mariana and Populus tremuloides in a future climate?

    PubMed

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Ensminger, Ingo; Bergeron, Yves; Gessler, Arthur; Berninger, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Future climate will alter the soil cover of mosses and snow depths in the boreal forests of eastern Canada. In field manipulation experiments, we assessed the effects of varying moss and snow depths on the physiology of black spruce (Picea -mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the boreal black spruce forest of western Québec. For 1 year, naturally regenerated 10-year-old spruce and aspen were grown with one of the following treatments: additional N fertilization, addition of sphagnum moss cover, removal of mosses, delayed soil thawing through snow and hay addition, or accelerated soil thawing through springtime snow removal. Treatments that involved the addition of insulating moss or snow in the spring caused lower soil temperature, while removing moss and snow in the spring caused elevated soil temperature and thus had a warming effect. Soil warming treatments were associated with greater temperature variability. Additional soil cover, whether moss or snow, increased the rate of photosynthetic recovery in the spring. Moss and snow removal, on the other hand, had the opposite effect and lowered photosynthetic activity, especially in spruce. Maximal electron transport rate (ETR(max)) was, for spruce, 39.5% lower after moss removal than with moss addition, and 16.3% lower with accelerated thawing than with delayed thawing. Impaired photosynthetic recovery in the absence of insulating moss or snow covers was associated with lower foliar N concentrations. Both species were affected in that way, but trembling aspen generally reacted less strongly to all treatments. Our results indicate that a clear negative response of black spruce to changes in root-zone temperature should be anticipated in a future climate. Reduced moss cover and snow depth could adversely affect the photosynthetic capacities of black spruce, while having only minor effects on trembling aspen.

  10. Four Generations of Maintenance Resource Management Programs in the United States: An Analysis of the Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James C.; Patankar, Manoj S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes four generations of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) programs implemented by aviation maintenance organizations in the United States. Data collected from over ten years of survey research and field observations are used for this analysis; they are presented in a case-study format. The first three generations of MRM programs were episodic efforts to increase safety through teamwork, focus group discussions, and awareness courses, respectively. Now, the fourth generation programs, characterized by a commitment to long-term communication and behavioral changes in maintenance, are set to build on those earlier generations, toward a culture of mutual trust between mechanics, their managers, and regulators.

  11. How does the Earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel

    2012-03-13

    The Earth's chemical composition far from chemical equilibrium is unique in our Solar System, and this uniqueness has been attributed to the presence of widespread life on the planet. Here, I show how this notion can be quantified using non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Generating and maintaining disequilibrium in a thermodynamic variable requires the extraction of power from another thermodynamic gradient, and the second law of thermodynamics imposes fundamental limits on how much power can be extracted. With this approach and associated limits, I show that the ability of abiotic processes to generate geochemical free energy that can be used to transform the surface-atmosphere environment is strongly limited to less than 1 TW. Photosynthetic life generates more than 200 TW by performing photochemistry, thereby substantiating the notion that a geochemical composition far from equilibrium can be a sign for strong biotic activity. Present-day free energy consumption by human activity in the form of industrial activity and human appropriated net primary productivity is of the order of 50 TW and therefore constitutes a considerable term in the free energy budget of the planet. When aiming to predict the future of the planet, we first note that since global changes are closely related to this consumption of free energy, and the demands for free energy by human activity are anticipated to increase substantially in the future, the central question in the context of predicting future global change is then how human free energy demands can increase sustainably without negatively impacting the ability of the Earth system to generate free energy. This question could be evaluated with climate models, and the potential deficiencies in these models to adequately represent the thermodynamics of the Earth system are discussed. Then, I illustrate the implications of this thermodynamic perspective by discussing the forms of renewable energy and planetary engineering that would

  12. How does the Earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?

    PubMed

    Kleidon, Axel

    2012-03-13

    The Earth's chemical composition far from chemical equilibrium is unique in our Solar System, and this uniqueness has been attributed to the presence of widespread life on the planet. Here, I show how this notion can be quantified using non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Generating and maintaining disequilibrium in a thermodynamic variable requires the extraction of power from another thermodynamic gradient, and the second law of thermodynamics imposes fundamental limits on how much power can be extracted. With this approach and associated limits, I show that the ability of abiotic processes to generate geochemical free energy that can be used to transform the surface-atmosphere environment is strongly limited to less than 1 TW. Photosynthetic life generates more than 200 TW by performing photochemistry, thereby substantiating the notion that a geochemical composition far from equilibrium can be a sign for strong biotic activity. Present-day free energy consumption by human activity in the form of industrial activity and human appropriated net primary productivity is of the order of 50 TW and therefore constitutes a considerable term in the free energy budget of the planet. When aiming to predict the future of the planet, we first note that since global changes are closely related to this consumption of free energy, and the demands for free energy by human activity are anticipated to increase substantially in the future, the central question in the context of predicting future global change is then how human free energy demands can increase sustainably without negatively impacting the ability of the Earth system to generate free energy. This question could be evaluated with climate models, and the potential deficiencies in these models to adequately represent the thermodynamics of the Earth system are discussed. Then, I illustrate the implications of this thermodynamic perspective by discussing the forms of renewable energy and planetary engineering that would

  13. How does the Earth system generate and maintain thermodynamic disequilibrium and what does it imply for the future of the planet?

    PubMed Central

    Kleidon, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's chemical composition far from chemical equilibrium is unique in our Solar System, and this uniqueness has been attributed to the presence of widespread life on the planet. Here, I show how this notion can be quantified using non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Generating and maintaining disequilibrium in a thermodynamic variable requires the extraction of power from another thermodynamic gradient, and the second law of thermodynamics imposes fundamental limits on how much power can be extracted. With this approach and associated limits, I show that the ability of abiotic processes to generate geochemical free energy that can be used to transform the surface–atmosphere environment is strongly limited to less than 1 TW. Photosynthetic life generates more than 200 TW by performing photochemistry, thereby substantiating the notion that a geochemical composition far from equilibrium can be a sign for strong biotic activity. Present-day free energy consumption by human activity in the form of industrial activity and human appropriated net primary productivity is of the order of 50 TW and therefore constitutes a considerable term in the free energy budget of the planet. When aiming to predict the future of the planet, we first note that since global changes are closely related to this consumption of free energy, and the demands for free energy by human activity are anticipated to increase substantially in the future, the central question in the context of predicting future global change is then how human free energy demands can increase sustainably without negatively impacting the ability of the Earth system to generate free energy. This question could be evaluated with climate models, and the potential deficiencies in these models to adequately represent the thermodynamics of the Earth system are discussed. Then, I illustrate the implications of this thermodynamic perspective by discussing the forms of renewable energy and planetary engineering that would

  14. The Legal Past, Present and Future of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Professional Liability and Other Legal Challenges Affecting Patient Access to Services.

    PubMed

    Pergament, Deborah; Ilijic, Katie

    2014-12-15

    This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments.

  15. The Legal Past, Present and Future of Prenatal Genetic Testing: Professional Liability and Other Legal Challenges Affecting Patient Access to Services

    PubMed Central

    Pergament, Deborah; Ilijic, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments. PMID:26237611

  16. Supporting and Preparing Future First-Generation College Students in the High School Environment: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jill K.; Nicolas, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed college freshmen from two different institutions in order to examine differences between First-Generation College Students and Continuing-Generation College Students. Differences between groups emerged for high school academic preparation, college exploration behaviors, college application behaviors, and college decision-making…

  17. Book Review: "The Road to Sustainability, GDP and Future Generations" Pulselli et al, WIT Press, Southhampton, UK 197p 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    “The Road to Sustainability, GDP and future generations” by Pulselli, F.M., Bastianoni, S., Marchettini, N. Tiezzi, E. was reviewed upon request by the journal’s editor. Briefly, this book presents the authors’ perspective on the complex and important topic of sustainability. Su...

  18. Next generation of elevated [CO2] experiments with crops: A critical investment for feeding the future world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising demand for grain crops and an expanding biofuel industry are vastly increasing pressure to maximize productivity on agricultural land. Rising atmospheric [CO2] is increasing global temperature and altering precipitation patterns, which will challenge agricultural productivity in the future. Y...

  19. Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF): Building the ICT in Education Capacity of the Next Generation of Teachers in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Geoff; Lloyd, Margaret; Downes, Toni

    2012-01-01

    The "Teaching Teachers for the Future" (TTF) project is a unique nationally significant project funded by the Australian Government through the Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations (DEEWR, Au$8.8 million) and the Information and Communication Technology Innovation Fund (ICTIF). This 2011-2012 project has ambitiously…

  20. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    PubMed

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology. PMID:26057576

  1. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    PubMed

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  2. Inspiring a future generation of Astronomer and Astrophysicists during the 48th and 49th annual Astro-Science Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynowycz, Michael; Ratliff, G.; Gyuk, G.; Hammergren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aging of the technological workforce and declining STEM interest among teens gives impetus to a more exciting, hands-on approach to science education. As one of the longest running astronomy & astrophysics programs for high school students in the country, the Adler Planetarium’s Astro-Science Workshop (ASW) has continually evolved to best serve the out-of-school time needs of science-interested teens in the region. More than a decade ago, ASW underwent a major shift in underlying philosophy from a traditional lecture-oriented program to one focused on hands-on, student led inquiry in which students design, build, and conduct their own experiments. This strategy capitalizes on the natural inclinations of curious youth, and has found a strong synergy with the emerging “maker” movement. Over the past two years, a very successful effort has been made to retain students following ASW as volunteers in the Adler’s Far Horizons high-altitude ballooning group. The necessity to continually inspire and spark interests in science futures in our youth has been ongoing; this intense program serves this niche while giving students experiences they will keep with them for their entire lives. Here, we share our successes, failures, and future perspectives on astronomy education and the mission of widening the future pipeline of young scientists in the nation.

  3. Assessment of the leak tightness integrity of the steam generator tubes affected by ODSCC at the tube support plates

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvelliez, Ch.; Roussel, G.

    1997-02-01

    An EPRI report gives a method for predicting a conservative value of the total primary-to-secondary leak rate which may occur during, a postulated steam generator depressurization accident such as a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) in a steam generator with axial through-wall ODSCC at the TSP intersections. The Belgian utility defined an alternative method deviating somewhat from the EPRI method. When reviewing this proposed method, the Belgian safety authorities performed some calculations to investigate its conservatism. This led them to recommend some modifications to the EPRI method which should reduce its undue conservatism while maintaining the objective of conservatism in the offsite dose calculations.

  4. Application of heat- and steam-generating sheets to the lumbar or abdominal region affects autonomic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshinao; Oda, Hideshi; Igaki, Michihito; Suzuki, Megumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Yada, Yukihiro; Tsuchiya, Shuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ohishi, Sachiko

    2006-06-30

    Effects of applying a heat- and steam-generating (HSG) sheet on peripheral hemodynamics and autonomic nerve activity were examined. An HSG sheet was applied to the lumbar or abdominal region. Measurements included skin temperature at the lumbar and abdominal regions and the fingertip, total hemoglobin, tissue oxygen saturation ratio (StO2), pupillary light reflex, changes in ECG R-R interval blood pressure and percutaneous electrogastrography (EGG). A heat-generating sheet without steam was used as the control. Based on the present findings, application of the HSG sheet to the lumbar or abdominal region may improve peripheral hemodynamics and inhibit sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in parasympathetic nerve activity dominance.

  5. Quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in an F2 generation of rainbow trout produced through phenotypic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding programs for salmonids typically aim to improve traits associated with growth and disease resistance. It has been established that stressors common to production environments can adversely affect these and other traits which are important to producers and consumers. Previously,...

  6. Influences That Affect First-Generation College Students' College Choice: A Qualitative Inquiry of Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell-Yeager, Tiffany J.

    2012-01-01

    College choice is the three-stage process of aspiring, searching and choosing to attend college. There are many models pertaining to college choice, however, this study uses the Hossler and Gallagher Model---aspiration, search and choice. This qualitative study explored first-generation college students' perceptions about the influences…

  7. The C3 Framework: A Powerful Tool for Preparing Future Generations for Informed and Engaged Civic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Levine, Peter

    2014-01-01

    As the C3 Framework for the social studies rolls out, it is hoped that its influence will grow, offering a vision and guidance for the development of a new generation of state social studies standards that promote deeper student learning and the acquisition of essentials skills for college, career, and civic life. In the interim, it can be an…

  8. What About the Children? The Threat of Nuclear War and Our Responsibility to Preserve this Planet for Future Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Glenn W.

    Part of a global effort, this brochure was written to increase understanding of the threat nuclear war poses to children. Several issues are raised and briefly discussed, including (1) the present capacity for annihilating the next generation or ending human life on this planet, (2) the inadequacy of deterrence, (3) the suffering of children after…

  9. Increasing atmospheric [CO2] from glacial to future concentrations affects drought tolerance via impacts on leaves, xylem and their integrated function.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Ward, Joy K

    2013-08-01

    Changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) affect plant carbon/water tradeoffs, with implications for drought tolerance. Leaf-level studies often indicate that drought tolerance may increase with rising [CO2], but integrated leaf and xylem responses are not well understood in this respect. In addition, the influence of the low [CO2] of the last glacial period on drought tolerance and xylem properties is not well understood. We investigated the interactive effects of a broad range of [CO2] and plant water potentials on leaf function, xylem structure and function and the integration of leaf and xylem function in Phaseolus vulgaris. Elevated [CO2] decreased vessel implosion strength, reduced conduit-specific hydraulic conductance, and compromised leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductance under moderate drought. By contrast, at glacial [CO2], transpiration was maintained under moderate drought via greater conduit-specific and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in association with increased vessel implosion strength. Our study involving the integration of leaf and xylem responses suggests that increasing [CO2] does not improve drought tolerance. We show that, under glacial conditions, changes in leaf and xylem properties could increase drought tolerance, while under future conditions, greater productivity may only occur when higher water use can be accommodated.

  10. Role of gustatory and postingestive actions of sweeteners in the generation of positive affect as evaluated by place preference conditioning.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A; Marroquin, E

    1997-12-01

    Either an 18% sucrose or a 0.1% saccharin solution was used as reward in a conditioned place preference procedure. The respective solution was consumed immediately before the subject was confined to the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. In this way only the affective reaction produced by the rewarding stimulus participated in place conditioning. Non-deprived rats consumed similar quantities of the two solutions, suggesting that they were equally rewarding. Yet only sucrose induced place preference. The lack of effect of saccharin may have been due to weaker positive affect or to an inability to induce an affective state that outlasted consummatory behavior. The first possibility was evaluated in the second experiment. Food-deprived rats were subjected to a discrimination learning task in a runway with plain water, sucrose or saccharin as reinforcer. Sucrose sustained running responses and produced improvement of discrimination behavior. Saccharin had a small effect at the first sessions only. It was concluded that saccharin is less rewarding than sucrose. In a final experiment, one group of rats was injected with glucose (2 g/kg) 17 min before being introduced in the non-preferred compartment of a place preference box. Another group was given the same dose of glucose just before drinking saccharin for 15 min. Immediately thereafter place conditioning was performed. Glucose alone had no effect, while a place preference was established when glucose injection was combined with saccharin drinking. These results show that the positive affect produced by sweet substances does not outlast consummatory behavior in the absence of postabsorptive actions. PMID:9468761

  11. The ophthalmologist of the future.

    PubMed

    Mets, Marilyn B; Brown, Ann; Doan, Andrew P; Williams, Ruth D; Mills, Richard; Erie, Jay C; Gross, Ronald

    2012-09-01

    Who are the ophthalmologists of the future? How will the new generation practice? How will they interact with their professional organizations? What part will technology play in their lives and professions? A new paradigm is in place that will dramatically affect ophthalmologists' answers to these questions going forward. Given the uncertainty of our future professional lives, it is vital that we anticipate, contemplate, and formulate a plan. To begin this process, the Knapp Symposium at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the American Ophthalmological Society was devoted to a discussion of the ophthalmologist of the future.

  12. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  13. Investigating Factors that Generate and Maintain Variation in Migratory Orientation: A Primer for Recent and Future Work

    PubMed Central

    Delmore, Kira E.; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The amazing accuracy of migratory orientation performance across the animal kingdom is facilitated by the use of magnetic and celestial compass systems that provide individuals with both directional and positional information. Quantitative genetics analyses in several animal systems suggests that migratory orientation has a strong genetic component. Nevertheless, the exact identity of genes controlling orientation remains largely unknown, making it difficult to obtain an accurate understanding of this fascinating behavior on the molecular level. Here, we provide an overview of molecular genetic techniques employed thus far, highlight the pros and cons of various approaches, generalize results from species-specific studies whenever possible, and evaluate how far the field has come since early quantitative genetics studies. We emphasize the importance of examining different levels of molecular control, and outline how future studies can take advantage of high-resolution tracking and sequencing techniques to characterize the genomic architecture of migratory orientation. PMID:26834592

  14. Investigating Factors that Generate and Maintain Variation in Migratory Orientation: A Primer for Recent and Future Work.

    PubMed

    Delmore, Kira E; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    The amazing accuracy of migratory orientation performance across the animal kingdom is facilitated by the use of magnetic and celestial compass systems that provide individuals with both directional and positional information. Quantitative genetics analyses in several animal systems suggests that migratory orientation has a strong genetic component. Nevertheless, the exact identity of genes controlling orientation remains largely unknown, making it difficult to obtain an accurate understanding of this fascinating behavior on the molecular level. Here, we provide an overview of molecular genetic techniques employed thus far, highlight the pros and cons of various approaches, generalize results from species-specific studies whenever possible, and evaluate how far the field has come since early quantitative genetics studies. We emphasize the importance of examining different levels of molecular control, and outline how future studies can take advantage of high-resolution tracking and sequencing techniques to characterize the genomic architecture of migratory orientation. PMID:26834592

  15. An electricity-focused economic input-output model: Life-cycle assessment and policy implications of future electricity generation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Joe

    The electricity industry is extremely important to both our economy and our environment. We would like to be able to examine the economic, environmental and policy implications of both future electricity scenarios which include advanced generation technologies such as gasified coal, and of the products and processes which will use them, along with the interaction of this industry with the rest of the economy. This work builds upon an existing economic input-output framework, by adding detail about the electricity industry, specifically by differentiating among the various functions of the sector, and the different means of generating power. The mix of electricity consumed at any stage in the life-cycle of a product, process or industrial sector has a significant effect on the associated inventory of emissions. Fossil fuel or nuclear generators, large-scale hydroelectric, and renewable options such as geothermal, wind and solar each have a unique set of issues---both in the production of electricity at the plant and throughout the supply chain. Decision makers need better information regarding the environmental and economic impact of the electricity industry, including full supply chain details---the interaction of the electricity industry with the other 500 sectors of the economy. A systematic method for creating updated state level and sector generation mixes is developed. The results show that most sector mixes are very close to the U.S. average due to geographic dispersion of industries, but that some sectors are different, and they tend to be important raw material extraction or primary manufacturing industries. We then build a flexible framework for creating new sectors, supply chains and emission factors for the generation, transmission and distribution portions of the electricity industry. We look at scenarios of the present and future, for electricity and for particular products, and develop results which show environmental impacts split up by generation

  16. Second harmonic generation microscopy investigation of the crystalline ultrastructure of three barley starch lines affected by hydration

    PubMed Central

    Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Steup, Martin; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas; Barzda, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed to study changes in crystalline organization due to altered gene expression and hydration in barley starch granules. SHG intensity and susceptibility ratio values (R’SHG) are obtained using reduced Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy. The maximum R’SHG values occur at moderate moisture indicating the narrowest orientation distribution of nonlinear dipoles from the cylindrical axis of glucan helices. The maximum SHG intensity occurs at the highest moisture and amylopectin content. These results support the hypothesis that SHG is caused by ordered hydrogen and hydroxyl bond networks which increase with hydration of starch granules. PMID:26504621

  17. Plantarflexor training affects propulsive force generation during gait in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Misako; Higuchi, Yumi; Yonetsu, Ryo; Kitajima, Hiromi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints after plantarflexor training in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Three boys aged 9, 10, and 13 years with spastic hemiplegic CP participated in the study. Gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion analysis device and a floor reaction force detection device before and after plantarflexor training. Data on gait speed and stride length for both sides were collected. Peak hip and ankle powers in the sagittal plane and ankle-to-hip power ratio (A2/H3 ratio) were calculated. Plantarflexor training comprised heel raises and exercise band resistance at the participant's home (3 times/week for 12 weeks). [Results] The A2/H3 ratio increased significantly on both sides in two of three subjects after training. Peak A2 power increased significantly on both sides in subject 3 and on the affected side of subject 2. Peak H3 power decreased significantly on the non-affected side of subjects 1 and 2. [Conclusion] This study confirmed that two of three subjects demonstrated a trade-off relationship between the hip and ankle joints during gait after plantarflexor training.

  18. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tan, BoonFei; Ng, Charmaine; Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Loh, Lay Leng; Gin, Karina Y-H; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools.

  19. Understanding the Role of Maternal Diet on Kidney Development; an Opportunity to Improve Cardiovascular and Renal Health for Future Generations

    PubMed Central

    Wood-Bradley, Ryan James; Barrand, Sanna; Giot, Anais; Armitage, James Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide are cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, high cholesterol and renal disease), cancer and diabetes. It is increasingly obvious that the development of these diseases encompasses complex interactions between adult lifestyle and genetic predisposition. Maternal malnutrition can influence the fetal and early life environment and pose a risk factor for the future development of adult diseases, most likely due to impaired organogenesis in the developing offspring. This then predisposes these offspring to cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction in adulthood. Studies in experimental animals have further illustrated the significant impact maternal diet has on offspring health. Many studies report changes in kidney structure (a reduction in the number of nephrons in the kidney) in offspring of protein-deprived dams. Although the early studies suggested that increased blood pressure was also present in offspring of protein-restricted dams, this is not a universal finding and requires clarification. Importantly, to date, the literature offers little to no understanding of when in development these changes in kidney development occur, nor are the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive these changes well characterised. Moreover, the mechanisms linking maternal nutrition and a suboptimal renal phenotype in offspring are yet to be discerned—one potential mechanism involves epigenetics. This review will focus on recent information on potential mechanisms by which maternal nutrition (focusing on malnutrition due to protein restriction, micronutrient restriction and excessive fat intake) influences kidney development and thereby function in later life. PMID:25774605

  20. Considerations in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of radioisotopic thermo-photovoltaic (RTPV) generators for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Frazier, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    To increase energy output with a smaller size and mass than the radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that were previously used on deep space missions, a radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system is being developed for the {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express{close_quote}{close_quote} flyby mission. To minimize cost and development time, some facilities and components currently used for RTG production can be used to produce RTPVs. Production options also include out-sourcing and use of off-the-shelf hardware. Necessary modifications to tooling, production equipment, testing and shipping methods can be achieved in a timely manner so that the RTPV will be ready well before the planned launch of {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Tan, BoonFei; Ng, Charmaine; Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Loh, Lay Leng; Gin, Karina Y-H; Thompson, Janelle R

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools. PMID:26441948

  2. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for assessment of microbial water quality: current progress, challenges, and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tan, BoonFei; Ng, Charmaine; Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Loh, Lay Leng; Gin, Karina Y.-H.; Thompson, Janelle R.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is an emergent property of a complex system comprised of interacting microbial populations and introduced microbial and chemical contaminants. Studies leveraging next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new insights into the ecology of microbially mediated processes that influence fresh water quality such as algal blooms, contaminant biodegradation, and pathogen dissemination. In addition, sequencing methods targeting small subunit (SSU) rRNA hypervariable regions have allowed identification of signature microbial species that serve as bioindicators for sewage contamination in these environments. Beyond amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses of microbial communities in fresh water environments reveal the genetic capabilities and interplay of waterborne microorganisms, shedding light on the mechanisms for production and biodegradation of toxins and other contaminants. This review discusses the challenges and benefits of applying NGS-based methods to water quality research and assessment. We will consider the suitability and biases inherent in the application of NGS as a screening tool for assessment of biological risks and discuss the potential and limitations for direct quantitative interpretation of NGS data. Secondly, we will examine case studies from recent literature where NGS based methods have been applied to topics in water quality assessment, including development of bioindicators for sewage pollution and microbial source tracking, characterizing the distribution of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in water samples, and investigating mechanisms of biodegradation of harmful pollutants that threaten water quality. Finally, we provide a short review of emerging NGS platforms and their potential applications to the next generation of water quality assessment tools. PMID:26441948

  3. The past, present, and future of immune repertoire biology - the rise of next-generation repertoire analysis.

    PubMed

    Six, Adrien; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Maria Encarnita; Chaara, Wahiba; Magadan, Susana; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Mora, Thierry; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique; Walczak, Aleksandra M; Boudinot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    T and B cell repertoires are collections of lymphocytes, each characterized by its antigen-specific receptor. We review here classical technologies and analysis strategies developed to assess immunoglobulin (IG) and T cell receptor (TR) repertoire diversity, and describe recent advances in the field. First, we describe the broad range of available methodological tools developed in the past decades, each of which answering different questions and showing complementarity for progressive identification of the level of repertoire alterations: global overview of the diversity by flow cytometry, IG repertoire descriptions at the protein level for the identification of IG reactivities, IG/TR CDR3 spectratyping strategies, and related molecular quantification or dynamics of T/B cell differentiation. Additionally, we introduce the recent technological advances in molecular biology tools allowing deeper analysis of IG/TR diversity by next-generation sequencing (NGS), offering systematic and comprehensive sequencing of IG/TR transcripts in a short amount of time. NGS provides several angles of analysis such as clonotype frequency, CDR3 diversity, CDR3 sequence analysis, V allele identification with a quantitative dimension, therefore requiring high-throughput analysis tools development. In this line, we discuss the recent efforts made for nomenclature standardization and ontology development. We then present the variety of available statistical analysis and modeling approaches developed with regards to the various levels of diversity analysis, and reveal the increasing sophistication of those modeling approaches. To conclude, we provide some examples of recent mathematical modeling strategies and perspectives that illustrate the active rise of a "next-generation" of repertoire analysis.

  4. The quality of our Nation's waters: factors affecting public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination: understanding observed water quality and anticipating future water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, Sandra M.; Thomas, Mary Ann; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    provides insight into the time lag between contaminant input at the water table and contaminant arrival at the well. It also provides insight into the potential for in-well dilution of contaminated water by unaffected groundwater of a different age that simultaneously enters the well. Preferential flow pathways—pathways that provide little resistance to flow—can influence how all other factors affect public-supply-well vulnerability to contamination. For example, preferential flow pathways can influence whether a contaminant source is physically linked to a well, whether contaminant concentrations are substantially altered before contaminated groundwater reaches a well, and whether contaminated groundwater can arrive at a well within a timeframe of concern to the well owner. Methods for recognizing the influence of preferential flow pathways on the quality of water from a public-supply well are presented in this circular and can provide opportunities to prevent or mitigate the deterioration of a water supply. Knowing what water-quality variables to measure, what spatial and temporal scales on which to measure them, and how to interpret the resulting data makes it possible for samples from public-supply wells to provide a broad window into a well’s past and present water quality—and possibly future water quality. Such insight can enable resource managers to prioritize actions for sustaining a high-quality groundwater source of drinking water.

  5. The mvp2 mutation affects the generative transition through the modification of transcriptome pattern, salicylic acid and cytokinin metabolism in Triticum monococcum.

    PubMed

    Boldizsár, Ákos; Vanková, Radomíra; Novák, Aliz; Kalapos, Balázs; Gulyás, Zsolt; Pál, Magda; Floková, Kristyna; Janda, Tibor; Galiba, Gábor; Kocsy, Gábor

    2016-09-01

    Wild type and mvp2 (maintained vegetative phase) deletion mutant T. monococcum plants incapable of flowering were compared in order to determine the effect of the deleted region of chromosome 5A on transcript profile and hormone metabolism. This region contains the vernalization1 (VRN1) gene, a major regulator of the vegetative/generative transition. Transcript profiling in the crowns of T. monococcum during the transition and the subsequent formation of flower primordia showed that 306 genes were affected by the mutation, 198 by the developmental phase and 14 by the interaction of these parameters. In addition, 546 genes were affected by two or three factors. The genes controlled by the deleted region encode transcription factors, antioxidants and enzymes of hormone, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The observed changes in the expression of the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) might indicate the effect of mvp2 mutation on the metabolism of salicylic acid, which was corroborated by the differences in 2-hydroxycinnamic acid and cinnamic acid contents in both of the leaves and crowns, and in the concentrations of salicylic acid and benzoic acid in crowns during the vegetative/generative transition. The amount and ratio of active cytokinins and their derivatives (ribosides, glucosides and phosphates) were affected by developmental changes as well as by mvp2 mutation, too. PMID:27450491

  6. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  7. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex.

    PubMed

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good's buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5-7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  8. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  9. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  10. Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation; An analysis of transitional strategies for reduction of carbon and sulfur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Tabors, R.D.; Monroe, B.L. III . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for reduction of both acid rain producing and global warming gasses. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System (EGEAS) utility optimization/simulation modeling structure and the EPRI developed regional utilities. It focuses on the North East and East Central region of the U.S. Strategies identified were fuel switching -- predominantly between coal and natural gas, mandated emission limits, and a carbon tax. The overall conclusions of the study are that using less (conservation) will always benefit Carbon Emissions but may or may not benefit Acid Rain emissions by the off setting forces of improved performance of new plant as opposed to reduced overall consumption of final product. Results of the study are highly utility and regional demand specific. The study showed, however, that significant reductions in both acid rain and global warming gas production could be achieved with relatively small increases in the overall cost of production of electricity and that the current dispatch logics available to the utility control rooms were adequate to reschedule dispatch to meet these objectives.

  11. Downscaling future precipitation extremes to urban hydrology scales using a spatio-temporal Neyman-Scott weather generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Bøssing Christensen, Ole; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Steen Mikkelsen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal precipitation is modelled for urban application at 1 h temporal resolution on a 2 km grid using a spatio-temporal Neyman-Scott rectangular pulses weather generator (WG). Precipitation time series used as input to the WG are obtained from a network of 60 tipping-bucket rain gauges irregularly placed in a 40 km × 60 km model domain. The WG simulates precipitation time series that are comparable to the observations with respect to extreme precipitation statistics. The WG is used for downscaling climate change signals from regional climate models (RCMs) with spatial resolutions of 25 and 8 km, respectively. Six different RCM simulation pairs are used to perturb the WG with climate change signals resulting in six very different perturbation schemes. All perturbed WGs result in more extreme precipitation at the sub-daily to multi-daily level and these extremes exhibit a much more realistic spatial pattern than what is observed in RCM precipitation output. The WG seems to correlate increased extreme intensities with an increased spatial extent of the extremes meaning that the climate-change-perturbed extremes have a larger spatial extent than those of the present climate. Overall, the WG produces robust results and is seen as a reliable procedure for downscaling RCM precipitation output for use in urban hydrology.

  12. Rethinking evidence-based practice and two-generation programs to create the future of early childhood policy

    PubMed Central

    Shonkoff, Jack P.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Half a century of research and program evaluation has fueled a diverse landscape of early childhood policies and practices that produce a range of positive effects on the life prospects of children who face the burdens of significant adversity. Drawing on advances in neurobiology, developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and prevention science, this paper presents a framework for elucidating underlying causal mechanisms that explain differences in outcomes, formulating enhanced theories of change about how to shift developmental trajectories, designing creative interventions and rethinking the concept of a two-generation strategy to produce breakthrough impacts, and launching a new era of investment in young children and their families that will achieve greater reductions in intergenerational disparities in learning, behavior, and health than those produced by current best practices. Particular attention is focused on the hypothesis that substantially better outcomes for vulnerable, young children could be achieved by greater attention to strengthening the resources and capabilities of the adults who care for them rather than by continuing to focus primarily on the provision of child-focused enrichment, parenting education, and informal support. Central to achieving this goal is the need to establish an innovation-friendly environment that embraces fast-cycle sharing, supports risk taking, and celebrates learning from failure. PMID:24342860

  13. Flood generation and sediment transport in experimental catchments affected by land use changes in the central Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Regüés, David; Alvera, Bernardo; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Serrano-Muela, Pilar; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Navas, Ana; Latron, Jérôme; Martí-Bono, Carlos; Arnáez, José

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThree small catchments (<2.5 km2 in size) were monitored in the Central Spanish Pyrenees to analyse the hydrological and geomorphological consequences of different land covers under the same climate scenario: (i) the San Salvador catchment represents a dense, undisturbed forest environment; (ii) the Arnás catchment corresponds to an old, abandoned cultivated area subjected to colonisation by plants; and (iii) the Araguás catchment consists in part of active badlands. The obtained results demonstrate that plant cover is a key factor, influencing (i) the seasonality and intensity of floods, (ii) the annual volume of discharge, and (iii) the suspended sediment concentration, total sediment yield and proportions of different types of sediment. The forested catchment tends to generate floods in late winter and spring, when the water table is close to the surface, and flood hydrographs are generally gentle, with solutes largely prevailing over suspended sediment. The old agricultural catchment produces in average twice the number of floods as that recorded in the forested catchment, with the highest floods recorded in autumn and spring; this catchment behaves as a complex mosaic, with a large spatial and temporal variability in terms of both sediment- and runoff-contributing areas; in addition, suspended sediment is equal to solutes, and bedload reaches a relatively high importance. Finally, the badland catchment reacts to all rainstorm events throughout the year, with a high suspended-sediment load. Sediment outputs from the Araguás catchment are two orders of magnitude higher than in the Arnás and San Salvador catchments. Suspended sediment concentrations exceed 300 g l-1 in the Araguás catchment, whereas they rarely exceed 20 g l-1 in the Arnás and rarely 1.5 g l-1 in the San Salvador catchment.

  14. ‘Second-Generation' Mephedrone Analogs, 4-MEC and 4-MePPP, Differentially Affect Monoamine Transporter Function

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kusumika; Partilla, John S; Lehner, Kurt R; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Sandtner, Walter; Ecker, Gerhard F; Sitte, Harald H; Baumann, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The nonmedical use of synthetic cathinones is increasing on a global scale. 4-Methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone) is a popular synthetic cathinone that is now illegal in the United States and other countries. Since the legislative ban on mephedrone, a number of ‘second-generation' analogs have appeared in the street drug marketplace, including 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC) and 4′-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP). Here we characterized the interactions of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP with transporters for 5-HT (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) using molecular, cellular, and whole-animal methods. In vitro transporter assays revealed that 4-MEC displays unusual ‘hybrid' activity as a SERT substrate (ie, 5-HT releaser) and DAT blocker, whereas 4-MePPP is a blocker at both transporters but more potent at DAT. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat brain demonstrated that 4-MEC (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced large increases in extracellular 5-HT, small increases in dopamine, and minimal motor stimulation. In contrast, 4-MePPP (1–3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced selective increases in dopamine and robust motor stimulation. Consistent with its activity as a SERT substrate, 4-MEC evoked inward current in SERT-expressing Xenopus oocytes, whereas 4-MePPP was inactive in this regard. To examine drug–transporter interactions at the molecular level, we modeled the fit of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP into the binding pockets for DAT and SERT. Subtle distinctions in ligand–transporter binding were found that account for the differential effects of 4-MEC and 4-MePPP at SERT. Collectively, our results provide key information about the pharmacology of newly emerging mephedrone analogs, and give clues to structural requirements that govern drug selectivity at DAT vs SERT. PMID:25502630

  15. Chemical modification of extracellular matrix by cold atmospheric plasma-generated reactive species affects chondrogenesis and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Peter; Chernets, Natalie; Song, You; Dobrynin, Danil; Pleshko, Nancy; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) modifies extracellular matrices (ECM) to influence chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Replacement of cartilage by bone during endochondral ossification is essential in fetal skeletal development, bone growth and fracture healing. Regulation of this process by the ECM occurs through matrix remodelling, involving a variety of cell attachment molecules and growth factors, which influence cell morphology and protein expression. The commercially available ECM, Matrigel, was treated with microsecond or nanosecond pulsed (μsp or nsp, respectively) DBD frequencies conditions at the equivalent frequencies (1 kHz) or power (~1 W). Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was added and the mixture subcutaneously injected into mice to simulate ectopic endochondral ossification. Two weeks later, the masses were extracted and analysed by microcomputed tomography. A significant increase in bone formation was observed in Matrigel treated with μsp DBD compared with control, while a significant decrease in bone formation was observed for both nsp treatments. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed Matrigel treated with μsp plasma increased the number of invading cells, the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and chondrogenesis while the opposite was true for Matrigel treated with nsp plasma. In support of the in vivo Matrigel study, 10 T1/2 cells cultured in vitro on μsp DBD-treated type I collagen showed increased expression of adhesion proteins and activation of survival pathways, which decreased with nsp plasma treatments. These results indicate DBD modification of ECM can influence cellular behaviours to accelerate or inhibit chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27510797

  16. Chemical modification of extracellular matrix by cold atmospheric plasma-generated reactive species affects chondrogenesis and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Peter; Chernets, Natalie; Song, You; Dobrynin, Danil; Pleshko, Nancy; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether cold plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) modifies extracellular matrices (ECM) to influence chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Replacement of cartilage by bone during endochondral ossification is essential in fetal skeletal development, bone growth and fracture healing. Regulation of this process by the ECM occurs through matrix remodelling, involving a variety of cell attachment molecules and growth factors, which influence cell morphology and protein expression. The commercially available ECM, Matrigel, was treated with microsecond or nanosecond pulsed (μsp or nsp, respectively) DBD frequencies conditions at the equivalent frequencies (1 kHz) or power (~1 W). Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 was added and the mixture subcutaneously injected into mice to simulate ectopic endochondral ossification. Two weeks later, the masses were extracted and analysed by microcomputed tomography. A significant increase in bone formation was observed in Matrigel treated with μsp DBD compared with control, while a significant decrease in bone formation was observed for both nsp treatments. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis showed Matrigel treated with μsp plasma increased the number of invading cells, the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor and chondrogenesis while the opposite was true for Matrigel treated with nsp plasma. In support of the in vivo Matrigel study, 10 T1/2 cells cultured in vitro on μsp DBD-treated type I collagen showed increased expression of adhesion proteins and activation of survival pathways, which decreased with nsp plasma treatments. These results indicate DBD modification of ECM can influence cellular behaviours to accelerate or inhibit chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  18. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  3. Annual Research Review: Mental Health and Resilience in HIV/AIDS-Affected Children--A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra; Hansen, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding…

  4. The Growing Importance of Teaching Philosophy Statements and What They Mean for the Future: Why Teaching Philosophy Statements Will Affect You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Niall

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the growing importance of Teaching Philosophy Statements (TPS) as a tool to positively impact teaching styles and methods. The changing landscape of teaching at the college level is addressed with an emphasis on the growing importance of accountability. How new and senior faculty are affected by the TPS is considered as well…

  5. Effects of Future Mathematics Teachers' Affective, Cognitive and Socio-Demographic Characteristics on Their Knowledge at the End of the Teacher Education in Germany and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laschke, Christin

    2013-01-01

    How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Oncomelania hupensis after Molluscicide Treatment by Next-Generation Sequencing: Implications for Biology and Future Snail Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin Ping; Xiong, Tao; Xu, Xing Jian; Jiang, Ming Sen; Dong, Hui Fen

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater snail Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, which causes schistosomiasis. This disease is endemic in the Far East, especially in mainland China. Because niclosamide is the only molluscicide recommended by the World Health Organization, 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN), the only chemical molluscicide available in China, has been widely used as the main snail control method for over two decades. Recently, a novel molluscicide derived from niclosamide, the salt of quinoid-2',5-dichloro-4'-nitro-salicylanilide (Liu Dai Shui Yang An, LDS), has been developed and proven to have the same molluscicidal effect as WPN, with lower cost and significantly lower toxicity to fish than WPN. The mechanism by which these molluscicides cause snail death is not known. Here, we report the next-generation transcriptome sequencing of O. hupensis; 145,008,667 clean reads were generated and assembled into 254,286 unigenes. Using GO and KEGG databases, 14,860 unigenes were assigned GO annotations and 4,686 unigenes were mapped to 250 KEGG pathways. Many sequences involved in key processes associated with biological regulation and innate immunity have been identified. After the snails were exposed to LDS and WPN, 254 unigenes showed significant differential expression. These genes were shown to be involved in cell structure defects and the inhibition of neurohumoral transmission and energy metabolism, which may cause snail death. Gene expression patterns differed after exposure to LDS and WPN, and these differences must be elucidated by the identification and annotation of these unknown unigenes. We believe that this first large-scale transcriptome dataset for O. hupensis will provide an opportunity for the in-depth analysis of this biomedically important freshwater snail at the molecular level and accelerate studies of the O. hupensis genome. The data elucidating the molluscicidal mechanism will be of great

  7. Tacrolimus ointment does not affect the immediate response to vaccination, the generation of immune memory, or humoral and cell‐mediated immunity in children

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, T; Cranswick, N; Kuna, P; Boznanski, A; Latos, T; Gold, M; Murrell, D F; Gebauer, K; Behre, U; Machura, E; Ólafsson, J; Szalai, Z

    2006-01-01

    Background Concern exists that the prolonged application of immunomodulators to treat atopic dermatitis may cause systemic immunosuppression. Aims In a 7‐month, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, we investigated the equivalence of response to vaccination against meningococcal serogroup C disease with a protein‐conjugate vaccine in children (2–11 years) with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis, by applying either 0.03% tacrolimus ointment (TAC‐O; n = 21) or a hydrocortisone ointment regimen (HC‐O; n = 111). Methods TAC‐O was applied twice daily (bid) for 3 weeks, and thereafter daily until clearance. 1% hydrocortisone acetate (HA) for head/neck and 0.1% hydrocortisone butyrate ointment for trunk/limbs was applied bid for 2 weeks; thereafter HA was applied bid to all affected areas. At week 1, patients were vaccinated with protein‐conjugate vaccine against meningococcal serogroup C, and challenged at month 6 with low dose meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The control group (44 non‐atopic dermatatits children) received the primary vaccination and challenge dose. Assessments were made at baseline, weeks 1 and 5, and months 6 and 7. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titre ⩾8 at the week 5 visit. Results The response rate (patients with SBA titre ⩾8) was 97.5% (confidence interval (CI) approximately 97.3 to 100), 99.1% (94.8 to 100) and 97.7% (93.3 to 100) in the TAC‐O, HC‐O and control groups, respectively. Conclusions The immune response to vaccination against meningococcal serogroup C in children with atopic dermatitis applying either 0.03% TAC‐O or HC is equivalent. Ointment application does not affect the immediate response to vaccination, generation of immune memory or humoral and cell‐mediated immunity. PMID:16798785

  8. KONJAC1 and 2 Are Key Factors for GDP-Mannose Generation and Affect l-Ascorbic Acid and Glucomannan Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sawake, Shota; Tajima, Noriaki; Mortimer, Jenny C; Lao, Jeemeng; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Yu, Xiaolan; Yamanashi, Yukiko; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kotake, Toshihisa

    2015-12-01

    Humans are unable to synthesize l-ascorbic acid (AsA), yet it is required as a cofactor in many critical biochemical reactions. The majority of human dietary AsA is obtained from plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPP), VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE1 (VTC1), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in AsA synthesis: the formation of GDP-Man. In this study, we identified two nucleotide sugar pyrophosphorylase-like proteins, KONJAC1 (KJC1) and KJC2, which stimulate the activity of VTC1. The kjc1kjc2 double mutant exhibited severe dwarfism, indicating that KJC proteins are important for growth and development. The kjc1 mutation reduced GMPP activity to 10% of wild-type levels, leading to a 60% reduction in AsA levels. On the contrary, overexpression of KJC1 significantly increased GMPP activity. The kjc1 and kjc1kjc2 mutants also exhibited significantly reduced levels of glucomannan, which is also synthesized from GDP-Man. Recombinant KJC1 and KJC2 enhanced the GMPP activity of recombinant VTC1 in vitro, while KJCs did not show GMPP activity. Yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that the stimulation of GMPP activity occurs via interaction of KJCs with VTC1. These results suggest that KJCs are key factors for the generation of GDP-Man and affect AsA level and glucomannan accumulation through the stimulation of VTC1 GMPP activity.

  9. Body fluid biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: how far we have come and how they could affect the clinic now and in the future

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Itay; Webb, Johanna; Stuve, Olaf; Haskins, William E.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which affects over 2.5 million people worldwide. Although MS has been extensively studied, many challenges still remain in regards to treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis. Typically, prognosis and individual responses to treatment are evaluated by clinical tests such the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, none of these measures correlate strongly with treatment efficacy or disease progression across heterogeneous patient populations and subtypes of MS. Numerous studies over the past decades have attempted to identify sensitive and specific biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment efficacy of MS. The objective of this article is to review and discuss the current literature on body fluid biomarkers in MS, including research on potential biomarker candidates in the areas of microRNA, messenger RNA, lipids, and proteins. PMID:25523168

  10. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment Multi-Year Study—Highlights of Findings, Applications to Risk Assessment, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Ila; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Barone, Stanley; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Boekelheide, Kim; Bois, Frederic Y.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeVito, Michael; Devlin, Robert B.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Hattis, Dale; Judson, Richard S.; Knight, Derek; Krewski, Daniel; Lambert, Jason; Maull, Elizabeth Anne; Mendrick, Donna; Paoli, Gregory M.; Patel, Chirag Jagdish; Perkins, Edward J.; Poje, Gerald; Portier, Christopher J.; Rusyn, Ivan; Schulte, Paul A.; Simeonov, Anton; Smith, Martyn T.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Thomas, Russell S.; Thomas, Reuben; Tice, Raymond R.; Vandenberg, John J.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Wesselkamper, Scott; Whelan, Maurice; Whittaker, Christine; White, Ronald; Xia, Menghang; Yauk, Carole; Zeise, Lauren; Zhao, Jay; DeWoskin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    , Andersen ME, Ankley GT, Barone S, Birnbaum LS, Boekelheide K, Bois FY, Burgoon LD, Chiu WA, Crawford-Brown D, Crofton KM, DeVito M, Devlin RB, Edwards SW, Guyton KZ, Hattis D, Judson RS, Knight D, Krewski D, Lambert J, Maull EA, Mendrick D, Paoli GM, Patel CJ, Perkins EJ, Poje G, Portier CJ, Rusyn I, Schulte PA, Simeonov A, Smith MT, Thayer KA, Thomas RS, Thomas R, Tice RR, Vandenberg JJ, Villeneuve DL, Wesselkamper S, Whelan M, Whittaker C, White R, Xia M, Yauk C, Zeise L, Zhao J, DeWoskin RS. 2016. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment multiyear study—highlights of findings, applications to risk assessment, and future directions. Environ Health Perspect 124:1671–1682; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP233 PMID:27091369

  11. Eradication of schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China. Part 3. Community diagnosis of the worst-affected areas and maintenance strategies for the future.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, A.; Li, X.; Jackson, S.; Huang, K.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a community-based assessment of maintenance of schistosomiasis eradication in Guangxi, a large autonomous region of China with a population of 44 million. Eradication of the disease was achieved in 1989 in Guangxi but maintenance costs are rising. We focused on three counties that had the most intense transmission in the past: Binyang, Jingxi, and Yishan. Four instruments were used: in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey, and subsequent community feedback. In the past, schistosomiasis had serious consequences in Guangxi, decreasing work capacity and restricting marriage and occupational mobility. Since its eradication there have been clear benefits in terms of increased agricultural output and improved farming conditions. Personal habits and traditional manual farming activities in Guangxi would continue to expose a large proportion of the population to environmental risk if the disease were to return. Ignorance about control programme achievements is increasing and is related to youth and inexperience. There was a universal desire in the study counties for more local education about the history of the programme and about the risk of schistosomiasis returning. Snail surveillance is considered important, but people are not willing to volunteer for such work. Our study methods were novel for Guangxi and community feedback was helpful. Snail checking procedures have been modified to make them more efficient and no snails have been found since 1992. The animal and human stool examinations have ceased and vigilance now concentrates on snails and children (skin tests). The long-term strategy is to make the population invulnerable to future schistosomiasis transmission if the snail vectors return. This means continuing education and making the former endemic counties a high priority for water and sanitation improvements. PMID:10191554

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  13. Evaluation of a spatial rainfall generator and an interpolation methods for the creation of future gridded data sets over complex terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Michaelides, Silas; Lange, Manfred A.

    2015-04-01

    Space-time variability of precipitation plays a key role as a driver of many processes in different environmental fields like hydrology, ecology, biology, agriculture, and natural hazards. The objective of this study was to compare two approaches for statistical downscaling of precipitation from climate models. The study was applied to the island of Cyprus, an orographically complex terrain. The first approach makes use of a spatial temporal Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses (NSRP) model and a previously tested interpolation scheme (Camera et al., 2014). The second approach is based on the use of the single site NSRP model and a simplified gridded scheme based on scaling coefficients obtained from past observations. The rainfall generators were evaluated on the period 1980-2010. Both approaches were subsequently used to downscale three RCMs from the EU ENSEMBLE project to calculate climate projections (2020-2050). The main advantage of the spatial-temporal approach is that it allows creating spatially consistent daily maps of precipitation. On the other hand, due to the assumptions made using a stochastic generator based on homogeneous Poisson processes, it shows a smoothing out of all the rainfall statistics (except mean and variance) all over the study area. This leads to high errors when analyzing indices related to extremes. Examples are the number of days with rainfall over 50 mm (R50 - mean error 65%), the 95th percentile value of rainy days (RT95 - mean error 19%), and the mean annual rainfall recorded on days with rainfall above the 95th percentile (RA95 - mean error 22%). The single site approach excludes the possibility of using the created gridded data sets for case studies involving spatial connection between grid cells (e.g. hydrologic modelling), but it leads to a better reproduction of rainfall statistics and properties. The errors for the extreme indices are in fact much lower: 17% for R50, 4% for RT95, and 2% for RA95. Future projections show a

  14. Next-Generation Pyrosequencing Analysis of Microbial Biofilm Communities on Granular Activated Carbon in Treatment of Oil Sands Process-Affected Water

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N.

    2015-01-01

    The development of biodegradation treatment processes for oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) has been progressing in recent years with the promising potential of biofilm reactors. Previously, the granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilm process was successfully employed for treatment of a large variety of recalcitrant organic compounds in domestic and industrial wastewaters. In this study, GAC biofilm microbial development and degradation efficiency were investigated for OSPW treatment by monitoring the biofilm growth on the GAC surface in raw and ozonated OSPW in batch bioreactors. The GAC biofilm community was characterized using a next-generation 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technique that revealed that the phylum Proteobacteria was dominant in both OSPW and biofilms, with further in-depth analysis showing higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Interestingly, many known polyaromatic hydrocarbon degraders, namely, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Bdellovibrionales, and Sphingomonadales, were observed in the GAC biofilm. Ozonation decreased the microbial diversity in planktonic OSPW but increased the microbial diversity in the GAC biofilms. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed similar bacterial gene copy numbers (>109 gene copies/g of GAC) for both raw and ozonated OSPW GAC biofilms. The observed rates of removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) over the 2-day experiments for the GAC biofilm treatments of raw and ozonated OSPW were 31% and 66%, respectively. Overall, a relatively low ozone dose (30 mg of O3/liter utilized) combined with GAC biofilm treatment significantly increased NA removal rates. The treatment of OSPW in bioreactors using GAC biofilms is a promising technology for the reduction of recalcitrant OSPW organic compounds. PMID:25841014

  15. Zolpidem, a clinical hypnotic that affects electronic transfer, alters synaptic activity through potential GABA receptors in the nervous system without significant free radical generation.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2009-01-01

    Zolpidem (trade name Ambien) has attracted much interest as a sleep-inducing agent and also in research. Attention has been centered mainly on receptor binding and electrochemistry in the central nervous system which are briefly addressed herein. A novel integrated approach to mode of action is presented. The pathways to be discussed involve basicity, reduction potential, electrostatics, cell signaling, GABA receptor binding, electron transfer (ET), pharmacodynamics, structure activity relationships (SAR) and side effects. The highly conjugated pyridinium salt formed by protonation of the amidine moiety is proposed to be the active form acting as an ET agent. Extrapolation of reduction potentials for related compounds supports the premise that zolpidem may act as an ET species in vivo. From recent literature reports, electrostatics is believed to play a significant role in drug action. The pyridinium cation displays molecular electrostatic potential which may well play a role energetically or as a bridging mechanism. An SAR analysis points to analogy with other physiologically active xenobiotics, namely benzodiazepines and paraquat in the conjugated iminium category. Inactivity of metabolites indicates that the parent is the active form of zolpidem. Absence of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress is in line with minor side effects. In contrast, generally, the prior literature contains essentially no discussion of these fundamental biochemical relationships. Pharmacodynamics may play an important role. Concerning behavior at the blood-brain barrier, useful insight can be gained from investigations of the related cationic anesthetics that are structurally related to acetyl choline. Evidently, the neutral form of the drug penetrates the neuronal membrane, with the salt form operating at the receptor. The pathways of zolpidem have several clinical implications since the agent affects sedation, electroencephalographic activity, oxidative metabolites and

  16. Demographic Trends Affecting the Future Labor Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Karl E.

    This report reviews recent population and manpower projections and examines how they take into account certain unexpected shifts in demographic, social, and economic behavior. It also assesses how well the particular circumstances, trends, and problems of the nation's major minority groups have been brought into the purview of the projection…

  17. Future trends.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Richard C; Weiss, Ronald L

    2007-12-01

    Several current forces have set anticipated future changes in health care in motion, or, at least, have set the stage for change. End-consumer demand increasingly drives the market; as a result, entire businesses are transforming or emerging anew to meet these demands. In general, consumers demand high quality at reasonable cost, to be delivered as fast as possible with minimal inconvenience. The health care consumer takes this expectation further, to include the desire for all helpful information regarding one's health to be made readily available for him/her to make the best decision and minimize morbidity, mortality, misdiagnosis, and inconvenience. This article addresses the impact upon the laboratory by considering four key interrelated dynamics that affect these trends: market, medicine, technology, and information systems. PMID:17950906

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  2. (Some) Computer Futures: Mainframes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Earl C.

    Possible futures for the world of mainframe computers can be forecast through studies identifying forces of change and their impact on current trends. Some new prospects for the future have been generated by advances in information technology; for example, recent United States successes in applied artificial intelligence (AI) have created new…

  3. A novel method to characterize bacterial communities affected by carbon source and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells using stable isotope probing and Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Xiao, Li; Jayamani, Indumathy; He, Zhen; Cupples, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope probing and high throughput sequencing were used to characterize the microbial communities involved in carbon uptake in microbial fuel cells at two levels of electricity generation. With acetate, the dominant phylotypes involved in carbon uptake included Geobacter and Rhodocyclaceae. With glucose, both Enterobacteriaceae and Geobacter were dominant.

  4. Futures Conditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Robert

    The readings presented here are designed to help the reader perceive the future more vividly. Part one of the book suggests the various ways in which the future can be seen; it includes science fiction and the views of various analysts as to what the future holds. Part two collects printed materials about the future from various sources, including…

  5. An evaluation of conditions that may affect the performance of houseboat exhaust stacks in prevention of carbon monoxide poisonings from generators.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Duane R; Earnest, G Scott; Hall, Ronald M; Feng, Amy

    2006-06-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers evaluated two exhaust stack designs for reducing carbon monoxide (CO) exposures from gasoline-powered generator exhaust on houseboats. Tests were conducted (a) after dark, (b) in high-temperature and high-humidity environments, (c) during temperature inversions, (d) under various generator loads, and (e) at different houseboat trim angles. Two different designs of houseboat exhaust stacks were evaluated and compared with the side-exhaust configuration, which is standard on many houseboats. The two designs were flagpole and vertical stack. Both exhaust stacks performed dramatically better than the standard water level, side-exhaust configuration. The highest mean CO concentrations on the upper and lower decks of the houseboat with the vertical exhaust stack were 27 ppm and 17 ppm. The highest mean CO concentrations on the upper and lower decks of the houseboat with the modified flagpole stack were 5 ppm and 2 ppm. These findings are much lower than the 67 ppm and 341 ppm for the highest mean CO concentrations found on the upper and lower decks of houseboats having the usual side-exhausted configuration. The NIOSH evaluation also indicated that high-temperature and high-humidity levels, temperature inversions, generator loading, and houseboat trim angles had little effect on the exhaust stack performance. It also demonstrated the importance of proper design and installation of exhaust stacks to ensure that all exhaust gases are released through the stack. Based on the results of this work, NIOSH investigators continue to recommend that houseboat manufacturers, rental companies, and owners retrofit their gasoline-powered generators with exhaust stacks to reduce the hazard of CO poisoning and death to individuals on or near the houseboat.

  6. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  7. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Guzman-Grenfell, Alberto Martin; Blanco-Jimenez, Salvador; Sepulveda-Sanchez, Jose David; Bernabe-Cabanillas, Rosa Maria; Cardenas-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Ceballos, Guillermo; Hicks, Juan Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5). Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises. PMID:19563660

  8. Fatherhood reduces the survival of adult-generated cells and affects various types of behavior in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster ).

    PubMed

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Yue; Jia, Xixi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-11-01

    Motherhood has profound effects on physiology, neuronal plasticity, and behavior. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, affects brain plasticity (such as cell proliferation and survival) and various behaviors in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult males were housed with their same-sex cage mate (control), single-housed (isolation), or housed with a receptive female to mate and produce offspring (father) for 6 weeks. Fatherhood significantly reduced cell survival (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine labeling), but not cell proliferation (assessed by Ki67-labeling), in the amygdala, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and ventromedial hypothalamus, suggesting that fatherhood affects brain plasticity. In Experiment 2, neither acute (20 min) nor chronic (20 min daily for 10 consecutive days) pup exposure altered cell proliferation or survival in the brain, but chronic pup exposure increased circulating corticosterone levels. These data suggest that reduced cell survival in the brain of prairie vole fathers was unlikely to be due to the level of pup exposure and display of paternal behavior, and may not be mediated by circulating corticosterone. The effects of fatherhood on various behaviors (including anxiety-like, depression-like, and social behaviors) were examined in Experiment 3. The data indicated that fatherhood increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as altered aggression and social recognition memory in male prairie voles. These results warrant further investigation of a possible link between brain plasticity and behavioral changes observed due to fatherhood.

  9. The Future of Futurism: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, John H.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes the futures movement by posing the question of whether the system requires preplanned radical change or whether it is still capable of responding to evolutionary forces of the market, the government, and a new generation of more broadly trained scientists. (Author/GS)

  10. Alliance for NanoHealth (ANH) Training Program for the development of future generations of interdisciplinary scientists and collaborative research focused upon the advancement of nanomedicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, David

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this program are to promote the mission of the Department of Energy (DOE) Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) Program by recruiting students to science and engineering disciplines with the intent of mentoring and supporting the next generation of scientists; to foster interdisciplinary and collaborative research under the sponsorship of ANH for the discovery and design of nano-based materials and devices with novel structures, functions, and properties; and to prepare a diverse work force of scientists, engineers, and clinicians by utilizing the unique intellectual and physical resources to develop novel nanotechnology paradigms for clinical application.

  11. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  12. A new type of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 zinc resistance generated by mutations affecting regulation of the cnr cobalt-nickel resistance system.

    PubMed Central

    Collard, J M; Provoost, A; Taghavi, S; Mergeay, M

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneous mutants that were resistant to zinc were isolated from Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 containing either the native plasmid pMOL28 or a derivative derepressed for its self-transfer, pMOL50. With the cured plasmid-free derivative of CH34, strain AE104, such mutants were not detected. The mutations, which were shown to be located in the plasmid, increased the level of the nickel and cobalt resistance determined by the cnr locus. The chromate resistance closely linked to the cnr locus was not affected by these mutations. In the Znr mutants, the resistance to zinc and nickel was constitutively expressed. Uptake studies showed that the zinc resistance in a Znr mutant resulted from reduced accumulation of zinc ions in comparison with that in the plasmid-free strain. Reduced accumulation of zinc was also observed to a lesser degree in the parental strain induced with nickel, suggesting that zinc interferes with the Ni2+ and Co2+ efflux system. A 12.2-kb EcoRI-XbaI restriction endonuclease fragment containing the cnr locus was cloned from plasmid pMOL28 harboring the mutation and shortened to an 8.5-kb EcoRI-PstI-PstI fragment conferring resistance to zinc, nickel, and cobalt. The 12.2-kb EcoRI-XbaI fragment was also reduced to a 9.7-kb BamHI fragment still encoding weak resistance to nickel and cobalt but not to zinc. Complementation studies demonstrated the recessivity of the cnr mutations with a Znr phenotype. Such mutations thus allow positive selection of mutants affected in the expression of the cnr operon. PMID:8423150

  13. Long Pathways for Outgassing Generated by a Rapid and Large Shear Strain of Bubbly Fluids Reducing Effective Viscosity and Affecting Eruption Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, A.; Tanaka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The styles of basaltic explosive eruptions have a wide variety, which is usually attributed to the separation of volcanic gas from the surrounding silicate melt. As a mechanism of gas separation, shear deformation has been suggested. However, the bubble shape evolution under large strain at high strain rate and its effects on viscosity have not yet understood well. We thus performed shear deformation experiments of bubbly liquid under high shear rate and large strain with in situ observation of bubble deformation and viscosity measurements. We used syrup solution as a magma analogue whose viscosity of 3, 50, 500 Pa s, similar to that of basaltic magma. We rotated disc-shaped bubbly syrup at shear rates of 0.03-10 s-1 with strains of 3-1000. Experiments show that deformed bubbles coalesce into larger bubbles and finally generate concentric air rings, resulting that the striped shape of air and liquid parts appears. The widths of air rings greatly exceed the bubble sizes and can be long outgassing pathways if those exist in a volcanic conduit. During the evolution of air rings the measured effective viscosity decreases, while after reaching to a steady state, viscous resistance increases again. At this stage, bubble volume and size in the liquid parts become considerably small. Time evolution of bubble size distribution suggests that most of bubbles are assimilated into the air rings and the remnants in the liquid parts break up into small bubbles. Similar shear deformation of bubbly magma could occur in volcanic conduits, which generates large bubbles at a depth where the lower effective viscosity enhances the ascending velocity. The large bubbles may originate Strombolian eruption or suppresses the explosive eruption by making the long outgassing pathways reaching to the Earth's surface. In both cases, bubble free dense melt accumulates at a shallow conduit. Our experiments suggest that, for larger melt viscosity and narrower conduit, the gas separation occurs

  14. Next-generation radio telescope of the 12- to 15-m class for the future large-interferometer arrays in the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plathner, Dietmar E.

    1998-07-01

    Based on the quality proven technologies applied on the IRAM 15 m Plateau de Bure telescopes strategies have been developed to design antennas for the future large arrays in the southern hemisphere which shall operate at frequencies as high as 850 GHz and have a very large collecting area. For this type of antenna space frames were applied wherever possible as the full cross-section of their push-pull members is used for load transfer. Thus giving maximum stiffness at minimum weight to the proposed telescope structures. The lowest eigenfrequency is therefore predicted to be in the order of 12 Hz. Similar high performances are expected under the specified windloads at the chosen site in the Atacama Desert probably at an altitude of 5000 m. Such an exposed location requires simple, low maintenance telescopes despite of their high performance requirements, so that e.g. all active thermal stabilization is avoided by the use of low expansion carbon fiber composite material for critical members. Finally an opto-mechanical metrology system is applied which replaces the standard 'on- bord' encoders and makes the control of the telescopes independent of structural deformations in the mount. An overall surface error of 25 micrometer rms for a 12 to 15 m class telescope can be obtained and the resulting pointing error under wind load is in the order of 0.4 arcsec.

  15. Structural factors affecting pore space transformation during hydrocarbon generation in source rock (shales): laboratory experiments and X-ray microtomography/SEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliazetdinova, Dina; Korost, Dmitry; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Oil and gas generation is a complex superposition of processes which take place in the interiors and are not readily observable in nature in human life time-frames. During burial of the source rocks organic matter is transformed into a mixture of high-molecular compounds - precursors of oil and gas (kerogen). Specific thermobaric conditions trigger formation of low molecular weight hydrocarbon compounds. Generation of sufficient quantities of hydrocarbons leads to the primary fluid migration. For series of our experiments we selected mainly siliceous-carbonate composition shale rocks from Domanic horizon of South-Tatar arch. Rock samples were heated in the pyrolyzer to temperatures closely corresponding to different catagenesis stages. X-ray microtomography method was used to monitor changes in the morphology of the pore space within studied shale rocks. By routine measurements we made sure that all samples (10 in total) had similar composition of organic and mineral phases. All samples in the collection were grouped according to initial structure and amount of organics and processed separately to: 1) study the influence of organic matter content on the changing morphology of the rock under thermal effects; 2) study the effect of initial structure on the primary migration processes for samples with similar organic matter content. An additional experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of changes in the structure of the pore space and prove the validity of our approach. At each stage of heating the morphology of altered rocks was characterized by formation of new pores and channels connecting primary voids. However, it was noted that the samples with a relatively low content of the organic matter had less changes in pore space morphology, in contrast to rocks with a high organic content. Second part of the study also revealed significant differences in resulting pore structures depending on initial structure of the unaltered rocks and connectivity of original

  16. Generation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone from rhamnose as affected by reaction parameters: experimental design approach.

    PubMed

    Illmann, Silke; Davidek, Tomas; Gouézec, Elisabeth; Rytz, Andreas; Schuchmann, Heike P; Blank, Imre

    2009-04-01

    The formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) was studied in aqueous model systems containing L-rhamnose and L-lysine. The approach consisted in systematically varying four reaction parameters (rhamnose concentration, rhamnose to lysine ratio, pH, and phosphate concentration) at 3 levels. A fractional factorial design was used to reduce the number of trials. The degradation of rhamnose was followed by high performance anion exchange chromatography and the formation of HDMF by solid phase extraction in combination with GC/MS. The study permitted the identification of critical reaction parameters that affect the formation of HDMF from rhamnose in aqueous systems. Although all studied parameters have some impact on the HDMF formation and rhamnose degradation kinetics, the effect of phosphate is by far the most important, followed by concentration of precursors and pH. The experimental design approach permitted us, with a limited number of experiments, to accurately model the effects of the four investigated reaction parameters on the kinetics of rhamnose degradation and HDMF formation (R(2)>0.93). Overall, the results indicate that rhamnose can be an excellent precursor of HDMF (yield >40 mol%), if the reaction conditions are well mastered. PMID:19256512

  17. Parallel Planar-Processed and Ion-Induced Electrically Isolated Future Generation AlGaN/GaN HEMT for Gas Sensing and Opto-Telecommunication Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Bokhari, S. H.; Khan, L. A.; Amin, F.; Hussain, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Ion-implanted AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT) devices were studied thoroughly to look into the possibilities of enhancing efficiency for high-power and high-frequency electronic and gas sensing applications. A dedicated experimental design was created in order to study the influence of the physical parameters in response to high energy (by virtue of in-situ beam heating due to highly energetic implantation) ion implantation to the active device regions in nitride HEMT structures. Disorder or damage created in the HEMT structure was then studied carefully with electrical characterization techniques such as Hall, I-V and G-V measurements. The evolution of the electrical characteristics affecting the high-power, high-frequency and ultra-high efficiency gas sensing operations were also analyzed by subjecting the HEMT active device regions to progressive time-temperature annealing cycles. Our suggested model can also provide a functional process engineering window to control the extent of 2D Electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices undergoing a full cycle of thermal impact (i.e. from a desirable conductive region to a highly compensated one).

  18. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains. PMID:26880435

  19. 'Does my Diet Affect my Perfume?' Identification and Quantification of Cuticular Compounds in Five Drosophila melanogaster Strains Maintained over 300 Generations on Different Diets.

    PubMed

    Pavković-Lučić, Sofija; Todosijević, Marina; Savić, Tatjana; Vajs, Vlatka; Trajković, Jelena; Anđelković, Boban; Lučić, Luka; Krstić, Gordana; Makarov, Slobodan; Tomić, Vladimir; Miličić, Dragana; Vujisić, Ljubodrag

    2016-02-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila melanogaster represent the basis of chemical communication being involved in many important biological functions. The aim of this study was to characterize chemical composition and variation of cuticular profiles in five D. melanogaster strains. These strains were reared for approximately 300 generations on five diets: standard cornmeal medium and substrates prepared with apple, banana, tomato, and carrot. Differences in quantity and/or quality in CHCs were assumed as a result of activation of different metabolic pathways involved in food digestion and adaptations to the particular diet type. In total, independently of sex and strain, 66 chemical compounds were identified. In females of all strains, 60 compounds were identified, while, in males, 47 compounds were extracted. Certain new chemical compounds for D. melanogaster were found. MANOVA confirmed that CHC amounts significantly depend on sex and substrates, as well as on their interactions. Discriminant analysis revealed that flies belonging to 'apple' and 'carrot' strains exhibited the most noticeable differences in CHC repertoires. A non-hydrocarbon pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) also contributed to the variation in the pheromone bouquet among the strains. Variability detected in CHCs and cVA may be used in the explanation of differences in mating behaviour previously determined in analyzed fly strains.

  20. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  1. The past, present, and future of HIV prevention: integrating behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies for the next generation of HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male- and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  2. After BRCA1 and BRCA2-what next? Multifactorial segregation analyses of three-generation, population-based Australian families affected by female breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Antoniou, A C; Dite, G S; Southey, M C; Venter, D J; Easton, D F; Giles, G G; McCredie, M R; Hopper, J L

    2001-02-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that cause a dominantly inherited high risk of female breast cancer seem to explain only a small proportion of the aggregation of the disease. To study the possible additional genetic components, we conducted single-locus and two-locus segregation analyses, with and without a polygenic background, using three-generation families ascertained through 858 women with breast cancer diagnosed at age <40 years, ascertained through population cancer registries in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Extensive testing for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, to date, has identified 34 carriers. Our analysis suggested that, after other possible unmeasured familial factors are adjusted for and the known BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are excluded, there appears to be a residual dominantly inherited risk of female breast cancer in addition to that derived from mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. This study also suggests that there is a substantial recessively inherited risk of early-onset breast cancer. According to the best-fitting model, after excluding known carriers of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, about 1/250 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1/500 to 1/125) women have a recessive risk of 86% (95% CI 69%-100%) by age 50 years and of almost 100% by age 60 years. Possible reasons that our study has implicated a novel strong recessive effect include our inclusion of data on lineal aunts and grandmothers, study of families ascertained through women with early-onset breast cancer, allowance for multiple familial factors in the analysis, and removal of families for whom the cause (i.e., BRCA1 or BRCA2) is known. Our findings may have implications for attempts to identify new breast cancer-susceptibility genes. PMID:11133358

  3. Future of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  4. Prepare for future regs now!

    SciTech Connect

    Gemler, R.

    1995-04-01

    As one looks into the next generation of transport and delivery trucks and considers future upgrades for bulk plants, one should first buy a crystal ball. If you are like most of us you cannot, with absolute certainty, know what the future will bring. You can rest assured that the capital investments you are now contemplating will probably last long enough to be affected by legislation now pending (or being concocted by someone). There are certain things you can plan for and do to prepare just in case. Rather than simply keeping a dry match on hand, consider these ideas. For starters, keep track of the proposed legislation notices you receive from your local or state councils. These proposed mandates act as a barometer to indicate probable changes (FOOH does a good job at alerting you to some of these). Much of the new legislation evolves in response to environmental incidents. No matter how carefully you plan, a future regulation may mandate a change at your plant. You can prepare without spending large sums of additional money through careful planning.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  6. Is there a future for electricity futures?

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, J.R.; Chittenden, W.T.

    1998-12-31

    The market for electricity based commodity trading, including futures and options, is in its infancy in the United States. Formal trading of electricity futures started on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) on March 29, 1996 with Options trading following on April 26, 1996. NYMEX started two new contracts, one based at the California-Oregon border (COB) and one based at the Palo Verde switchyard (Palo Verde). NYMEX is the commodity futures exchange in the United States that specializes in energy contracts, historically launching futures contracts in energy sectors immediately after the deregulation of the market and after the formation of a competitive cash or spot market. In the case of electricity, NYMEX established the new electricity futures contracts prior to the deregulation of the market and in the middle of the formation of a working spot market. Several questions remain including if there is enough interest in the market, who will be the participants, how will the physical properties of electricity mold the terms for futures contracts, and how will deregulation affect the outcome?

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  8. Future petroleum geologist: discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Robert R. Berg's (1986) article, ''The Future Petroleum Geologist,'' summarizes the findings of the 13-member AAPG Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist appointed by President William L. Fisher in July 1985. While this undertaking is laudable, particularly considering present circumstance in the petroleum industry, the committee has apparently overlooked a vital aspect concerning the future knowledge requirements of the petroleum geologist. Specifically, the Select Committee makes no mention of the need for computer literacy in its list of educational training categories. Obviously, AAPG is well aware of both the interest in computers by its membership and the increasing need for training and familiarity in this discipline. The Select Committee on The Future Petroleum Geologist, while undertaking a difficult and potentially controversial task, has omitted an important aspect of the background requirements for generations of future petroleum geologists; the committee should consider an amendment to their recommendations to reflect this increasingly important field study.

  9. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  10. Creative Ventures: The Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book, published in 1987, provides open-ended activities to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage them to examine their feelings and values. Williams' model of cognitive-intellective and affective-feeling domains are addressed. Nearly 60 pages of exercises focus on the future, asking students to predict future…

  11. The Future of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book comprises papers delivered at a conference of National Experts on Migration. The principle objective of the conference was twofold: to examine significant trends that will affect the future of migration in countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED), and to identify the relevant issues that will have to…

  12. The Future of HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streumer, Jan N.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van de Brink, Katinka

    1999-01-01

    Dutch human-resources professionals (n=161) identified trends affecting the future of human-resource development. Compared to a U.S. study by the American Society for Training and Development, Dutch professionals rated the following most important: integration of learning and work, importance of organizational innovation, and measurement of…

  13. Sustainability and Alternative Futures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 is “. . .to create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations.”...

  14. Technologies of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Joseph I.; Fisher, Kathleen M.

    1985-01-01

    In the future, the requirements of industry will generate a wide range of hardware devices and software programs that will significantly alter and improve the quality of education. The driving forces behind the development of new technological devices include economics; emotional factors, e.g., the desire to develop aids for the handicapped;…

  15. [Xenoestrogens--danger for the future generations?].

    PubMed

    Sirakov, M

    2004-01-01

    In this work I would like to speak about a group of substances which invisible are present in our environment. We come across with them every day. We eat them, drink them, breathe them and use them at work, at home and in the garden. They are present in soil, water, air and food, household products, packing materials, probably in the breast milk and during development in our mother's womb. These substances are "xenoestrogens". "Xeno" literally means foreign. So xenoestrogens means foreign estrogens. They are also known as: endocrine or hormone disrupters, environmental estrogens, hormonally active agents (EPA), estrogenic substances, estrogenic xenobiotics, and bioactive chemicals. The human health risks, that may be associated with these low-level but constant exposures are still largely unknown and highly controversial. May be, more knowledge in this area could give us an answer to the questions which every one of us asks many times: what is the reason of appearance of this or that disease or condition, why suddenly, without visible reason childs' breasts start to grow, the menstrual cycle break off, why prescribed by me therapy does not work? Etc.... PMID:15318543

  16. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  17. How Affiliation Disclosure and Control Over User-Generated Comments Affects Consumer Health Knowledge and Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Experiment of Pharmaceutical Direct-to-Consumer Advertising on Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Vendemia, Megan Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background More people are seeking health information online than ever before and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly marketing their drugs through social media. Objective The aim was to examine two major concerns related to online direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising: (1) how disclosing an affiliation with a pharmaceutical company affects how people respond to drug information produced by both health organizations and online commenters, and (2) how knowledge that health organizations control the display of user-generated comments affects consumer health knowledge and behavior. Methods We conducted a 2×2×2 between-subjects experiment (N=674). All participants viewed an infographic posted to Facebook by a health organization about a prescription allergy drug. Across conditions, the infographic varied in the degree to which the health organization and commenters appeared to be affiliated with a drug manufacturer, and the display of user-generated comments appeared to be controlled. Results Affiliation disclosure statements on a health organization’s Facebook post increased perceptions of an organization-drug manufacturer connection, which reduced trust in the organization (point estimate –0.45, 95% CI –0.69 to –0.24) and other users who posted comments about the drug (point estimate –0.44, 95% CI –0.68 to –0.22). Furthermore, increased perceptions of an organization-manufacturer connection reduced the likelihood that people would recommend the drug to important others (point estimate –0.35, 95% CI –0.59 to –0.15), and share the drug post with others on Facebook (point estimate –0.37, 95% CI –0.64 to –0.16). An affiliation cue next to the commenters' names increased perceptions that the commenters were affiliated with the drug manufacturer, which reduced trust in the comments (point estimate –0.81, 95% CI –1.04 to –0.59), the organization that made the post (point estimate –0.68, 95% CI –0.90 to –0.49), the

  18. FORUM: Affective Learning. Students' Affective Learning as Affective Experience: Significance, Reconceptualization, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  19. Eight Skills in Future Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    This article elaborates eight skills in future work which are based on three main changes and are available to different domains of professions. The first change is an increasing technological world for the future. Technology becomes a part of human being's life and affects people's daily life. Mastering relevant competences is necessary to boost…

  20. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  2. Population Change and California's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon F.; Martin, Philip

    This report examines how demographic changes, particularly in immigration and fertility, have affected and will continue to affect every segment of California's population. Three points are emphasized in the report: the number and type of Californians in future years, the size and composition of the labor force and the related issues resulting…

  3. Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles T.

    This paper addresses itself to the question, "What does feeling have to do with knowing?" Two movements in affective education are discussed which have come into focus in recent years and which attempt to define the relationship between knowing and feeling. The first, a conscious application of the role of arousal in learning, emphasizes arousal…

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  5. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively. PMID:27107893

  6. Procrastination, consideration of future consequences, and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Rebetez, Marie My Lien; Barsics, Catherine; Rochat, Lucien; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-01

    Despite the intrinsic temporal nature of procrastination, little research has examined the link between this form of self-regulatory failure and the consideration of future consequences, and no study has addressed the link between procrastination and episodic future thinking. The aim of the present study was to explore these relationships. Participants were asked to project themselves into possible future events and to rate the amount of sensory-perceptual details and autonoetic consciousness associated with their representations. They were also asked to complete questionnaires that assessed procrastination, the consideration of future consequences, and negative affect. Results showed that both the consideration of future consequences and episodic future thinking were associated with procrastination, and in particular with procrastination-related decision making abilities and procrastination-related motivational dispositions, respectively.

  7. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  8. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  9. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  10. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  11. Generativity and Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The psychological construct of "generativity" was introduced by Erik Erikson in "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This rich and complex notion encompasses the constellation of desires, concerns and commitments that motivate individuals and societies to pass on legacies to future generations. "Flourishing," which means,…

  12. A view of the future

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Isabel; Tabak, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    Background New tools are enabling researchers to understand the mysteries of oral biology and disease and to change profoundly the treatment of oral, dental and craniofacial diseases and disorders. The authors explore advances in modern science and technology and how they will change oral health care in the future. Results Emerging technologies such as salivary diagnostics, high-resolution imaging and nanotechnologies, as well as other new tools will lead to efficient and highly effective personalized dental treatments. A new generation of cell-based therapies will be available for regenerating tissues, and anti-inflammatory drugs and pain medications will be tailored to maximize efficacy and safety. Large teams of clinicians and scientists will tackle increasingly complex problems, and advances in computational sciences will make it possible to create virtual teams across the world. Information technology systems will enable clinicians to examine and integrate information obtained from all databases in cyberspace. Clinical Implications As scientists discover newer and better methods to preempt and prevent disease, they must translate these methods into tools for people at greatest risk of developing disease. Conquering the array of complex diseases that affect the oral and craniofacial complex will require multifaceted strategies and multidisciplinary cooperation. PMID:19723930

  13. Geodesy: A look to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The report deals with the current and future uses of contemporary geodetic data and poses some questions and possibilities for the future. It is anticipated that the document will generate interest in present and future geodetic data for the solution of problems in Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences.

  14. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  15. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  16. Racquet sports. The future.

    PubMed

    Woods, R B

    1995-01-01

    The future of sports medicine and the affiliated sciences is extremely promising within the world of tennis. Players and coaches have recognized the important role of science in supporting tennis training and development. The USTA has established the sport sciences as a basis for all programs and policies. The challenges for the future appear clear: 1. To promote tennis specific research that specifically addresses the training, development, and competitive needs of coaches and athletes. 2. To access sport science information generated in other countries or by other sports that maybe useful to tennis in the United States. 3. To disseminate sport science information in user-friendly language to the widest possible audience. 4. To support all classifications of tennis players with sport science information relevant to their group including all ages and skill levels. Much has been accomplished in the past 10 years to support athlete development, but the promise of the future is exciting and will require teamwork within the tennis and scientific communities by people who love tennis.

  17. Future Trends in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.; Muthukrishnan, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, teachers were the primary medium of instruction and communication for their students. The teacher's role in the classroom is changing due to developments in technology. This article discusses the ways in which technology will change education in the future, and how these changes will affect the interactions between students and…

  18. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG). Volume 4, appendix C: Identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks yielded useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  19. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research. PMID:23833883

  20. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    PubMed

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  1. Charm Factories: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweber, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The next generation tau-charm factory, the third Beijing Electron Spectrometer (BESIII) at the new Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII), has begun data collection. I discuss the flavor physics reach of the BESIII charm program and conclude with a discussion on future proposed tau-charm facilities.

  2. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  3. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Future Orientation in Times of Threat and Challenge: How Resilient Adolescents Construct Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seginer, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the importance of future orientation for adolescent development this analysis presents a model describing how future orientation is affected by high challenge (or resilience) in the face of political violence. The analysis consists of three parts. The first two present future orientation conceptualization and the psychological processes…

  5. Human rights and ethical considerations for a tobacco-free generation.

    PubMed

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Porter, Gerard

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, a new tobacco 'endgame' has been proposed: the denial of tobacco sale to any citizen born after a certain year, thus creating new tobacco-free generations. The proposal would not directly affect current smokers, but would impose a restriction on potential future generations of smokers. This paper examines some key legal and ethical issues raised by this proposal, critically assessing how an obligation to protect human rights might limit or support a state's ability to phase out tobacco.

  6. Phentermine, sibutramine and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Chung, Seockhoon

    2013-04-01

    A safe and effective way to control weight in patients with affective disorders is needed, and phentermine is a possible candidate. We performed a PubMed search of articles pertaining to phentermine, sibutramine, and affective disorders. We compared the studies of phentermine with those of sibutramine. The search yielded a small number of reports. Reports concerning phentermine and affective disorders reported that i) its potency in the central nervous system may be comparatively low, and ii) it may induce depression in some patients. We were unable to find more studies on the subject; thus, it is unclear presently whether phentermine use is safe in affective disorder patients. Reports regarding the association of sibutramine and affective disorders were slightly more abundant. A recent study that suggested that sibutramine may have deleterious effects in patients with a psychiatric history may provide a clue for future phentermine research. Three explanations are possible concerning the association between phentermine and affective disorders: i) phentermine, like sibutramine, may have a depression-inducing effect that affects a specific subgroup of patients, ii) phentermine may have a dose-dependent depression-inducing effect, or iii) phentermine may simply not be associated with depression. Large-scale studies with affective disorder patients focusing on these questions are needed to clarify this matter before investigation of its efficacy may be carried out and it can be used in patients with affective disorders. PMID:23678348

  7. Methyl bromide phase out could affect future reforestation efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide has long been an integral component in producing healthy tree seedlings in forest nurseries of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. The fumigant was supposed to be completely phased out of use in the United States of America by 2005, but many forest nurseries continue to...

  8. Future affective technology for autism and emotion communication

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Rosalind W.

    2009-01-01

    People on the autism spectrum often experience states of emotional or cognitive overload that pose challenges to their interests in learning and communicating. Measurements taken from home and school environments show that extreme overload experienced internally, measured as autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation, may not be visible externally: a person can have a resting heart rate twice the level of non-autistic peers, while outwardly appearing calm and relaxed. The chasm between what is happening on the inside and what is seen on the outside, coupled with challenges in speaking and being pushed to perform, is a recipe for a meltdown that may seem to come ‘out of the blue’, but in fact may have been steadily building. Because ANS activation both influences and is influenced by efforts to process sensory information, interact socially, initiate motor activity, produce meaningful speech and more, deciphering the dynamics of ANS states is important for understanding and helping people on the autism spectrum. This paper highlights advances in technology that can comfortably sense and communicate ANS arousal in daily life, allowing new kinds of investigations to inform the science of autism while also providing personalized feedback to help individuals who participate in the research. PMID:19884152

  9. A Brighter Future: Solutions to Policy Issues Affecting America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, Lawrence J., Ed.

    This collection of papers explains why deep reforms are necessary if today's children are to reach their full potential as productive, independent, and responsible adults. The papers are: (1) "Orphanages as Villages" (Richard B. McKenzie); (2) "Medicating Children" (Linda Gorman); (3) "Government Drug Pushers and the Ritalin Controversy" (Shelley…

  10. Theme: Trends and Issues Affecting the Future of Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Articles discuss trends and issues in agricultural education, community and technical colleges, career/technical studies, Australian agriculture, agricultural science and technology programs in urban areas, genetic engineering, the impact of changing technologies on agricultural education, volunteers, and performance-based assessment. (JOW)

  11. Can a future choice affect a past measurement's outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonov, Yakir; Cohen, Eliahu; Elitzur, Avshalom C.

    2015-04-01

    An EPR experiment is studied where each particle within the entangled pair undergoes a few weak measurements (WMs) along some pre-set spin orientations, with the outcomes individually recorded. Then the particle undergoes one strong measurement along an orientation chosen at the last moment. Bell-inequality violation is expected between the two final measurements within each EPR pair. At the same time, statistical agreement is expected between these strong measurements and the earlier weak ones performed on that pair. A contradiction seemingly ensues: (i) Bell's theorem forbids spin values to exist prior to the choice of the orientation measured; (ii) A weak measurement is not supposed to determine the outcome of a successive strong one; and indeed (iii) Almost no disentanglement is inflicted by the WMs; and yet (iv) The outcomes of weak measurements statistically agree with those of the strong ones, suggesting the existence of pre-determined values, in contradiction with (i). Although the conflict can be solved by mere mitigation of the above restrictions, the most reasonable resolution seems to be that of the Two-State-Vector Formalism (TSVF), namely, that the choice of the experimenter has been encrypted within the weak measurement's outcomes, even before the experimenters themselves know what their choice will be.

  12. Navigating Into the Future or Driven by the Past.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Railton, Peter; Baumeister, Roy F; Sripada, Chandra

    2013-03-01

    Prospection (Gilbert & Wilson, 2007), the representation of possible futures, is a ubiquitous feature of the human mind. Much psychological theory and practice, in contrast, has understood human action as determined by the past and viewed any such teleology (selection of action in light of goals) as a violation of natural law because the future cannot act on the present. Prospection involves no backward causation; rather, it is guidance not by the future itself but by present, evaluative representations of possible future states. These representations can be understood minimally as "If X, then Y" conditionals, and the process of prospection can be understood as the generation and evaluation of these conditionals. We review the history of the attempt to cast teleology out of science, culminating in the failures of behaviorism and psychoanalysis to account adequately for action without teleology. A wide range of evidence suggests that prospection is a central organizing feature of perception, cognition, affect, memory, motivation, and action. The authors speculate that prospection casts new light on why subjectivity is part of consciousness, what is "free" and "willing" in "free will," and on mental disorders and their treatment. Viewing behavior as driven by the past was a powerful framework that helped create scientific psychology, but accumulating evidence in a wide range of areas of research suggests a shift in framework, in which navigation into the future is seen as a core organizing principle of animal and human behavior. PMID:26172493

  13. Perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schaffhauser, A.

    1994-04-01

    This report offers perspectives on the future of the electric utility industry. These perspectives will be used in further research to assess the prospects for Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). The perspectives are developed first by examining economic, political and regulatory, societal, technological, and environmental trends that are (1) national and global in scope and (2) directly related to the electric utility industry. Major national and global trends include increasing global economic competition, increasing political and ethnic strife, rapidly changing technologies, and increasing worldwide concern about the environment. Major trends in the utility industry include increasing competition in generation; changing patterns of electricity demand; increasing use of information technology to control power systems; and increasing implementation of environmental controls. Ways in which the national and global trends may directly affect the utility industry are also explored. The trends are used to construct three global and national scenarios- ``business as usual,`` ``technotopia future,`` and ``fortress state`` -and three electric utility scenarios- ``frozen in headlights,`` ``megaelectric,`` and ``discomania.`` The scenarios are designed to be thought provoking descriptions of potential futures, not predictions of the future, although three key variables are identified that will have significant impacts on which future evolves-global climate change, utility technologies, and competition. While emphasis needs to be placed on understanding the electric utility scenarios, the interactions between the two sets of scenarios is also of interest.

  14. Can We Communicate with Other Generations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellert, Robert B.

    Communicating with future generations is not merely a question of "how" to communicate, but also of "what." Our major moral responsibilities to future generations concern the size of future populations, conservation of nonrenewable resources, diversity of the gene pool, and quality of the environment. To determine our responsibilities in these…

  15. Development of Future Curriculum via Futures Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj, Saedah; Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim

    2011-01-01

    Observation on best future choices is not something that happens by chance; in fact, it should be carried out through careful planning driven by research. Therefore, observation on future curriculum would also involve in-depth research on future possibilities and their impact. Policy makers and curriculum developers of institutions or even the…

  16. The future of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease). PMID:19858828

  17. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  18. Wind electric generator project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-09-01

    A wind generator was installed and connected at Iowa Western Community College. It is heating water through four hot water tanks and proved to be an excellent demonstration project for the community. The college gets frequent inquiries about the windmill and has been very cooperative in informing the public about the success. The windmill generates more electricity than is needed to heat four hot water heaters and future plans are to hook up more. The project requires very little maintenance.

  19. Climatic Change--Past, Present & Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Roy C.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of studies investigating factors affecting climatic changes in the Earth's atmosphere--past, present, and future. Dating methods, particularly the Oxygen 18/16 method, are discussed. (SL)

  20. The Ocean: Our Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario

    1998-09-01

    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  1. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  2. Envisioning the Future--A Question of Distances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanen, Heli; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will examine how children view their future. Intergenerational relations are at the core of sustainable development. These concern a human's moral responsibility to the coming generations. But, can we take for granted that future generations will have the same requirements and preferences as we do? Discussions of the future often…

  3. Down syndrome—recent progress and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Frances K.; Alford, Kate A.; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is associated with a number of deleterious phenotypes, including learning disability, heart defects, early-onset Alzheimer's disease and childhood leukaemia. Individuals with DS are affected by these phenotypes to a variable extent; understanding the cause of this variation is a key challenge. Here, we review recent research progress in DS, both in patients and relevant animal models. In particular, we highlight exciting advances in therapy to improve cognitive function in people with DS and the significant developments in understanding the gene content of Hsa21. Moreover, we discuss future research directions in light of new technologies. In particular, the use of chromosome engineering to generate new trisomic mouse models and large-scale studies of genotype–phenotype relationships in patients are likely to significantly contribute to the future understanding of DS. PMID:19297404

  4. America's Electricity Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2006-03-01

    Where will America's future electricity supply come from? According to Vice President Cheney's energy task force, the U.S. needs to build about one 1 GW generating facilty a week in perpetuity.^(1) What sort of facilities will they be? Can the economy sustain such growth? Are there other possibilities? One possibility that strikes a chord with physicists is conservation as a source of energy. In this regard, Vice President Cheney famously said that conservation is``a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis---all by itself---for a sound, comprehensive energy policy,''^(2) echoing the Ayn Rand Instituite's view that ``Conservation is not a long- or short-term solution to the energy crisis. Conservation is the un-American idea of resigning oneself to doing with less.''^(3) This poster will explore the possible energy futures, their advantages and disadvantages, with and without conservation. 1. National Energy Policy Development Group (R. Cheney, C. L. Powell, P. O'Neill, G. Norton, A. M. Veneman, D. L. Evans, N. Y. Mineta, S. Abraham, J. M. Allbaugh, C. T. Whitman, J. B. Bolten, M. E. Daniels, L. B. Lindsey, and R. Barrales), National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001). 2. M. Allen, ``Bush energy plan will emphasize production,'' The Washington Post, 1 May 2001 3. R. Pool, ``Saving power deemed immoral,'' The Los Angeles Times, 12 May 2001.

  5. Episodic future thinking in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD. PMID:26398003

  6. Episodic future thinking in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jade Q; Szpunar, Karl K; Godovich, Sheina A; Schacter, Daniel L; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    Research on future-oriented cognition in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has primarily focused on worry, while less is known about the role of episodic future thinking (EFT), an imagery-based cognitive process. To characterize EFT in this disorder, we used the experimental recombination procedure, in which 21 GAD and 19 healthy participants simulated positive, neutral and negative novel future events either once or repeatedly, and rated their phenomenological experience of EFT. Results showed that healthy controls spontaneously generated more detailed EFT over repeated simulations. Both groups found EFT easier to generate after repeated simulations, except when GAD participants simulated positive events. They also perceived higher plausibility of negative-not positive or neutral-future events than did controls. These results demonstrate a negativity bias in GAD individuals' episodic future cognition, and suggest their relative deficit in generating vivid EFT. We discuss implications for the theory and treatment of GAD.

  7. Vibrant Science Needed for Future Society.

    PubMed

    Noyori, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    Chemists needed: Society is currently facing manifold challenges, many of which were created in part or in whole by humans. Editorial Board Chairman Ryoji Noyori comments on chemists' role in securing peace and prosperity for current and future generations.

  8. Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

  9. Influence of SST biases on future climate change projections

    SciTech Connect

    Ashfaq, Moetasim; Skinner, Chris B; Cherkauer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We use a quantile-based bias correction technique and a multi-member ensemble of the atmospheric component of NCAR CCSM3 (CAM3) simulations to investigate the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) biases on future climate change projections. The simulations, which cover 1977 1999 in the historical period and 2077 2099 in the future (A1B) period, use the CCSM3-generated SSTs as prescribed boundary conditions. Bias correction is applied to the monthly time-series of SSTs so that the simulated changes in SST mean and variability are preserved. Our comparison of CAM3 simulations with and without SST correction shows that the SST biases affect the precipitation distribution in CAM3 over many regions by introducing errors in atmospheric moisture content and upper-level (lower-level) divergence (convergence). Also, bias correction leads to significantly different precipitation and surface temperature changes over many oceanic and terrestrial regions (predominantly in the tropics) in response to the future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. The differences in the precipitation response from SST bias correction occur both in the mean and the percent change, and are independent of the ocean atmosphere coupling. Many of these differences are comparable to or larger than the spread of future precipitation changes across the CMIP3 ensemble. Such biases can affect the simulated terrestrial feedbacks and thermohaline circulations in coupled climate model integrations through changes in the hydrological cycle and ocean salinity. Moreover, biases in CCSM3-generated SSTs are generally similar to the biases in CMIP3 ensemble mean SSTs, suggesting that other GCMs may display a similar sensitivity of projected climate change to SST errors. These results help to quantify the influence of climate model biases on the simulated climate change, and therefore should inform the effort to further develop approaches for reliable climate change projection.

  10. FutureCoast: "Listen to your futures"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Eklund, K.; Thacher, S.; Orlove, B. S.; Diane Stovall-Soto, G.; Brunacini, J.; Hernandez, T.

    2014-12-01

    Two science-arts approaches are emerging as effective means to convey "futurethinking" to learners: systems gaming and experiential futures. FutureCoast exemplifies the latter: by engaging participants with voicemails supposedly leaking from the cloud of possible futures, the storymaking game frames the complexities of climate science in relatable contexts. Because participants make the voicemails themselves, FutureCoast opens up creative ways for people to think about possibly climate-changed futures and personal ways to talk about them. FutureCoast is a project of the PoLAR Partnership with a target audience of informal adult learners primarily reached via mobile devices and online platforms. Scientists increasingly use scenarios and storylines as ways to explore the implications of environmental change and societal choices. Stories help people make connections across experiences and disciplines and link large-scale events to personal consequences. By making the future seem real today, FutureCoast's framework helps people visualize and plan for future climate changes. The voicemails contributed to FutureCoast are spread through the game's intended timeframe (2020 through 2065). Based on initial content analysis of voicemail text, common themes include ecosystems and landscapes, weather, technology, societal issues, governance and policy. Other issues somewhat less frequently discussed include security, food, industry and business, health, energy, infrastructure, water, economy, and migration. Further voicemail analysis is examining: temporal dimensions (salient time frames, short vs. long term issues, intergenerational, etc.), content (adaptation vs. mitigation, challenges vs. opportunities, etc.), and emotion (hopeful, resigned, etc. and overall emotional context). FutureCoast also engaged audiences through facilitated in-person experiences, geocaching events, and social media (Tumblr, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube). Analysis of the project suggests story

  11. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  13. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  14. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  15. An Insider's View on the Future of Farming and Rural Communities: Participant Observation by a Lifetime Rural Sociologist/Iowa Farmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The constant flow of wealth from the countryside to the city arises from farms being bought out by co-heirs, educating children to move away, rents paid to absentee landlords, profits generated locally but landing elsewhere, and overreliance on property taxes. Overviews problems specific to northwestern Iowa and how they will affect the future of…

  16. SST emissions: Back to future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Abandoned in the 1970s because of the energy crisis and unresolved environmental concerns, supersonic commercial airplanes that would fly through the stratosphere are being seriously considered again by the aeronautics industry and the federal government. This time around, the future of the program will be depend how the airplane emissions affect the ozone layer and on noise on the ground.Abandoned in the 1970s because of the energy crisis and unresolved environmental concerns, supersonic commercial airplanes that would fly through the stratosphere are being seriously considered again by the aeronautics industry and the federal government. This time around, the future of the program will be depend how the airplane emissions affect the ozone layer and on noise on the ground.

  17. Managing electricity reliability risk through the futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2000-10-01

    In competitive electricity markets, the vertically integrated utilities that were responsible for ensuring system reliability in their own service territories, or groups of territories, often cease to exist. Typically, the burden falls to an independent system operator (ISO) to insure that enough ancillary services (AS) are available for safe, stable, and reliable operation of the grid, typically defined, in part, as compliance with officially approved engineering specifications for minimum levels of AS. In order to characterize the behavior of market participants (generators, retailers, and an ISO) in a competitive electricity market with reliability requirements, we model a spot market for electricity and futures markets for both electricity and AS. By assuming that each participant seeks to maximize its expected utility of wealth and that all markets clear, we solve for the optional quantities of electricity and AS traded in each market by all participants, as well as the corresponding market-clearing prices. We show that future prices for both electricity and AS depend on expectations of the spot price, statistical aspects of system demand, and production cost parameters. More important, our model captures the fact that electricity and AS are substitute products for the generators, implying that anticipated changes in the spot market will affect the equilibrium futures positions of both electricity and AS. We apply our model to the California electricity and AS markets to test its viability.

  18. The future of land warfare

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sophisticated new technology and vastly increased firepower mean that future land battles are likely to be very different to those of the past. The Iran-Iraq war and the British experience in the Falklands have shown, however, that factors such as terrain, morale and surprise continue to be of vital importance. This book is a consideration of the likely nature of (and possibilities for) land warfare during the next twenty-five years. It discusses the elements of modern warfare including weapons developments, intelligence, logistics and tactics. The book concludes with speculative predictions of future conflicts. Topics covered include hell on earth: war in the 1970s and 1980s; factors affecting air-land warfare; geography, demography and the major land powers; nuclear; biological; chemical or conventional; operational art of major land powers; weapons platforms, protection, electronic warfare (including laser and charged particle beam weapons); command, control, communications and intelligence; and the nature of future land warfare.

  19. The Future of Comprehensive Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    The comprehensive colleges and universities--often former normal schools that have grown quickly in recent years--are seen to be affected primarily by declining financial resources, declining enrollment, and competition, now and in the near future. Financial resources are affected by higher priority placed on other state budget items; tax…

  20. Economics and regulation of petroleum futures markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Because the futures market in petroleum products is a relatively recent phenomenon, the implications of public policies formulated for that market have not yet been fully explored. To provide the Office of Competition of the Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to assess policy alternatives, Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA) was asked to analyze the development of the futures market in No. 2 oil, assess the potential for futures markets in other petroleum products, and identify policy alternatives available to DOE. To perform this analysis, the criteria for a viable futures market was established first. Then, the experience to date with the 18-month-old futures market in No. 2 oil was examined, and the potential for viable futures markets in No. 6 oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and crude oil was assessed. Finally, how existing DOE regulations and prospective actions might affect petroleum futures market development was investigated.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  2. Climate change and human health: present and future risks.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J; Woodruff, Rosalie E; Hales, Simon

    2006-03-11

    There is near unanimous scientific consensus that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity will change Earth's climate. The recent (globally averaged) warming by 0.5 degrees C is partly attributable to such anthropogenic emissions. Climate change will affect human health in many ways-mostly adversely. Here, we summarise the epidemiological evidence of how climate variations and trends affect various health outcomes. We assess the little evidence there is that recent global warming has already affected some health outcomes. We review the published estimates of future health effects of climate change over coming decades. Research so far has mostly focused on thermal stress, extreme weather events, and infectious diseases, with some attention to estimates of future regional food yields and hunger prevalence. An emerging broader approach addresses a wider spectrum of health risks due to the social, demographic, and economic disruptions of climate change. Evidence and anticipation of adverse health effects will strengthen the case for pre-emptive policies, and will also guide priorities for planned adaptive strategies.

  3. Options for Kentucky's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    Three important imperatives are being pursued by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: ? Developing a viable economic future for the highly trained and experienced workforce and for the Paducah area that today supports, and is supported by, the operations of the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Currently, the PGDP is scheduled to be taken out of service in May, 2013. ? Restructuring the economic future for Kentucky’s most abundant indigenous resource and an important industry – the extraction and utilization of coal. The future of coal is being challenged by evolving and increasing requirements for its extraction and use, primarily from the perspective of environmental restrictions. Further, it is important that the economic value derived from this important resource for the Commonwealth, its people and its economy is commensurate with the risks involved. Over 70% of the extracted coal is exported from the Commonwealth and hence not used to directly expand the Commonwealth’s economy beyond the severance taxes on coal production. ? Ensuring a viable energy future for Kentucky to guarantee a continued reliable and affordable source of energy for its industries and people. Today, over 90% of Kentucky’s electricity is generated by burning coal with a delivered electric power price that is among the lowest in the United States. Anticipated increased environmental requirements necessitate looking at alternative forms of energy production, and in particular electricity generation.

  4. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems, Volume 4. Appendix C: Design and performance of standardized fixed bed air-blown gasifier IGCC systems for future electric power generation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    This appendix is a compilation of work done to predict overall cycle performance from gasifier to generator terminals. A spreadsheet has been generated for each case to show flows within a cycle. The spreadsheet shows gaseous or solid composition of flow, temperature of flow, quantity of flow, and heat heat content of flow. Prediction of steam and gas turbine performance was obtained by the computer program GTPro. Outputs of all runs for each combined cycle reviewed has been added to this appendix. A process schematic displaying all flows predicted through GTPro and the spreadsheet is also added to this appendix. The numbered bubbles on the schematic correspond to columns on the top headings of the spreadsheet.

  5. Do future thoughts reflect personal goals? Current concerns and mental time travel into the past and future.

    PubMed

    Cole, Scott N; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Our overriding hypothesis was that future thinking would be linked with goals to a greater extent than memories; conceptualizing goals as current concerns (i.e., uncompleted personal goals). We also hypothesized that current-concern-related events would differ from non-current-concern-related events on a set of phenomenological characteristics. We report novel data from a study examining involuntary and voluntary mental time travel using an adapted laboratory paradigm. Specifically, after autobiographical memories or future thoughts were elicited (between participants) in an involuntary and voluntary retrieval mode (within participants), participants self-generated five current concerns and decided whether each event was relevant or not to their current concerns. Consistent with our hypothesis, compared with memories, a larger percentage of involuntary and voluntary future thoughts reflected current concerns. Furthermore, events related to current concerns differed from non-concern-related events on a range of cognitive, representational, and affective phenomenological measures. These effects were consistent across temporal direction. In general, our results agree with the proposition that involuntary and voluntary future thinking is important for goal-directed cognition and behaviour.

  6. Information transfer - a look into the future

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, M.

    1986-12-01

    This keynote address attempts to relate the interests of CODATA members in facilitating the worldwide exchange of scientific information with revolutionary new developments foreseen in the domain of telecommunications. Today's trends in telecommunications are projected into the future through two successive generations of technological evolution. The first generation of evolution starts in the relatively near future with initial implementation of functional capabilities for Integrated Service Digital Networks (ISDNs). The second generation mates the broadband transmission capability of fiber-optic cables with new concepts of fast-packet switching to afford unprecedented service flexibility. Standards development as a planning prerequisite of the future telecommunication network is discussed. Some aspects of standards development and other preliminary planning activity are suggested where possible CODATA involvement might prove advantageous in preparing to realize future objectives for information transfer.

  7. Low Concentrations of Anti-Aβ Antibodies Generated in Tg2576 Mice by DNA Epitope Vaccine Fused with 3C3d Molecular Adjuvant Do Not Affect AD Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Movsesyan, Nina; Davtyan, Hayk; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Petrushina, Irina; Tiraturyan, Tigran; Ross, Ted; Agadjanyan, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It has been demonstrated that an active vaccination strategy with protein- or DNA-based epitope vaccines composed of the immunodominant self B cell epitope of amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) and a non-self T helper (Th) cell epitope is an immunotherapeutic approach to preventing or treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a DNA-based epitope vaccine, we used a plasmid encoding three copies of Aβ1–11 and Th cell epitope, PADRE (p3Aβ1–11-PADRE). We have previously reported that three copies of component of complement C3d (3C3d) acts as a molecular adjuvant significantly enhancing immune responses in wild-type mice of the H2b haplotype immunized with p3Aβ1–11-PADRE. Here, we tested the efficacy of p3Aβ1–11-PADRE and the same vaccine fused with 3C3d (p3Aβ1–11-PADRE-3C3d) in a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD (Tg2576) of the H2bxs immune haplotype. The overall responses to both vaccines were very weak in Tg2576 mice despite the fact that the 3C3d molecular adjuvant significantly enhanced the anti-Aβ response to 3Aβ1–11-PADRE. Importantly, generation of low antibody responses was associated with the strain of amyloid precursor protein Tg mice rather than with a molecular adjuvant, as a p3Aβ1–11-PADRE-3C3d vaccine induced significantly higher antibody production in another AD mouse model, 3xTg-AD of the H2b haplotype. Finally, this study demonstrated that low concentrations of antibodies generated by both DNA vaccines were not sufficient for the reduction of Aβ pathology in the brains of vaccinated Tg2576 animals, confirming previous reports from preclinical studies and the AN-1792 clinical trials, which concluded that the concentration of anti-Aβ antibodies may be essential for the reduction of AD pathology. PMID:20528468

  8. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  9. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  10. The changing face of international power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, I.

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  11. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  12. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  13. Nursing's Preferred Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydelotte, Myrtle K.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses future trends for society and relates them to future roles and characteristics of nursing. She presents strategies that nursing professionals should use to be prepared for the stated trends. (CH)

  14. A taxonomy of prospection: Introducing an organizational framework for future-oriented cognition

    PubMed Central

    Szpunar, Karl K.; Spreng, R. Nathan; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Prospection—the ability to represent what might happen in the future—is a broad concept that has been used to characterize a wide variety of future-oriented cognitions, including affective forecasting, prospective memory, temporal discounting, episodic simulation, and autobiographical planning. In this article, we propose a taxonomy of prospection to initiate the important and necessary process of teasing apart the various forms of future thinking that constitute the landscape of prospective cognition. The organizational framework that we propose delineates episodic and semantic forms of four modes of future thinking: simulation, prediction, intention, and planning. We show how this framework can be used to draw attention to the ways in which various modes of future thinking interact with one another, generate new questions about prospective cognition, and illuminate our understanding of disorders of future thinking. We conclude by considering basic cognitive processes that give rise to prospective cognitions, cognitive operations and emotional/motivational states relevant to future-oriented cognition, and the possible role of procedural or motor systems in future-oriented behavior. PMID:25416592

  15. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  16. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  17. Exploring the Educational Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Futures studies uses scenarios--stories of the future--to explore how trends and events shaping our world may play out in future decades. This article features a short scenario set in California in 2037, depicting twelve-year-old Moya and her brother mart, whose "fenced community" has opted for a system of self-directed, online learning to educate…

  18. Wind Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  20. 12th Man in Space Symposium: The Future of Humans in Space. Abstract Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pleased to host the 12th IAA Man in Space Symposium. A truly international forum, this symposium brings together scientists, engineers, and managers interested in all aspects of human space flight to share the most recent research results and space agency planning related to the future of humans in space. As we look out at the universe from our own uniquely human perspective, we see a world that we affect at the same time that it affects us. Our tomorrows are highlighted by the possibilities generated by our knowledge, our drive, and our dreams. This symposium will examine our future in space from the springboard of our achievements.

  1. Alternative Futures for Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.; Guba, Egon G.

    This paper (1) develops a framework for analyzing various futures for the school, college, and department of education (SCDE) community in knowledge production and utilization (KPU), and federal interventions which might affect those futures; (2) reviews critical KPU-related characteristics of SCDEs which would affect the success or failure of…

  2. Episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2001-12-01

    Thinking about the future is an integral component of human cognition - one that has been claimed to distinguish us from other species. Building on the construct of episodic memory, we introduce the concept of 'episodic future thinking': a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event. We argue that episodic future thinking has explanatory value when considering recent work in many areas of psychology: cognitive, social and personality, developmental, clinical and neuropsychology. Episodic future thinking can serve as a unifying concept, connecting aspects of diverse research findings and identifying key questions requiring further reflection and study.

  3. Future Spacelift Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses future space applications and the derived requirements these potential applications will have on future spacelift systems. This NASA sponsored activity is a comprehensive study of potential missions including those of the military, civil, and commercial users. The study objectively evaluated the key architectural requirements for future launch systems. The results of this study are technical, economic, and policy analyses of future spacelift systems. It is intended to assist NASA and DOD decision-makers in planning technical investments and establishing policy for future U.S. spacelift systems.

  4. Energy structures and environmental futures

    SciTech Connect

    Haugland, T.; Bergesen, H.O.; Roland, K.

    1998-11-01

    Energy is not only a basis for modern society, but also a product of it. This book is a study of the close and ever-changing relationship between the energy sector and the society that surrounds it. At the end of the twentieth century this relationship faces two fundamental challenges: First, the national confinement of modern energy systems is undermined by technological progress, making long-distance trade increasingly attractive, and by the broad trend towards economic internationalization in general and political integration in Europe in particular. Second, the risk of climate change may lead governments and publics to demand a profound restructuring of the entire energy sector. The purpose is to analyze how these two fundamental challenges, and the connection between them, can affect future energy developments in Europe. The analysis must be rooted in a firm understanding of the past. The first part of the book is therefore devoted to a systematic description and analysis of the energy sector in Europe as it has developed over the past twenty-five years, by major subsectors and with examples from the most important countries. Part 1 discusses trends and policies related to energy demand, energy sector developments in oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity, achievements and challenges in the environment, and the role of international policy bodies. Part 2 forecasts future developments in 1995--2020, by discussing the following: Paths for future developments; National rebound scenario; Liberalization and trade; Liberalization versus national rebound; and Environmental futures.

  5. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert

    2011-06-01

    , etc., radioprotection measures and treatment for the "transuranic" elements. For a long period of time, France was in the forefront of nuclear breeder power generation science, technological research and also in the knowledge base related to breeder reactors. It is in the country's interest to pursue these efforts and this could per se constitute one of the national priorities. Nous sommes naturellement bien conscients de l'énorme problème qui se pose au Japon actuellement comme suite au tremblement de terre et au tsunami de mars 2011 et leurs conséquences, notamment sur des installations électronucléaires. Le texte que nous présentons concerne des conditions totalement générales, indépendantes des problèmes spécifiques de sûreté qu'il faudra, de toute façon, traiter dans le cadre d'un développement éventuel de l'énergie nucléaire.We are aware, of course, of the huge problem that Japan has to deal with the aftermath of the quake and tsunami of March 2011 and their consequences on electronuclear power plants. The text that we present here concerns general physical topics independent of the specific safety problems, general physical topics which will have to be solved in the case of a contingent development of electronuclear power plants.

  6. Photoconductive switching for high power microwave generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Hofer, W.W.

    1990-10-01

    Photoconductive switching is a technology that is being increasingly applied to generation of high power microwaves. Two primary semiconductors used for these devices are silicon and gallium arsenide. Diamond is a promising future candidate material. This paper discusses the important material parameters and switching modes, critical issues for microwave generation, and future directions for this high power, photoconductive switching technology.

  7. The future dental workforce?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Wilson, N H F

    2009-02-28

    importance to future generations of dental healthcare professionals, funders, commissioners and providers of both dental services and dental education and training, and most importantly our patients and the public whom we serve. Furthermore, workforce planning must be linked to a philosophy of care which promotes promotion of health and embraces quality care, rather than merely treatment of disease, and addresses oral health needs and demands. PMID:19247334

  8. The future dental workforce?

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J E; Wilson, N H F

    2009-02-28

    importance to future generations of dental healthcare professionals, funders, commissioners and providers of both dental services and dental education and training, and most importantly our patients and the public whom we serve. Furthermore, workforce planning must be linked to a philosophy of care which promotes promotion of health and embraces quality care, rather than merely treatment of disease, and addresses oral health needs and demands.

  9. Episodic future thinking is impaired in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Remembering the past and imagining the future are complex endeavours proposed to rely on a core neurobiological brain system. In the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), regional patterns of brain atrophy affect medial prefrontal and temporal cortices of this core network. While autobiographical memory impairments have been documented in bvFTD, it remains unknown whether the ability to imagine future events is also compromised. Here, we investigated episodic future thinking in 10 bvFTD patients and contrasted their performance with Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 10) and healthy matched Control (n = 10) participants. Participants were asked to remember 3 events from the previous year and to envisage 3 possible events that could occur in the next year. Both patient groups showed equivalent episodic detail performance for the retrieval of past events and the simulation of possible future episodes. Patients with bvFTD, however, showed additional impairments for the generation of external (non-episodic) details irrespective of condition. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed divergent neural correlates of episodic past and future thinking performance specific to each patient group. Atrophy in the posterior cingulate cortex was implicated in the disruption of past and future thinking in AD. In contrast, in bvFTD, disruption of past retrieval correlated with atrophy in medial prefrontal regions, whereas future thinking deficits were associated with atrophy of frontopolar, medial temporal regions including the right hippocampus, and lateral temporal and occipital cortices. Our results point to the involvement of multiple brain regions in facilitating retrieval of past, and simulation of future, events. Damage to any of these key regions thus adversely affects the ability to engage in personally relevant mental time travel.

  10. Historic and Future Ice Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Morgan, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ice storm losses from business interruption as well as transportation and health damages can range into billions of dollars. For instance, the December 2008 New England and Upstate New York ice storm caused four deaths and monetary damages between 2.5 and 3.7 billion, and the 2008 Chinese winter storms resulted in over 130 deaths and over 20 billion in damages. Informal discussions with ice storm experts indicate that due to competing temperature and precipitation effects as well as local topographic effects, it is unclear how exactly climate change will affect ice storms. Here we ask how incident frequencies might change in a future climate at four weather stations prone to ice storms. Using historical atmospheric soundings, we conduct a thought experiment where we perturb the temperatures as might be expected in a future climate. We then discuss changes in monthly frequency of ice storms.

  11. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  12. Generative Semantics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret

    The first section of this paper deals with the attempts within the framework of transformational grammar to make semantics a systematic part of linguistic description, and outlines the characteristics of the generative semantics position. The second section takes a critical look at generative semantics in its later manifestations, and makes a case…

  13. The future of coal

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This interdisciplinary MIT study examines the factors that will affect the use of coal in a world where significant constraints are placed on emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Chapter headings are: Purpose of the Study; The Role of Coal in Energy Growth and CO{sub 2} Emissions; Coal-based Electricity Generation; Geological Carbon Sequestration; Coal Consumption in China and India; Analysis, Research, Development, and Demonstration; Public Attitudes toward Energy, Global Warming, and Carbon Taxes; and Findings and Recommendations. The central message of the study is that demonstration of technical, economic, and institutional features of carbon capture and sequestration at commercial scale coal combustion and conversion plants, will (1) give policymakers and the public confidence that a practical carbon mitigation control option exists, (2) shorten the deployment time and reduce the cost for carbon capture and sequestration should a carbon emission control policy be adopted, and (3) maintain opportunities for the lowest cost and most widely available energy form to be used to meet the world's pressing energy needs in an environmentally acceptable manner. 12 apps.

  14. The Future of Quark Flavor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jack

    2013-04-01

    Quark flavor-physics experiments using large samples of strange, charm, and bottom particles have the ability to probe higher mass scales than are directly accessible in the LHC or any foreseeable collider. This is because high-mass virtual states can affect observable features of the decays of these particles, especially for decay modes that are suppressed in the standard model. With evidence from the LHC of a 125-GeV Higgs boson but no other high-mass states so far, the motivation for a vigorous program of quark flavor-physics experiments is as strong as ever. Indeed, if the LHC finds new high-mass states, results from these experiments may help to identity their source, and if there is no new physics to be discovered at LHC energies, flavor-physics experiments (including lepton flavor) may be the only practical means of accessing the scale of new physics. This talk will describe the next generation of quark flavor-physics experiments and will emphasize the importance of a broad program. It will also discuss work underway, within the venue of the DPF's Snowmass process, to map out the future U.S. program in quark-flavor physics.

  15. Future atmospheric neutrino measurements with PINGU

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino oscillations, first measured in 1998 via atmospheric neutrinos, have provided the only current direct evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. The full neutrino mixing, described by six parameters, has been measured in the last decade with the exception of the charge-parity phase and the ordering of the mass eigenstates (the neutrino mass hierarchy – NMH). A relatively large mixing-angle between the first and third mass eigenstates has opened the possibility of measuring the mass hierarchy via atmospheric neutrinos using very large volume detectors. A leading proposal to perform this measurement is the future low-energy extension to the IceCube–DeepCore detector, called PINGU (the Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade). By increasing the photocathode density in the DeepCore region, it is possible to lower the energy threshold in the fiducial volume to the region that is affected by the MSW [1, 2], and thus permits extraction of the hierarchy. Here we discuss the design of the PINGU detector, its sensitivity to the mass hierarchy (approximately 3σ in 3.5 years) and measurements of ν{sub μ} disappearance and ν{sub τ} appearance.

  16. Identifying future threats: impact of climate change on wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events are likely to increase with global warming. However, it is not clear how these events might affect agricultural crops and whether yield losses resulting from severe droughts or heat stress will increase in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyse changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of two impact indices for wheat: the probability of heat stress around flowering and the severity of drought stress. To compute these indices, we used a wheat simulation model combined with high-resolution climate scenarios based on the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator and the output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model at 18 sites in England and Wales. Despite higher temperature and lower summer precipitation predicted in the UK for the 2050s, the reduction in grain yield related to drought stress is predicted to be smaller than that at present, because wheat will mature earlier in a warmer climate and avoid severe summer drought. However, the probability of heat stress around flowering, that affects pollination and might result in considerable yield losses, is predicted to increase significantly. Breeding strategies for the future climate might need to focus on wheat varieties tolerant to high temperature rather than to drought.

  17. Powering the Future of Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's future of science and space exploration. The topics include: 1) NASA's strategic goals; 2) NASA around the Country; 3) Marshall's History; 4) Marshall's Missions; 5) Marshall Statistics: From Exploration to Opportunity; 6) Propulsion and Transportation Systems; 7) Life Support systems; 8) Earth Science; 9) Space Science; 10) NASA Innovation Creates New Jobs, Markets, and Technologies; 11) NASA Inspires Future Generations of Explorers; and 12) Why Explore?

  18. Energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a power booster. It comprises: at least one pendulum means suspended at one end to oscillate about the point of suspension; power generating means; mass means connected to one end of the pendulum means; spring means disposed in operative cooperation with the mass means to impart energy into the pendulum means and assist the pendulum means in oscillating about the point of suspension; and energy transfer linkage means between the pendulum means and the power generating means for transferring energy between the pendulum means and the power generating means.

  19. Europe`s electric future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Though the market is developing, independent power producers see strong potential in Europe`s power industry. In Europe`s electricity future, some envision a cohesive marketplace. This market would be characterized by consistent regulations; transparent pricing regimes open access to transmission services; competitive procurement processes; and unbundled generation, transmission and distribution services. This new market structure would mark a change for private power developers, who in the past have faced barriers to development of independent power facilities in many European countries. Progress toward competition is already evident.

  20. Educating Future Environmental Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Knechtges, Paul L; Kelley, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Future environmental health problems will require a new generation of educated and trained professionals. Efforts to enhance the environmental public health workforce have been promoted by several organizations. While progress has been measured by these organizations, many environmental health academic programs are experiencing budget reductions and lower enrollments. One of the reasons for this trend is the so-called higher education crisis. We argue that training is not equivalent to education in the environmental health sciences, albeit the two terms are often used interchangeably. Organizations involved with the education, training, and credentialing of environmental health professionals must work together to ensure the viability and effectiveness of environmental health academic programs. PMID:26617460

  1. Emotional task management: neural correlates of switching between affective and non-affective task-sets

    PubMed Central

    Reeck, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    Although task-switching has been investigated extensively, its interaction with emotionally salient task content remains unclear. Prioritized processing of affective stimulus content may enhance accessibility of affective task-sets and generate increased interference when switching between affective and non-affective task-sets. Previous research has demonstrated that more dominant task-sets experience greater switch costs, as they necessitate active inhibition during performance of less entrenched tasks. Extending this logic to the affective domain, the present experiment examined (a) whether affective task-sets are more dominant than non-affective ones, and (b) what neural mechanisms regulate affective task-sets, so that weaker, non-affective task-sets can be executed. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants categorized face stimuli according to either their gender (non-affective task) or their emotional expression (affective task). Behavioral results were consistent with the affective task dominance hypothesis: participants were slower to switch to the affective task, and cross-task interference was strongest when participants tried to switch from the affective to the non-affective task. These behavioral costs of controlling the affective task-set were mirrored in the activation of a right-lateralized frontostriatal network previously implicated in task-set updating and response inhibition. Connectivity between amygdala and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex was especially pronounced during cross-task interference from affective features. PMID:25552571

  2. Generation Y Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Garret; Painting, Kristen; Barrera, Aaron; Skytland, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Are you familiar with the famed Generation Y, or "Gen Yers?" Generation Y is projected to be 47 percent of the workforce by 2014. They were born roughly between 1977 and 2000, but that is definitely not their only defining factor. But who is this group, and what do they have to do with the future of the space program and the Johnson Space Center (JSC)? During 2007, a group of Gen Yers at JSC participated on a committee to address the NASA Headquarters strategic communications plan. Fitzpatrick, along with his co-authors, created a presentation to share the Gen Yers' perspective on their generation in conjunction with the strategic communications strategy released. This knowledge capture (KC) event is that presentation.

  3. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  4. Future Facilities Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albert De Roeck, Rolf Ent

    2009-10-01

    For the session on future facilities at DIS09 discussions were organized on DIS related measurements that can be expected in the near and medium –or perhaps far– future, including plans from JLab, CERN and FNAL fixed target experiments, possible measurements and detector upgrades at RHIC, as well as the plans for possible future electron proton/ion colliders such as the EIC and the LHeC project.

  5. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  6. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  7. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  8. Generation Wrecked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Noshua

    2002-01-01

    Young adults in Generation X are facing financial problems. Because of their college and credit card debt, many in worse financial shape than anyone since the Depression and have little or no retirement savings. (JOW)

  9. Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, T.

    1985-01-01

    Small modular alkali metal thermoelectric generator with no moving parts directly converts heat to electrical energy with efficiency of 20 to 40 percent. Unit uses closed regenerative electrochemical concentration cell based on sodium-ion conductor beta alumina.

  10. Laser acceleration and its future

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2010-01-01

    Laser acceleration is based on the concept to marshal collective fields that may be induced by laser. In order to exceed the material breakdown field by a large factor, we employ the broken-down matter of plasma. While the generated wakefields resemble with the fields in conventional accelerators in their structure (at least qualitatively), it is their extreme accelerating fields that distinguish the laser wakefield from others, amounting to tiny emittance and compact accelerator. The current research largely falls on how to master the control of acceleration process in spatial and temporal scales several orders of magnitude smaller than the conventional method. The efforts over the last several years have come to a fruition of generating good beam properties with GeV energies on a table top, leading to many applications, such as ultrafast radiolysis, intraoperative radiation therapy, injection to X-ray free electron laser, and a candidate for future high energy accelerators. PMID:20228616

  11. Characteristics of a future aeronautical satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip Y.; Stern, Alan; Schmidt, Fred

    1991-01-01

    A possible operational system scenario for providing satellite communications services to the future aviation community was analyzed. The system concept relies on a Ka-band (20/30 GHz) satellite that utilizes multibeam antenna (MBA) technology. The aircraft terminal uses an extremely small aperture antenna as a result of using this higher spectrum at Ka-band. The satellite functions as a relay between the aircraft and the ground stations. The ground stations function as interfaces to the existing terrestrial networks such as the Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN). Various system tradeoffs are first examined to ensure optimized system parameters. High level performance specifications and design approaches are generated for the space, ground, and aeronautical elements in the system. Both technical and economical issues affecting the feasibility of the studied concept are addressed with the 1995 timeframe in mind.

  12. Characteristics of a future aeronautical satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Philip Y.; Stern, Alan; Schmidt, Fred

    1991-01-01

    A possible operational system scenario for providing satellite communications services to the future aviation community was analyzed. The system concept relies on a Ka-band (20/30 GHz) satellite that utilizes Multibeam Antenna (MBA) technology. The aircraft terminal uses an extremely small aperture antenna as a result of using this higher spectrum at Ka-band. The satellite functions as a relay between the aircraft and the ground stations. The ground stations function as interfaces to the existing terrestrial networks such as the Public Service Telephone Network (PSTN). Various system tradeoffs are first examined to ensure optimized system parameters. High level performance specifications and design approaches are generated for the space, ground, and aeronautical elements in the system. Both technical and economical issues affecting the feasibility of the studied concept are addressed with the 1995 timeframe in mind.

  13. Variables Affecting the Legibility of Computer Generated Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; Hannafin, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses text displayed on computer screens and examines the effects of three layout variables--justification, line length, and leading--on reading speed and comprehension. Current literature on each variable is reviewed, and implications for the design of computer-based instruction are presented. (Author/LRW)

  14. Informing the next nuclear generation - how does the Ginna plant branch do it?

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, A.

    1995-12-31

    Most of us are familiar with the latest advertising phrase, ``Our children are our future.`` This phrase has been used in so many instances - from concerns about waste, Social Security, and the federal deficit to drug abuse and violence. One more area can be added to the list and advertised nuclear power. Since the establishment of the Ginna plant branch (GPB) in 1992, our target audience has been the next nuclear generation (our children), but our vehicle for dissemination has been the current generation (the adults). Have you ever thought about how often your opinions affect the children you come in contact with? One of GPB`s goals is to provide as much information as possible to teachers, neighbors, and civic organizations of our community so that there is a nuclear future that can be carried on by the next generation.

  15. Affective Dynamics in Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Lane, Sean P.; Koval, Peter; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss three varieties of affective dynamics (affective instability, emotional inertia, and emotional differentiation). In each case, we suggest how these affective dynamics should be operationalized and measured in daily life using time-intensive methods, like ecological momentary assessment or ambulatory assessment, and recommend time-sensitive analyses that take into account not only the variability but also the temporal dependency of reports. Studies that explore how these affective dynamics are associated with psychological disorders and symptoms are reviewed, and we emphasize that these affective processes are within a nexus of other components of emotion regulation.

  16. Today's Children. Creating a Future for a Generation in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, David A.

    This book argues that many U.S. children are at risk because of poverty, drug and alcohol abuse, poor health, illiteracy, racial prejudice, and the eruption of unprecedented levels of violence both in inner cities and across the country. It provides a comprehensive overview of the crises young children and adolescents face and the decisions that…

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF COATINGS FOR FUTURE POWER GENERATION TURBINES

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, Maryanne; Klotz, K.; McMordie, B.; Gleeson, B.; Zhu, D.; Warnes, B.; Kang, B.; Tannenbaum, J.

    2012-01-01

    The NETL-Regional University Alliance (RUA) continues to advance technology development critical to turbine manufacturer efforts for achieving DOE Fossil Energy (FE's) Advanced Turbine Program Goals. In conjunction with NETL, Coatings for Industry (CFI), the University of Pittsburgh, NASA GRC, and Corrosion Control Inc., efforts have been focused on development of composite thermal barrier coating (TBC) architectures that consist of an extreme temperature coating, a commercially applied 7-8 YSZ TBC, a reduced cost bond coat, and a diffusion barrier coating that are applied to nickel-based superalloys or single crystal airfoil substrate materials for use at temperatures >1450 C (> 2640 F). Additionally, construction of a unique, high temperature ({approx}1100 C; {approx}2010 F), bench-scale, micro-indentation, nondestructive (NDE) test facility at West Virginia University (WVU) was completed to experimentally address in-situ changes in TBC stiffness during extended cyclic oxidation exposure of coated single crystal coupons in air or steam containing environments. The efforts and technical accomplishments in these areas are presented in the following sections of this paper.

  18. Safety issues and prospects for future generations of PPAR modulators.

    PubMed

    Rubenstrunk, Anne; Hanf, Rémy; Hum, Dean W; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2007-08-01

    Because of their wide range of actions on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and vascular inflammation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are promising targets for the development of new drugs for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. In clinical practice, PPARalpha agonists, such as the already available fibrates, improve dyslipidemia, while PPARgamma agonists, such as thiazolidinediones, improve insulin resistance and diabetes. The complementary action of simultaneous activation of each PPAR in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes has led to new pharmacological strategies focused on the development of agonists targeting more than one receptor such as the dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists. However, despite the proven benefits of targeting PPARs, safety concerns have recently led to late stage development failures of various PPAR agonists including novel specific PPARgamma agonists and dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists. These safety concerns include potential carcinogenicity in rodents, signs of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis, increase in plasma creatinine and homocysteine, weight gain, fluid retention, peripheral edema and potential increased risk of cardiac failure. Although the discontinued compounds shared common side effects, the reason for discontinuation was always compound specific and the toxicological or adverse effects which have motivated the discontinuation could be either due to the activation of PPARgamma, PPARalpha or both (class effect) or due to a PPAR unrelated effect. Thus, the risk evaluation of each adverse effect should be viewed on a case by case basis considering both the PPAR profile of the drug, its absorption/distribution profile, the nature of the side effect and the putative PPAR-related mechanism of action. This review mainly focuses on the preclinical and clinical adverse events of PPAR agonists that could be of concern when considering the development of new PPAR agonists. The selective modulation of PPAR activities is a promising approach to develop new drugs with preserved efficacy but diminished adverse effects.

  19. Bioethanol and Biodiesel: Alertnative Liquid Fuels for Future Generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global population is expected to increase by approximately three billion by 2050 and with this increase in population, industry, transportation, and the cost of fossil fuels will increase dramatically . New technology is needed for fuel extraction using feedstocks which do not threaten food security...

  20. The Next Generation of Technicians Prepare for Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    For Phoenix's East Valley Institute of Technology's (EVIT) automotive technology program, a unique partnership with local industry leaders is a key to success. Due to a highly successful partnership with Automotive Youth Educational Systems (AYES), EVIT has been named the number one high school automotive program in the United States for placement…

  1. The Future of Empathy: Teaching the Millennial Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Recent research points to a 40% decline in college students' capacity for empathy over the past 4 decades (Konrath, O'Brien, & Hsing, 2011). In this article, the author reflects on undergraduates' reaction to the case study "Toys for Haiti," which the author created and designed to foster empathy in her students. She…

  2. Epigenetic programming by maternal nutrition: shaping future generations.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheryl Chui Ying; Maloney, Christopher A; Cropley, Jennifer E; Suter, Catherine M

    2010-08-01

    Within the Western world's aging and increasingly overweight population, we are seeing an increasing prevalence of adult-onset, lifestyle-related disease such as diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. There is significant evidence that suboptimal nutrition in pregnancy can lead to an increased risk of these diseases developing in offspring, and that this increased risk can be heritable. Thus, poor in utero nutrition may be a major contributor to the current cycle of obesity. While the molecular basis of this phenomenon is unknown, available evidence suggests that it can be mediated by epigenetic changes to gene expression. Here, we discuss epigenetics as a mediator of disease risk in response to nutritional cues. The potential for maternal nutrition to heritably alter epigenetic states may have implications for population health and adaptive evolution.

  3. Making Geographical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  4. The Future of Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Audrey, Ed.; Young, Richard A., Ed.

    This book presents many views of the concept of "career," reviewing its past and considering its future in an international context including viewpoints from sociology, psychology, and human resources management. Following an introduction, "Framing the Future of Career" (Richard Young and Audrey Collin), the book contains the following 17…

  5. Learning from the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2009-01-01

    People from a range of government departments and from national charities and organisations took part in a project to explore the nature of society by 2026, and the implications for future policy making. "The Future of Citizenship" report describes this project, one of a series of initiatives concerned with democratic engagement. It was…

  6. Gazing into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2009-01-01

    "We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build our youth for the future." Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke those words more than 50 years ago. It was a time when students took classes called "shop," and those students were almost exclusively boys. Home economics classes, on the other hand, were filled with girls learning cooking and…

  7. The Future College Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA.

    This conference report examines various problems facing university administrators and discusses the future role of the executive in American colleges and universities. Conference papers concern the future college executive; efficiency, accountability and the college executive; administrative concerns; and the rights of college administrators. (MJM)

  8. Predicting Future Citation Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Quentin L.

    2003-01-01

    Develops the theory for a stochastic model for the citation process in the presence of obsolescence to predict the future citation pattern of individual papers in a collection. Shows that the expected number of future citations is a linear function of the current number, interpreted as an example of a success-breeds-success phenomenon. (Author/LRW)

  9. Writing Futures Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Les

    The paper presents an innovative approach to the future by examining the concept of time in the 20th century, the development of a sense of chronology, and the role of futures history through the process of "invention." The model is based on the Einsteinian theory of the relativity of time. The author suggests that learning a sense of chronology…

  10. Gateway to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    "Gateway to the Future" pairs a painting of a gateway constructed from children's building blocks with an ink drawing of a personal symbol on a collaged background. The main objective of this lesson is to create a metaphoric artwork about moving from the present through a symbolic portal to the future. So, space--foreground, middle ground, and…

  11. The Future as Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lane

    Because good future studies and good fiction have a great deal in common, futurists need to recognize and apply the skills of word artists from all genres, particularly novelists and short-story writers. One form of science fiction that futurists could use is the scenario, which is an exploration of an alternative future. A good scenario should be…

  12. An Influenced Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Phobos is a vital precursor and catalyst before our next giant leap to Mars. The principle period of a Phobos' mission could be a series of robotic precursor missions for experimental perception, soil examination, ecological approval and landing site distinguishing proof. For my summer intern position at Johnson Space Center I chipped away at creating a GUNNS (General Use Nodal Network Solver) based power subsystem model for the miniATHLETE hopper, which is a conceptual (idea-based) robotic lander that will operate on Phobos. Keeping in mind the end goal to begin on my venture, I needed to comprehend my undertaking before whatever else, in which I concentrated on C++ to see how to implement the code that GUNNS generates to a Trick S_define file. Prior to coming to this internship at Johnson Space Center Dr. Edwin Zack Crues provided a class on modeling and simulation, which introduced me to the Trick simulation environment. The goal of my project was to develop a GUNNS based power subsystem model for the miniATHLETE hopper. The model needed to incorporate a solar array, battery, hopping legs, and onboard scientific instruments (sensitive measuring/recording devices). The secondary bonus goal after I completed the electrical aspect of my model was to develop a GUNNS based thermal subsystem model for the miniATHLETE hopper. Stringing the two aspects together, I would need to code up a signal aspect to make the system work as one. Accomplishing my goals would not be an easy thing, however I had successfully completed the electrical aspect model with twenty-four servos, six cameras, and multiple sensors. Venturing to complete my project has eluded me to many failures in my design to tune many things like the battery to the proper voltage and the load to the proper wattage. During this time I had touched up on advanced topics in calculus in which I implemented in the converter in my electrical model. I am currently working with my mentor Zu Qun Li to create a signal

  13. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  14. Assessing potential future environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Schweitzer, M.; Godfrey, G.; Wagner, C.; MacGregor, D.G.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes a methodology to proactively and methodically assess future potential environmental legislative, regulatory, and judicial events. This is an important endeavor because new, revised, and reauthorized legislation, proposed and final regulations, and outcomes of judicial proceedings have the potential to impose new actions, directions, and costs of many organizations in the United States (related to capital investments, operating approaches, and research and development) and to affect the quality of life. The electric power industry is particularly impacted by environmental regulatory events (the term `regulatory` is used to cover all the types of legal events listed above), as the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity affects air and water quality, require disposal of solid, hazardous, and radioactive wastes, and at times, impacts wetlands and endangered species. Numerous potential regulatory events, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act and new regulations associated with global climate change, can greatly affect the power industry. Organizations poised to respond proactively to such events will improve their competitive positions, reduce their costs in the long-term, and improve their public images.

  15. Building intelligence in third-generation training and battle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Dennis; Anderson, Don; von Borries, Vance; Elmaghraby, Adel; Kantardzic, Mehmed; Ragade, Rammohan

    2003-09-01

    Current war games and simulations are primarily attrition based, and are centered on the concept of force on force. They constitute what can be defined as "second generation" war games. So-called "first generation" war games were focused on strategy with the primary concept of mind on mind. We envision "third generation" war games and battle simulations as concentrating on effects with the primary concept being system on system. Thus the third generation systems will incorporate each successive generation and take into account strategy, attrition and effects. This paper will describe the principal advantages and features that need to be implemented to create a true "third generation" battle simulation and the architectural issues faced when designing and building such a system. Areas of primary concern are doctrine, command and control, allied and coalition warfare, and cascading effects. Effectively addressing the interactive effects of these issues is of critical importance. In order to provide an adaptable and modular system that will accept future modifications and additions with relative ease, we are researching the use of a distributed Multi-Agent System (MAS) that incorporates various artificial intelligence methods. The agent architecture can mirror the military command structure from both vertical and horizontal perspectives while providing the ability to make modifications to doctrine, command structures, inter-command communications, as well as model the results of various effects upon one another, and upon the components of the simulation. This is commonly referred to as "cascading effects," in which A affects B, B affects C and so on. Agents can be used to simulate units or parts of units that interact to form the whole. Even individuals can eventually be simulated to take into account the affect to key individuals such as commanders, heroes, and aces. Each agent will have a learning component built in to provide "individual intelligence" based on

  16. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  17. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  18. Future Leaders' Views on Organizational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Krisellen; Antelman, Kristin; Arlitsch, Kenning; Butler, John

    2010-01-01

    Research libraries will continue to be affected by rapid and transformative changes in information technology and the networked environment for the foreseeable future. The pace and direction of these changes will profoundly challenge libraries and their staffs to respond effectively. This paper presents the results of a survey that was designed to…

  19. Linking Literacy: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camperell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The papers in this book focus on the strategies, practices, theory, or research related to emergent literacy, elementary and secondary reading, literature, philosophy, affective issues, school improvement, teacher training, and assessment that are related in important ways to issues in past, present and future reading education. Papers in the book…

  20. Rising Expectations, Black Anger, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogdell, Roy T.; McLemore, William P.

    1977-01-01

    The societal paradox of abundant opportunities and numerous constraints affects black people's expectations, frustrations, and anger. Specific questions that this paper examines are: What are some possible causes of anger? How have black people reacted to anger-provoking situations? And what are future prospects for black people? (Author/JM)