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Sample records for affect ground-water quality

  1. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

  2. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  3. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

  4. Hydrogeologic factors affecting the availability and quality of ground water in the Temple Terrace area : Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Joseph William; Goetz, Carole L.; Mills, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Ground water occurs in two aquifers in the Temple Terrace area of Hillsborough County, Fla. The lower one is the artesian Floridan aquifer; the upper is the water-table aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is a thick sequence of limestone and dolomite layers which include several permeable zones that generally are treated as a single hydrologic unit. The top of the Tampa Limestone is considered to be the top of the Floridan in the Temple Terrace area. The public supply wells of the city tap the Tampa Limestone and the underlying Suwannee Limestone, in the upper part of the Floridan. The general direction of ground-water movement in the Floridan aquifer is from north to south, but within the city the direction of movement is from northeast to southwest. The quantity of water moving southwest through a 1.8 mile section of the aquifer is about 2.7 million gallons per day. Ample supplies of water in a cavernous limestone, considered to be the most productive water-yielding zone in the aquifer, are available for additional development from the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data are included also. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  6. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  7. Ground water quality assessment using multi-rectangular diagrams.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Niaz; Sen, Zekai; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2003-01-01

    A new graphical technique is proposed here for classifying chemical analyses of ground water. In this technique, a diagram is constructed using rectangular coordinates. The new diagram, called a multi-rectangular diagram (MRD), uses adjacent multi-rectangles in which each rectangle represents a specific ground water type. This new diagram has the capability to accommodate a large number of data sets. MRDs have been used to classify chemical analyses of ground water in the Chaj Doab area of Pakistan to illustrate this new approach. Using this graphical method, the differentiated ground water types are calcium bicarbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium sulfate. Sodium bicarbonate emerges as the most abundant ground water type. MRDs also offer a visual display of the Chebotarev sequence of ground water quality evolution. PMID:14649865

  8. EPA Research Evaluating CAFO Impacts on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of several projects will be presented on a research program currently underway at ORD’s Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) to evaluate CAFO impacts on ground water quality. The overall research objectives are to characterize the potential for gro...

  9. ACQUISITION OF REPRESENTATIVE GROUND WATER QUALITY SAMPLES FOR METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    R.S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) personnel have evaluated sampling procedures for the collection of representative, accurate, and reproducible ground water quality samples for metals for the past four years. Intensive sampling research at three different field...

  10. Ground-water quality, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ground-water samples were collected from 34 existing wells in the Cook Inlet Basin in south-central Alaska during 1999. All ground-water samples were from aquifers composed of glacial or alluvial sediments. The water samples were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of selected major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radioisotopes, and environmental isotopes. Of 34 samples, 29 were from wells chosen by using a grid-based random-selection process. Water samples from five major public-supply wells also were collected. Radon-222 and arsenic concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 39 and 18 percent of sampled wells, respectively. The highest radon concentration measured during this study was 610 picocuries per liter; 12 of 31 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. The highest arsenic concentration was 29 micrograms per liter; 6 of 34 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Human activities may be increasing the concen- tration of nitrate in ground water, but nitrate concentrations in all samples were less than the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrate were highest in Anchorage and were as great as 4.8 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 77 to 986 milligrams per liter; only 2 of 34 wells yielded water having greater than 500 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded secondary maximum contaminant levels in 18 and 42 percent of samples, respectively. Concentrations of all pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected in ground-water samples were very low, less than 1 microgram per liter. No pesticide or volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations

  11. Chemical quality of ground water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, M.H.; Gay, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    Cape Cod is a 440 square mile hook-shaped peninsula which extends 40 miles into the Atlantic. Freshwater in Pleistocene sand and gravel deposits is the source of supply for nearly 100 municipal and thousands of private domestic wells. Most ground water on Cape Cod is of good chemical quality for drinking and other uses. It is characteristically low in dissolved solids and is soft. In 90 percent of the samples analyzed, dissolved solids were less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) and pH was less than 7.0. Highway deicing salt, sea-water flooding due to storms , and saltwater intrusion due to ground-water withdrawal are sources of sodium chloride contamination. Chloride concentrations have increased from 20 to 140 mg/l, owing to saltwater intrusion at Provincetown 's wells in Truro. In Yarmouth, contaminated ground water near a salt-storage area contained as much as 1,800 mg/l chloride. Heavy metals, insecticides, and herbicides were not found at concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's recommended limits for public drinking-water supplies, but iron and manganese in some samples exceeded those limits. Ninety percent of 84 samples analyzed for nitrate reported as nitrogen contained less than 1.3 mg/l and 80 percent contained 0.5 mg/l or less of nitrate as nitrogen. Water containing nitrogen in excess of 0.5 mg/l has probably been affected by municipal or domestic sewage or fertilizer, and water with less than this amount may have been affected by them. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

  13. Tectonic influences on ground water quality: insight from complementary methods.

    PubMed

    Earman, Sam; McPherson, Brian J O L; Phillips, Fred M; Ralser, Steve; Herrin, James M; Broska, James

    2008-01-01

    A study using multiple techniques provided insight into tectonic influences on ground water systems; the results can help to understand ground water systems in the tectonically active western United States and other parts of the world. Ground water in the San Bernardino Valley (Arizona, United States and Sonora, Mexico) is the main source of water for domestic use, cattle ranching (the primary industry), and the preservation of threatened and endangered species. To improve the understanding of ground water occurrence, movement, and sustainability, an investigation was conducted using a number of complementary methods, including major ion geochemistry, isotope hydrology, analysis of gases dissolved in ground water, aquifer testing, geophysics, and an examination of surface and subsurface geology. By combining information from multiple lines of investigation, a more complete picture of the basin hydrogeology was assembled than would have been possible using fewer methods. The results show that the hydrogeology of the San Bernardino Valley is markedly different than that of its four neighboring basins in the United States. The differences include water quality, chemical evolution, storage, and residence time. The differences result from the locally unique geology of the San Bernardino Valley, which is due to the presence of a magmatically active accommodation zone (a zone separating two regions of normal faults with opposite dips). The geological differences and the resultant hydrological differences between the San Bernardino Valley and its neighboring basins may serve as a model for the distinctive nature of chemical evolution of ground water in other basins with locally distinct tectonic histories. PMID:18194326

  14. Chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Two maps portray the chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia. One map shows dissolved-solids concentration and chemical analyses diagrams. The other indicates hardness and areas of marginal water quality. Three tables of chemical analysis representing the three distinct rock types in the county are presented also. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Ground-water quality in Wisconsin through 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Holt, C. L. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Ground water, a plentiful and largely underdeveloped resource of Wisconsin, has good to excellent chemical quality in most places. This resource is readily available in most parts of the State for municipal, industrial, and rural uses. In 1970, about 0.5 billion gallons of ground water a day was pumped in Wisconsin for all uses (Murray and Reeves, 1972). In addition, underground reservoirs discharge an average of 16 billion gallons per day of water of relatively constant temperature and uniform quality, which maintains the base flow of streams and the level of lakes (Holt, 1964).

  16. Ground water quality protection: the issue in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of protecting ground water resources cannot be overstated, and many people throughout the world seem anxious to physically and financially support a rational program to this end. Public complacency regarding the quality of ground water was destroyed with headline-grabbing incidents of pollution such as Love Canal, Valley of the Drums, and Times Beach. Contrary to earlier popular belief, the soil mantle has been shown to be ineffective in cleansing certain pollutants from the water flowing through it. The legislative basis for developing and implementing broad ground water quality protection programs exists, although it is dispersed in a variety of pieces of legislation. Such programs presuppose the existence of the scientific knowledge necessary to produce viable and effective results from its implementation. This article addresses the research needed for accumulation of this information. 12 references.

  17. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  18. Effects of ground-water chemistry and flow on quality of drainflow in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fio, John L.; Leighton, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and geohydrologic data were used to assess the effects of regional ground-water flow on the quality of on-farm drainflows in a part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California. Shallow ground water beneath farm fields has been enriched in stable isotopes and salts by partial evaporation from the shallow water table and is being displaced by irrigation, drainage, and regional ground-water flow. Ground-water flow is primarily downward in the study area but can flow upward in some down- slope areas. Transitional areas exist between the downward and upward flow zones, where ground water can move substantial horizontal distances (0.3 to 3.6 kilometers) and can require 10 to 90 years to reach the downslope drainage systems. Simulation of ground-water flow to drainage systems indicates that regional ground water contributes to about 11 percent of annual drainflow. Selenium concentrations in ground water and drainwater are affected by geologic source materials, partial evaporation from a shallow water table, drainage-system, and regional ground-water flow. Temporal variability in drainflow quality is affected in part by the distribution of chemical constituents in ground water and the flow paths to the drainage systems. The mass flux of selenium in drainflows, or load, generally is proportional to flow, and reductions in drainflow quantity should reduce selenium loads over the short-term. Uncertain changes in the distribution of ground-water quality make future changes in drainflow quality difficult to quantify.

  19. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  20. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  1. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  2. Hydrology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Chipuxet ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, H.E.; Dickerman, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    A glacial sand and gravel aquifer in the Chipuxet River basin of Rhode Island forms a ground-water reservoir that could yield as much as 8.6 million gallons per day to wells; however, some streams would go dry for extended periods of time. The State Water Resources Board has tested five site that it proposes to develop for a public supply of 3 million gallons per day. A digital model was used to determine how withdrawal at this rate from alternative combinations of wells would affect water levels and streamflow. Results show that withdrawal of 3 million gallons per day would have a minimal effect on water levels, but that withdrawal at this rate from some well combinations could cause the Chipuxet River to have little or no flow for 90 consecutive days on the average of 1 year in 20. Quality of ground water is generally good, but leaching of fertilizers applied to croplands, which overlie much of the aquifer, has caused locally excessive concentrations of nitrate. Induced infiltration of surface water through organic sediments that line the bottoms of ponds and streams also seems to be the cause of elevated concentrations of manganese in water from some heavily pumped wells. (USGS)

  3. Compilation of ground water quality data in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's water quality file of 4,671 wells and springs in Pennsylvania provided ground-water-quality data for Pennsylvania. The data were assembled into computer-readable format and sorted into 15 major aquifer groups based on principal lithology, physiographic province, and age. Nineteen variables in each group were summarized by the Statistical Analysis Systems UNIVARIATE procedures to produce descriptive statistics including extreme values and quartiles. The bulk of the water-quality data are in the important aquifers in the unconsolidated Coastal Plain sediments, the Triassic sedimentary rocks, the igneous and metamorphic rocks, and the carbonate rocks. On the other hand, water-quality data for aquifer groups in the Appalachian Plateau and Valley and Ridge Province are sparse. Statewide, only six wells provide sufficient long-term data for trend analyses. Ground-water quality in Pennsylvania is highly diverse. High concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, manganese, sulfate, and nitrate are prevalent forms of natural and manmade contamination. The unconsolidated Coastal Plain aquifers have been most severely degraded. On the other hand, some of the best quality water is found in the quartzite, sandstone, and conglomerate rock units in the Cambrian and Precambrian rocks.

  4. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  5. Chemical quality of ground water in the Tehama-Colusa Canal service area, Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertoldi, Gilbert L.

    1976-01-01

    The Tehama-Colusa Canal Service Area consists of about 450 square miles of irrigable land located on the west side of the Sacramento Valley, Calif. Upon the completion of the Tehama-Colusa Canal, it is expected that most of the service area will switch from passive forms of agriculture (dry farming and grazing) to intensive irrigated farming. Importation and application of surface water may affect the chemical quality of native ground water. This study documents the chemical quality of native ground water before large-scale importation and application of surface water provide the potential of altering the ground-water chemistry. Analyses of samples from 222 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic uses. In the vicinities of College City-Arbuckle and the city of Williams, boron, chloride, sodium, and dissolved solids may be a threat to future agricultural activities where boron- or chloride-sensitive crops would be grown. The source of degraded ground water in the two areas is local intermittent streams that drain areas having numerous saline springs and seeps. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the existing, computer-accessible, ground-water-quality data for Montana. All known sources of ground-water-quality data were reviewed. Although the estimated number of analyses exceeds 25,000, more than three-fourths of the data were not suitable for this study. The only data used were obtained from the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) of the US Geological Survey, because the chemical analyses generally are complete, have an assigned geohydrologic unit or source of water, and are accessible by computer. The data were assessed by geographic region of the State because of climatic and geologic differences. These regions consist of the eastern plains region and the western mountainous region. Within each region, the data were assessed according to geohydrologic unit. The number and areal distribution of data sites for some groupings of units are inadequate to be representative, particularly for groupings stratigraphically below the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and Hell Creek Formation in the eastern region and for Quaternary alluvium, terrace deposits, glacial deposits, and associated units in the western region. More than one-half the data for the entire State are for the Tertiary Wasatch, Fort Union, and associated units in the eastern region. The results of statistical analyses of data in WATSTORE indicate that the median dissolved-solids concentration for the groupings of geohydrologic units ranges from about 400 to 5000 milligrams per liter in the eastern region and from about 100 to 200 milligrams per liter in the western region. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed the primary drinking-water standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The data in WATSTORE for organic constituents presently are inadequate to detect any organic effects of man's activities on ground-water quality. 26 figs., 79 tabs.

  7. Index of ground-water quality data for Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Williams, O.O.

    1985-01-01

    The Master Water Data Index of the U.S. Geological Survey contains records and information for 13,925 ground-water quality collection sites in Florida as follows: 2,180 active and 11,559 inactive well sites, and 39 active and 147 inactive spring sites. Ground-water quality data have been and are being collected at more sites in Florida than are other types of ground- and surface-water hydrologic data. Information available from the Master Water Data Index includes location (county, hydrologic unit, and latitude-longitude); reporting agency; agency identifying number; period and frequency of record; types of data (parameter sampled); and for wells, the principal aquifer sampled and well depth. This information may be retrieved, upon request, in a variety of formats. This report contains an index of the information available, not the actual water-quality data itself. The actual data may be obtained from the reporting agency that collected and stored the data. (USGS)

  8. Hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the Upper Wood River Ground-Water Reservoir, Rhode Island. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, D.C.; Bell, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and ground-water-development alternatives in the upper Wood River ground-water reservoir, Rhode Island. The report includes discussion of (1) recharge to and hydraulic properties of the stratified-drift aquifer, (2) stream-aquifer interconnection, (3) assessment of the quality of ground water and surface water, (4) input to and calibration of a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model, and (5) results of simulations of the effect of alternative ground-water-development schemes on ground-water levels and streamflow.

  9. Characterization of Ground-Water Quality, Upper Republican Natural Resources District, Nebraska, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankforter, Jill D.; Chafin, Daniele T.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly all rural inhabitants and livestock in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District (URNRD) in southwestern Nebraska use ground water that can be affected by elevated nitrate concentrations. The development of ground-water irrigation in this area has increased the vulnerability of ground water to the introduction of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Republican Natural Resources District, began a study to characterize the quality of ground water in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District area with respect to physical properties and concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, nitrate, and pesticides, and to assess the presence of nitrogen concentrations in the unsaturated zone. At selected well sites, the ground-water characterization also included tritium and nitrogen-isotope analyses to provide information about the approximate age of the ground water and potential sources of nitrogen detected in ground-water samples, respectively. In 1998, ground-water samples were collected from 101 randomly selected domestic-well sites. Of the 101 samples collected, 26 tested positive for total coliform bacteria, exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of zero colonies. In 1999, ground-water samples were collected from 31 of the 101 well sites, and 16 tested positive for coliform bacteria. Nitrates were detected in ground water from all domestic-well samples and from all but four of the irrigation-well samples collected from 1998 to 2001. Eight percent of the domestic-well samples and 3 percent of the irrigation-well samples had nitrate concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MCL for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Areas with nitrate concentrations exceeding 6 milligrams per liter, the URNRD's ground-water management-plan action level, were found predominantly in north-central Chase, western and

  10. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  11. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  12. Statistical comparisons of ground-water quality underlying different land uses in central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.; German, E.R. Geological Survey, Altamonte Springs, FL )

    1988-09-01

    Human activities at land surface can affect the quality of water recharging groundwater systems. Because ground water is the principal source of drinking water in many areas, it is necessary to know the relation between land use and ground-water quality. This study is 1 of 7 being made throughout the US as part of the Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program of the US Geological Survey. This report documents statistical comparisons of ground-water quality for three test areas in central Florida: (1) a control area where land use is minimal, (2) a citrus-growing area where effects of agriculture may be expected, and (3) a phosphate-mining area where effects of mining activities may be expected. This study addresses water-quality conditions in the surficial aquifer, which consists of sand and shell beds of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The two developed areas are representative of land uses that characterize large areas of Florida, and the control area is representative of near-pristine conditions that exist over a large area, so results of this study may be transferable. The water-quality variables of interest include physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace elements.

  13. Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling

  14. Assessment of selected ground-water-quality data in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.E.; Rogers, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water-quality data for Montana in the U.S. Geological Survey 's computer data file WATSTORE were evaluated for nine geohydrologic units in part of the State east of the Rocky Mountains and for two geohydrologic units in the western mountainous part of the stated region. The availability of data for inorganic, trace, and organic constituents for each grouping of units was assessed. Median dissolved-solids concentrations for the groupings of units range from about 100 to 5,000 milligrams per liter. However, the number and distribution of data sites for some groupings of units wee inadequate to be representative of the aquifer as a whole. Concentrations of most trace constituents do not exceed Federal primary drinking-water standards, although exceptions occur. Few data were available for organic constituents. (USGS)

  15. Ground Water Quality Protection. State and Local Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Using regional case studies, this document examines representative programs for dealing with ground water contamination. Section one describes the ground water protection strategy of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); (2) discusses the limited data available for determining the extent of contamination; (3) provides a listing of the…

  16. Ground-water flow and water quality in the sand aquifer of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a study that was undertaken to improve the understanding of ground-water flow and water quality in the coastal sand aquifer of the Long Beach Peninsula of southwestern Washington. Data collected for the study include monthly water levels at 103 wells and 28 surface-water sites during 1992, and water-quality samples from about 40 wells and 13 surface-water sites in February and July 1992. Ground water generally flows at right angles to a ground-water divide along the spine of the low-lying peninsula. Historical water-level data indicate that there was no long-term decline in the water table from 1974 to 1992. The water quality of shallow ground water was generally good with a few local problems. Natural concentrations of dissolved iron were higher than 0.3 milligrams per liter in about one-third of the samples. The dissolved-solids concentrations were generally low, with a range of 56 to 218 milligrams per liter. No appreciable amount of seawater has intruded into the sand aquifer, chloride concentrations were low, with a maximum of 52 milligrams per liter. Agricultural activities do not appear to have significantly affected the quality of ground water. Concentrations of nutrients were low in the cranberry-growing areas, and selected pesticides were not found above the analytical detection limits. Septic systems probably caused an increase in the concentration of nitrate from medians of less than 0.05 milligrams per liter in areas of low population density to 0.74 milligrams per liter in areas of high density.

  17. Relation of Chlorofluorocarbon Ground-Water Age Dates to Water Quality in Aquifers of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy; Kurt, J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    The average apparent age of ground water in fractured-bedrock aquifers in West Virginia was determined using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) dating methods. Since the introduction of CFC gases as refrigerants in the late 1930s, atmospheric concentrations have increased until production ceased in the mid-1990s. CFC dating methods are based on production records that date to the early 1940s, and the preservation of atmospheric CFC concentrations in ground water at the time of recharge. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Ambient Ground-Water Monitoring Network (AGN) programs in West Virginia from 1997 to 2005, 80 samples from the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, 27 samples from the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, and 5 samples from the Ohio River alluvial aquifers were collected to estimate ground-water ages in aquifers of West Virginia. Apparent CFC ages of water samples from West Virginia aquifers ranged from 5.8 to 56 years. In the Appalachian Plateaus, topographically driven ground-water flow is evident from apparent ages of water samples from hilltop, hillside, and valley settings (median apparent ages of 12, 14, and 25 years, respectively). Topographic setting was the only factor that was found to be related to apparent ground-water age in the Plateaus at the scale of this study. Similar relations were not found in Valley and Ridge aquifers, indicating that other factors such as bedding or geologic structure may serve larger roles in controlling ground-water flow in that physiographic province. Degradation of CFCs was common in samples collected from methanogenic/anoxic aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus and suboxic to anoxic aquifers in the Valley and Ridge. CFC contamination was most common in Ohio River alluvial aquifers and carbonate units of the Valley and Ridge, indicating that these highly transmissive surficial aquifers are the most vulnerable to water-quality degradation and may

  18. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated agriculture in the central High Plains aquifer, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.; Becker, Mark F.; Pope, Larry M.; Gurdak, Jason J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, 30 water-quality monitoring wells were installed in the central High Plains aquifer to evaluate the quality of recently recharged ground water in areas of irrigated agriculture and to identify the factors affecting ground-water quality. Wells were installed adjacent to irrigated agricultural fields with 10- or 20-foot screened intervals placed near the water table. Each well was sampled once for about 100 waterquality constituents associated with agricultural practices. Water samples from 70 percent of the wells (21 of 30 sites) contained nitrate concentrations larger than expected background concentrations (about 3 mg/L as N) and detectable pesticides. Atrazine or its metabolite, deethylatrazine, were detected with greater frequency than other pesticides and were present in all 21 samples where pesticides were detected. The 21 samples with detectable pesticides also contained tritium concentrations large enough to indicate that at least some part of the water sample had been recharged within about the last 50 years. These 21 ground-water samples are considered to show water-quality effects related to irrigated agriculture. The remaining 9 groundwater samples contained no pesticides, small tritium concentrations, and nitrate concentrations less than 3.45 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. These samples are considered unaffected by the irrigated agricultural land-use setting. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicate that commercial fertilizer was the dominant source of nitrate in 13 of the 21 samples affected by irrigated agriculture. Nitrogen isotope ratios for 4 of these 21 samples were indicative of an animal waste source. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in samples affected by irrigated agriculture, with large sulfate concentrations having strong correlation with large dissolved solids concentrations in these samples. A strong statistical correlation is shown between samples affected by irrigated agriculture and sites with large rates of

  19. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  20. Ground-water heat pumps: An examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, D. M.; Bacon, D. J.; Massey-Norton, J. T.; Miller, J. M.

    1980-11-01

    Factors affecting the use of ground water (well) are presented. First is the well cost and the availability of an adequate supply of suitable quality of well water. Second, the removal of significant quantities of well water without suitable recharge may deplete the underground aquifer. Plans to reinject or return the water underground may be precluded by legal restrictions. It could entail additional costs for the disposal well. Special provisions to prevent thermal alterations of the underground source may be required. These issues are addressed in the study and other questions are answered relating to ground water quality and availability, potential environmental effects, legal restrictions, and energy use and economics of ground water heat pump use. The main elements of the study and conclusions are summarized. Other topics briefly discussed are: ground water resources in the US; water source heat pump equipment; and energy use comparisons. Some data on heat pump in Atlanta, Birmingham, Cleveland, Columbus, Concord, Houston, Philadelphia, Seattle, and Tulsa are tabulated and graphically presented. Data of ground water heat pump water use and effluent disposal regulations by states are summarized.

  1. Quality of ground water from private domestic wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights major findings from two USGS reports: DeSimone (2009) and DeSimone and others (2009). These reports can be accessed at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa. This article is followed by a summary of treatment considerations and options for owners of private domestic wells, written by Cliff Treyens of the National Ground Water Association.

  2. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  3. GWERD CAFO Research Program – CAFO Impacts on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of several projects will be presented on a research program currently underway at ORD’s Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) to evaluate CAFO impacts on ground water quality. The overall research objectives are to characterize the potential for gro...

  4. CHEMICAL REACTIONS SIMULATED BY GROUND-WATER-QUALITY MODELS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, David B.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent literature concerning the modeling of chemical reactions during transport in ground water is examined with emphasis on sorption reactions. The theory of transport and reactions in porous media has been well documented. Numerous equations have been developed from this theory, to provide both continuous and sequential or multistep models, with the water phase considered for both mobile and immobile phases. Chemical reactions can be either equilibrium or non-equilibrium, and can be quantified in linear or non-linear mathematical forms. Non-equilibrium reactions can be separated into kinetic and diffusional rate-limiting mechanisms. Solutions to the equations are available by either analytical expressions or numerical techniques. Saturated and unsaturated batch, column, and field studies are discussed with one-dimensional, laboratory-column experiments predominating. A summary table is presented that references the various kinds of models studied and their applications in predicting chemical concentrations in ground waters.

  5. Ground-water quality and geochemistry, Carson Desert, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.; Seiler, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifers in the Carson Desert are the primary source of drinking water, which is highly variable in chemical composition. In the shallow basin-fill aquifers, water chemistyr varies from a dilute calcium bicarbonate-dominated water beneath the irrigated areas to a saline sodium chloride- dominated water beneath unirrigated areas. Water samples from the shallow aquifers commonly have dissolved solids, chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, and manganese concentrations that exceed State of Nevada drinking-water standards. Water in the intermediante basin-fill aquifers is a dilute sodium bicarbonate type in the Fallon area and a distinctly more saline sodium chloride type in the Soda Lake-Upsal Hogback area. Dissolved solids, chloride, arsenic, fluoride, and manganese concen- trations commonly exceed drinking-water standards. The basalt aquifer contains a dilute sodium bicarbonate chloride water. Arsenic concentrations exceed standards in all sampled wells. The concen- trations of major constituents in ground water beneath the southern Carson Desert are the result of evapotranspiration and natural geochemical reactions with minerals derived mostly from igneous rocks. Water with higher concentrations of iron and manganese is near thermodynamic equilibrium with siderite and rhodochrosite and indicates that these elements may be limited by the solubility of their respective carbonate minerals. Naturally occurring radionuclides (uranium and radon-222) are present in ground water from the Carson Desert in concen- tratons higher than proposed drinking-water standards. High uranium concentrations in the shallow aquifers may be caused by evaporative concentration and the release of uranium during dissolution of iron and manganese oxides or the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter that typically has elevated uranium concentrations. Ground water in the Carson Desert does not appear to have be contaminated by synthetic organic chemicals.

  6. A ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Lower Mojave River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A ground-water-quality monitoring network was developed for the Lower Mojave River valley to define the ground-water quality of the valley. Basin geohydrology, geology, land use and water-level and water-quality data were factors considered in developing objectives for an ideal network. These objectives were used in selecting well locations for the conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network. The conceptual network was used as a guide in the design of the ground-water-quality monitoring network. Active monitoring sites are wells that are currently being monitored by some agency and were selected whenever possible because of budgetary constraints. In areas where no wells are currently being monitored, new well locations were selected and are considered proposed monitoring sites. A sampling regimen is also included. (USGS)

  7. TITLE MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: This research will focus on the microbiological impact of concentrated animal feed operations (CAFOs) on surface and ground water quality. The specific sites of study will be Turkey Creek Watershed and Canton River in Northwestern Oklahoma. The microbiological source...

  8. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  9. The relative merits of monitoring and domestic wells for ground water quality investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, J.L.; Roberts, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of two studies of the effect of agricultural land use on shallow ground water quality indicate that monitoring wells may be a better choice than domestic wells for studies of pesticide occurrence or transport, or for use as early-warning indicators of potential drinking water contamination. Because domestic wells represent the used resource, and because domestic well water may be affected by historical rather than current pesticide and land- use practices, domestic wells would be the best choice for an investigation of drinking water quality. The key difference between the domestic and monitoring wells appears to be that the monitoring wells in this study were installed exclusively to sample the shallowest possible ground water. For these studies, 48 shallow domestic wells and 41 monitoring wells were located randomly within two land-use settings (row crops and orchards) in an irrigated agricultural region of eastern Washington and sampled for 145 pesticides (including nine pesticide degradates) and common water quality indicators. Constructing and sampling monitoring wells required approximately four times the resources (including manpower and materials) as locating and sampling domestic wells. Sample collection and quality assurance procedures and analytical techniques were identical except that a portable submersible pump was required for monitoring wells. In both land-use settings, no significant difference in nitrate concentration was found between well types; however, the average number of pesticides detected per well was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the monitoring wells. A greater variety of pesticides was detected in monitoring wells; many were detected only in monitoring wells. More than 60% of detections of pesticides that were found only in domestic wells were of compounds that are no longer in use. These differences in ground water quality found in this study relate to the depth of the well and are apparently related to the age of ground

  10. Estimates of residence time and related variations in quality of ground water beneath Submarine Base Bangor and vicinity, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    screened in the deeper aquifer may be the result of preferential ground-water pathways or induced downward flow caused by pumping stress. Spatial variations in water quality were used to develop a conceptual model of chemical evolution of ground water. Stable isotope ratios of deuterium and oxygen-18 in the 33 ground-water samples were similar, indicating similar climatic conditions and source of precipitation recharge for all of the sampled ground water. Oxidation of organic matter and mineral dissolution increased the concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and common ions in downgradient ground waters. However, the largest concentrations were not found near areas of ground-water discharge, but at intermediate locations where organic carbon concentrations were greatest. Dissolved methane, derived from microbial methanogenesis, was present in some ground waters. Methanogenesis resulted in substantial alteration of the carbon isotopic composition of ground water. The NETPATH geochemical model code was used to model mass-transfers of carbon affecting the 14C estimate of ground-water residence time. Carbon sources in ground water include dispersed particulate organic matter present in the confining unit separating the two aquifers and methane present in some ground water. Carbonate minerals were not observed in the lithologic material of the ground-water system but may be present, because they have been found in the bedrock of stream drainages that contribute sediment to the study area.

  11. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida - Preliminary results: U. S. Geological Survey Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impact of these land uses on groundwater quality are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticide; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. 29 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  13. Microbial H2 cycling does not affect δ2H values of ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Stable hydrogen-isotope values of ground water (δ2H) and dissolved hydrogen concentrations (H(2(aq)) were quantified in a petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer to determine whether the production/consumption of H2 by subsurface microorganisms affects ground water &delta2H values. The range of &delta2H observed in monitoring wells sampled (-27.8 ‰c to -15.5 ‰c) was best explained, however, by seasonal differences in recharge temperature as indicated using ground water δ18O values, rather than isotopic exchange reactions involving the microbial cycling of H2 during anaerobic petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation. The absence of a measurable hydrogen-isotope exchange between microbially cycled H2 and ground water reflects the fact that the amount of H2 available from the anaerobic decomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons is small relative to the amount of hydrogen present in water, even though milligram per liter concentrations of readily biodegradable contaminants are present at the study site. Additionally, isotopic fractionation calculations indicate that in order for H2 cycling processes to affect δ2H values of ground water, relatively high concentrations of H2 (>0.080 M) would have to be maintained, considerably higher than the 0.2 to 26 nM present at this site and characteristic of anaerobic conditions in general. These observations suggest that the conventional approach of using δ2H and δ18O values to determine recharge history is appropriate even for those ground water systems characterized by anaerobic conditions and extensive microbial H2 cycling.

  14. Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Lahore Area, Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Khan, Khalida; Rehman, Salma; Iqbal, Javad

    The ground water quality of Lahore (Pakistan) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for domestic applications. Sixty ground water samples form shallow and deep wells were collected each during pre and post-monsoon seasons in the month of May and November 2004, respectively. Various water quality constituents pH, conductance, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, hardness, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate and fluoride have been determined. The data was analyzed with reference to NEQS and WHO standards, ionic relationships were studied and hydro chemical facies were determined. Distribution of various constituents indicates that about 10-20% samples of the study area crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sulphate and fluoride while 20-30% samples crosses the limit for nitrate. The ground water of the study area has also been classified to study various hydro chemical processes.

  15. Effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality in a part of the Calumet Aquifer, northwestern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Lee R.; Bayless, E. Randall; Buszka, Paul M.; Wilson, John T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of highway-deicer application on ground-water quality were studied at a site in northwestern Indiana using a variety of geochemical indicators. Site characteristics such as high snowfall rates; large quantities of applied deicers; presence of a high-traffic highway; a homogeneous, permeable, and unconfined aquifer; a shallow water table; a known ground-water-flow direction; and minimal potential for other sources of chloride and sodium to complicate source interpretation were used to select a study area where ground water was likely to be affected by deicer application. Forty-three monitoring wells were installed in an unconfined sand aquifer (the Calumet aquifer) near Beverly Shores in northwestern Indiana. Wells were installed along two transects that approximately paralleled groundwater flow in the Calumet aquifer and crossed US?12. US?12 is a highway that receives Indiana?s highest level of maintenance to maintain safe driving conditions. Ground-water quality and water-level data were collected from the monitoring wells, and precipitation and salt-application data were compiled from 1994 through 1997. The water-quality data indicated that chloride was the most easily traced indicator of highway deicers in ground water. Concentration ratios of chloride to iodide and chloride to bromide and Stiff diagrams of major element concentrations indicated that the principal source of chloride and sodium in ground water from the uppermost one-third to one-half of the Calumet relative electromagnetic conductivity defined a distinct plume of deicer-affected water in the uppermost 8 feet of aquifer at about 9 feet horizontally from the paved roadway edge and a zone of higher conductivity than background in the lower one-third of the aquifer. Chloride and sodium in the deep parts of the aquifer originated from natural sources. Chloride and sodium from highway deicers were present in the aquifer throughout the year. The highest concentrations of chloride and sodium

  16. Nature and extent of ground-water-quality changes resulting from solid-waste disposal, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettijohn, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of seven landfills in the Indianapolis, Indiana, area indicate that in five of the landfills movement of ground water is from the deep aquifers into the uppermost aquifer. In the other two landfills, movement of ground water is from the shallow aquifers to the deeper aquifers, so that leachate is transported into the deeper aquifers. In all the landfills, the predominant direction of ground-water movement is lateral. Placing solid waste into the landfills has occasionally altered the local, but not the regional, flow patterns. Ground-water mounding at shallow depths beneath two of the landfills has caused flow toward the edges of the two fills. Leachate at these fills is moving downward and outward and has affected water quality at shallow depths. Pumping near two other landfills has reversed the direction of regional ground-water flow, allowing leachate to move toward the pumping wells. Leachate at the three remaining landfills is moving downgradient and is discharging into single streams adjacent to each landfill. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.; Schalk, C.W.; Rowe, G.L.; De Roche, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water in the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base area. The aquifer consists of glacial sands and gravels that fill a buried bedrock-valley system. Consolidated rocks in the area consist of poorly permeable Ordovician shale of the Richmondian stage, in the upland areas, the Brassfield Limestone of Silurian age. The valleys are filled with glacial sediments of Wisconsinan age consisting of clay-rich tills and coarse-grained outwash deposits. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity of the shales based on results of displacement/recovery tests range from 0.0016 to 12 feet per day; estimates for the glacial sediments range from less than 1 foot per day to more than 1,000 feet per day. Ground water flow from the uplands towards the valleys and the major rivers in the region, the Great Miami and the Mad Rivers. Hydraulic-head data indicate that ground water flows between the bedrock and unconsolidated deposits. Data from a gain/loss study of the Mad River System and hydrographs from nearby wells reveal that the reach of the river next to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a ground-water discharge area. A steady-state, three-dimensional ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the region. The model contains three layers and encompasses about 100 square miles centered on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ground water enters the modeled area primarily by river leakage and underflow at the model boundary. Ground water exits the modeled area primarily by flow through the valleys at the model boundaries and through production wells. A model sensitivity analysis involving systematic changes in values of hydrologic parameters in the model indicates that the model is most sensitive to decreases in riverbed conductance and vertical conductance between the upper two layers. The analysis also indicates that the contribution of water to the buried-valley aquifer from the bedrock that forms the valley walls is about 2 to 4

  18. Processes Affecting Nutrients and Other Chemicals in Shallow Ground Waters of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, B. T.

    2001-05-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993-1995 to explore processes influencing concentrations of selected nutrients, major ions, and trace elements in shallow ground waters of the southeastern United States. Results indicate that nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A "nitrate-reduction" component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon. Additional components extracted by PCA include "calcite dissolution" (18% of variance explained) and "phosphate dissolution" (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Coastal Plain is <0.05 mg/L, median dissolved organic carbon concentration is 4.2 mg/L, and median dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is 2.1 mg/L, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction, however, does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin are 6.2-7.1 mg/L, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61-2.2 mg/L, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain is 6.0 mg/L and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg/L.

  19. Comparison of two methods for delineating land use near monitoring wells used for assessing quality of shallow ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Cowdery, T.K.; Stoner, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods were compared for delineating land use near shallow monitoring wells. These wells were used to assess the effects of agricultural cropland on the quality of recently recharged ground water in two sand and gravel aquifers located near land surface. The two methods for delineating land use near wells were (1) the sector method, which used potentiometric-surface maps to estimate average flow direction and a ground-water-flow model to estimate maximum length of contributing area to the monitoring well within an upgradient sector; and (2) the circle method, which used a 500- meter radius circle around the well based on a national empirical analysis. Land uses were compiled for 29 wells in each of two surficial aquifers in the Red River of the North Basin within the area defined by each method. Land use near each well was interpreted from orthorectified photographs and site inspection for both delineation methods. Land use near individual wells characterized by each method varied greatly, which can affect the results of statistical correlations between land use and water quality. Land use determined by the circle method related more closely to the land use for each entire study area. Land use determined by the sector method (within 200 meters from the wells) compared more favorably to ground-water quality based on nitrate concentrations. The maximum length of contributing areas to wells estimated in this study may be of value for other studies of unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers with similar hydrogeological characteristics of permeability, water-table slopes, recharge, and depth to water. The additional effort required for estimating the model delineation of land use and land cover for the sector method must be weighed against the improved confidence in statistical correlation between land use and the quality of shallow ground water. Improved scientific confidence and understanding of relations between land use and quality of ground water may encourage

  20. Quality of Ozark streams and ground water, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.; Adamski, James C.; Bell, Richard W.; Davis, Jerri V.; Femmer, Suzanne R.; Freiwald, David A.; Joseph, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes a previous USGS publication, 'Water Quality in the Ozark Plateaus, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, 1992' (Circular 1158). The fact sheet describes the effects of some of the major land uses and human activities upon water quality in the Ozarks. Nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, and other organic compounds generally are found in high concentrations or more frequently in agricultural or urban areas than in forested areas. Several metals are found in higher concentrations in water, bed sediment, or biological tissue downstream from mining areas. Nutrient concentrations generally do not make water unsafe for drinking. Bacteria concentrations may be high enough to cause concern in some areas at some times. Pesticides and other organic compounds generally are not of concern. Metal concentrations in some mining areas are of concern to humans and wildlife. Biological communities are being altered by habitat and water-quality changes.

  1. Use of environmental tracers to evaluate ground-water age and water-quality trends in a buried-valley aquifer, Dayton area, southwestern, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Gary L.; Shapiro, Stephanie Dunkle; Schlosser, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC method) and tritium and helium isotopes (3H-3He method) were used as environmental tracers to estimate ground-water age in conjunction with efforts to develop a regional ground-water flow model of the buried-valley aquifer in the Dayton area, southwestern Ohio. This report describes results of CFC and water-quality sampling, summarizes relevant aspects of previously published work, and describes the use of 3H-3He ages to characterize temporal trends in ground-water quality of the buried-valley aquifer near Dayton, Ohio. Results of CFC sampling indicate that approximately 25 percent of the 137 sampled wells were contaminated with excess CFC's that rendered the ground water unsuitable for age dating. Evaluation of CFC ages obtained for the remaining samples indicated that the CFC compounds used for dating were being affected by microbial degradation. The degradation occurred under anoxic conditions that are found in most parts of the buried-valley aquifer. As a result, ground-water ages derived by the CFC method were too old and were inconsistent with measured tritium concentrations and independently derived 3H-3He ages. Limited data indicate that dissolved methane may play an important role in the degradation of the CFC's. In contrast, the 3H-3He technique was found to yield ground-water ages that were chemically and hydrologically reasonable. Ground-water ages derived by the 3H-3He technique were compared to values for selected water- quality characteristics to evaluate temporal trends in ground-water quality in the buried- valley aquifer. Distinct temporal trends were not identified for pH, alkalinity, or calcium and magnesium because of rapid equilibration of ground-water with calcite and dolomite in aquifer sediments. Temporal trends in which the amount of scatter and the number of outlier concentrations increased as ground-water age decreased were noted for sodium, potassium, boron, bromide, chloride, ammonia, nitrate, phosphate

  2. A compilation of ground water quality data for Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faust, Robert J.; Banfield, Gary R.; Willinger, Gregory A.

    1980-01-01

    This report provides most of the data in the files of the U.S. Geological Survey on the quality of groundwater in Kentucky. All analyses through 1979 are included except for some special purpose repetitive analyses and some with a very limited number of constituents. County location maps are included with the analyses. These include location, distribution, and density of sampling sites in each county. Most of the data in this report resulted from cooperative studies made with the Kentucky Geological Survey and with other Federal, State, and local agencies. (USGS)

  3. Hydrology and Ground-Water Quality in the Mine Workings within the Picher Mining District, Northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeHay, Kelli L.; Andrews, William J.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Picher mining district of northeastern Ottawa County, Oklahoma, was a major site of mining for lead and zinc ores in the first half of the 20th century. The primary source of lead and zinc were sulfide minerals disseminated in the cherty limestones and dolomites of the Boone Formation of Mississippian age, which comprises the Boone aquifer. Ground water in the aquifer and seeping to surface water in the district has been contaminated by sulfate, iron, lead, zinc, and several other metals. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, investigated hydrology and ground-water quality in the mine workings in the mining district, as part of the process to aid water managers and planners in designing remediation measures that may restore the environmental quality of the district to pre-mining conditions. Most ground-water levels underlying the mining district had similar altitudes, indicating a large degree of hydraulic connection in the mine workings and overlying aquifer materials. Recharge-age dates derived from concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons and other dissolved gases indicated that water in the Boone aquifer may flow slowly from the northeast and southeast portions of the mining district. However, recharge-age dates may have been affected by the types of sites sampled, with more recent recharge-age dates being associated with mine-shafts, which are more prone to atmospheric interactions and surface runoff than the sampled airshafts. Water levels in streams upstream from the confluence of Tar and Lytle Creeks were several feet higher than those in adjacent portions of the Boone aquifer, perhaps due to low-permeability streambed sediments and indicating the streams may be losing water to the aquifer in this area. From just upstream to downstream from the confluence of Tar and Lytle Creeks, surface-water elevations in these streams were less than those in the surrounding Boone aquifer, indicating that

  4. Quality of ground water in the Columbia Basin, Washington, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Turney, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater from 188 sites in the Columbia Basin of central Washington was sampled and analyzed in 1983 for pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, major dissolved ions, and dissolved iron, manganese, and nitrate. Twenty of the samples were also analyzed for concentrations of dissolved trace metals including aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. The predominant water types were sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate. The sodium bicarbonate water samples had higher pH, fluoride, and sodium:adsorption ratio values than samples with other water types. Most trace metal concentrations were also < 10 ug/L except for barium and zinc, which had maximum concentrations of 170 and 600 ug/L, respectively. Nitrate concentrations were < 1.0 mg/L in water from more than half the wells sampled. US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) drinking water regulations were exceeded in several samples, most commonly involving pH and concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and dissolved solids in samples from Adams and Grant Counties. Generally, the historical data lead to similar conclusions about the quality of groundwater in the Columbia Basin region. However, historical samples had higher dissolved solids concentrations in Douglas County. Historical samples also included fewer sodium bicarbonate type waters in the region as a whole than the 1983 samples. 24 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. GROUND-WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATION FOR THE VALLEY-FILL AQUIFER IN SPANISH VALLEY, GRAND AND SAN JUAN COUNTIES, UTAH --A BASIS FOR PRESERVING HIGH QUALITY GROUND-WATER RESOURCES, UTAH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed study will consist of an evaluation of current ground-water quality using the Utah Water Quality Board's ground-water-quality classification system based mostly on total-dissolved-solids concentrations as follows: class 1A (Pristine), less than 500 mg/L; class 2 (dr...

  6. Wastewater application by spray irrigation on a field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida; effects on ground-water quality and quantity, 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Hunn, J.D.; Calhoun, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    A field southeast of Tallahassee, Florida, used for land application of wastewater by spray irrigation was the site of a ground-water monitoring study to determine effects of spray irrigation on water-table elevations and ground-water quality. The study was conducted during 1980-82 in cooperation with the City of Tallahassee. The wastewater has relatively high concentrations of chloride, nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon , coliform bacteria, sodium, and potassium. These substances are usually attenuated before they can impact the ground water. However, increases in chloride and nitrate-nitrogen were evident in ground water in some of the monitoring wells during the study. Chloride concentrations increased five-fold or more in some wells directly affected by spray irrigation, and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased eight-fold or more. Ground-water levels in the area of the spray field fluctuated over a range of several feet. These fluctuations were affected somewhat by spray irrigation, but the primary control on water levels was rainfall. As of December 1982, constituents introduced to the system by spray irrigation of effluent had not exceeded drinking water standard in the ground water. However, the system had not yet stabilized and more changes in ground-water quality could be expected. (USGS)

  7. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  8. Quality of Shallow Ground Water in Three Areas of Unsewered Low-Density Development in Wyoming and Montana, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Quinn, Thomas L.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of shallow ground water underlying unsewered low-density development outside of Sheridan and Lander, Wyo., and Red Lodge, Mont., was evaluated. In 2001, 29 wells (10 each in Sheridan and Lander and 9 in Red Lodge) were installed at or near the water table and sampled for a wide variety of constituents to identify potential effects of human activities on shallow ground-water quality resulting from development on the land surface. All wells were completed in unconfined aquifers in unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age with shallow water tables (less than 50 feet below land surface). Land use and land cover was mapped in detail within a 500-meter radius surrounding each well, and potential contaminant sources were inventoried within the radii to identify human activities that may affect shallow ground-water quality. This U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment ground-water study was conducted to examine the effects of unsewered low-density development that often surrounds cities and towns of many different sizes in the western United States?a type of development that often is informally referred to as ?exurban? or ?rural ranchette? development. This type of development has both urban and rural characteristics. Residents in these developments typically rely on a private ground-water well for domestic water supply and a private septic system for sanitary waste disposal. Although the quality of shallow ground water generally was suitable for domestic or other uses without treatment, some inorganic constituents were detected infrequently in ground water in the three study areas at concentrations larger than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or proposed standards. Natural factors such as geology, aquifer properties, and ground-water recharge rates likely influence most concentrations of these constituents. These inorganic constituents generally occur naturally in the study areas and were more likely to limit

  9. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton,Minnesota, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Nelson, K.J.; Regan, C.P.; Lamb, J.A.; Larson, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The research area was located in the Anoka Sand Plain about 5 kilometers southwest of Princeton, Minnesota. The ground-water-quality monitoring network within and immediately surrounding the research area consisted of 73 observation wells and 25 multiport wells. The primary objectives of the ground-water monitoring program at the Minnesota MSEA were to: (1) determine the effects of three farming systems on ground-water quality, and (2) understand the processes and factors affecting the loading, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals in ground water at the site. This report presents well construction, geologic, water-level, chemical application, water-quality, and quality-assurance data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality during 1991-95.

  10. Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

  11. Design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Salinas River basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Akers, J.P.; Swain, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A regional ground-water quality monitoring network for the entire Salinas River drainage basin was designed to meet the needs of the California State Water Resources Control Board. The project included phase 1--identifying monitoring networks that exist in the region; phase 2--collecting information about the wells in each network; and phase 3--studying the factors--such as geology, land use, hydrology, and geohydrology--that influence the ground-water quality, and designing a regional network. This report is the major product of phase 3. Based on the authors ' understanding of the ground-water-quality monitoring system and input from local offices, an ideal network was designed. The proposed network includes 317 wells and 8 stream-gaging stations. Because limited funds are available to implement the monitoring network, the proposed network is designed to correspond to the ideal network insofar as practicable, and is composed mainly of 214 wells that are already being monitored by a local agency. In areas where network wells are not available, arrangements will be made to add wells to local networks. The data collected by this network will be used to assess the ground-water quality of the entire Salinas River drainage basin. After 2 years of data are collected, the network will be evaluated to test whether it is meeting the network objectives. Subsequent network evaluations will be done very 5 years. (USGS)

  12. ECONOMICS OF SAMPLE COMPOSITING AS A SCREENING TOOL IN GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in high throughput/automated compositing with robotics/field-screening methods offer seldom-tapped opportunities for achieving cost-reduction in ground water quality monitoring programs. n economic framework is presented in this paper for the evaluation of sample ...

  13. Design of monitor wells, hydrogeology, and ground-water quality beneath Country Pond, Kingston, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Ten monitoring well were installed in May 1993 to collect data on the hydrogeology and ground-water quality beneath Country Pond, in Kingston, New Hampshire. Monitoring wells were installed 4 to 48 feet beneath the pond surface in stratified drift that was up to 40 feet thick. The stratified drift is overlain by up to 35 feet of fine-grained, predominantly organic, lake-bottom sediment. The potentiometric head in the aquifer was at or above the pond surface and up to 0.8 foot above the pond surface at one location. Water-quality analyses detected numerous volatile organic compounds including chloroethane, benzene, dichlorobenzenes, and 1,1-dichloroethane at maximum concentrations of 110, 43, 54, and 92 mg/L, respectively. The maximum concentration of total volatile organic compounds detected in ground water from a monitoring well was 550 mg/L in November 1993. Ground-water samples with high concentrations of volatile organic compounds also had elevated specific conductances indicating the presence of other non-organic contaminants. Water-quality analyses indicate that a plume of contaminated ground water extends at least 300 feet in a northeast direction beneath the pond.

  14. Hydrogeologic framework, ground-water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow at the Fair Lawn Well Field Superfund site, Bergen County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis-Brown, Jean C.; Rice, Donald E.; Rosman, Robert; Smith, Nicholas P.

    2005-01-01

    confining units. Wells of similar depth aligned along the strike of the bedding intersect the same water-bearing units, but wells aligned along the dip of the bedding may intersect different water-bearing units. Consequently, wells aligned along strike are in greater hydraulic connection than wells aligned along dip. The Borough of Fair Lawn pumps approximately 770 million gallons per year from 13 production wells. Hydrographs from six observation wells ranging in depth from 162 to 505 feet in Fair Lawn show that water levels in much of the study area are affected by pumping. Straddle packers were used to isolate discrete intervals within six open-hole observation wells owned by the Fair Lawn Water Department. Transmissivity, water-quality, and static-water-level data were obtained from the isolated intervals. Measured transmissivity ranged from near 0 to 8,900 feet squared per day. The broad range in measured transmissivity is a result of the heterogeneity of the fractured-rock aquifer. Eight water-bearing units and eight confining units were identified in the study area on the basis of transmissivity. The water-bearing units range in thickness from 21 to 95 feet; the mean thickness is 50 feet. The confining units range in thickness from 22 to 248 feet; the mean thickness is 83 feet. Water-level and water-quality data indicate effective separation of water-bearing units by the confining units. Water-quality samples were collected from the six observation wells at 16 depth intervals isolated by the straddle packers in 2000 and 2001. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds generally were low in samples from four of the wells, but were higher in samples from a well in Fair Lawn Industrial Park and in a well in the Westmoreland well field. The digital ground-water flow model was used to simulate steady-state scenarios representing conditions in the study area in 1991 and 2000. These years were chosen because during the intervening period,

  15. Chemical quality of ground water in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical water-quality conditions were investigated in San Joaquin and part of Contra Costa Counties by canvassing available wells and sampling water from 324 representative wells. Chemical water types varied, with 73 percent of the wells sampled containing either calcium-magnesium bicarbonate, or calcium-sodium bicarbonate type water. Substantial areas contain ground water exceeding water-quality standards for boron, manganese, and nitrate. Trace elements, with the exception of boron and manganese, were present in negligible amounts. (USGS)

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. ecently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and ...

  17. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  18. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Laodong

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing fanning systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin (Delin and others, 1992). The primary objective of the northern cornbelt sand-plains MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of ground-water quality at the MSEA.

  19. Robowell: An automated process for monitoring ground water quality using established sampling protocols

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.; Smith, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    Robowell is an automated process for monitoring selected ground water quality properties and constituents by pumping a well or multilevel sampler. Robowell was developed and tested to provide a cost-effective monitoring system that meets protocols expected for manual sampling. The process uses commercially available electronics, instrumentation, and hardware, so it can be configured to monitor ground water quality using the equipment, purge protocol, and monitoring well design most appropriate for the monitoring site and the contaminants of interest. A Robowell prototype was installed on a sewage treatment plant infiltration bed that overlies a well-studied unconfined sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, during a time when two distinct plumes of constituents were released. The prototype was operated from May 10 to November 13, 1996, and quality-assurance/quality-control measurements demonstrated that the data obtained by the automated method was equivalent to data obtained by manual sampling methods using the same sampling protocols. Water level, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved ammonium were monitored by the prototype as the wells were purged according to U.S Geological Survey (USGS) ground water sampling protocols. Remote access to the data record, via phone modem communications, indicated the arrival of each plume over a few days and the subsequent geochemical reactions over the following weeks. Real-time availability of the monitoring record provided the information needed to initiate manual sampling efforts in response to changes in measured ground water quality, which proved the method and characterized the screened portion of the plume in detail through time. The methods and the case study described are presented to document the process for future use.

  20. Integrationof Remote Sensing and Geographic information system in Ground Water Quality Assessment and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakak, N.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the Khartoum state, Sudan, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing technique. Gegraphical informtion system a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground water quality information. Khartoum landsat mosac image aquired in 2013was used, Arc/Gis software applied to extract the boundary of the study area, the image was classified to create land use/land cover map. The land use map,geological and soil map are used for correlation between land use , geological formations, and soil types to understand the source of natural pollution that can lower the ground water quality. For this study, the global positioning system (GPS), used in the field to identify the borehole location in a three dimentional coordinate (Latitude, longitude, and altitude), water samples were collected from 156 borehole wells, and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solid,Chloride, Nitrate, Sodium, Magnisium, Calcium,and Flouride, using standard techniques in the laboratory and compared with the standards.The ground water quality maps of the entire study area have been prepared using spatial interpolation technique for all the above parameters.then the created maps used to visualize, analyze, and understand the relationship among the measured points. Mapping was coded for potable zones, non-potable zones in the study area, in terms of water quality sutability for drinking water and sutability for irrigation. In general satellite remote sensing in conjunction with geographical information system (GIS) offers great potential for water resource development and management.

  1. Ground-Water Flow, 2004-07, and Water Quality, 1992-2007, in McBaine Bottoms, Columbia, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Brenda Joyce; Richards, Joseph M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Columbia, Missouri, and the Missouri Department of Conservation, collected ground-water quality data, surface-water quality data, and water-level data in McBaine Bottoms, southwest of Columbia. McBaine Bottoms, adjacent to the Missouri River, is the location of the municipal-supply well field for the city of Columbia, the city of Columbia wastewater-treatment wetlands, and the Missouri Department of Conservation Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area. This report describes the ground-water flow and water quality of McBaine Bottoms and provides information to better understand the interaction between treated effluent from the wetlands used on the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area and the water in the alluvial aquifer that is pumped from the city of Columbia municipal-supply well field. Changes in major chemical constituent concentrations have been detected at several sampling sites between pre- and post-effluent application data. Analysis of post-effluent data indicates substantial changes in calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in ground water. These changes became apparent shortly after the beginning of the operation of the wastewater-treatment wetland in 1994 and the formation of the Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, which uses the treated effluent as a water source for the management of migratory water fowl. The changes have continued throughout the 15 years of sample collection. The concentrations of these major chemical constituents are on the mixing continuum between pre-effluent ground water as one end member and the treated wastewater effluent as the other end member. For monitoring wells that had changes in major chemical constituent concentrations, the relative percentage of treated effluent in the ground water, assuming chloride is conservative, ranged from 6 to 88 percent. Twenty-two monitoring wells throughout McBaine Bottoms have been affected by effluent based on chloride

  2. Hydrogeologic and Ground-Water-Quality Data for Belvidere, Illinois, and Vicinity, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, P.C.; Kay, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents miscellaneous geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water-quality data collected in and near Belvidere, Ill. during May 2001-November 2002. The data were collected for two studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990-2002, but subsequent to publication of the final interpretive reports for the studies. The cooperative studies with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Illinois Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the hydrogeology, ground-water-flow system, and distribution of contaminants in the glacial drift and bedrock (primarily Galena-Platteville) aquifers underlying the vicinity of Belvidere, including the Parson?s Casket Hardware Superfund site. Data presented in the report include lithologic descriptions, geophysical logs, water levels, hydraulic characteristics, field-measured characteristics of water quality, and laboratory analyses of volatile organic compounds, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and herbicides.

  3. Hydrogeologic Setting, Ground-Water Flow, and Ground-Water Quality at the Langtree Peninsula Research Station, Iredell County, North Carolina, 2000-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pippin, Charles G.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; Heller, Matthew J.; Schelgel, Melissa E.

    2008-01-01

    as much as 479 feet below land surface. Well yields ranged from about 3 to 50 gallons per minute. The connection of fracture zones at depth was demonstrated in three bedrock wells during a 48-hour aquifer test, and drawdown curves were similar for all three wells. General findings of this study help characterize ground-water flow in the Piedmont and Mountains ground-water systems. Ground-water flow generally is from high to low topographic settings. Ground-water flow discharges toward a surface-water boundary (Lake Norman), and vertical hydraulic gradients generally are downward in recharge areas and upward in discharge areas. Dominant water types are calcium-bicarbonate and are similar in all three zones (regolith, transition zone, and bedrock) of the ground-water system. Results of continuous ground-water-quality monitoring indicate that ground-water recharge may occur seasonally over a period of several months or after heavy rainfall periods over a shorter period of a few to several weeks.

  4. Ground-water heat pumps: an examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, D M; Bacon, D J; Massey-Norton, J T; Miller, J D

    1980-11-12

    Groundwater is attractive as a potential low-temperature energy source in residential space-conditioning applications. When used in conjuncton with a heat pump, ground water can serve as both a heat source (for heating) and a heat sink (for cooling). Major hydrogeologic aspects that affect system use include groundwater temperature and availability at shallow depths as these factors influence operational efficiency. Ground-water quality is considered as it affects the performance and life-expectancy of the water-side heat exchanger. Environmental impacts related to groundwater heat pump system use are most influenced by water use and disposal methods. In general, recharge to the subsurface (usually via injection wells) is recommended. Legal restrictions on system use are often stricter at the municipal and county levels than at state and Federal levels. Although Federal regulations currently exist, the agencies are not equipped to regulate individual, domestic installations. Computer smulations indicate that under a variety of climatologic conditions, groundwater heat pumps use less energy than conventional heating and cooling equipment. Life-cycle cost comparisons with conventional equipment depend on alternative system choices and well cost options included in the groundwater heat pump system.

  5. An Integrated Modeling Approach for use in Regional Ground-Water-Quality Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackelberg, P. E.; Kauffman, L. J.; Ayers, M. A.

    2001-05-01

    Multivariate regression models developed from shallow-ground-water-quality data and explanatory variables that characterize hydrogeology and contaminant loading within a specified distance of well sites can be coupled with a three-dimensional steady-state ground-water-flow model with a particle-tracking postprocessor to assess current and future distributions of contaminants in surficial aquifer systems. The regression models permit current contaminant-loading signatures in the shallow-ground-water system to be estimated on a regional scale from the distribution of explanatory variables. Flow-simulation and particle-tracking results quantify the rate and path of ground-water movement through the aquifer system under current and projected water-use alternatives. By estimating the time required for water to move along specified flow paths, particle tracking allows the rate of advective transport of contaminants throughout the aquifer system to be predicted. This integration of regression and simulation models provides information that is needed to address water-management issues critical to the sustainability of the resource. This integrated modeling approach was applied to a 400-square-mile study area near Glassboro, New Jersey, where a rapidly increasing population and restrictions on withdrawals from deeper, confined aquifers have caused residents to rely increasingly on the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system for domestic and public supply. Nitrate-concentration data from 78 shallow monitoring wells were used to develop multivariate linear regression models that were used to predict the concentration of nitrate in aquifer recharge across the study area. The predictive regression models were coupled with a three-dimensional steady-state ground-water-flow model with a particle-tracking postprocessor. Results of the integrated modeling approach (1) delineate those areas in which concentrations of nitrate in aquifer recharge are expected to be greatest; (2

  6. Analysis of ground-water-quality data of the Upper Colorado River basin, water years 1972-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, an analysis of the existing ground-water-quality data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is necessary to provide information on the historic water-quality conditions. Analysis of the historical data provides information on the availability or lack of data and water-quality issues. The information gathered from the historical data will be used in the design of ground-water-quality studies in the basin. This report includes an analysis of the ground-water data (well and spring data) available for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit from water years 1972 to 1992 for major cations and anions, metals and selected trace elements, and nutrients. The data used in the analysis of the ground-water quality in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit were predominantly from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data bases. A total of 212 sites representing alluvial aquifers and 187 sites representing bedrock aquifers were used in the analysis. The available data were not ideal for conducting a comprehensive basinwide water-quality assessment because of lack of sufficient geographical coverage.Evaluation of the ground-water data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was based on the regional environmental setting, which describes the natural and human factors that can affect the water quality. In this report, the ground-water-quality information is evaluated on the basis of aquifers or potential aquifers (alluvial, Green River Formation, Mesaverde Group, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Leadville Limestone, and Precambrian) and land-use classifications for alluvial aquifers.Most of the ground-water-quality data in the study unit were for major cations and anions and dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifer with the highest median concentrations of

  7. Ground-water conditions and quality in the western part of Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The western part of Kenai Peninsula in southcentral Alaska is bounded by Cook Inlet and the Kenai Mountains. Ground water is the predominant source of water for commercial, industrial, and domestic uses on the peninsula. Mean daily water use in an oil, gas, and chemical processing area north of Kenai is more than 3.5 million gallons. Unconsolidated sediments of glacial and fluvial origin are the most productive aquifers. In the upper (northwestern) peninsula, almost all water used is withdrawn from unconsolidated sediments, which may be as thick as 750 feet. In the lower peninsula, unconsolidated sediments are thinner and are absent on many hills. Water supplies in the lower peninsula are obtained from unconsolidated sediments and bedrock, and a public-water supply in parts of Homer is obtained from Bridge Creek. Throughout the peninsula, ground-water flow occurs primarily as localized flow controlled by permeability of aquifer materials and surface topography. The concentration of constituents analyzed in water from 312 wells indicated that the chemical quality of ground water for human consumption varies from marginal to excellent. Even though the median concentration of dissolved solids is low (152 milligrams per liter), much of the ground water on the peninsula does not meet water-quality regulations for public drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). About 8 percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved arsenic that exceeded the USEPA primary maximum contaminant level of 50 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of dissolved arsenic were as great as 94 micrograms per liter. Forty-six percent of wells sampled yielded water having concentrations of dissolved iron greater than the USEPA secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 micrograms per liter. Unconsolidated sediments generally yield water having calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate as its predominant ions. In some areas, ground water at

  8. Ground-water quality in the vicinity of landfill sites, southern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Roche, J.T.; Razem, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the vicinity of five landfills in southern Franklin County, Ohio, were investigated by use of data obtained from 46 existing wells, 1 seep, 1 surface-water site, and 1 leachate-collection site. Interpretation was based on data from the wells, a potentiometric-surface map, and chemical analyses. Four of the five landfills are in abandoned sand and gravel pits. Pumping of water from a quarry near the landfills has modified the local ground-water flow pattern, increased the hydraulic gradient, and lowered the water table. Ground water unaffected by the landfills is a hard, calcium bicarbonate type with concentrations of dissolved iron and dissolved sulfate as great as 3.0 milligrams per liter and 200 milligrams per liter, respectively. Water sampled from wells downgradient from two landfills shows an increase in sodium, chloride, and other constituents. The change in water quality cannot be traced directly to the landfills, however, because of well location and the presence of other potential sources of contamination. Chemical analysis of leachate from a collection unit at one landfill shows significant amounts of zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, in addition to high total organic carbon, biochemical oxygen demand, and organic nitrogen. Concentrations of chloride, iron, lead, manganese and phenolic compounds exceed Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Standards for drinking water. Water from unaffected wells within the study area have relatively small amounts of these constituents. (USGS)

  9. Hydrology and geochemistry of a slag-affected aquifer and chemical characteristics of slag-affected ground water, northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Greeman, T.K.; Harvey, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    ?aquifer interface. The solid-phase analyses indicated that calcite, dolomite, and quartz generally were present throughout the slag?aquifer system; barian celestite, cristobalite, manganese-bearing calcite, and minrecordite were present in fewer samples. Trace elements that are liberated from the slag may be incorporated as impurities during precipitation of major minerals, sorbed onto clays and other grainsize fractions not analyzed as part of this study, or present in low-abundance minerals that were not detected by the X-ray analysis. Mass-balance and speciation programs were used to identify geochemical processes that may be occurring as water infiltrates through the slag, flows into the aquifer, and discharges into Lake George. The geochemical models indicate that precipitation of calcite may be occurring where slag-affected water enters the aquifer. Models also indicate that dolomite precipitation and clay-mineral dissolution may be occurring at the slag?aquifer interface; however, dolomite precipitation is generally believed to require geologically long time periods. Silica may be dissolving where slag-affected ground water enters the aquifer and may be precipitating where slag-affected ground water discharges to the lakebed of Lake George. In addition to the site-specific study, a statistical analysis of regional water quality was done to compare ground water in wells affected and unaffected by slag. When com-pared to wells in background locations in the Calumet aquifer, wells screened in slag across northwestern Indiana and northeastern Illinois generally had relatively higher pH and specific-conductance values and relatively higher concentrations of alkalinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, total organic carbon, calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, aluminum, barium, and possibly magnesium, sulfate, chromium, cobalt, copper, cyanide, manganese, mercury, nickel, and vanadium. When compared to wells in slag and wells in background locations, ground water from immediat

  10. Ground-water quality assessment of the Carson River basin, Nevada and California; results of investigations, 1987-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Lawrence, Stephen J.; Lico, Michael S.; Thomas, James M.; Schaefer, Donald H.

    1997-01-01

    Using existing Nevada State drinking-water standards as a measure of the overall water quality, ground-water quality in principal aquifers of the upper Carson River basin is generally excellent. Ground-water quality in the Carson Desert, the distal end of the Carson River basin, displays extremes in concentrations of major and minor inorganic constituents, with dissolved solids reaching concentrations exceeding sea water. More than 10 percent of sampled ground water in the principal aquifers contain concentrations of arsenic, dissolved solids, and manganese greater than the drinking-water standards. Nearly all sampled ground water in the basin had radon-222 activities greater than the proposed Federal maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. Uranium concentrations greater than the proposed Federal maximum contaminant level of 20 micrograms per liter were found in ground water in the adjacent Sierra Nevada.

  11. U.S. EPA'S STRATEGY FOR GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING AT HAZARDOUS WASTE LAND DISPOSAL FACILITIES LOCATED IN KARST TERRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water monitoring of hazardous waste land disposal units by a network of wells is ineffective when located in karstic terranes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently proposing to modify its current ground water quality monitoring requirement of one upg...

  12. In situ study of the effect of ground source heat pump on shallow ground-water quality in the late Pleistocene terrace area of Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, T.; Uemura, K.; Akiba, Y.; Ota, M.

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems has rapidly increased around the world, since they reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save electric energy. The GSHP system transfer heat into the geosphere zone when air conditioners are used to cool rooms or buildings. However, the effects of temperature increase on the quality of underground water has yet to be fully investigated. In order to reduce the risks of ground-water pollution by the installed GSHPs, it is important to evaluate the effect of temperature change on the ground-water quality. In this study, we installed a closed loop GSHP system on a heat exchange well along with a monitoring well drilled to measure ground-water quality and temperature. The monitoring well was drilled at 0.1cm away from the heat exchange well. We observed that changes of temperature in the heat exchange well affected the water quality, especially turbidity, in gravelly layer.

  13. Denver's Urban Ground-Water Quality: Nutrients, Pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.

    1995-01-01

    A recent study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program characterized the ground-water quality in a part of the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The study provides an assessment of water-quality conditions in an alluvial aquifer that drains into the South Platte River. Thirty wells randomly distributed in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use settings were sampled once in 1993 for a broad range of compounds. Nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOC's), all of which are generally associated with human activities, frequently were detected in the urban wells sampled. Nutrients and VOC's occasionally exceeded drinking-water standards.

  14. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  15. Chemical quality of ground water in the central Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, Ronald P.

    1978-01-01

    The study area includes about 1,200 square miles in the central Sacramento Valley adjacent to the Sacramento River from Knights Landing to Los Molinos, Calif. With recent agricultural development in the area, additional land has been brought under irrigation from land which had been used primarily for dry farming and grazing. This report documents the chemical character of the ground water prior to water-level declines resulting from extensive pumping for irrigation or to changes caused by extensive use of imported surface water. Chemical analyses of samples from 209 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic purposes. Most of the water sampled in the area has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 100 to 700 milligrams per liter. The general water types for the area are a calcium magnesium bicarbonate or magnesium calcium bicarbonate and there are negligible amounts of toxic trace elements. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Field examination of ground water quality as an indicator of microbiological activity at gasoline contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Norkus, R G; Maurer, J; Schultz, N A; Stuart, J D; Robbins, G A; Bristol, R D

    1996-08-01

    Various portable electrodes and an on-line colorimetric test kit were used in the field to examine ground water quality as an indicator of natural bioremediation across two sites in Connecticut having subsurface gasoline contamination. The parameters examined included dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, direct redox potential (Eh), nitrate, ammonia and pH. These parameters permitted delineating regions of aerobic and anaerobic microbiological activity. Variations in these parameters over an eighteen month period along with gas chromatographic analyses of certain gasoline components in the ground water indicated that in-situ bioremediation was effective at containing the petroleum contamination at both sites. It was found that a new on-line colorimetric test kit for the determination of oxygen was more accurate than a commonly used dissolved oxygen electrode. PMID:8680831

  17. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water-quality investigation. 16. Quality assurance and quality control for water analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2004-01-01

    The Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation has the main objective of inferring the ground-water chemistry at an active mine site. Hence, existing ground-water chemistry and its quality assurance and quality control is of crucial importance to this study and a substantial effort was spent on this activity. Analyses of seventy-two blanks demonstrated that contamination from processing, handling, and analyses were minimal. Blanks collected using water deionized with anion and cation exchange resins contained elevated concentrations of boron (0.17 milligrams per liter (mg/L)) and silica (3.90 mg/L), whereas double-distilled water did not. Boron and silica were not completely retained by the resins because they can exist as uncharged species in water. Chloride was detected in ten blanks, the highest being 3.9 mg/L, probably as the result of washing bottles, filter apparatuses, and tubing with hydrochloric acid. Sulfate was detected in seven blanks; the highest value was 3.0 mg/L, most likely because of carryover from the high sulfate waters sampled. With only a few exceptions, the remaining blank analyses were near or below method detection limits. Analyses of standard reference water samples by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry, ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, FerroZine, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, hydride generation atomic spectrometry, and titration provided an accuracy check. For constituents greater than 10 times the detection limit, 95 percent of the samples had a percent error of less than 8.5. For constituents within 10 percent of the detection limit, the percent error often increased as a result of measurement imprecision. Charge imbalance was calculated using WATEQ4F and 251 out of 257 samples had a charge imbalance less than 11.8 percent. The charge imbalance for all samples ranged from -16 to 16 percent. Spike

  18. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Quality, Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Michigan, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westjohn, David B.; Hoard, Chris J.

    2006-01-01

    The ground-water resource potential of Chippewa Township, Isabella County, Mich. was characterized on the basis of existing hydrogeologic data, water-level records, analyses of water samples, and interpretation of geophysical survey data. Eight ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and trace-metal composition. In addition, 10 direct current-resistivity soundings were collected throughout Chippewa and Coe Townships to identify potential freshwater in the aquifer system. The aquifer system includes complexly interbedded glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, and basal-lodgment tills, which overlie Jurassic or Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks. In parts of the township, freshwater is present in all geologic units, but in most areas saline water is encountered near the base of Pleistocene glacial deposits and in the Jurassic or Pennsylvanian bedrock. A near-surface sheet of relatively dense basal-lodgment till likely prevents, or substantially retards, significant direct recharge of ground water to glacial and bedrock aquifers in Chippewa and adjacent townships. Glacial sands and gravels form the principal aquifer for domestic wells (97.5 percent of wells in the township). The single community water supply in the township has wells screened in glacial deposits near the base of the glacial drift. Increased withdrawals of ground water in response to increasing demand has led to a slight decline in water quality from this supply. This water-quality decline is related primarily to an increase of dissolved sulfate, which is probably a function of well depth and dissolution of gypsum, a common mineral constituent in the Jurassic 'red beds,' which form the uppermost bedrock unit throughout most of the township. One explanation for the increase in sulfate is upconing of saline water from bedrock sources, which may contain saline water.

  19. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 3. Historical ground-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LoVetere, Sara H.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Maest, Ann S.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water quality data for 100 wells in the Red River Valley between the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station (08265000), near Questa, and Placer Creek east of the town of Red River, New Mexico, were compiled and reviewed. The tabulation included 608 water-quality records from 23 sources entered into an electronic database. Groundwater quality data were first collected at the Red River wastewater-treatment facility in 1982. Most analyses, however, were obtained between 1994 and 2002, even though the first wells were developed in 1962. The data were evaluated by considering (a) temporal consistency, (b) quality of sampling methods, (c) charge imbalance, and (d) replicate analyses. Analyses that qualified on the basis of these criteria were modeled to obtain saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, fluorite, gibbsite, manganite, and rhodocrosite. Plots created from the data illustrate that water chemistry in the Red River Valley is predominantly controlled by calcite dissolution, congruent gypsum dissolution, and pyrite oxidation.

  20. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Brunswick County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Fine, Jason M.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2003-01-01

    Brunswick County is the southernmost coastal county in North Carolina and lies in the southeastern part of the Coastal Plain physiographic province. In this report, geologic, hydrologic, and chemical data were used to investigate and delineate the hydro-geologic framework and ground-water quality of Brunswick County. The major aquifers and their associated confining units delineated in the Brunswick County study area include, from youngest to oldest, the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers. All of these aquifers, with the exception of the Castle Hayne aquifer, are located throughout Brunswick County. The Castle Hayne aquifer extends across only the southeastern part of the county. Based on available data, the Castle Hayne and Peedee confining units are missing in some areas of Brunswick County, which allows direct hydraulic contact between the surficial aquifer and underlying Castle Hayne or Peedee aquifers. The confining units for the Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers appear to be continuous throughout Brunswick County. In examining the conceptual hydrologic system for Brunswick County, a generalized water budget was developed to better understand the natural processes, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, and stream runoff, that influence ground-water recharge to the shallow aquifer system in the county. In the generalized water budget, an estimated 11 inches per year of the average annual precipitation of 55 inches per year in Brunswick County is estimated to infiltrate and recharge the shallow aquifer system. Of the 11 inches per year that recharges the shallow system, about 1 inch per year is estimated to recharge the deeper aquifer system. The surficial aquifer in Brunswick County is an important source of water for domestic supply and irrigation. The Castle Hayne aquifer is the most productive aquifer and serves as the principal ground-water source of municipal supply

  1. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, James M.; Lawrence, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the quality of ground water in the Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys as part of the Carson River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) pilot study. Four aquifer systems have been de- lineated in the study area. Principal aquifers are unconsolidated deposits at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet above sea level and more than 50 feet below land surface. Shallow aquifers are at altitudes of less than 4,900 feet and less than 50 feet below land surface. Upland aquifers are above 4,900 feet and provide recharge to the principal aquifers. Thermal aquifers, defined as those having a water temperature greater than 30 degrees Celsius, are also present. Ground water used in Dayton, Stagecoach, and Churchill Valleys is pumped from principal aquifers in unconsolidated basin-fill deposits. Ground water in these aquifers originates as precipitation in the adjacent mountains and is recharged by the Carson River and by underflow from adjacent upstream valleys. Ground-water flow is generally parallel to the direction of surface-water flow in the Carson River. Ground water is discharged by pumping, evapo- transpiration, and underflow into the Carson River. The results of geochemical modeling indicate that as ground water moves from upland aquifers in mountainous recharge areas to principal aquifers in basin-fill deposits, the following processes probably occur: (1) plagioclase feldspar, sodium chloride, gypsum (or pyrite), potassium feldspar, and biotite dissolve; (2) calcite precipitates; (3) kaolinite forms; (4) small amounts of calcium and magnesium in the water exchange for potassium on aquifer minerals; and (5) carbon dioxide is gained or lost. The geochemical models are consistent with (1) phases identified in basin- fill sediments; (2) chemical activity of major cations and silica; (3) saturation indices of calcite and amorphous silica; (4) phase relations for aluminosilicate minerals indicated by activity diagrams; and

  2. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  3. Areal studies aid protection of ground-water quality in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; Kay, Robert T.; Brown, Timothy A.; Yeskis, Douglas J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, initiated studies designed to characterize the ground-water quality and hydrogeology in northern Illinois, and southern and eastern Wisconsin (with a focus on the north-central Illinois cities of Belvidere and Rockford, and the Calumet region of northeastern Illinois and northwestern Indiana). These areas are considered especially susceptible to ground-water contamination because of the high density of industrial and waste-disposal sites and the shallow depth to the unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers and the fractured, carbonate bedrock aquifers that underlie the areas. The data and conceptual models of ground-water flow and contaminant distribution and movement developed as part of the studies have allowed Federal, State, and local agencies to better manage, protect, and restore the water supplies of the areas. Water-quality, hydrologic, geologic, and geophysical data collected as part of these areal studies indicate that industrial contaminants are present locally in the aquifers underlying the areas. Most of the contaminants, particularly those at concentrations that exceeded regulatory water-quality levels, were detected in the sand and gravel aquifers near industrial or waste-disposal sites. In water from water-supply wells, the contaminants that were present generally were at concentrations below regulatory levels. The organic compounds detected most frequently at concentrations near or above regulatory levels varied by area. Trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (volatile chlorinated compounds) were most prevalent in north-central Illinois; benzene (a petroleum-related compound) was most prevalent in the Calumet region. Differences in the type of organic compounds that were detected in each area likely reflect differences in the types of industrial sites that predominate in the areas. Nickel and aluminum were the trace metals

  4. Availability and quality of ground water, southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, Robert E.; Hutchinson, E. Carter; Hillier, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Population growth and the potential development of subsurface mineral resources have increased the need for information on the availability and quality of ground water on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southern Ute Tribal Council, the Four Corners Regional Planning Commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, conducted a study during 1974-76 to assess the ground-water resources of the reservation. Water occurs in aquifers in the Dakota Sandstone, Mancos Shale, Mesaverde Group, Lewis Shale, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, Fruitland Formation, Kirtland Shale, Animas and San Jose Formations, and terrace and flood-plain deposits. Well yields from sandstone and shale aquifers are small, generally in the range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum reported yields of 75 gallons per minute. Well yields from terrace deposits generally range from 5 to 10 gallons per minute with maximum yields of 50 gallons per minute. Well yields from flood-plain deposits are as much as 25 gallons per minute but average 10 gallons per minute. Water quality in aquifers depends in part on rock type. Water from sandstone, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, whereas water from shale aquifers is predominantly a sodium bicarbonate type. Water from rocks containing interbeds of coal or carbonaceous shales may be either a calcium or sodium sulfate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water ranged from 115 to 7,130 milligrams per liter. Water from bedrock aquifers is the most mineralized, while water from terrace and flood-plain aquifers is the least mineralized. In many water samples collected from bedrock, terrace, and flood-plain aquifers, the concentrations of arsenic, chloride, dissolved solids, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitrate, selenium, and sulfate exceeded U.S. Public Health Service (1962) recommended limits for drinking water. Selenium in the ground water in excess of U

  5. Seasonal changes in ground-water quality and ground-water levels and directions of ground-water movement in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, 1990-1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Jones, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area is located in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho, and includes the Mountain Home Air Force Base located approximately 10 mi southwest of the city of Mountain Home. Chemical analyzes have been made periodically since the late 1940's on water samples from supply wells on the Air Force Base. These analyses indicate increases in specific conductance and in concentrations of nitrogen compounds, chloride, and sulfate. The purposes of this report, which was prepared in cooperation with the Department of the Air Force, are to describe the seasonal changes in water quality and water levels and to depict the directions of ground-water movement in the regional aquifer system and perched-water zones. Although data presented in this report are from both the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones, the focus is on the regional system. A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey (Parliman and Young, 1990) describes the areal changes in water quality and water levels during the fall of 1989. During March, July, and October 1990, 141 wells were inventoried and depth to water was measured. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on 5 of the wells and monthly measurements of depth to water were made in 17 of the wells during March 1990 through February 1991. Water samples from 33 wells and 1 spring were collected during the spring and fall of 1990 for chemical analyses. Samples also were collected monthly from 11 of those wells during April to September 1990 (table 1). Selected well-construction and water-use data and measurements of depth to water for 141 wells are given in table 2 (separated sheets in envelope). Directions of ground-water movement and selected hydrographs showing seasonal fluctuations of water levels in the regional ground-water system and perched-water zones are shown on sheet 2. Changes in water levels in the regional ground-water system during March to October 1990 are shown on sheet 2.

  6. Data on observation wells, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality for the stratified-drift aquifer in the northwestern basin of Country Pond, Kingston, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stekl, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Observation-well, ground-water-level, and ground- water-quality data were collected for a study of ground-water contamination in stratified drift at Country Pond in Kingston, New Hampshire. The report includes drilling records for 30 wells installed at various depths in stratified drift beneath Country Pond. Ground-water levels are recorded for nine wells drilled under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey in May 1991. Water-quality analyses are presented for 56 ground-water samples collected from 30 wells drilled during the investigation. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for 40 volatile organic compounds. Ground-water contamination from volatile organic compounds was found in 23 of the 56 samples collected.

  7. Availability and quality of ground water in the Winston area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Collins, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    A map of the Winston area, Douglas County, Oreg., shows areal geology and locations and chemical diagrams of wells with water analyses. Another map of the area has diagrams showing the depth to water, pumping level, total depth, and yields of selected wells. Reported yields of wells range from less than 1 to as much as 70 gallons per minute; the average is less than 10. A table listing chemical analyses of water shows that, although most ground water is of adequate quality for domestic use, some wells yield water with dissolved constituents in excess of recommended limits. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Ground-water quality and data on wells and springs in Pennsylvania: Volume II, Susquehanna and Potomac River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koester, Harry E.; Miller, Denise R.

    1980-01-01

    Volume II of the Ground-Water Quality and Data on Wells and Springs in Pennsylvania presents ground-water quality and physical data on about 1,400 wells and springs in the Susquehanna and Potomac River basins in Pennsylvania. Locations are shown on site-location maps derived from the hydrologic unit map. Codes showing the geologic age and aquifer are provided. (USGS)

  9. Hydrogeology and water quality of areas with persistent ground- water contamination near Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Groveland-Collins area near Blackfoot, Idaho, has a history of either periodic or persistent localized groundwater contamination. Water users in the area report offensive smell, metallic taste, rust deposits, and bacteria in water supplies. During 1984 and 1985, data were collected to define regional and local geologic, hydrologic, and groundwater quality conditions, and to identify factors that may have affected local groundwater quality. Infiltration or leakage of irrigation water is the major source of groundwater recharge, and water levels may fluctuate 15 ft or more during the irrigation season. Groundwater movement is generally northwestward. Groundwater contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions and characteristically has more than 200 mg/L hardness. Groundwater near the Groveland-Collins area may be contaminated from one or more sources, including infiltration of sewage effluent, gasoline or liquid fertilizer spillage, or land application of food processing wastewater. Subsurface basalt ridges impede lateral movement of water in localized areas. Groundwater pools temporarily behind these ridges and anomalously high water levels result. Maximum concentrations or values of constituents that indicate contamination were 1,450 microsiemens/cm specific conductance, 630 mg/L bicarbonate (as HCO3), 11 mg/L nitrite plus nitrate (as nitrogen), 7.3 mg/L ammonia (as nitrogen), 5.9 mg/L organic nitrogen, 4.4 mg/L dissolved organic carbon, 7,000 micrograms/L dissolved iron, 5 ,100 microgram/L dissolved manganese, and 320 microgram/L dissolved zinc. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 8.9 mg/L in uncontaminated areas to 0 mg/L in areas where food processing wastewater is applied to the land surface. Stable-isotope may be useful in differentiating between contamination from potato-processing wastewater and whey in areas where both are applied to the land surface. Development of a ground-water model to evaluate effects of land applications

  10. Geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality at the Byron Superfund site near Byron, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Bolen, William J.; Rauman, James R.; Prinos, Scott T.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to define the geohydrology and contaminant distribution at a Superfund site near Byron, Illinois. Geologic units of interest beneath the site are the St. Peter Sandstone; the shale, dolomite and sandstone of the Glenwood Formation; the dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and sands, gravels, tills and loess of Quaternary age. The hydrologic units of interest are the unconsolidated aquifer, Galena-Platteville aquifer, Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit, and the St. Peter aquifer. Ground-water flow generally is from the upland areas northwest and southwest toward the Rock River. Water levels indicate the potential for downward ground-water flow in most of the area except near the Rock River. The Galena-Platteville aquifer can be subdivided into four zones characterized by differing water-table altitudes, hydraulic gradients, and vertical and horizontal permeabilities. Geophysical, hydraulic, and aquifer-test data indicate that lithology, stratigraphy, and tectonic structures affect the distribution of primary and secondary porosity of dolomite in the Galena and Platteville Groups, which affects the permeability distribution in the Galena-Platteville aquifer. The distribution of cyanide, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water indicates that these contaminants are derived from multiple sources in the study area. Contaminants in the northern part of this area migrate northwest to the Rock River. Contaminants in the central and southern parts of this area appear to migrate to the southwest in the general direction of the Rock River.

  11. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, effects of pumping on water levels and water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1982-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the coastal area of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin in southern California. The water-level declines are the result of increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines in the main water-bearing zones to altitudes below sea level. Consequently, the ground-water basin is threatened with salt-water intrusion if the present pumpage is maintained or increased. Water-quality data suggest that salt-water intrusion has already degraded the water yielded from six coastal wells. Chloride concentrations in the six wells ranged from about 400 to 4,000 milligrams per liter. Municipal supply wells near the coast currently yield water of suitable quality for domestic use. There is, however, no known physical barrier to the continued inland advance salt water. Management alternatives to control salt-water intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharing the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and farther apart to minimize drawdown. (USGS)

  12. Effects of Agriculture and Urbanization on Quality of Shallow Ground Water in the Arid to Semiarid Western United States, 1993-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, Angela P.; Seiler, Ralph L.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Western United States, agricultural and rural lands are being developed into commercial and residential areas. With changes in land use and increasing population, greater demands are placed on water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic supplies. Many areas in the Western United States rely exclusively on ground water as their source of drinking water. Areas that use surface-water resources often need to supplement this supply with ground water. Generally, shallow ground water is susceptible to fluctuating water quality within relatively short time scales and therefore can be used as an indicator of land-use stresses that may, in time, affect deep aquifer systems. This regional study examines data on shallow ground-water quality collected from 1993 to 2004 from 273 agricultural and 181 urban wells from 7 U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment study units in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, south-central Colorado, and Utah. This report determines important influences that land-use practices may have on the quality of recently recharged ground water, which may ultimately affect deep water supplies within the region. The results of this investigation show that nitrate, the principal species of nitrogen present in ground water, exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter in water from more than 25 percent of agricultural wells and 10 percent of urban wells. In agricultural areas, the probability of exceeding the USEPA MCL for nitrate is influenced primarily by three factors: fertilizer use, irrigation, and aquifer oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions. At the study-unit level, differences in nutrient concentrations between agricultural and urban land use likely are influenced by ground-water redox conditions within respective aquifer systems. The most commonly detected pesticides belonged to the triazine, urea, amide, and carbamate classes. The

  13. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Lei

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing farming systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The primary objective of Minnesota MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of groundwater quality at the MSEA.

  14. Chemical quality of ground water in the eastern Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogelman, Ronald P.

    1979-01-01

    The study area is about 1,300 square miles in the eastern Sacramento Valley, Calif., extending from the latitude of Roseville on the south to thelatitude of Chico on the north. Considering the increased agricultural development of the area, this report documents the chemical character of the ground water prior to water-level declines that could result from extensive pumping for irrigation or to changes caused by extensive use of imported surface water. Chemical analyses of samples from 222 wells show that most of the area is underlain by ground water of a quality suitable for most agricultural and domestic purposes. Ninety-five percent of the water sampled has dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 700 milligrams per liter. The general water type for the area is a calcium and magnesium bicarbonate water and there are negligible amounts of toxic trace elements. The potential for water-quality problems exists in the area south of Yuba City along the west bank of the Feather River. There, concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids are higher than in other parts of the area, and they could limit future agricultural activities if chloride- and sulfate-sensitive crops are grown. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Public Policy on Ground-Water Quality Protection. Proceedings of a National Conference (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 13-16, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Waldon R., Ed.

    This publication contains the papers presented at a National Conference on Ground Water Quality Protection Policy held in April of 1977. Paper titles include: (1) Magnitude of the Ground-Water Contamination Problem; (2) Limited Degredation as a Ground-Water Quality Policy; (3) Surface and Subsurface Mining: Policy Implications; (4) Oil Well…

  16. Human interactions with ground-water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-Water could be considered as an immense reservoir, from which only a certain amount of water can be withdrawn without affecting the quantity and quality of water. This amount is determined by the characteristics of the environment in which ground-water occurs and by the interactions of ground-water with precipitation, surface water, and people. It should be recognized that quantity and quality of ground-water are intimately related and should be considered accordingly. Quantity refers to usable water and water is usable for any specific purpose only so long as its quality has not deteriorated beyond acceptable limits. Thus an overall quantitative and qualitative management of ground water is inevitable, and its should also involve the uses of ground-water reservoirs for purposes other than water supply. The main objective of ground-water management is to ensure that ground-water resources will be available in appropriate time and in appropriate quantity and quality to meet the most important demands of our society. Traditional, and obvious uses of ground-water are the extraction of water for water supplies (domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial) and the natural discharge feeding lakes and maintaining base flow of streams. Not so obvious are the uses of ground-water reservoirs, the very framework within which ground-water occurs and moves, and in which other fluids or materials can be stored. In the last two decades, ground-water reservoirs have been intensively considered for many other purposes than water supplies. Diversified and very often conflicting uses need to be evaluated and dealt with in the most efficient way in order to determine the importance of each possible use, and to assign priorities of these uses. With rising competition for the use of ground-water reservoirs, we will also need to increase the potential for effective planning of ground-water development and protection. Man's development and use of ground-water necessarily

  17. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wirt, Laurie; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Shallow ground water beneath the Puerco River of Arizona and New Mexico was studied to determine the effects of uranium-mining releases on water quality. Ground-water samples collected from 1989 to 1991 indicate that concentrations of dissolved uranium have decreased. Most samples from the alluvial aquifer downstream from Gallup, New Mexico, met with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for gross alpha, gross beta, and radium and the proposed maximum contaminant level for uranium.

  18. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Hillsborough River watershed was conducted between October 1999 through September 2003 to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and interaction between the surface and ground water in the highly karstic uppermost part of the watershed. Information such as locations of ground-water recharge and discharge, depth of the flow system interacting with the stream, and water quality in the watershed can aid in prudent water-management decisions. The upper Hillsborough River watershed covers a 220-square-mile area upstream from Hillsborough River State Park where the watershed is relatively undeveloped. The watershed contains a second order magnitude spring, many karst features, poorly drained swamps, marshes, upland flatwoods, and ridge areas. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is subdivided into two major subbasins, namely, the upper Hillsborough River subbasin, and the Blackwater Creek subbasin. The Blackwater Creek subbasin includes the Itchepackesassa Creek subbasin, which in turn includes the East Canal subbasin. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the highly variable degree of confinement between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers throughout the watershed. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate good hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Hillsborough River, and a poorer connection with Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks. Similar water level elevations and fluctuations in the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers at paired wells also indicate good hydraulic connection. Calcium was the dominant ion in ground water from all wells sampled in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations were near or below the detection limit in all except two wells that may have been affected by

  19. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  20. Occurrence of Diatoms in Lakeside Wells in Northern New Jersey as an Indicator of the Effect of Surface Water on Ground-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Walker, Christopher E.; Baehr, Arthur L.; Schrock, Robin M.; Reinfelder, John R.

    2006-01-01

    In a novel approach for detecting ground-water/surface-water interaction, diatoms were used as an indicator that surface water affects ground-water quality in lakeside communities in northern New Jersey. The presence of diatoms, which are abundant in lakes, in adjacent domestic wells demonstrated that ground water in these lakeside communities was under the direct influence of surface water. Entire diatom frustules were present in 17 of 18 water samples collected in August 1999 from domestic wells in communities surrounding Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna. Diatoms in water from the wells were of the same genus as those found in the lakes. The presence of diatoms in the wells, together with the fact that most static and stressed water levels in wells were below the elevation of the lake surfaces, indicates that ground-water/surface-water interaction is likely. Ground-water/surface-water interaction also probably accounts for the previously documented near-ubiquitous presence of methyl tertiary-butyl ether in the ground-water samples. Recreational use of lakes for motor boating and swimming, the application of herbicides for aquatic weed control, runoff from septic systems and roadways, and the presence of waterfowl all introduce contaminants to the lake. Samples from 4 of the 18 wells contained Navicula spp., a documented significant predictor of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Because private well owners in New Jersey generally are not required to regularly monitor their wells, and tests conducted by public-water suppliers may not be sensitive to indicators of ground-water/surface-water interaction, these contaminants may remain undetected. The presence of diatoms in wells in similar settings can warn of lake/well interactions in the absence of other indicators.

  1. Ground-water quality in the upper Santa Ana River basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eccles, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    The principal ground-water quality problems in the Santa Ana River basin, as determined from two samplings (1968-69 and 1977-78), are high concentrations of dissolved solids in general and nitrate-nitrogen in particular. The distribution of dissolved solids exceeding 800 milligrams per liter was smaller in area in 1977-78 than in 1968-69. Distribution of nitrate-nitrogen exceeding 10 milligrams per liter was larger in area in 1977-78 than in 1968-69. Concentrations of dissolved solids and nitrate-nitrogen decreased with depth. The network of wells used in the 1977-78 sampling program provides only a general appraisal of overall quality for most of the upper Santa Ana River basin. It is not adequate for detailed appraisals of specific problem areas because it lacks sufficient areal coverage and construction information for the wells sampled. (Kosco-USGS)

  2. Shallow ground-water quality adjacent to burley tobacco fields in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, spring 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.; Connell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began an assessment of the upper Tennessee River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. A ground-water land-use study conducted in 1996 focused on areas with burley tobacco production in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Land-use studies are designed to focus on specific land uses and to examine natural and human factors that affect the quality of shallow ground water underlying specific types of land use. Thirty wells were drilled in shallow regolith adjacent to and downgradient of tobacco fields in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of the upper Tennessee River Basin. Ground-water samples were collected between June 4 and July 9, 1997, to coincide with the application of the majority of pesticides and fertilizers used in tobacco production. Ground-water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, 79 pesticides, 7 pesticide degradation products, 86 volatile organic compounds, and dissolved organic carbon. Nutrient concentrations were lower than the levels found in similar NAWQA studies across the United States during 1993-95. Five of 30 upper Tennessee River Basin wells (16.7 percent) had nitrate levels exceeding 10 mg/L while 19 percent of agricultural land-use wells nationally and 7.9 percent in the Southeast had nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. Median nutrient concentrations were equal to or less than national median concentrations. All pesticide concentrations in the basin were less than established drinking water standards, and pesticides were detected less frequently than average for other NAWQA study units. Atrazine was detected at 8 of 30 (27 percent) of the wells, and deethylatrazine (an atrazine degradation product) was found in 9 (30 percent) of the wells. Metalaxyl was found in 17 percent of the wells, and prometon, flumetralin, dimethomorph, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, and silvex were detected once each (3 percent). Volatile organic compounds

  3. Determining the mean hydraulic gradient of ground water affected by tidal fluctuations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serfes, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    Tidal fluctuations in surface-water bodies produce progressive pressure waves in adjacent aquifers. As these pressure waves propagate inland, ground-water levels and hydraulic gradients continuously fluctuate, creating a situation where a single set of water-level measurements cannot be used to accurately characterize ground-water flow. For example, a time series of water levels measured in a confined aquifer in Atlantic City, New Jersey, showed that the hydraulic gradient ranged from .01 to .001 with a 22-degree change in direction during a tidal day of approximately 25 hours. At any point where ground water tidally fluctuates, the magnitude and direction of the hydraulic gradient fluctuates about the mean or regional hydraulic gradient. The net effect of these fluctuations on ground-water flow can be determined using the mean hydraulic gradient, which can be calculated by comparing mean ground- and surface-water elevations. Filtering methods traditionally used to determine daily mean sea level can be similarly applied to ground water to determine mean levels. Method (1) uses 71 consecutive hourly water-level observations to accurately determine the mean level. Method (2) approximates the mean level using only 25 consecutive hourly observations; however, there is a small error associated with this method.

  4. Ground-water quality in Bannock, Bear Lake, Caribou, and part of Power counties, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, H.R.; Norvitch, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The 103 wells sampled during the study establish a quasi-network that could be resampled in the future to document and analyze changes in ground-water quality in the southeastern Idaho study area. The main aquifers are categorized as alluvium of Quaternary age, basalt of Quaternary and (or) Tertiary age, rocks of the Salt Lake Formation of Tertiary age, and undifferentiated bedrock of pre-Tertiary age. Dissolved solids, hardness, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and chloride concentrations in the ground waters ranged from 165 to 1,690; 78 to 1,700; 0 to 29; and 1.9 to 360 milligrams per liter, respectively. The areal distributions of these constituents are shown on maps. The range and median values of these same constituents are tabulated by aquifer occurrence. Some of the most mineralized and hardest waters occur in the basalt aquifer near travertine deposits (or terraces), which are composed of calcium carbonate precipitates from mineral springs. For irrigation purposes, all the waters are classified as having low-sodium hazard. Most have medium- to high-salinity hazard. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

  6. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  7. Effects of selected sources of contamination on ground-water quality at seven sites in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Bingham, James W.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of contaminants has altered the quality of ground water at several places in Connecticut. This investigation of the hydrogeologic environment and the quality of water in stratified-drift aquifers underlying seven probable contaminant sources in Connecticut shows some effects at each site. Water from test wells downgradient from septage-disposal facilities in Old Saybrook and Clinton contains elevated concentrations of sodium, chloride, manganese, iron, detergent (as MBAS), dissolved organic carbon, and some trace metals. The effects are most pronounced at shallow depths close to the septage lagoons, where concentrations of some constituents exceed Connecticut Department of Health drinking water standards. Fly-ash disposal at Wallingford has contributed chromium, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon to water in the underlying aquifer, but the low hydraulic conductivity of the fine-grained surficial materials have kept effects to a minimum. Road salt leached from a storage area in the Tylerville section of Haddam has increased the sodium and chloride concentrations in ground water to the extent that it is unsuitable for drinking water. The effect diminishes in wells 1000 feet downgradient from the storage site. Water from some wells adjacent to landfills in Bristol and Southington has elevated sodium, chloride, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and samples from two wells near industrial-sludge disposal pits in the Bristol landfill contain cyanide and phenols. Gasoline odor is present in water samples from a test well 175 feet from a ruptured buried tank in Fairfield. The gasoline odor from this well was also detectable during well construction and sampling.

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  9. Ground-Water Quality in the St. Lawrence River Basin, New York, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act requires that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major river basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the St. Lawrence River Basin in northern New York, water samples were collected from 14 domestic and 11 production wells between August 2005 and January 2006. Eight of the wells were finished in sand and gravel and 17 wells were finished in bedrock. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 229 constituents and physical properties, including inorganic constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-six constituents were detected above laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations of most compounds at most sites were within drinking water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health, but a few compounds exceeded drinking water standards at some sites. Water in the basin is generally hard to very hard (hardness equal to 121 mg/L as CaCO3 or greater); hardness and alkalinity were generally higher in the St. Lawrence Valley than in the Adirondack Mountains. The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentration was bicarbonate. The concentration of chloride in one sample exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard; the concentration of sulfate in one sample also exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected

  10. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2002--Volume 2: Continuous ground-water-level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Leeth, David C.; Peck, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2002, including: discharge records of 154 gaging stations; stage for 165 gaging stations; precipitation for 105 gaging stations; information for 20 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 27 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 72 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 50 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2002, including continuous water-level records of 155 ground-water wells and periodic records at 132 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia.

  11. Ground-water flow and water quality of the Indian Island well field near Grand Island, Nebraska, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, Patrick J.; Bowman, Phillip R.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is the principal source of water for public and self-supplied domestic use in Nebraska. Ground water supplied about 235 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1990, or about 78 percent of the estimated public-water supply in Nebraska. In addition, ground water supplied about 1,017 Mgal/d, or about 83 percent of the irrigation water in the Platte River Valley (Nebraska Natural Resources Commission, 1994). Withdrawing ground water in the valley induces recharge from the river and has the potential to change ground-water quality near the river where many public-supply wells are located. The Platte River alluvial aquifer, which underlies the Platte River Valley (fig. 1), is the single most important source of water for public supply in central and eastern Nebraska. The aquifer, which is part of the High Plains aquifer, consists of stream-laid deposits of sand and gravel with discontinuous layers of clay and silt, and is connected hydraulically to the Platte River. The aquifer provides about 117 Mgal/d, or nearly 50 percent of the total daily ground-water production for Nebraska (Nebraska Natural Resources Commission, 1994). The aquifer also supplies water to Nebraska's largest cities including Kearney, Grand Island, Lincoln, and Omaha.

  12. Ground-water levels and water-quality data from monitoring wells in Windham, Maine, water years 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing data collection in an established well network in Windham, Maine, serves as an indicator of the hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the aquifer. This report presents data collected from 1997 through 2001, including ground-water levels, measurements of water-quality field parameters, and concentrations of nutrients and arsenic.

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  14. Ground-water quality in the Lake Champlain basin, New York, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 11 public-supply wells and 11 private domestic wells in the Lake Champlain basin in New York during the fall of 2004 to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells were selected for sampling based on location and focused on areas of greatest ground-water use. Samples were analyzed for 219 physical properties and constituents, including inorganic compounds, nutrients, metals, radionuclides, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-eight constituents were detected at concentrations above laboratory reporting levels. The cation and anion with the highest median concentration were calcium (34.8 mg/L) bicarbonate (134 mg/L), respectively. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, which was detected in 14 (64 percent) of the 22 samples. The two metals with the highest median concentrations were iron (175 ?g/L) and strontium (124 ?g/L); concentrations of iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standards in one or more samples. Radon concentrations were less than 1,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) in most samples, but concentrations as high as 6,900 pCi/L were detected and, in eight samples, exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contaminant level (300 pCi/L) for radon. The most frequently detected pesticides were degradates of the broadleaf herbicides metolachlor, alachlor, and atrazine. Volatile organic compounds were detected in only three samples; those that were detected typically were fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether. Coliform bacteria were detected in four samples, two of which also tested positive for E. coli.

  15. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Londquist, Clark J.

    1997-01-01

    Geohydrologic data were collected from Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center in the Mojave Desert of southern California by the U.S. Geological Survey during 199296 to deter mine the quantity and quality of ground water available in this basin. In addition to data collected from existing wells and test holes, 17 monitoring sites were constructed in Irwin Basin to provide data on subsurface geology, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Eleven of these sites were multiple-well monitoring sites that were constructed to provide depth-dependent geohydrologic data in the aquifer system. The aquifer system of Irwin Basin, defined on the basis of hydrologic data collected from wells in Irwin Basin, consists of an upper and a lower aquifer. A 1994 water-table contour map shows that a cone of depression beneath Irwin Basin well field has developed as a result of ground-water development. Water-quality samples collected from Irwin Basin wells to determine potential sources of ground-water degradation indicate that water in three areas in the basin contains high nitrate and dissolved-solids concentrations. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate that present-day precipitation is not a major source of recharge in this basin. Tritium and carbon-14 data indicate that most of the basin was recharged before 1953 and that this water may be more than 14,000 years old.

  16. Ground Water Sampling at ISCO Sites - Residual Oxidant Impact on Sample Quality and Sample Preservation Guideline

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) involves the delivery of a chemical oxidant into the subsurface where oxidative reactions transform ground water contaminants into less toxic or harmless byproducts. Due to oxidant persistence, ground water samples collected at hazardous waste si...

  17. LAND AND WATER USE EFFECTS ON GROUND-WATER QUALITY IN LAS VEGAS VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrogeologic study of the shallow ground-water zone in Las Vegas Valley, Nevada determined the sources and extent of ground-water contamination to develop management alternatives and minimize adverse effects. An extensive, computerized data base utilizing water analyses, wel...

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  19. Waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water near Elkhart, Indiana, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, P.M.; Yeskis, D.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Four wells downgradient from a landfill near Elkhart, Indiana were sampled during 2000-2002 to evaluate the presence of waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water. Compounds detected in leachate-affected ground water included detergent metabolites (p-nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate, nonylphenol diethoxylate, and octylphenol monoethoxylate), plasticizers (ethanol-2-butoxy-phosphate and diethylphthalate), a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), disinfectants (1,4-dichlorobenzene and triclosan), an antioxidant (5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole), three fire-retardant compounds (tributylphosphate and tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, and tri(dichlorisopropyl)phosphate), and several pharmaceuticals and metabolites (acetaminophen, caffeine, cotinine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, fluoxetine, and ibuprofen). Acetaminophen, caffeine, and cotinine detections confirm prior indications of pharmaceutical and nicotinate disposal in the landfill. ?? 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  1. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  2. Guide to Louisiana's ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, C.G.; Knochenmus, D.D.; McGee, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water is one of the most valuable and abundant natural resources of Louisiana. Of the 4-.4 million people who live in the State, 61 percent use ground water as a source for drinking water. Most industrial and rural users and half of the irrigation users in the State rely on ground water. Quantity, however, is not the only aspect that makes ground water so valuable; quality also is important for its use. In most areas, little or no water treatment is required for drinking water and industrial purposes. Knowledge of Louisiana's ground-water resources is needed to ensure proper development and protection of this valuable resource. This report is designed to inform citizens about the availability and quality of ground water in Louisiana. It is not intended as a technical reference; rather, it is a guide to ground water and the significant role this resource plays in the state. Most of the ground water that is used in the State is withdrawn from 13 aquifers and aquifer systems: the Cockfield, Sparta, and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifersin northern Louisiana; Chicot aquifer system, Evangeline aquifer, Jasper aquifer system, and Catahoula aquifer in central and southwestern Louisiana; the Chicot equivalent, Evangeline equivalent, and Jasper equivalent aquifer systems in southeastern Louisiana; and the MississippiRiver alluvial, Red River alluvial, and upland terrace aquifers that are statewide. Ground water is affected by man's activities on the land surface, and the major ground-water concerns in Louisiana are: (1) contamination from surface disposal of hazardous waste, agricultural chemicals, and petroleum products; (2) contamination from surface wastes and saltwater through abandoned wells; (3) saltwater encroachment; and (4) local overdevelopment. Information about ground water in Louisiana is extensive and available to the public. Several State and Federal agencies provide published and unpublished material upon request.

  3. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  4. Ground-Water Quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, J.E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 community water system wells and 15 private domestic wells throughout the Genesee River Basin in New York State (downstream from the Pennsylvania border) from October 2005 through March 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water in the basin. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a representative sampling from the 2,439 square-mile basin area in New York. Samples were analyzed for five physical properties and 226 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The results show that ground water used for drinking water is generally of good quality in the Genesee River Basin, although concentrations of seven constituents exceeded drinking water standards. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, and nitrate concentrations were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock aquifers. The trace elements barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the highest concentrations were barium, boron, chromium, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. Fourteen pesticides including seven pesticide degradates were detected in water from 12 of the 22 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in six samples, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Seven chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were present in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Sulfate concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum

  5. Geology and ground-water resources of the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, North Dakota, with a section on the chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingman, Robert James; Gordon, Ellis D.; Swenson, H.A.

    1954-01-01

    water are available from thin alluvial deposits in some places on the upland. Most wells in the valleys produce water from the alluvium or the terrace deposits. However, several wells penetrate the underlying Fort Union formation. A few flowing wells in the Missouri River valley near Elbowoods produce water from either the lower part of the Fort Union formation or from the Cannonball formation, also of Paleocene age. The chemical character of water from the Fort Union formation and the outwash and river gravels was determined from analyses of 39 samples from wells and springs. Water from bedrock may be either hard or soft, and it is moderately to highly mineralized. Water from the surficial deposits is uniformly hard, but it is less mineralized. Shallow wells in the eastern and northeastern segments produce water of good quality. Wells in these segments, and several springs in the western segment, could be used satisfactorily as domestic supplies. Spring water from lignite deposits on the reservation generally is colored and contains objectionable amounts of iron. Treatment of the water would improve its quality for domestic use. The filling of Garrison Reservoir will cause a rise of the water levels in wells that tap aquifers now discharging below the operating level of the reservoir. All the permeable strata below this level will become saturated, and ground-water bodies that are now separated will become hydraulically united. In addition to providing subsurface information, the drilling program of the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs provided wells for domestic and stock-water supplies. All test holes that tapped an adequate supply of potable water were reamed to a larger diameter, equipped with casing and well screen, and gravel-packed. The test-drilling program was completed in 1951; however, the drilling of domestic wells was continued under the supervision of the U. S. Geological Survey.

  6. Changes in quality of ground water in the Lincoln area, Montana, 1974-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Robert B.; Wood, Wayne A.; Boettcher, Arnold J.

    1981-01-01

    Water samples from representative shallow wells in Lincoln, Mont., were collected in March and June 1979 for analysis to evaluate changes in quality since 1974-75 and possible contamination by domestic or agricultural waste. All samples were suitable for drinking water with respect to the constituents tested. Tests for fecal coliform bacteria were negative. The concentrations of dissolved solids, composed mainly of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, were less than 300 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chloride were 3.5 milligrams per liter or less. From March to June, the maximum concentration of nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen (as N) declined from 0.57 to 0.29 milligram per liter and the mean concentrations declined from 0.16 to 0.11 milligram per liter, probably as a result of dilution of ground water by snowmelt. The concentrations in samples from the same sites generally were lower in 1979 than in 1974-75. Isolation of sewage effluent in shallow zones by hardpan, consumption of nutrients by abundant phreatophytes, filtration of bacteria by the soil or aquifer, and dilution by underflow and recharge evidently combine to maintain the quality of the well waters within acceptable limits. (USGS)

  7. Ground-water movement and water quality in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, 1999-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, T.A.; Wright, S.J.; Stolp, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data in Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah, were collected during August 1999 through August 2003. Water levels in Lake Point generally declined about 1 to 2 feet from July 2001 to July 2003, likely because of less-than-average precipitation. Ground water generally flows in two directions from the Oquirrh Mountains. One component flows north toward the regional topographic low, Great Salt Lake. The other component generally flows southwest toward a substantial spring complex, Factory/Dunne's Pond. This southwest component flows through a coarse gravel deposit believed to be a shoreline feature of historic Lake Bonneville. The dominant water-quality trend in Lake Point is an increase in dissolved-solids concentration with proximity to Great Salt Lake. The water type changes from calcium-bicarbonate adjacent to the Oquirrh Mountains to sodium-chloride with proximity to Great Salt Lake. Evaluation of chloride-bromide weight ratios indicates a mixture of fresher recharge waters with a brine similar to what currently exists in Great Salt Lake.

  8. Water Resources Data, Georgia, 2001, Volume 2: Continuous ground-water level data, and periodic surface-water- and ground-water-quality data, Calendar Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffin, Robert; Grams, Susan C.; Cressler, Alan M.; Leeth, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in two volumes in a digital format on a CD-ROM. Volume one of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during water year 2001, including: discharge records of 133 gaging stations; stage for 144 gaging stations; precipitation for 58 gaging stations; information for 19 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water-quality records for 17 stations; the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 76 crest-stage partial-record stations; and miscellaneous streamflow measurements at 27 stations, and miscellaneous water-quality data recorded by the NAWQA program in Georgia. Volume two of this report contains water resources data for Georgia collected during calendar year 2001, including continuous water-level records of 159 ground-water wells and periodic records at 138 water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Note: Historically, this report was published as a paper report. For the 1999 and subsequent water-year reports, the Water Resources Data for Georgia changed to a new, more informative and functional format on CD-ROM. The format is based on a geographic information system (GIS) user interface that allows the user to view map locations of the hydrologic monitoring stations and networks within respective river basins. To obtain a copy of the CD version of this report, you may call the U.S. Geological Survey office in Atlanta at (770) 903-9100, or send e-mail to request the publication. Please include your name and mailing address in your e-mail.

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  10. Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, P.L.; Norman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines. ?? 2006 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  12. Age and quality of ground water and sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Cannia, J.C.; Sibray, S.S.; McGuire, V.L.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the source of drinking water for the residents of Pumpkin Creek Valley, western Nebraska. In this largely agricultural area, shallow aquifers potentially are susceptible to nitrate contamination. During the last 10 years, ground-water levels in the North Platte Natural Resources District have declined and contamination has become a major problem for the district. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to determine the age and quality of the ground water and the sources of nitrogen in the aquifers in Pumpkin Creek Valley. Water samples were collected from 8 surface-water sites, 2 springs, and 88 ground-water sites during May, July, and August 2000. These samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients or nitrate, and hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In addition, a subset of samples was analyzed for any combination of chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, tritium/helium, sulfur-hexafluoride, carbon-14, and nitrogen-15. The apparent age of ground water in the alluvial aquifer typically varied from about 1980 to modern, whereas ground water in the fractured Brule Formation had a median value in the 1970s. The Brule Formation typically contained ground water that ranged from the 1940s to the 1990s, but low-yield wells had apparent ages of 5,000 to 10,000 years before present. Data for oxygen-18 and deuterium indicated that lake-water samples showed the greatest effects from evaporation. Ground-water data showed no substantial evaporative effects and some ground water became isotopically heavier as the water moved downgradient. In addition, the physical and chemical ground-water data indicate that Pumpkin Creek is a gaining stream because little, if any, of its water is lost to the ground-water system. The water-quality type changed from a sodium calcium bicarbonate type near Pumpkin Creek's headwaters to a calcium sodium bicarbonate type near its mouth. Nitrate concentrations were

  13. EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE ON GROUND-WATER QUALITY, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Brian J.; Ku, Henry F.H.; Oaksford, Edward T.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial-recharge experiments were conducted at East Meadow in central Nassau County, Long Island, N. Y. , from October 1982 through January 1984, to evaluate the degree of ground-water mounding and chemical effects of artificially replenishing the ground-water system with tertiary-treated wastewater. Reclaimed water was provided by the Cedar Creek wastewater-treatment plant in Wantagh. Recharge with reclaimed water increased the concentration of sodium and chloride in ground water but lowered the concentrations of total nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite) and some low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. Reclaimed water was well within the New York State effluent standards for ground-water recharge. Specific-conductance measurements and Stiff diagrams of chemical analyses were used to help define the extent and shape of the plume formed by reclaimed water.

  14. Bacteriological quality of ground water used for household supply, Lower Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bickford, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Beaver, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the bacteriological results of a ground-water study conducted from 1993 to 1995 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin study unit. Water samples collected from 146 household supply wells were analyzed for fecal-indicator organisms including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and fecal streptococcus concentrations. Supporting data used in the interpretations are selected water-quality constituents, well-construction information, and the environmental setting at the well site including land use, physiography, and bedrock type. Water from nearly 70 percent of the wells sampled had total coliform present and thus was not suitable for drinking without treatment. Fecal coliforms were found in water from approximately 25 percent of the sampled wells. E. coli testing was not conducted in 1993. Approximately 30 percent of the 88 sampled wells had waters with E. coli. Fecal streptococcus bacteria was present in water from about 65 percent of the wells sampled. Bacteriological contamination was more likely to occur in water from wells in agricultural areas than in water from wells in forested areas. Water from wells sampled in the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province was more likely to have bacteria than water from wells in the Piedmont Physiographic Province. Differences in bacterial concentrations among bedrock types are only statistically significant for E. coli. Bacterial concentrations are weakly related to well-age but not to other well characteristics such as the total well depth or the casing length. Relations exist between bacterial concentrations and selected water-quality constituents. Most wells from which water was sampled did not have sanitary seals and very few were grouted. This may have contributed to the number of detections of bacteria. It is uncertain whether the bacteria detected are the result of widespread aquifer

  15. Availability and quality of ground water in the Lake George area, southeastern Park County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, Kimball E.

    1978-01-01

    Water for domestic use in the Lake George area, Colo., is produced from four aquifers. Two of the aquifers, fractured-cyrstalline and volcanic rocks, have a water table ranging from 10 to 100 feet below land surface and well yields range from 0.08 to 6 gallons per minute. The consolidated sedimentary-rock and unconsolidated-alluvial aquifers have a water table ranging from near land surface to 60 feet below land surface and well yields range from 2 to 50 gallons per minute. The aquifers generally contain calcium bicarbonate water with concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from 101 to 636 milligrams per liter. In some areas, concentrations of iron as much as 18,000 micrograms per liter and concentrations of fluoride as much as 5.6 milligrams per liter affect suitability for domestic use. Chemical degradation of ground water has occurred in 18 of the 35 wells and in the 1 spring that were sampled. Bacterial contamination was found in water from six wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. The hydrogeologic framework and a reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Piedmont Province of North Carolina, with a design for future study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harned, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the relation of ground- water quality and land use in the regolith and fractured rock ground-water system of the North Carolina Piedmont. The initial phase of this study provides a description of the ground-water flow system and a review of available ground-water data and formulates hypotheses that guide the design of a water-quality monitoring network for study of selected areas. In the Piedmont, the solid igneous and metamorphic bedrock grades upward into unweathered fractured rock that is covered by a transition zone of highly-fractured, partially weathered rock, clay-rich saprolite, and the soil. The fractured bedrock, transition zone, saprolite, and soil make up a complex flow system. A review of available ground-water quality data shows a lack of information about organic compounds and trace metals and changes in ground- water quality with depth. Land use, soils, and geology significantly influence ground-water quality. The hypotheses that need to be tested in the next study phase are: (1) that ground-water contamination can be related to land use, and (2) that the transition zone between bedrock and regolith serves as a primary transmitter of contaminants. Monitoring of basins containing industrial, urban, residential, and agricultural land uses in future studies will help define the relation of ground-water quality to land use. Water quality at different depths in the flow system and in streams during base flow needs to be identified.

  17. Hydraulic and mechanical properties affecting ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes hydraulic and mechanical properties affecting ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction in the San Joaquin Valley, a broad alluviated intermontane structural trough that constitutes the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California. These values will be used to constrain a coupled ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction model of the western San Joaquin Valley called WESTSIM. A main objective of the WESTSIM model is to evaluate potential future land subsidence that might occur under conditions in which deliveries of imported surface water for agricultural use are reduced and ground-water pumping is increased. Storage values generally are components of the total aquifer-system storage and include inelastic and elastic skeletal storage values of the aquifers and the aquitards that primarily govern the potential amount of land subsidence. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values generally are for discrete thicknesses of sediments, usually aquitards, that primarily govern the rate of land subsidence. The data were compiled from published sources and include results of aquifer tests, stress-strain analyses of borehole extensometer observations, laboratory consolidation tests, and calibrated models of aquifer-system compaction.

  18. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.

    1995-01-01

    NETPATH geochemical model code was used to mix waters from the alluvial aquifer with water from the Memphis aquifer using chloride as a conservative tracer. The resulting models indicated that a mixture containing 3 percent alluvial aquifer water mixed with 97 percent unaffected Memphis aquifer water would produce the chloride concentration measured in water from the Memphis aquifer well most affected by water-quality changes. NETPATH also was used to calculate mixing percentages of alluvial and Memphis aquifer Abstract waters based on changes in the concentrations of selected dissolved major inorganic and trace element constituents that define the dominant reactions that occur during mixing. These models indicated that a mixture containing 18 percent alluvial aquifer water and 82 percent unaffected Memphis aquifer water would produce the major constituent and trace element concentrations measured in water from the Memphis aquifer well most affected by water-quality changes. However, these model simulations predicted higher dissolved methane concentrations than were measured in water samples from the Memphis aquifer wells.

  19. Surface and Ground Water Quality in Köprüören Basin (Kütahya), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet; Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Abadi Berhe, Berihu

    2014-05-01

    In this study, quality of the water resources in Köprüören Basin, located to the west of Kütahya city in western Anatolia, were investigated. The total catchment area of the basin is 275 km2 and it is located upstream of Kütahya and Eskişehir plains. Therefore, besides 6,000 people residing in the basin, a much larger population will be impacted by the quality of surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. Groundwater flow is from north to south and south to north towards Kocasu stream, which flows to Enne Dam. The surface and ground water quality in this area are negatively affected by the mining activities. In the northern part of the area, there are coal deposits present in Miocene Tunçbilek formation. Ground waters in contact with the coal deposits contain low concentrations of arsenic (up to 30 µg/l). In the southern part, the only silver deposit of Turkey is present, which is developed in metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gümüşköy (Gümüş means silver, köy means village in Turkish). The amount of silver manufactured annually in this silver plant is huge and comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The wastes, enriched in cyanide, arsenic, stibnite, lead and zinc, are stored in waste pools and there is extensive leakage of these heavy metals from these pools. Therefore, surface waters, soils and plants in the affected areas contain high concentrations of arsenic, stibnite and lead. The As, Sb, Pb and Zn concentrations are up to 733 µg/l, 158 µg/l, 48 µg/l, and 286 µg/l in surface waters (in dry season), 6180 ppm, 410 ppm, 4180 ppm, 9950 ppm in soils and 809 ppm, 399 ppm, 800 ppm, 2217 ppm in plants, respectively. Today, most of the As, Sb, Pb and Zn are absorbed by the soils and only a small part are dissolved in water. However, conditions might change in future leading to desorption of these contaminants. Therefore

  20. Geology and ground-water resources of Laramie County, Wyoming; with a section on Chemical quality of ground water and of surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, Marlin E.; Crist, Marvin A.; Tilstra, John R.

    1967-01-01

    Laramie County, an area of 2,709 square miles, is in the southeast corner of Wyoming. Rocks exposed there range in age from Precambrian to Recent. The most extensive aquifers in the county are the White River Formation of Oligocene age, which is as much as 500 feet thick and consists predominantly of siltstone ; the Arikaree Formation of Miocene age, which consists of as much as 450 feet of very fine grained to fine-grained sandstone; and the Ogallala Formation of Miocene and Pliocene age, which consists ,of as much as 330 feet of gravel, sand, silt, and some cobbles and boulders. These formations are capable of yielding large ,supplies of water locally. Terrace deposits of Quaternary age yield moderate .to large supplies of water in the southeastern and northeastern parts of the county. In the Federal well field, large yields of water from the White River Formation are obtained from gravel lenses. In the eastern part of the county near Pine Bluffs, large yields are obtained from openings in .the siltstone of the White River. Previous investigators reported that the large yields were obtained in areas where the formation is fractured and fissured. The authors of this report believe that .the large yields from siltstone in the White River Formation are from pipes, sometimes called natural tunnels, rather than from fractures ,or fissures. Little is known about the water-bearing properties of the pro-Tertiary aquifers in the county, but water derived from the pro-Tertiary formations would probably be of poor quality, except in the vicinity of the outcrop near the western edge of the county. Precipitation is the principal source of recharge to the ground-water reservoirs. About 5 percent of the annual precipitation, or about 108,400 acre-feet per year, is estimated to be recharged. Only a small amount of additional recharge is from streams. The general movement of ground water is eastward, and the average gradient of the water table is about 40 feet per mile. The total

  1. Ground-water records for eastern Oklahoma, Part 2; water-quality records for wells, test-holes, and springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S.

    1978-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has collected data on Oklahoma's ground-water resources since 1934. Most of these data were collected as part of specific ground-water studies conducted in cooperation with various Federal, State, and local agencies. Data on construction, yield, water levels, and other physical well parameters are given in 'Ground-Water Records for Northeastern Oklahoma, Part 1 - Records of Wells, Test Holes, and Springs' and in 'Ground-Water Records for Southeastern Oklahoma, Part 1 - Records of Wells, Test Holes, and Springs.' These reports are available from the U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Rm. 621, 201 N.W. Third, Oklahoma City, OK 73102. Although some water-quality data for wells, test-holes, and springs have been published, they are scattered through a variety of reports and are not readily available on a regional basis. Furthermore, a considerable amount of data have never been published and can be obtained only from the files of the Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to make available both published and unpublished water-quality records for approximately 1,740 wells, test-holes, and springs in 23 counties in northeastern Oklahoma and 16 counties in southeastern Oklahoma. Acknowledgment is extended to the many hundreds of individuals who have provided the data compiled in this report.

  2. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  3. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2004-01-01

    derived from Medano and Sand Creeks. Major ion chemistry of water from sites completed in the confined aquifer is different than water from sites completed in the unconfined aquifer, but insufficient data exist to quantify if the two aquifers are hydrologically disconnected. Radiocarbon dating of ground water in the confined aquifer indicates it is about 30,000 years old (plus or minus 3,000 years). The peak of the last major ice advance (Wisconsin) during the ice age occurred about 20,000 years before present; ground water from the confined aquifer is much older than that. Water quality and water levels of the interdunal ponds are not affected by waters from the confined aquifer. Instead, the interdunal ponds are affected directly by fluctuations in the water table of the unconfined aquifer. Any lowering of the water table of the unconfined aquifer would result in an immediate decrease in water levels of the interdunal ponds. The water quality of the interdunal ponds probably results from several factors, including the water quality of the unconfined aquifer, evaporation of the pond water, and biologic activity within the ponds.

  4. Ground-water quality and effects of poultry confined animal feeding operations on shallow ground water, upper Shoal Creek basin, Southwest Missouri, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-seven wells and 8 springs were sampled in May, October, and November 2000 in the upper Shoal Creek Basin, southwest Missouri, to determine if nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities are increasing in the shallow aquifer as a result of poultry confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Most of the land use in the basin is agricultural, with cattle and hay production dominating; the number of poultry CAFOs has increased in recent years. Poultry waste (litter) is used as a source of nutrients on pasture land as much as several miles away from poultry barns.Most wells in the sample network were classified as ?P? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and where poultry litter was applied to a substantial acreage within 0.5 mile of the well both in spring 2000 and in several previous years; and ?Ag? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and which had limited or no association with poultry CAFOs. Water-quality data from wells and springs were grouped for statistical purposes as P1, Ag1, and Sp1 (May 2000 samples) and P2, Ag2, and Sp2 (October or November 2000 samples). The results of this study do not indicate that poultry CAFOs are affecting the shallow ground water in the upper Shoal Creek Basin with respect to nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities. Statistical tests do not indicate that P wells sampled in spring 2000 have statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate or fecal indicator bacteria densities than Ag wells sampled during the same time, at a 95-percent confidence level. Instead, the Ag wells had statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate and fecal coliform bacteria densities than the P wells.The results of this study do not indicate seasonal variations from spring 2000 to fall 2000 in the concentrations of nutrients or fecal indicator bacteria densities from well samples. Statistical tests do not indicate statistically

  5. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 25. Summary of Results and Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Geochemistry, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Active and inactive mine sites are challenging to remediate because of their complexity and scale. Regulations meant to achieve environmental restoration at mine sites are equally challenging to apply for the same reasons. The goal of environmental restoration should be to restore contaminated mine sites, as closely as possible, to pre-mining conditions. Metalliferous mine sites in the Western United States are commonly located in hydrothermally altered and mineralized terrain in which pre-mining concentrations of metals were already anomalously high. Typically, those pre-mining concentrations were not measured, but sometimes they can be reconstructed using scientific inference. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The State of New Mexico requires that ground-water quality standards be met on closure unless it can be shown that potential contaminant concentrations were higher than the standards before mining. No ground water at the mine site had been chemically analyzed before mining. The aim of this investigation, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality by an examination of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical controls on ground-water quality in a nearby, or proximal, analog site in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Twenty-seven reports contain details of investigations on the geological, hydrological, and geochemical characteristics of the Red River Valley that are summarized in this report. These studies include mapping of surface mineralogy by Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS); compilations of historical surface- and ground- water quality data; synoptic/tracer studies with mass loading and temporal water-quality trends of the Red River; reaction-transport modeling of the Red River; environmental geology of the Red River Valley; lake

  6. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality at a land reclamation site, Neshaminy State Park, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blickwedel, Ray S.; Linn, Jeff H.

    1987-01-01

    Analyses of ground-water samples collected after the first two sludge applications (120 tons per acre and 450 tons per acre), indicate that no significant change occurred in the chemistry of the samples from the Trenton gravel, whereas organic nitrogen increased temporarily in ground water from the dredge spoil 6 months after the larger of the two sludge applications, but quickly returned to background levels. The lack of chemical change with time in the ground water implies either that little of the more than 100 inches of precipitation that fell from April 1983 through March 1985 reached the water table or, more likely, that a mechanism exists beneath the soil- factory site that retards or prevents the downard migration of contaminants.

  7. UTILIZATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY IN THE ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL GROUND-WATER QUALITY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nebert, Douglas; Anderson, Dean

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs and several State agencies in Oregon has prepared a digital spatial database at 1:500,000 scale to be used as a basis for evaluating the potential for ground-water contamination by pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. Geographic information system (GIS) software was used to assemble, analyze, and manage spatial and tabular environmental data in support of this project. Physical processes were interpreted relative to published spatial data and an integrated database to support the appraisal of regional ground-water contamination was constructed. Ground-water sampling results were reviewed relative to the environmental factors present in several agricultural areas to develop an empirical knowledge base which could be used to assist in the selection of future sampling or study areas.

  8. Effects on ground-water quality from irrigating pasture with sewage effluent near Lakeland, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichenbaugh, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1969 an average of 25,000 gpd of domestic secondary-treated effluent has been used to supplement irrigation of 30 acres of grazed pasture north of Lakeland, Florida. Monitor wells were contructed near the effluent-irrigated pasture. The water table in the surficial aquifer under the pasture varied from 1.0 to 3.3 feet below land surface. Total nitrogen was less than 20 percent of the effluent content after percolating 8 feet; no increase in nitrogen was detected 20 feet below the surface, or in down-gradient ground water. There was no evidence of phosphorus or carbon contamination of ground water. Low numbers of bacteria (generally coliform) were noted in some samples from nine wells. Four wells sampled contained bacteria of probable fecal origin. Low-rate application of the effluent to the pasture apparently has had little effect on the soil and ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Ground-Water Quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 27 wells from August through November 2006 to characterize ground-water quality in the Mohawk River Basin. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in central New York; most of the basin is underlain by sedimentary bedrock, including shale, sandstone, and carbonates. Sand and gravel form the most productive aquifers in the basin. Samples were collected from 13 sand and gravel wells and 14 bedrock wells, including production and domestic wells. The samples were collected and processed through standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 226 physical properties and constituents, including physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Many constituents were not detected in any sample, but concentrations of some constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water quality standards, including color (1 sample), pH (2 samples), sodium (11 samples), chloride (2 samples), fluoride (1 sample), sulfate (1 sample), aluminum (2 samples), arsenic (2 samples), iron (10 samples), manganese (10 samples), radon-222 (12 samples), and bacteria (6 samples). Dissolved oxygen concentrations were greater in samples from sand and gravel wells (median 5.6 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) than from bedrock wells (median 0.2 mg/L). The pH was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.3); the median water temperature was 11?C. The ions with the highest concentrations were bicarbonate (median 276 mg/L), calcium (median 58.9 mg/L), and sodium (median 41.9 mg/L). Ground water in the basin is generally very hard (180 mg/L as CaCO3 or greater), especially in the Mohawk Valley and areas with carbonate bedrock. Nitrate-plus-nitrite concentrations were generally higher samples from sand and gravel wells (median concentration 0.28 mg/L as N) than in samples from bedrock wells (median < 0.06 mg/L as N), although no concentrations

  10. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Hudson River Basin, New York, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 25 production and domestic wells in the Upper Hudson River Basin (north of the Federal Dam at Troy, N.Y.) from August through November 2007 to characterize the ground-water quality. The Upper Hudson River Basin covers 4,600 square miles in upstate New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts; the study area encompasses the 4,000 square miles that lie within New York. The basin is underlain by crystalline and sedimentary bedrock, including gneiss, shale, and slate; some sandstone and carbonate rocks are present locally. The bedrock in some areas is overlain by surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel. Of the 25 wells sampled, 13 were finished in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 were finished in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 225 physical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: color (1 sample), pH (2 samples), sodium (5 samples), nitrate plus nitrite (2 samples), aluminum (3 samples), iron (1 sample), manganese (7 samples), radon-222 (11 samples), and bacteria (1 sample). Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in samples from wells finished in sand and gravel [median 5.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] were greater than those from wells finished in bedrock (median 0.4 mg/L). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.6); the median water temperature was 9.7 deg C. The ions with the highest concentrations were bicarbonate (median 123 mg/L) and calcium (median 33.9 mg/L). Ground water in the basin is generally soft to moderately hard (less than or equal to 120 mg/L as CaCO3) (median hardness 110 mg/L as CaCO3). Concentrations of

  11. Ground-water quality, water year 1995, and statistical analysis of ground-water-quality data, water years 1994-95, at the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Roybal, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was closed in 1989, and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued permit number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in monitoring and evaluating ground-water quality at the site. One upgradient ground-water monitoring well (MW1) and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells (MW2 and MW3), installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit, are monitored on a quarterly basis. Ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The ground-water level, measured in a production well located approximately 1,700 feet southeast of the Chromic Acid Pit site, has declined about 29.43 feet from 1982 to 1995. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1995 was 284.2 to 286.5 feet below land surface; ground-water flow at the water table is assumed to be toward the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site during water year 1995 contained dissolved- solids concentrations of 481 to 516 milligrams per liter. Total chromium concentrations detected above the laboratory reporting limit ranged from 0.0061 to 0.030 milligram per liter; dissolved chromium concentrations ranged from 0.0040 to 0.010 milligram per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.8 milligrams per

  12. Data on ground-water quality in the Carson River basin, western Nevada and eastern California, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, Rita

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water samples from June 1987 through February 1990 as part of a study of the ground-water quality in the Carson River Basin. The Carson River Basin is one of seven national pilot projects conducted by the Geological Survey as part of a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data from the sampling program include analyses of 110 different constituents and properties of ground water in 400 separate samplings of 230 domestic, public-supply, irrigation, and shallow monitoring wells and one spring. The water-quality data include: field measurements, major constituents, nutrients, minor constituents, radionuclides, stable isotopes, and synthetic organic compounds.

  13. SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    SURFACE WATER AND GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING FOR RESTORATION OF URBAN LAKES IN GREATER HYDERABAD, INDIA A.K. Mohanty, K. Mahesh Kumar, B. A. Prakash and V.V.S. Gurunadha Rao Ecology and Environment Group National Geophysical Research Institute, (CSIR) Hyderabad - 500 606, India E-mail:atulyakumarmohanty@yahoo.com Abstract: Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority has taken up restoration of urban lakes around Hyderabad city under Green Hyderabad Environment Program. Restoration of Mir Alam Tank, Durgamcheruvu, Patel cheruvu, Pedda Cheruvu and Nallacheruvu lakes have been taken up under the second phase. There are of six lakes viz., RKPuramcheruvu, Nadimicheruvu (Safilguda), Bandacheruvu Patelcheruvu, Peddacheruvu, Nallacheruvu, in North East Musi Basin covering 38 sq km. Bimonthly monitoring of lake water quality for BOD, COD, Total Nitrogen, Total phosphorous has been carried out for two hydrological cycles during October 2002- October 2004 in all the five lakes at inlet channels and outlets. The sediments in the lake have been also assessed for nutrient status. The nutrient parameters have been used to assess eutrophic condition through computation of Trophic Status Index, which has indicated that all the above lakes under study are under hyper-eutrophic condition. The hydrogeological, geophysical, water quality and groundwater data base collected in two watersheds covering 4 lakes has been used to construct groundwater flow and mass transport models. The interaction of lake-water with groundwater has been computed for assessing the lake water budget combining with inflow and outflow measurements on streams entering and leaving the lakes. Individual lake water budget has been used for design of appropriate capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) on the inlet channels of the lakes for maintaining Full Tank Level (FTL) in each lake. STPs are designed for tertiary treatment i.e. removal of nutrient load viz., Phosphates and Nitrates. Phosphates are

  14. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for transport of organochlorine pesticides in ground water at the North Hollywood Dump, Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.; Bradley, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data indicate that ground-water contamination is confined to shallow horizons within the unconfined aquifer underlying the North Hollywood Dump in Memphis, Tennessee. The dump is a closed municipal-industrial landfill that has been ranked as Tennessee's potentially most dangerous hazardous-waste site. Toxic constituents of concern at the dump include residues from the manufacture of organochlorine pesticides. The dump overlies an unconfined aquifer of unconsolidated sands, silts, and clays. During average hydrologic conditions, ground waterflows beneath the dump at a mean velocity of approximately 3 feet per day and discharges to the Wolf River. Leachate from the dump mixes with underlying ground water, resulting in increased concentrations of dissolved solids and organic carbon downgradient from the dump. The mobility of chlordane, a representative organochlorine pesticide, is limited by its low solubility and its strong affinity for sand, silt, and clays of the aquifer. Degradation of chlordane may occur slowly, if at all, in the aquifer. Based on estimates of mean ground-water velocity and retardation of the pesticide due to sorption, mean travel times for chlordane migrating from the dump to the ground-water discharge zone are of the order of 50 to 500 years. Simulations of chlordane concentration resulting from the discharge of contaminated ground water and complete mixing in the Wolf River are sensitive to assumptions about chlordane persistence in the unconfined aquifer. If the half life of chlordane in the aquifer is assumed to be 30 years or less, the simulated concentration of chlordane in the Wolf River under average flow conditions is less than the most stringent water-quality criterion.

  15. Ground-water hydrology and the effects of vertical leakage and leachate migration on ground-water quality near the Shelby County landfill, Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of potential leakage of leachate from the Shelby County landfill near Memphis, West Tennessee, was conducted during 1986-87. The migration of leachate from the landfill to the shallow alluvial aquifer system and the potential leakage to the deeper confined Memphis aquifer of Tertiary age were investigated. A network of observation wells was drilled to determine water levels and aquifer properties in the shallow and deep aquifers as well as in the confining layer. Water samples were collected to define potential leachate occurrence. A depression in the water table within the shallow alluvial aquifer was defined from the water-level data. Drawdowns within the cone of depression are as much as 14 feet lower than the adjoining Wolf River. Recharge from the river and leachate from the landfill moves toward the depression. The presence of leachate within the shallow aquifer was confirmed from determinations of dissolved solids and dissolved chloride concentrations and comparisons with areas away from the aflected zone. Leakage from the water-table aquifer to the Memphis aquifer was confirmed from chemical analyses and hydraulic-head data. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples from the upper Memphis aquifer near the landfill are higher than in samples from the Memphis aquifer in unaffected areas. Tritium activities in water samples from the upper Memphis aquifer were as high as 34 pico-Curies per liter indicating recent recharge to the Memphis aquifer. The presence of synthetic organic compounds and elevated concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, and trace metals indicate the leachate has aflected water quality in the alluvial aquifer. Vertical migration of ground water could transmit leachate down to the Memphis aquifer. Although water-quality data indicate that water is leaking from the alluvial aquifer to the Memphis aquifer, most of the data do not indicate the occurrence of leachate in the Memphis aquifer. Chemical data from one

  16. Investigation of ground-water availability and quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, William L.; Daniel, Charles C., III

    2001-01-01

    A countywide inventory was conducted of 649 wells in nine hydrogeologic units in Orange County, North Carolina. As a result of this inventory, estimates of ground-water availability and use were calculated, and water-quality results were obtained from 51 wells sampled throughout the County from December 1998 through January 1999. The typical well in Orange County has an average depth of 208 feet, an average casing length of 53.6 feet, a static water level of 26.6 feet, a yield of 17.6 gallons per minute, and a well casing diameter of 6.25 inches. The saturated thickness of the regolith averages 27.0 feet and the yield per foot of total well depth averages 0.119 gallon per minute per foot. Two areas of the County are more favorable for high-yield wells.a west-southwest to east-northeast trending area in the northwestern part of the County, and a southwest to northeast trending area in the southwestern part of the County. Well yields in Orange County show little correlation with topographic or hydrogeologic setting. Fifty-one sampling locations were selected based on (a) countywide areal distribution, (b) weighted distribution among hydrogeologic units, and (c) permission from homeowners. The list of analytes for the sampling program consisted of common anions and cations, metals and trace elements, nutrients, organic compounds, and radon. Samples were screened for the presence of fuel compounds and pesticides by using immuno-assay techniques. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity were measured in the field. The median pH was 6.9, which is nearly neutral, and the median hardness was 75 milligrams per liter calcium carbonate. The median dissolved solids concentration was 125 milligrams per liter, and the median specific conductance was 175 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Orange County ground water is classified as a calcium-bicarbonate type. High nutrient concentrations were not found in samples collected for this

  17. Geohydrology, ground-water availability, and ground-water quality of Berkeley County, West Virginia, with emphasis on the carbonate-rock area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shultz, R.A.; Hobba, W.A., Jr.; Kozar, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Berkeley County is underlain by carbonate rocks, upon which karst topography has developed, and by noncarbonate rocks. Ground-water levels tend to follow seasonal trends, and fluctuate more in carbonate areas than in noncarbonate areas. Well yields of greater than 100 gallons per minute are possible from the carbonate rocks, but are unlikely from the noncarbonate rocks. The largest springs, which yield more than 2,000 gallons per minute, are located in the carbonate rocks and are typically on or near faults or the limestone-shale contacts. Ground-water-flow velocities in the carbonate rocks ranged from 32 to 1,879 feet per day. Recharge was estimated to be about 10 inches per year for a 60-square-mile area of carbonate rocks. Specific yield for carbonate rocks ranged from 0.044 to 0.049. Estimated transmissivity values for carbonate rocks ranged from 730 to 9,140 feet squared per day. Concentrations of the following constituents exceeded the maximum and secondary maximum contaminant levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in ground water from at least one site: iron, manganese, nitrate, fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria, pH, total dissolved solids, and chloride. Analyses of the ground water indicated that the following organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides were present in detectable concentrations: chlordane, DDE, DDT, diazinon, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, and malathion. Triazine herbicides that were present in detectable concentrations were atrazine, cyanazine, and simazine. Radon concentrations ranged from 92 to 1,600 picocuries per liter. Ground water from four springs in the carbonate rocks was analyzed for 36 volatile organic compounds. None of the compounds were present in detectable concentrations.

  18. Water-quality assessment of part of the Upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality along a flow system in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Stark, James R.; Fong, Alison L.; Fallon, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Although land use had substantial effects on ground-water quality, the distribution of contaminants in the aquifer also is affected by complex combinations of factors and processes that include sources of natural and anthropogenic contaminants, three-dimensional advective flow, physical and hydrologic settings, age and evolution of ground water, and transformation of chemical compounds along the flow system. Compounds such as nitrate and dissolved oxygen were greatest in water samples from the upgradient end of the flow system and near the water table. Specific conductance and dissolved solids increased along the flow system and with depth due to increase in residence time in the flow system and dissolution of aquifer materials.

  19. Ground-water levels and quality at Crex Meadows Wildlife Area, Burnett County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 20 observation wells indicate that calcium and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in ground water in the Crex Meadows area. Iron concentrations ranged from 45 to 45,000 micrograms per liter, and 17 of 20 samples exceeded the 300-micrograms-per-liter recommended drinking-water standard of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  20. EFFECTS OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS) ON GROUND WATER QUALITY (GWERD TASK 5823)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research focuses on the potential for ground water contamination from swine CAFOs in Oklahoma. Three CAFOs have been selected for study, including a new farrowing sow operation, an existing nursery operation, and a closed combined facility. For the sow and combined facilitie...

  1. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL IMPACT OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) ON SURFACE AND GROUND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation seeks to determine the microbiological impact of agricultural activities and confined animal feed operations (CAFOs) on surface and ground water in the Northwest Central Oklahoma. The first phase of the investigation will be carried on in collaboration with U...

  3. COMPARISON OF GROUND-WATER SAMPLING DEVICES BASED ON EQUILIBRATION OF WATER QUALITY INDICATOR PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sampling device selected when obtaining ground-water samples can have a significant impact on the representativeness and reproducibility of the sample. his study evaluated several different sampling devices (low speed submersible pump, peristaltic pump, and bladder pump) in t...

  4. Quality of the ground water in basalt of the Columbia River group, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair

    1972-01-01

    The ground water within the 50,000-square-mile area of the layered basalt of the Columbia River Group is a generally uniform bicarbonate water having calcium and sodium in nearly equal amounts as the principal cations. water contains a relatively large amount of silica. The 525 chemical analyses indicate that the prevalent ground water is of two related kinds--a calcium and a sodium water. The sodium water is more common beneath the floors of the main synclinal valleys; the calcium water, elsewhere. In addition to the prevalent type, five special types form a small part of the ground water; four of these are natural and one is artificial. The four natural special types are: (1) calcium sodium chloride waters that rise from underlying sedimentary rocks west of the Cascade Range, (2) mineralized water at or near warm or hot springs, (3) water having unusual ion concentrations, especially of chloride, near sedimentary rocks intercalated at the edges of the basalt, and (4) more mineralized water near one locality of excess carbon dioxide. The one artificial kind of special ground water has resulted from unintentional artificial recharge incidental to irrigation in parts of central Washington. The solids dissolved in the ground water have been picked up on the surface, within the overburden, and from minerals and glasses within the basalt. Evidence for the removal of ions from solution is confined to calcium and magnesium, only small amounts of which are present in some of the sodium-rich water. Minor constituents, such as the heavy metals, alkali metals, and alkali earths, occur in the ground water in trace, or small, amounts. The natural radioactivity of the ground waters is very low. Except for a few of the saline calcium sodium chloride waters and a few occurrences of excessive nitrate, the ground water generally meets the common standards of water good for most ordinary uses, but some of it can be improved by treatment. The water is clear and colorless and has a

  5. Guidelines and standard procedures for studies of ground-water quality; selection and installation of wells, and supporting documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, W.W.; Wilde, F.D.; Koterba, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part report to document guidelines and standard procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey for the acquisition of data in ground-water-quality studies. This report provides guidelines and procedures for the selection and installation of wells for water-quality studies/*, and the required or recommended supporting documentation of these activities. Topics include (1) documentation needed for well files, field folders, and electronic files; (2) criteria and information needed for the selection of water-supply and observation wells, including site inventory and data collection during field reconnaissance; and (3) criteria and preparation for installation of monitoring wells, including the effects of equipment and materials on the chemistry of ground-water samples, a summary of drilling and coring methods, and information concerning well completion, development, and disposition.

  6. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Valley Forge National Historical Park, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; McManus, B. Craig

    1996-01-01

    Valley Forge National Historical Park is just southwest of the Commodore Semiconductor Group (CSG) National Priorities List (Superfund) Site, a source of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water. The 7.5-square-mile study area includes the part of the park in Lower Providence and West Norriton Townships in Montgomery County, Pa., and surrounding vicinity. The park is underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Upper Triassic age stockton Formation. A potentiometric-surface map constructed from water levels measured in 59 wells shows a cone of depression, approximately 0.5 mile in diameter, centered near the CSG Site. The cone of depression is caused by the pumping of six public supply wells. A ground-water divide between the cone of depression and Valley Forge National Historical Park provides a hydraulic barrier to the flow of ground water and contaminants from the CSG Site to the park. If pumping in the cone of depression was to cease, water levels would recover, and the ground-water divide would shift to the north. A hydraulic gradient between the CSG Site and the Schuylkill River would be established, causing contaminated ground water to flow to the park. Water samples were collected from 12 wells within the park boundary and 9 wells between the park boundary and the ground-water divide to the north of the park. All water samples were analyzed for physical properties (field determinations), nutrients, common ions, metals and other trace constituents, and VOC's. Water samples from the 12 wells inside the park boundary also were analyzed for pesticides. Concentrations of inorganic constituents in the water samples did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. Very low concentrations of organic compounds were detected in some of the water samples. VOC's were detected in water from 76 percent of the wells sampled; the maximum concentration detected was 5.8 micrograms per liter of chloroform. The most commonly detected VOC was

  8. Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Solomon, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water quality changes had occurred. The dissolved solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10% since 1962-67. Much of the ground water between the mouth of Bingham Canyon and the Jordan River about 10 mi to the east has been contaminated by seepage from reservoirs and evaporation ponds associated with mining activities. Many domestic and irrigation wells yield water with concentrations of dissolved solids that exceed 2,000 mg/L. A reservoir in the mouth of Bingham Canyon contains acidic waters with a pH of 3 to 4 and concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from 43,000 to 68,000 mg/L. Seepage from evaporation ponds, which are about 4.5 mi east of the reservoir, also is acidic and contains similar concentrations of dissolved solids. East of the reservoir, where a steep hydraulic gradient exists along the mountain front, the velocities of contaminant movement were estimated to range from about 680-1,000 ft/yr. Groundwater underlying part of the community of South Salt Lake near the Jordan River has been contaminated by leachate from uranium-mill tailings. The major effect of the leachate from the tailings of the Vitro Chemical Co. on the shallow unconfined aquifer downgradient from the tailings was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, and uranium. The concentration of dissolved solids in uncontaminated water was 1,650 mg/L, whereas downgradient from the tailings area, the concentrations ranged from 2,320-21,000 mg/L. The maximum volume of contaminated water was estimated to be 7,800 acre-ft. The major effect of the leachate from the Vitro tailings on the confined aquifer was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and iron. The concentration of dissolved solids upgradient from

  9. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2003-06-23

    This project was designed to provide project coordination and technical assistance to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality enhancement and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Enhancement Reserve Program (CREP) and other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Three of those four streams and one other major Sherman County stream are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Temperature in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns

  10. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  11. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2004-05-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  12. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon : Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2005-06-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA

  13. INNOVATIVE MEANS OF DEALING WITH POTENTIAL SOURCES OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GROUND WATER QUALITY SYMPOSIUM (7TH) HELD AT LAS VEGAS, NEVADA ON SEPTEMBER 26-28, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Seventh National Ground Water Quality Symposium was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, on September 26-28, 1984. The symposium was dedicated to the memory of Mahdi S. Hantush (1921-1984), a pioneering scientist who specialized in the application of mathematics to solve transient grou...

  14. Ambient quality of ground water in the vicinity of Naval Submarine Base Bangor, Kitsap County, Washington, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, Karen E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the ambient ground-water quality in the vicinity of Naval Submarine Base (SUBASE) Bangor was conducted to provide the U.S. Navywith background levels of selected constituents.The Navy needs this information to plan and manage cleanup activities on the base. DuringMarch and April 1995, 136 water-supply wells were sampled for common ions, trace elements, and organic compounds; not all wells were sampled for all constituents. Man-made organic compounds were detected in only two of fifty wells, and the sources of these organic compounds were attributed to activities in the immediate vicinities of these off- base wells. Drinking water standards for trichloroethylene, iron, and manganese were exceeded in one of these wells, which was probablycontaminated by an old local (off-base) dump. Ground water from wells open to the following hydrogeologic units (in order from shallow to deep) was investigated: the Vashon till confining unit (Qvt, three wells); the Vashon aquifer (Qva, 54 wells); the Upper confining unit (QC1, 16 wells); the Permeable interbeds within QC1 (QC1pi, 34 wells); and the Sea-level aquifer (QA1, 29 wells).The 50th and 90th percentile ambient background levels of 35 inorganic constituents were determined for each hydrogeologic unit. At least tenmeasurements were required for a constituent in each hydro- geologic unit for determination of ambient background levels, and data for three wellsdetermined to be affected by localized activities were excluded from these analyses. The only drinking water standards exceeded by ambient background levels were secondary maximum contaminant levels for iron (300 micrograms per liter), in QC1 and QC1pi, and manganese (50 micrograms per liter), in all of the units. The 90th percentile values for arsenic in QC1pi, QA1, and for the entire study area are above 5 micrograms per liter, the Model Toxics Control Act Method A value for protecting drinking water, but well below the maximum contaminant level of 50

  15. Ground-Water Levels and Water-Quality Data for Wells in the Crumpton Creek Area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, November 2001 to January 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.

    2003-01-01

    From November 2001 to January 2002, a study of the ground-water resources in the Crumpton Creek area of Middle Tennessee was conducted to determine whether volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. VOC samples were collected from private wells that were not included in previous sampling efforts conducted in the Crumpton Creek area near AAFB. Ground-water-flow directions were investigated by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 68 private wells, 82 monitoring wells, and 1 cave during the period of study. Ground-water levels were determined for 42 of the private wells and for all 82 monitoring wells. Of the 82 monitoring wells, 81 withdraw water from the Manchester aquifer and 1 well withdraws water from the overlying shallow aquifer. The Manchester aquifer wells range in depth from 20 to 150 feet. Water-level altitudes for the Manchester aquifer ranged from 956 to 1,064 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. Water levels ranged from approximately 6 feet above land surface to 94 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from all 68 private wells, 8 of the monitoring wells, and the 1 cave. Of the 55 VOCs analyzed, 42 were not detected. Thirteen VOCs were detected; however, only tetrachloroethylene (PCE), methylene chloride, and toluene were detected at concentrations equal to or above reporting levels for the analytical method used. PCE was detected in water samples from 15 private wells and was the only VOC that exceeded drinking water maximum contaminant levels for public water systems. PCE concentrations in samples from five of the wells were below the reporting level and ranged from estimated concentrations of 0.46 to 0.80 microgram per liter (?g/L). Samples from 10

  16. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of the southern high plains aquifer, Melrose Air Force Range, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Falk, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized the ground-water hydrology and water quality at Melrose Air Force Range in east-central New Mexico. The purpose of the study was to provide baseline data to Cannon Air Force Base resource managers to make informed decisions concerning actions that may affect the ground-water system. Five periods of water-level measurements and four periods of water-quality sample collection were completed at Melrose Air Force Range during 2002 and 2003. The water-level measurements and water-quality samples were collected from a 29-well monitoring network that included wells in the Impact Area and leased lands of Melrose Air Force Range managed by Cannon Air Force Base personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad overview of ground-water flow and ground-water quality in the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation at Melrose Air Force Range. Results of the ground-water characterization of the Southern High Plains aquifer indicated a local flow system in the unconfined aquifer flowing northeastward from a topographic high, the Mesa (located in the southwestern part of the Range), toward a regional flow system in the unconfined aquifer that flows southeastward through the Portales Valley. Ground water was less than 55 years old across the Range; ground water was younger (less than 25 years) near the Mesa and ephemeral channels and older (25 years to 55 years) in the Portales Valley. Results of water-quality analysis indicated three areas of different water types: near the Mesa and ephemeral channels, in the Impact Area of the Range, and in the Portales Valley. Within the Southern High Plains aquifer, a sodium/chloride-dominated ground water was found in the center of the Impact Area of the Range with water-quality characteristics similar to ground water from the underlying Chinle Formation. This sodium/chloride-dominated ground water of the unconfined aquifer in the Impact

  17. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  18. Ground-water quality of the Upper Floridan Aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Manufactured gas plants produced gas for heating and lighting in the United States from as early as 1816 into the 1960's. By-products including, but not limited to, oil residues and tar, were generated during the gas-manufacturing process. Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) were detected in water in the upper water-bearing zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer near an abandoned manufactured gas plant (MGP) in Albany, Georgia, during an earlier investigation in 1990. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples collected from five existing monitoring wells in 1991 verify the presence of hydrocarbons and metals in the upper water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. One well was drilled into the lower water-beating zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer in 1991 for water-quality sampling and water-level monitoring. Analyses of ground water sampled from this well did not show evidence of benzene, toluene, xylene, napthalene, acenaphthlene, or other related compounds detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Low concentrations of tetrachloroethane, trichloromethane, and l,2-cisdichloroethene were detected in a water sample from the deeper well; however, these compounds were not detected in the upper water-bearing zone in the study area. Inorganic constituent concentrations also were substantially lower in the deeper well. Overall, ground water sampled from the lower water-bearing zone had lower specific conductance and alkalinity; and lower concentrations of dissolved solids, iron, and manganese compared to ground water sampled from the upper water-bearing zone. Water levels for the upper and lower water-bearing zones were similar throughout the study period.

  19. Evaluation of processes affecting 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) concentrations in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California : analysis of chemical data and ground-water flow and transport simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Panshin, Sandra Y.; Dubrovsky, Neil H.; Vanbrocklin, David; Fogg, Graham E.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual two-dimensional numerical flow and transport modeling approach was used to test hypotheses addressing dispersion, transformation rate, and in a relative sense, the effects of ground- water pumping and reapplication of irrigation water on DBCP concentrations in the aquifer. The flow and transport simulations, which represent hypothetical steady-state flow conditions in the aquifer, were used to refine the conceptual understanding of the aquifer system rather than to predict future concentrations of DBCP. Results indicate that dispersion reduces peak concentrations, but this process alone does not account for the apparent decrease in DBCP concentrations in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley. Ground-water pumping and reapplication of irrigation water may affect DBCP concentrations to the extent that this process can be simulated indirectly using first-order decay. Transport simulation results indicate that the in situ 'effective' half-life of DBCP caused by processes other than dispersion and transformation to BAA could be on the order of 6 years.

  20. Computerized stratified random site-selection approaches for design of a ground-water-quality sampling network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Computer software was written to randomly select sites for a ground-water-quality sampling network. The software uses digital cartographic techniques and subroutines from a proprietary geographic information system. The report presents the approaches, computer software, and sample applications. It is often desirable to collect ground-water-quality samples from various areas in a study region that have different values of a spatial characteristic, such as land-use or hydrogeologic setting. A stratified network can be used for testing hypotheses about relations between spatial characteristics and water quality, or for calculating statistical descriptions of water-quality data that account for variations that correspond to the spatial characteristic. In the software described, a study region is subdivided into areal subsets that have a common spatial characteristic to stratify the population into several categories from which sampling sites are selected. Different numbers of sites may be selected from each category of areal subsets. A population of potential sampling sites may be defined by either specifying a fixed population of existing sites, or by preparing an equally spaced population of potential sites. In either case, each site is identified with a single category, depending on the value of the spatial characteristic of the areal subset in which the site is located. Sites are selected from one category at a time. One of two approaches may be used to select sites. Sites may be selected randomly, or the areal subsets in the category can be grouped into cells and sites selected randomly from each cell.

  1. Ground-water flow and quality in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.; Barringer, Julia L.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Clark, Jeffrey S.; Zapecza, Otto S.

    2001-01-01

    The regional, confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand is the principal source of water supply for coastal communities of southern New Jersey. In response to extensive use of the aquifer--nearly 21 million gallons per day in 1986--water levels have declined to about 100 feet below sea level near Atlantic City and remain below sea level throughout the coastal areas of southern New Jersey, raising concerns about the potential for saltwater intrusion into well fields. Water levels in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand have declined in response to pumping from the aquifer since the 1890's. Water levels in the first wells drilled into the Atlantic City 800-foot sand were above land surface, and water flowed continuously from the wells. By 1986, water levels were below sea level throughout most of the coastal areas. Under current conditions, wells near the coast derive most of their supply from lateral flow contributed from the unconfined part of the aquifer northwest of the updip limit of the confining unit that overlies the Atlantic City 800- foot sand. Ground water also flows laterally from offshore areas and leaks vertically through the overlying and underlying confining units into the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. The decline in water levels upsets the historical equilibrium between freshwater and ancient saltwater in offshore parts of the aquifer and permits the lateral movement of saltwater toward pumping centers. The rate of movement is accelerated as the decline in water levels increases. The chloride concentration of aquifer water 5.3 miles offshore of Atlantic City was measured as 77 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in 1985 at a U.S. Geological Survey observation well. Salty water has also moved toward wells in Cape May County. The confined, regional nature of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand permits water levels in Cape May County to decline in response to pumping in Atlantic County and vice versa. Historically, chloride concentrations as great as 1 ,510 mg/L have been

  2. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Results indicate that the effects of the 1992 potassium-chloride and N fertilizer applications were reduced compared to the effects of 1991 applications. The most important factors associated with these differences were lower chemical application rates and lower recharge rates during 1992 than during 1991. Some of the chloride and N fertilizer applied to the cropped areas in 1992 likely did not reach the saturated zone in 1993 due to a 60-percent reduction in recharge compared to 1991. Therefore, analysis of data from additional years will be required to fully evaluate the effects of the fanning systems on ground-water quality.

  3. Ground-water levels, water quality, and potential effects of toxic-substance spills or cessation of quarry dewatering near a municipal ground-water supply, southeastern Franklin County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.; Eberts, S.M.; Bair, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    A newly completed municipal ground-water supply that produces from a sand and gravel aquifer in southern Franklin County, Ohio, may be susceptible to potential sources of pollution. Among these are spills of toxic substances that could enter recharge areas of the aquifer or be carried by surface drainage and subsequently enter the aquifer by induced infiltration. Ground water of degraded quality also is present in the vicinity of several landfills located upstream from the municipal supply. Local dewatering by quarrying operations has created a ground-water divide which, at present, prevents direct movement of the degraded ground water to the municipal supply. In addition, the dewatering has held water levels at the largest landfills below the base of the landfill. Should the dewatering cease, concern would be raised regarding the rise of water levels at this landfills and transport of contaminants through the aquifer to the Scioto River and subsequently by the river to the well field. From June 1984 through July 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, investigated the relations among the ground-water supply and potential sources of contamination by means of an observation-well network and a program of measuring water levels and sampling for water quality. Sample collections included those made to determine the baseline levels of organic chemicals and metals, as well as periodic sampling and analysis for common constituents to evaluate any changes taking place in the system. Finally, a steady-state, three-dimensional numerical model was used to determine ground-water flow directions and average ground-water velocities to asses potential effects of toxic-substance spills. The model also was used to simulate changes in the ground-water flow system that could result if part or all of the quarry dewatering ceased. Few of the organic-chemical and metal constituents analyzed for were present at detectable levels. With respect to

  4. California GAMA Program: Ground-Water Quality Data in the Northern San Joaquin Basin Study Unit, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over the closure of public-supply wells because of ground-water contamination has led the State Water Board to establish the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. With the aid of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the program goals are to enhance understanding and provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where ground water is an important source of drinking water. The Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit covers an area of approximately 2,079 square miles (mi2) across four hydrologic study areas in the San Joaquin Valley. The four study areas are the California Department of Water Resources (CADWR) defined Tracy subbasin, the CADWR-defined Eastern San Joaquin subbasin, the CADWR-defined Cosumnes subbasin, and the sedimentologically distinct USGS-defined Uplands study area, which includes portions of both the Cosumnes and Eastern San Joaquin subbasins. Seventy ground-water samples were collected from 64 public-supply, irrigation, domestic, and monitoring wells within the Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit. Thirty-two of these samples were collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin study area, 17 in the Tracy Basin study area, 10 in the Cosumnes Basin study area, and 11 in the Uplands Basin study area. Of the 32 samples collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin, 6 were collected using a depth-dependent sampling pump. This pump allows for the collection of samples from discrete depths within the pumping well. Two wells were chosen for depth-dependent sampling and three samples were collected at varying depths within each well. Over 350 water-quality field parameters, chemical constituents, and microbial constituents were analyzed and are reported as concentrations and as detection frequencies, by compound classification as well as for individual constituents, for the Northern San Joaquin Basin study unit as a whole and for each individual study area

  5. Well-construction, water-level, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for the J4 hydrogeologic study, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugh, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Between December 1993 and March 1994, 27 wells were installed at 12 sites near the J4 test cell at Arnold Engineering Development Center in Coffee County, Tennessee. The wells ranged from 28 to 289 feet deep and were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. This information will be used to help understand the effects of dewatering operations at the J4 test cell on the local ground-water-flow system. The J4 test cell, extending approximately 250 feet below land surface, is used in the testing of rocket motors. Ground water must be pumped continuously from around the test cell to keep it structurally intact. The amount of water discharged from the J4 test cell was monitored to estimate the average rate of ground-water withdrawal at the J4 test cell. Ground- water levels were monitored continuously at 14 wells for 12 months. Water-quality samples were collected from 26 of the new wells, 9 existing wells, and the ground-water discharge from the J4 test cell. All samples were analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds.

  6. Understanding long-term baseflow water quality trends using a synoptic survey of the ground water-surface water interface, central Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Browne, Bryant A; Guldan, Nathan M

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between stream water quality and landscape activities is difficult to evaluate where the principal source of stream flow is ground water seepage because the average travel time from ground water recharge areas to stream discharge positions can be on the order of decades. We tested the idea that past and future baseflow water quality can be predicted based on a synoptic survey of ground water recharge age-dates (based on chlorofluorocarbon [CFC] measurements) and water quality measurements obtained at the ground water-surface water interface. In this study we (i) characterize the discharge-weighted age distribution and water quality of ground water seepage into the Little Plover River (LPR); (ii) use this information to backcast and forecast baseflow NO(3)(-) concentrations; and (iii) evaluate NO(3)(-) backcasts against historical baseflow data (1960 to 2000). The discharge-weighted apparent CFC age of ground water seepage into the LPR was 23.7 (+/-7) yr. Baseflow backcasts matched the four decade rise of baseflow NO(3)(-) from 2 to 8 mg L(-1). Baseflow forecasts included three scenarios. Scenario A projects the historical rise of NO(3)(-) in the LPR basin's ground water recharge through 2050. Scenario B projects a leveling off of NO(3)(-) in ground water recharge in the year 2000. Scenario C projects a leveling off in the year 1985. Under Scenario A, LPR baseflow NO(3)(-) will increase steadily from 8 to 19 mg L(-1) between 2000 and 2050. Under scenarios B and C baseflow NO(3)(-) will plateau at 13 mg L(-1) in 2030 and at 10 mg L(-1) in 2010, respectively. The approach developed in this study can be used to (i) reconstruct historical baseflow water quality patterns in the absence of long-term monitoring data and (ii) project the effects of potential management decision on future water quality. PMID:15843645

  7. California GAMA program: ground-water quality data in the San Diego drainages hydrogeologic province, California, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Burton, Carmen A.

    2005-01-01

    Because of concerns over ground-water quality, the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has implemented the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. A primary objective of the program is to provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where public supply wells are an important source of drinking water. The San Diego GAMA study unit was the first region of the state where an assessment of ground-water quality was implemented under the GAMA program. The San Diego GAMA study unit covers the entire San Diego Drainages hydrogeologic province, and is broken down into four distinct hydrogeologic study areas: the Temecula Valley study area, the Warner Valley study area, the Alluvial Basins study area, and the Hard Rock study area. A total of 58 ground-water samples were collected from public supply wells in the San Diego GAMA study unit: 19 wells were sampled in the Temecula Valley study area, 9 in the Warner Valley study area, 17 in the Alluvial Basins study area, and 13 in the Hard Rock study area. Over 350 chemical and microbial constituents and water-quality indicators were analyzed for in this study. However, only select wells were measured for all constituents and water-quality indicators. Results of analyses were calculated as detection frequencies by constituent classification and by individual constituents for the entire San Diego GAMA study unit and for the individual study areas. Additionally, concentrations of constituents that are routinely monitored were compared to maximum contaminant levels (MCL) and secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL). Concentrations of constituents classified as 'unregulated chemicals for which monitoring is required' (UCMR) were compared to the 'detection level for the purposes of reporting' (DLR). Eighteen of the 88 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gasoline oxygenates

  8. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

  9. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1979-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water-quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. As part of this study, a water-quality monitoring network was established at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County. Water-quality samples were collected at 27 surface-water sites and 97 ground-water sites at 5 landfills from 1979-92. Samples were analyzed for selected physical and biological characteristics, major inorganic ions, nutrients, trace elements, organic compounds, and suspended sediment. Analyses for constituents of concern are presented in tables and as graphical time series plots. Results from all analyses are compiled in tabular form in appendixes.

  10. Ground-water resources of the Middle Loup division of the lower Platte River basin, Nebraska, with a section on Chemical quality of the ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Delbert Wayne; Rainwater, Frank Hays

    1955-01-01

    of the water table indicate changes in the amount of ground water stored in the water-bearing formations. The principal factors controlling the rise of the water table are the amount of precipitation within the area, the quantity of water coming into the area as underflow from the west and northwest, seepage from the Middle Loup River at times when the water surface in the river is higher than the adjoining water table, and the infiltration of irrigation water not utilized by vegetation or lost by runoff or evaporation. The principal factors controlling the decline of the water table are the discharge as effluent seepage into the Middle Loup River and its tributaries, the amount of water pumped from wells, evapotranspiration losses, and the amount of water leaving the area as underflow. Periodic water-level measurements were made in a total of 241 observation wells during the period 1948-50. Hydrographs of three observation wells having a longer period of record (1934-50) indicate that the water table rose slightly from 1934 until 1950 and that it remained nearly constant during the 1950 water year. The configuration of the water table in the Middle Loup division shows that, except north and northwest of Sargent, the Middle Loup River is an effluent, or gaining, stream throughout its entire length in this area. Thus any rise or fall in the ground-water level will increase or decrease the discharge of the river. The river recharges the ground- water reservoir only during periods when it is at flood stage. The depth to the water table from the land surface is governed largely by irregularities in topography. The depth to water is less than 10 feet near the river and increases to as much as 60 feet near the valley margins and the bordering intermediate slopes. In the Far- well unit the depth to water is more than 100 feet and in some parts more than 150 feet. Ground water pumped from wells is the source of supply for the principal municipalities in th

  11. Ground-water withdrawals, water levels, and ground-water quality in the Houston district, Texas, with emphasis on 1985-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbie, D.L.; Locke, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawal for the Houston district decreased from 451 to 419 million gallons per day between 1985 and 1989. Public supply, industrial, and irrigation withdrawals decreased by 11, 5, and 16 million gallons per day, respectively. Some data collected before 1985 and in early 1990 are included in the report to present long-term trends and relations. During 1977-90, water levels in some wells completed in the Chicot aquifer in the Houston district rose as much as 160 feet and declined as much as 80 feet. During 1958-90, water levels in wells completed in the Chicot aquifer in the Houston district rose as much as 140 feet and declined as much as 40 feet. Water levels in wells completed in the Evangeline aquifer in the Houston district rose as much as 160 feet and declined as much as 200 feet during 1977-90. From 1985 through 1989, water levels in wells completed in the Evangeline aquifer rose as much as 40 feet and declined as much as 140 feet in the Houston district. Chloride concen- trations in water from wells in the Houston district have not changed by more than 100 milligrams per liter from 1985 to 1989 except for one well in the eastern part of Galveston County. Well KH-65-48-316 showed a decrease in chloride concentration from 720 milligrams per liter in 1986 to 590 milligrams per liter in 1989.

  12. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near the Shelby County landfill in Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted from 1989 to 1991 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data specific to the Shelby County landfill in east Memphis, Tennessee. Eighteen wells were installed in the alluvial and Memphis aquifers at the landfill. Hydrogeologic data collected showed that the confining unit separating the alluvial aquifer from the Memphis aquifer was thin or absent just north of the landfill and elsewhere consists predominantly of fine sand and silt with lenses of clay. A water-table map of the landfill vicinity confirms the existence of a depression in the water table north and northeast of the landfill and indicates that ground water flows northeast from the Wolf River passing beneath the landfill toward the depression in the water table. A map of the potentiometric surface of the Memphis aquifer shows that water levels were anomalously high just north of the landfill, indicating downward leakage of water from the alluvial aquifer to the Memphis aquifer. An analysis of water-quality data for major and trace inorganic constituents and nutrients confirms that leachate from the landfill has migrated northeastward in the alluvial aquifer toward the depression in the water table and that contaminants in the alluvial aquifer have migrated downward into the Memphis aquifer. The leachate plume can be characterized by concentrations of certain major and trace inorganic constituents that are 2 to 20 times higher than samples from upgradient and background alluvial aquifer wells. The major and trace constituents that best characterize the leachate plume are total organic carbon, chloride, dissolved solids, iron, ammonia nitrogen, calcium, sodium, iodide, barium, strontium, boron, and cadmium. Several of these constituents (specifically dissolved solids, calcium, sodium, and possibly ammonia nitrogen, chloride, barium, and strontium) were detected in elevated concentrations in samples from certain Memphis aquifer wells. Elevated

  13. Ground-water quality and vulnerability to contamination in selected agricultural areas of southeastern Michigan, northwestern Ohio, and northeastern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water quality was assessed in the northeastern part of the Corn Belt, where tile-drained row crops are underlain by fractured glacial till. Data were collected from 30 shallow monitor wells and 18 co-located domestic wells as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment in the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair Basin. Pesticides or pesticide degradates were detected in 41 percent of the monitor wells and 6 percent of the domestic wells. The pesticides detected closely correspond to those most heavily applied?herbicides used on corn and soybeans. Pesticide degradates were detected three times more frequently, and at higher concentrations, than were parent compounds. No pesticide concentration exceeded a USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), but MCL?s have not been established for 9 of the 11 compounds detected. Thirty-seven percent of monitor-well samples had nitrate concentrations indicative of human influences such as fertilizer, manure or septic systems. Nitrate was the only chemical constituent detected at a concentration greater than an MCL. The MCL was exceeded in 7 percent of samples from monitor wells which were too shallow to be used as a source of drinking water. Pesticide and nitrate concentrations in the study area are low relative to other agricultural areas of the Nation. Several authors have suggested that ground water in parts of the Upper Mid-west is minimally contaminated because it is protected by the surficial glacial till or tile drains. These ideas are examined in light of the relations between concentration, well depth, and ground-water age in the study area. Most of the shallow ground water is hydraulically connected to the land surface, based on the observations that 83 percent of waters from monitor wells were recharged after 1953, and 57 percent contained a pesticide or an elevated nitrate concentration. Fractures or sand-and-gravel stringers within the till are the probable pathways. In some areas, deeper parts of

  14. Ground-water quality near a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1977-01-01

    The Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District and the city and county of Denver operate a sewage-sludge recycling site and a landfill in an area about 15 miles (24 kilometers) east of Denver. The assessment of the effects of these facilities on the ground-water system indicated that five wells perforated in alluvium were found to have markedly degradedd water quality. One well is located in the landfill and water that was analyzed was obtained from near the base of the buried refuse, two others are located downgradient and near sewage-sludge burial areas, and the remaining two are located near stagnant surface ponds. Concentrations of nitrate in wells downgradient from fields where sludge is plowed into the soil were higher than background concentrations due to the effects of the sludge disposal. No evidence of water-quality degradation was detected in deeper wells perforated in the bedrock formations. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The proportion of applied atrazine in ground water, detected as atrazine or its metabolites, ranged from 0 to about 1 percent with an average of 0.37 percent. The small proportion of applied atrazine detected in ground water indicates that atrazine was predominantly affected by processes occurring in the soil such as adsorption and degradation. Concentrations of atrazine plus metabolites were related to application rates.

  16. The effect of human activities on the quality of ground water in the Chipuxet aquifer, Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.B.; Veeger, A.I.. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Chipuxet aquifer, part of a larger system of unconfined aquifers in the Pawcatuck River Basin, occupies approximately 3 square miles in the valley drained by the Chipuxet River and Chickasheen Brook. This aquifer is comprised of permeable glacial fluvial sediments and is capable of yielding up to 3 million gallons per day. However, the presence of permeable surficial deposits and the proximity of the water table to the surface make this aquifer susceptible to contamination. In this study, samples of surface water and the ground water aquifer were collected and analyzed for inorganic chemical constituents. Maps showing the concentration and distribution of constituents were constructed from these data. The spatial relationship between land uses and elevated concentrations of constituents was used to identify the probable contaminant sources. The background chemistry of ground water from surficial deposits and bedrock was determined using samples with electrical conductivity between 80 and 100. The surficial aquifer yields a Ca-Cl type water. Bedrock yields a Na-HCO[sub 3] type water. Na, Cl, SO[sub 4] and NO[sub 3] were found at levels above background in 28 of the 44 wells sampled. Road salt, fertilizer, and septic systems were identified as sources of contamination. Degradation of water quality occurs predominantly in the upper portion of the stratified drift aquifer to depths of 25 feet. Some contamination of deeper wells was attributed to faulty well construction.

  17. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma aquifer, Oklahoma; hydrologic, water-quality, and quality-assurance data 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferree, D.M.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, A.H.; Mesander, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents data collected from 202 wells between June 1987 and September 1990 as part of the Central Oklahoma aquifer pilot study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The report describes the sampling networks, the sampling procedures, and the results of the ground-water quality and quality-assurance sample analyses. The data tables consist of information about the wells sampled and the results of the chemical analyses of ground water and quality-assurance sampling. Chemical analyses of ground-water samples in four sampling networks are presented: A geochemical network, a low-density survey bedrock network, a low-density survey alluvium and terrace deposits network, and a targeted urban network. The analyses generally included physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace substances, radionuclides, and organic constituents. The chemical analyses of the ground-water samples are presented in five tables: (1) Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, and trace substances; (2) concentrations of radionuclides and radioactivities; (3) carbon isotope ratios and delta values (d-values) of selected isotopes; (4) concentrations of organic constituents; and (5) organic constituents not reported in ground-water samples. The quality of the ground water sampled varied substantially. The sum of constituents (dissolved solids) concentrations ranged from 71 to 5,610 milligrams per liter, with 38 percent of the wells sampled exceeding the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 500 milligrams per liter established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Values of pH ranged from 5.7 to 9.2 units with 20 percent of the wells outside the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level of 6.5 to 8.5 units. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 85 milligrams per liter with 8 percent of the wells exceeding the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace substances were highly variable

  18. The relation of ground-water quality to housing density, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persky, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Correlation of median nitrate concentration in groundwater with housing density for 18 sample areas on Cape Cod yields a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.802, which is significant at the 95 % confidence level. In five of nine sample areas where housing density is greater than one unit/acre, nitrate concentrations exceed 5 mg of nitrate/L (the Barnstable County planning goal for nitrate) in 25% of wells. Nitrate concentrations exceed 5 mg of nitrogen/L in 25% of wells in only one of nine sample areas where housing density is less than one unit/acre. Median concentrations of sodium and iron, and median levels of pH and specific conductance, are not significantly correlated with housing density. A computer generated map of nitrate shows a positive relation between nitrate concentration and housing density on Cape Cod. However, the presence of septage- or sewage-disposal sites and fertilizer use are also important factors that affect the nitrate concentration. A map of specific conductance also shows a positive relation to housing density, but little or no relation between housing density and sodium, ammonia, pH, or iron is apparent on the maps. Chemical analyses of samples collected from 3,468 private- and public-supply wells between January 1980 and June 1984 were used to examine the extent to which housing density determines water quality on Cape Cod, an area largely unsewered and underlain by a sole source aquifer. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per

  20. Hydrology, water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow at a taconite-tailings basin near Keewatin, Minnesota. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Myette, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the hydrology of a 2.5-sq mi taconite-tailings basin near Keewatin, Minnesota. The report describes (1) the hydrogeologic setting of the basin, including a description of the tailings within the basin, (2) the surface-water discharge at the outlet of the basin and its response to rainfall on the basin, (3) the ground-water system at the tailings basin and its response to rainfall on the basin, (4) the quality of the ground water beneath the basin and in the surrounding drift, (5) the quality of surface water and sediment discharging from the basin, and (6) the results of a finite-difference-model simulation of the ground-water flow system. Model simulation of ground-water flow was limited to deposits in the tailings basin and parts of the adjacent and underlying glacial-drift aquifers. The model was developed to evaluate estimates of hydraulic properties obtained from field data and to provide a better understanding of the effects of climatic stresses on ground-water levels and ground-water flow in the basin and on discharge from the basin. It has been suggested, however, that the filling and abandonment of these basins may create long-term pollution problems resulting from sediment erosion and chemical leaching of heavy metals.

  1. Ground-water quality and geochemistry in Carson and Eagle Valleys, western Nevada and eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.

    1994-01-01

    constituent with a primary drinking water standard. This represents a 50-percent increase in the frequency of exceedance. Almost all water sampled from the principal aquifers exceeds the 300 picocuries per liter proposed standard for radon. Ground-water sampling sites with the highest radon activities in water are most commonly located in the upland aquifers in the Sierra Nevada and in the principal aquifers beneath the west sides of Carson and Eagle Valleys.

  2. Ground-water levels and water-quality data for wells in the Spring Creek area near Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee, April and May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Aycock, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Arnold Air Force Base (AAFB) occupies about 40,000 acres in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. Numerous site-specific ground-water contamination investigations have been conducted at designated solid waste management units (SWMU?s) at AAFB. Several synthetic volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), primarily chlorinated solvents, have been identified in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells near SWMU 8 in the Spring Creek area. During April and May 2000, a study of the groundwater resources in the Spring Creek area was conducted to determine if VOC?s from AAFB have affected local private water supplies and to advance understanding of the ground-water-flow system in this area. The study focused on sampling private wells located within the Spring Creek area that are used as a source of drinking water. Ground-water-flow directions were determined by measuring water levels in wells and constructing a potentiometric-surface map of the Manchester aquifer in the study area. Data were collected from a total of 35 private wells and 22 monitoring wells during the period of study. Depths to ground water were determined for 22 of the private wells and all 22 of the monitoring wells. The wells ranged in depth from 21 to 105 feet. Water-level altitudes ranged from 930 to 1,062 feet above sea level. Depths to water ranged from 8 to 83 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 29 private wells which draw water from either gravel zones in the upper part of the Manchester aquifer, fractured bedrock in the lower part of the Manchester aquifer, or a combination of these two zones. Concentrations of 50 of the 55 VOC?s analyzed for were less than method detection limits. Chloroform, acetone, chloromethane, 2-butanone, and tetrachloroethylene were detected in concentrations exceeding the method detection limits. Only chloroform and acetone were detected in concentrations equal to or exceeding reporting limits. Chloroform was detected in a sample

  3. Changes in ground-water quality resulting from surface coal mining of small watershed in Jefferson County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hren, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Two samples were collected from each of six wells in a small watershed in Jefferson County, Ohio, in 1984. The watershed was mined and reclamation begun in 1980. Data collected from 1976 through 1982 indicate that ground-water quality was still changing at that time. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent ground-water quality continued to change 4 years after mining. The upper saturated zone was destroyed by mining and replaced by spoiled material during reclamation. A new saturated zone then formed in the spoils material. The premining median concentrations of sulfate, manganese, and dissolved solids in the upper saturated zone were 84 milligrams per liter (mg/L). 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L), and 335 mg/L, respectively. The postmining median concentrations of these constituents in the upper-zone wells disturbed by mining were 360 mg/L, 595 ?g/L, and 814 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of these constituents were still increasing in 1984 in the upper saturated zone. In the area not disturbed by mining, concentrations have remained nearly at premining levels. The premining median concentrations of sulfate, manganese, and dissolved solids in the middle saturated zone were 47 mg/L, 10 ?g/L and 405 mg/L, respectively. The postmining median concentrations were 390 mg/L, 490 ?g/L, and 959 mg/L, respectively. In the middle saturated zone, concentrations of these constituents also were still increasing in 1984, probably due to mixing with water if the upper saturated zone.

  4. Quality of shallow ground water in alluvial aquifers of the Williamette Basin, Oregon, 1993-95. National water-quality assessment program. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The purposes of this report are to describe the quality of shallow ground water in alluvial aquifers of the Willamette Basin and to identify relationships between shallow ground-water quality and various natural and anthropogenic factors. Several natural and anthropogenic factors (soil characteristics, cumulative thickness of clay above open interval of well, surficial geology, and land use) were evaluated because of the potential for these factors to either control or be related to contaminant occurrence and spatial distribution. Spatial distributions of nitrite plus nitrate, phosphorous, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), trace elements (primarily arsenic, a trace element of local concern), and radon were evaluated for 1993-95. Ancillary chemical data--nitrite, chloride, tritium (H-3), and dissolved-oxygen (DO) concentrations--also are presented.

  5. GROUND WATER QUALITY SURROUNDING LAKE TEXOMA DURING SHORT-TERM DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three ...

  6. A conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network for San Fernando Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual groundwater-quality monitoring network was developed for San Fernando Valley to provide the California State Water Resources Control Board with an integrated, basinwide control system to monitor the quality of groundwater. The geology, occurrence and movement of groundwater, land use, background water quality, and potential sources of pollution were described and then considered in designing the conceptual monitoring network. The network was designed to monitor major known and potential point and nonpoint sources of groundwater contamination over time. The network is composed of 291 sites where wells are needed to define the groundwater quality. The ideal network includes four specific-purpose networks to monitor (1) ambient water quality, (2) nonpoint sources of pollution, (3) point sources of pollution, and (4) line sources of pollution. (USGS)

  7. Quality of ground water for selected municipal water supplies in Iowa, 1997-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2004-01-01

    The compact disc included with this report has information about water-quality properties and concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, total organic carbon, pesticides, and synthetic organic compounds for water years 1997 through 2002.

  8. Use of Nitrogen-15 Isotope Method in Soils and Ground Water to Determine Potential Nitrogen Sources Affecting a Municipal Water Supply in Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, M. A.; Macko, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate-N concentrations have increased to greater than 10 mg/L in a municipal water supply in western Kansas from 1995 to 2002. A study was done by the Kansas Geological Survey using the nitrogen-15 natural abundance isotope method to determine potential sources for the increasing nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results of the isotope analyses on water samples suggest that animal waste and/or denitrification enrichment has affected the water supply. Soil samples from areas near the wells that were not treated with manure show a general increase of nitrogen-15 signature (+9 to +15 \\permil) to a depth of 5 m. Soils are silt loams with measurable carbonate (0.8 to 2 % by weight) in the profile, which may permit volatilization enrichment to occur in the soil profile. Wells in the area range from 11 to 20 m in alluvial deposits with depth to water at approximately 9 m). Nitrate-N values range from 8 to 26 mg/L. Nitrogen-15 values range from (+17 to +28 \\permil) with no obvious source of animal waste near the well sites. There are potential nearby long-term sources of animal waste - an abandoned sewage treatment plant and an agricultural testing farm. One well has a reducing chemistry with a nitrate value of 0.9 mg/L and a nitrogen-15 value of +17 \\permil suggesting that alluvial sediment variation also has an impact on the water quality in the study area. The other wells show values of nitrate and nitrogen-15 that are much greater than the associated soils. The use of nitrogen-15 alone permited limited evaluation of sources of nitrate to ground water particularly in areas with carbonate in the soils. Use of oxygen-18 on nitrate will permit the delineation of the processes affecting the nitrogen in the soil profile and determination of the probable sources and the processes that have affected the nitrogen in the ground water. Final results of the nitrogen-15 and oxygen-18 analyses will be presented.

  9. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas: Shallow ground-water quality and land use in the Albuquerque Area, Central New Mexico, 1993. National water quality assessment program. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderholm, S.K.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the quality of shallow ground water and the relations between land use and the quality of that shallow ground water in an urban area in and adjacent to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples were collected from 24 shallow wells for analysis of selected common constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), and pesticides. The results of the chemical analyses are presented in appendices.

  10. An analysis of the chemical and microbiological quality of ground water from boreholes and shallow wells in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    Groundwater from boreholes and shallow wells is a major source of drinking water in most rural areas of Zimbabwe. The quality of groundwater has been taken for granted and the status and the potential threats to groundwater quality have not been investigated on a large scale in Zimbabwe. A borehole and shallow well water quality survey was undertaken between January, 2009 and February, 2010 to determine the chemical and microbial aspects of drinking water in three catchment areas. Groundwater quality physico-chemical indicators used in this study were nitrates, chloride, water hardness, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, calcium, fluoride, sulphates, sodium and pH. The microbiological indicators were total coliforms, faecal coliforms and heterotrophs. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most of the variation in ground water quality in all catchment areas is accounted for by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, bicarbonate and magnesium. The principal dissolved constituents in ground water are in the form of electrically charged ions. Nitrate is a significant problem as the World Health Organization recommended levels were exceeded in 36%, 37% and 22% of the boreholes in the Manyame, Mazowe and Gwayi catchment areas respectively. The nitrate levels were particularly high in commercial farming areas. Iron and manganese also exceeded the recommended levels. The probable source of high iron levels is the underlying geology of the area which is dominated by dolerites. Dolerites weather to give soils rich in iron and other mafic minerals. The high level of manganese is probably due to the lithology of the rock as well as mining activity in some areas. Water hardness is a problem in all catchment areas, particularly in the Gwayi catchment area where a value of 2550 mg/l was recorded in one borehole. The problems with hard water use are discussed. Chloride levels exceeded the

  11. Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.; Seiler, R.L.; Solomon, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water-quality changes had occurred. The dissolved-solids concentration of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10 percent since 1962-67.

  12. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  13. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow ground water in areas unaffected by settling-pond seepage.

  14. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  15. Baseline water quality and preliminary effects of artificial recharge on ground water, south-central Kansas, 1995-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, Andrew C.; Christensen, Victoria G.; Ross, Heather C.

    1999-01-01

    sites after recharge began, although concentrations remained within the range of baseline values in the Equus Beds aquifer and are considerably less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water criteria. However, a substantial quantity of water has not been recharged at the Sedgwick site to determine the overall effects of artificial recharge on aquifer quality. Continued monitoring is necessary to determine long-term effects at both sites. Major ion and trace element concentrations in source water and receiving water were analyzed to determine the compatibility of recharge and receiving ground water for artificial recharge. Stiff diagrams of major ions were used to show the similarity or differences between source surface water and receiving ground water. The water from both sources, for the most part, was chemically compatible to the receiving aquifer water at both recharge sites. It may be possible to decrease the monitoring frequency at the Halstead recharge site because water-quality changes in receiving water at this site are very gradual. However, real-time water-quality monitoring of surrogates needs to be site specific for the determination of chloride and atrazine. Real-time water-quality monitoring potentially can be used to more effectively manage the artificial recharge process, enabling project officials to respond more rapidly to changes in water quality.

  16. Ground-water quality in east-central New Jersey, and a plan for sampling networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harriman, D.A.; Sargent, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality was evaluated in seven confined aquifers and the water table aquifer in east-central New Jersey based on 237 analyses of samples collected in 1981-82, and 225 older analyses. Investigation of the effect of land use on water quality and several sampling network proposals for the region are reported. Generally, water in the confined aquifers is of satisfactory quality for human consumption and most other uses. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations exceed U.S. EPA drinking water standards in some wells screened in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. Sodium (Na) concentrations in samples from three wells more than 800 ft deep in the Englishtown aquifer exceed the standard. Iron and Mn concentrations in this aquifer may also exceed the standards. Iron concentrations in the Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifer exceed the standard. Based on 15 analyses of water from the Vincetown aquifer, Mn is the only constituent that exceeds the drinking water standard. In the Manasquan aquifer, 4 of the 16 Na determinations exceed the standard, and 8 of 16 Fe determinations exceed the standard. Water quality in the Atlantic City 800-ft sand is generally satisfactory. However, 12 Fe and 1 of 12 Mn determinations exceed the standards. For the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, 1 of 3 Fe determinations exceed the standard. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system (the water table aquifer) was the most thoroughly sampled (249 chemical analyses from 209 wells). Dissolved solids, chloride, Fe, nitrate, and Mn concentrations exceed drinking water standards in some areas. The results of chi-square tests of constituent distributions based on analyses from 158 wells in the water table aquifer indicate that calcium is higher in industrial and commercial areas; and Mg, chloride, and nitrate-plus-nitrite is higher in residential areas. (Author 's abstract)

  17. The impact of changing climate on surface and ground water quality in southeast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribak, Kamal

    2015-04-01

    In the current changing climate globally, Ireland have been experiencing a yearly recurrent extreme heavy rainfall events in the last decade, with damaging visible effects socially, economically and on the environment. Ireland intensive agriculture production is a major treat to the aquatic environment, Nitrogen and phosphorus losses to the water courses are major causes to eutrophication. The European Water Frame Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) sets a number of measures to better protect and improve water status. Five years of high temporal resolution river water quality data measurement from two contrasting catchment in the southeast of Ireland were correlated with rain fall and nutrients losses to the ground and surface water, additional to the integrated Southeast River District Basin ground and surface water quality to establish spatiotemporal connection to the agriculture activities, the first well-drained soil catchment had high coefficient correlation with rain fall with higher losses to groundwater, on the other hand higher nutrients losses to surface water were higher with less influence from groundwater recharge of N and P transfer, the poorly clay base soil contributed to higher increased losses to surface water during excessive rain fall. Agriculture activities, hydrology, geology and human interaction can interact according to their site specific setting and the effects will fluctuate dependent on the conditions influencing the impact on water quality, there is a requirement to better distinguish those effects together and identify areas and land uses control and nutrients management to improve the water quality, stakeholders co-operation along with effective polices, long term monitoring, nutrients pathways management and better understanding of the environmental factors interaction on national, regional and catchment scale to enable planning policies and enforcement measures to be more focused on areas of high risk

  18. Appraisal of ground-water quality in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F., Jr.; Schroeder, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 47 wells and analyzed for concentration of major inorganic ions, nitrogen species, and volatile (purgeable) organic priority pollutants to assess groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin, California. Data were supplemented with additional analysis of nitrate, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene made by other agencies. The organic quality of groundwater in the basin generally is suitable for most uses, although fluoride concentration exceeded the California public drinking water standard of 1.4 mg/L in water from 5 of 47 wells. Nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration equaled or exceeded the public drinking water standard of 10 mg/L in water from 13 of 47 wells sampled for this study and in an additional 19 of 120 samples analyzed by other agencies. Concentration generally decreased with increasing depth below land surface. Twenty-four of the 33 volatile organic priority pollutants were detected in water from wells sampled during this study. When supplemental data from other agencies are included, tetrachloroethylene concentration exceeded the standard of 5 micrograms/L in water from 49 of 128 wells. No basinwide relation between contamination by these two chemicals and well depth or land use was discerned. A network of 11 observation wells that could be sampled twice a year would enhance the monitoring of changes groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin. (USGS)

  19. Effects of a cattle feedlot on ground-water quality in the South Platte River Valley near Greeley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borman, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in water quality in an alluvial aquifer resulting from the operation of a feedlot stocked with 90,000 cattle have been minimal. Monitoring water quality in 19 observation wells from April 1974, prior to the operation of the feedlot, to June 1978, after about 4 years of operation, indicates that chloride concentrations have increased slightly in one well downgradient from a runoff-retention pond. Chemical analyses of water from two lysimeters installed in the unsaturated zone indicate that leachate from the feedlot has percolated to a depth of at least 5 feet but has not percolated to a depth of 20 feet. The small changes in ground-water quality caused by the feedlot are likely the result of the limited available recharge, a relatively impermeable manure pack, soil clogging under the cattle pens resulting in slow vertical movement of leachate through the unsaturated zone, soil clogging under the unlined runoff-retention ponds, and denitrification in the unsaturated zone. (USGS)

  20. Quality of surface water and ground water in the proposed artificial-recharge project area, Rillito Creek basin, Tucson, Arizona, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tadayon, Saeid

    1995-01-01

    Controlled artificial recharge of surface runoff is being considered as a water-management technique to address the problem of ground-water overdraft. The planned use of recharge facilities in urban areas has caused concern about the quality of urban runoff to be recharged and the potential for ground-water contamination. The proposed recharge facility in Rillito Creek will utilize runoff entering a 1-mile reach of the Rillito Creek between Craycroft Road and Swan Road for infiltration and recharge purposes within the channel and excavated overbank areas. Physical and chemical data were collected from two surface-water and two ground-water sites in the study area in 1994. Analyses of surface-water samples were done to determine the occurrence and concentration of potential contaminants and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected during 1987-93. Analyses of ground-water samples were done to determine the variability of ground-water quality at the monitoring wells throughout the year and to determine changes in quality since samples were collected in 1989 and 1993. Surface-water samples were collected from Tanque Verde Creek at Sabino Canyon Road (streamflow-gaging station Tanque Verde Creek at Tucson, 09484500) and from Alamo Wash at Fort Lowell Road in September and May 1994, respectively. Ground-water samples were collected from monitoring wells (D- 13-14)26cbb2 and (D-13-14)26dcb2 in January, May, July, and October 1994. In surface water, calcium was the dominant cation, and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. In ground water, calcium and sodium were the dominant cations and bicarbonate was the dominant anion. Surface water in the area is soft, and ground water is moderately hard to hard. In surface water and ground water, nitrogen was found predominantly as nitrate. Concentrations of manganese in ground-water samples ranged from 60 to 230 micrograms per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant

  1. Water-elevation, stream-discharge, and ground-water quality data in the Alaska Railroad Industrial Area, Fairbanks, Alaska, May 1993 to May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kriegler, A.T.; Lilly, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    From May 1993 to May 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management collected data on ground-water and surface-water elevations, stream discharge, and ground-water quality in the Alaska Railroad Industrial area in Fairbanks, Alaska. The data- collection efforts were coordinated with environmental efforts being made in the study area by the Alaska Railroad Corporation. These data were collected as part of an effort to characterize the hydrogeology of the Alaska Railroad Industrial area and to define the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons in the area. Ground-water data were collected at 52 observation wells, surface-water data at 12 sites, stream discharge data at 9 sites, and chemical water-quality data at 32 observation wells.

  2. The evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test procedure.

    PubMed

    Smaka-Kincl, V; Stegnar, P; Lovka, M; Toman, M J

    1996-07-01

    The bulbs of Allium cepa were grown in test liquids of various pollution levels as follows: undiluted industrial and municipal waste water; biological treatment plant output water; water from the Drava river upstream and downstream of the city of Maribor; and non-chlorinated drinking water as a negative control test. The paper presents the response of the Allium cepa genetic material to the presence of potential cytotoxic and genotoxic substances in test liquids and the suitability of the Allium cepa testing procedure as a method for short-term determination of water pollution level. The suitability of the Allium test procedure as a system for environmental monitoring is presented. The influence of water pollution on macroscopic and cytologic parameters of the common onion by application of the biological testing method was examined. The macroscopic parameter was inhibition of root growth. The cytological parameters were: aberrant cells in metaphase and anaphase, index of micronuclei appearance and inhibition of cell division. The possibility of categorization the different polluted test liquids into quality classes is presented according to the influence of the test liquids on macroscopic and cytologic parameters. Test liquids are divided into 8 quality classes: the first class is the least polluted surface waters, the second and the third classes are more polluted surface water, the fourth and the fifth classes are biological treatment plant output waters, the sixth till the eighth quality classes are untreated waste waters. The most polluted test liquids (untreated industrial and municipal waste waters) caused sublethal and even lethal effects. The most polluted tested liquids cause the inhibition of root growth over 50% (even up to 74%), decrease of mitotic index over 36% (even up to 66%), increase of presence of interphase cells with micronuclei over 3% and increase of presence of aberrant cells for more than 10 times in comparison to control test. PMID

  3. Chemical quality of ground water in Sacramento and Western Placer counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical quality of groundwater was investigated in Sacramento and western Placer Counties during the summer of 1982. Chemical analyses of water samples from 209 wells indicate that the groundwater is suitable for domestic and most agricultural uses. Water from wells near the Sacramento River and a few wells near Lincoln had high concentrations of dissolved solids and some trace elements. Although chemical water types varied, 53% of the wells had a combination of calcium magnesium bicarbonate water. More than 90% of the wells sampled had water with a low to medium sodium-salinity hazard when used for irrigation. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Ground-water quality near an inactive landfill and sludge-spreading area, Tallahassee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berndt, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater quality at and near a landfill southwest of Tallahassee, Florida, where sludge from a municipal sewage-treatment plant was also applied, was assessed by sampling 21 monitoring wells and analyzing for various constituents. Water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer at the site was compared to the water quality of 20 background wells in Leon County. Water quality in all samples from wells at the site was evaluated in relation to the landfill and sludge-spreading and nonsludge- spreading areas. Results from nonparametric statistical tests showed that potassium and nitrate concentrations were significantly different in samples from the Upper Floridan aquifer at the site and in samples from background wells. Median potassium concentrations were 0.7 mg/L in samples collected at the site and 0.4 mg/L in samples collected from background wells, whereas median nitrate concentration was 6.48 mg/L at the site and 0.51 mg/L in background wells. Graphical comparison of concentration distributions in six categories of wells; upgradient, landfill, adjacent to the landfill, downgradient onsite, downgradient offsite, and from background wells in Leon County, indicated that sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, iron, manganese, dissolved solids, and specific conductance had highest concentrations in water from wells within the landfill. Nitrate concentrations were lowest in samples from wells in the landfill compared to the other categories. Concentrations of trace metals and organic constituents were mostly below detection limits although State maximum contaminant levels of 1.0 microg/L for benzene and vinyl chloride and 3.0 microg/L for tetrachloroethene were exceeded in water from some wells. Nitrate and chloride concentrations were significantly different in sludge-spreading and nonsludge-spreading areas. Median nitrate and chloride concentrations of 6.9 microg/L and 2.9 microg/L were detected in groundwater in sludge-spreading areas compared to 1.1 mg/L and 1.8 mg/L in

  5. An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radio-nuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the U.S. Department of Energy 's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. (USGS)

  6. Groundwater monitoring: Guidelines and methodology for developing and implementing a ground-water quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The handbook attempts to structure a cost-effective, generic groundwater pollution monitoring methodology that can be applied either on a regional basis or to site-specific, alternative approaches to monitoring the quality of groundwater at a considerable saving of time and money. Extensive detail is given to the relation of groundwater quality to the geohydrologic framework, constituents in the polluted groundwater, sources and causes of pollution, and use of water. Information is also given about groundwater monitoring techniques used in top soil, the vadose zone, ad the saturated zone. The costs of these techniques are described in figures and tables. Groundwater databases and their applicability to water resources information systems are also covered. Comprehensive site-specific examples are given of how to use the material in the handbook to monitoring major sources of groundwater pollution. Included are in-depth models of hazardous waste disposal, brine disposal, landfill leachate control, oxidation ponds and percolation ponds, septic fields, and agricultural return flow, as well as descriptions of cases of multiple-source municipal and agricultural pollution.

  7. Availability and quality of ground water in the Piedmont Province of Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, John Duane; Abe, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    The Piedmont Province of Virginia has an ample supply of groundwater, (perhaps as much as 1.5 billion gallons are in storage per sq mi) generally suitable for domestic and small supply needs. The source of this groundwater is precipitation, which is stored in the pore spaces of the regolith and in fractures in the underlying bedrock of crystalline rocks. Water within the sedimentary rocks of the sedimentary basins is stored in bedding planes, fractures, and in pore spaces in the rock, and in the regolith. Well yields can be minimized in both terrains by constructing wells along lineaments and in valleys. Groundwater in the crystalline rock is generally slightly mineralized and acidic (pH is greater than 7.0). Dissolved solids concentration in deep wells ( < 500 ft) in sedimentary rock may exceed tolerable limits. Land disposal of solid wastes and sewage for domestic septic systems present the major threat to groundwater quality. A greater understanding of the groundwater system in the Virginia Piedmont could be used to anticipate future shortages so that preventive measures could be implemented to protect the groundwater reservoir. (Author 's abstract)

  8. An experiment in representative ground-water sampling for water- quality analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, T.L.; Stullken, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining a sample of groundwater that accurately represents the concentration of a chemical constituent in an aquifer is an important aspect of groundwater-quality studies. Varying aquifer and constituent properties may cause chemical constituents to move within selectively separate parts of the aquifer. An experiment was conducted in an agricultural region in south-central Kansas to address questions related to representative sample collection. Concentrations of selected constituents in samples taken from observation wells completed in the upper part of the aquifer were compared to concentrations in samples taken from irrigation wells to determine if there was a significant difference. Water in all wells sampled was a calcium bicarbonate type with more than 200 mg/L hardness and about 200 mg/L alkalinity. Sodium concentrations were also quite large (about 40 mg/L). There was a significant difference in the nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations between samples from observation and irrigation wells. The median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from observation wells was 5.7 mg/L compared to 3.4 mg/L in water from irrigation wells. The differences in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (larger in water from irrigation wells) were significant at the 78% confidence level but not at the 97% confidence level. Concentrations of the herbicide, atrazine, were less than the detection limit of 0.1 micrograms/L in all but one well. (USGS)

  9. Quality of shallow ground water in recently developed residential and commercial areas, Memphis vicinity, Tennessee, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-four monitor wells screened in the shallow water-table aquifer and eight monitor wells screened in the upper part of the Memphis aquifer in the Memphis vicinity, Tennessee, were sampled as part of the Mississippi Embayment National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These samples were collected during April and May 1997, and were analyzed for turbidity, water temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, alkalinity, major ions, nutrients, 18 trace elements, 85 pesticides, 87 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radioisotopes, and stable isotopes. The Memphis study area consists of 76 square miles of residential-commercial areas ranging in age from 5 to 25 years. Atrazine was the only compound in this study detected at a concentration that exceeded a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard. Manganese, iron, and dissolved solids concentrations in water from some wells exceeded secondary standards. At least one pesticide was detected in water from 24 of 32 wells. The most frequently detected pesticides in water from the monitor wells were atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor. At least one VOC was detected in water from 31 of 32 wells. The most frequently detected VOCs in water from the wells were carbon disulfide, chloroform, m- and pxylenes, tetrachloroethene, and toluene. Water from 17 wells was a sodium bicarbonate type water; water from 12 wells was a calciummagnesium bicarbonate type water; water from 2 wells was a sodium chloride type water; water from 1 well was a sodium mixed anion type water. Based on both tritium and chlorofluorocarbon data, the average age of water from the monitor wells in the Memphis study area was estimated to range from 10 to more than 43 years old. Occurrence of VOCs increased with increasing urban land use.

  10. Geohydrology and ground-water quality on Shelter Island, Suffolk County, New York, 1983-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Shelter Island, with an area of about 11 sq mi, lies between the north and south forks of eastern Long Island in Suffolk County. The thin upper glacial (water table) aquifer contains the lens-shaped freshwater body that is the sole source of freshwater for the Town 's population of about 2,200 year-round and 10,000 summer residents. Chloride concentrations in groundwater above the freshwater/saltwater interface, defined as 40 mg/L Cl-, are relatively constant with depth. Below the interface, however, chloride concentrations increase rapidly--as much as an order of magnitude within 10 ft--until they reach 19 ,000 mg/L, the chloride concentration of seawater. Chloride concentrations in shallow groundwater from wells screened in or near the zone of diffusion may range over two orders of magnitude in response to variations in recharge and groundwater withdrawal. After the summer season of relatively low recharge and peak water demand, the thickness of the freshwater lens is < 20 ft in many nearshore areas. A map showing the configuration of the water table in December 1983 indicates freshwater mounds in the center of the island, in the Mashomack Preserve, on the Dering Harbor-Hay Beach peninsula, and in the area between Shelter Island Heights and West Neck Bay. Areas in which the supply of fresh groundwater is severely limited include all coastal areas, the southernmost part of the West Neck peninsula, and Little Ram Island. Water levels in most locations are < 6 ft above sea level. During 1974-83, seasonal water table fluctuations were greater than variations that occurred from year to year. Groundwater quality on Shelter Island is generally good and usually meets Federal and State drinking water standards. However, many wells contain water that has excessive concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese (up to 5.0 mg/L and 3.0 mg/L, respectively), and elevated chloride and dissolved solids concentrations (up to 310 mg/L and 585 mg/L, respectively) have been found in

  11. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic effects associated with augmenting a lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer were examined in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida, from June 1996 through May 1999. The hydrogeology, ground-water flow patterns, water budgets, and water-quality characteristics were compared between a lake that has been augmented for more than 30 years (Round Lake) and two nearby non-augmented lakes (Dosson Lake and Halfmoon Lake). Compared to the other study lakes, Round Lake is in a more leakage-dominated hydrogeologic setting. The intermediate confining unit is thin or highly breached, which increases the potential for vertical ground-water flow. Round Lake has the least amount of soft, organic lake-bottom sediments and the lake bottom has been dredged deeper and more extensively than the other study lakes, which could allow more leakage from the lake bottom. The area around Round Lake has experienced more sinkhole activity than the other study lakes. During this study, three sinkholes developed around the perimeter of the lake, which may have further disrupted the intermediate confining unit. Ground-water flow patterns around Round Lake were considerably different than the non-augmented lakes. For most of the study, ground-water augmentation artificially raised the level of Round Lake to about 2 to 3 feet higher than the adjacent water table. As a result, lake water recharged the surficial aquifer around the entire lake perimeter, except during very wet periods when ground-water inflow occurred around part of the lake perimeter. The non-augmented lakes typically had areas of ground-water inflow and areas of lake leakage around their perimeter, and during wet periods, ground-water inflow occurred around the entire lake perimeter. Therefore, the area potentially contributing ground water to the non-augmented lakes is much larger than for augmented Round Lake. Vertical head loss within the surficial aquifer was greater at Round Lake than the other

  12. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL GROUND WATER QUALITY SYMPOSIUM (3RD) HELD IN LAS VEGAS, NEVADA ON SEPTEMBER 15-17, 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Third National Ground Water Quality Symposium was held in Las Vegas, September 15-17, 1976, in conjunction with the annual convention of the National Water Well Association. There were eight main sessions encompassing twenty-four technical papers. These were concerned with th...

  13. Effects of irrigating with wastewater on ground-water quality at Fort Carson Military Reservation golf course near Colorado Springs, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick

    1984-01-01

    Fort Carson Military Reservation has used treatment wastewater for irrigation of the Fort Carson golf course since 1971. The effect of applied wastewater on groundwater quality at Fort Carson golf course was evaluated using water levels and water-quality data from 20 observation wells. The water-quality constituents analyzed included dissolved solids, major ions, nutrients, detergents, dissolved organic carbon, chemical and biological oxygen demand, and trace elements. Effects of the applied wastewater on ground-water quality for most constituents were obscured by large areal variations and by high concentrations of the constituents upgradient from the golf course. The sources of nitrogen observed in the ground water beneath the golf course were applied wastewater, applied fertilizer, leachate from the organic-rich shale, and from unknown upgradient sources. Nitrogen loading at the golf course from wastewater and applied fertilizer was estimated to be 18 ,900 pounds per year. After 10 years, less than 1 percent of the nitrogen applied was actually present in the ground water. Loss of nitrogen to the atmosphere as nitrous oxides, absorption, and to fixation by grass resulted in the much smaller concentrations observed in the ground water. (USGS)

  14. The use of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as Coagulant to Improve the Quality of Wastewater and Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawati; Rani Yuliastri, Indra; Nurhasni; Rohaeti, Eti; Effendi, Hefni; Darusman, Latifah K.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and ground water treatment are mostly using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC), a synthetic coagulant, which possess health risk and require expensive cost. This research was carried out to observe the effect of Moringa oleifera seed as natural coagulant to replace synthetic coagulant. M. oleifera reduced 98.6% turbidity of wastewater, 10.8% of its conductivity, 11.7% of its BOD and removed its metal contents (Cd, Cr, Mn). When applied to ground water, M. oleifera removed the turbidity of ground water as much as 97.5%, while reduced the conductivity and BOD of ground water 53.4% and 18%, respectively. The use of M. oleifera also reduced total number of coliform. The advantage of using M. oleifera is that it does not reduce pH as PAC, hence does not require further treatment to adjust pH of the treated water.

  15. Effects of dried wastewater-treatment sludge application on ground-water quality in South Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howie, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Four test fields in the south Dade agricultural area were studied to determine the effects of sludge application on ground-water quality. Two fields had been cultivated for 10 years or more, and two had not been farmed for at least 10 years. The fields were representative of the area's two soil types (Rockdale and Perrine marl) and two major crop types (row crops and groves). Before the application of sludge, wells upgradient of, within, and downgradient of each field were sampled for possible sludge contaminants at the end of wet and dry seasons. Municipal wastewater treatment sludge from the Dade County Water and Sewe Authority Department was then applied to the fields at varying application rates. The wells at each field were sampled over a 2-year period under different hydrologic conditions for possible sludge-related constituents (specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, chloride, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel, and sodium). Comparisons were made between water quality in the vicinity of the test fields and Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations, an between water quality upgradient of, beneath, and downgradient of the fields. Comparisons between presludge and postsludge water quality did not indicate any improvement because of retention of agrichemicals by the sludge nor did they indicate any deterioration because of leaching from the sludge. Comparisons of water quality upgradient of the fields to water quality beneath and downgradient of the fields also did not indicate any changes related to sludge. Florida Department of Environmental Regulation primary and secondary drinking-water regulations wer exceeded at the Rockdale maximum-application field by mercury (9.5 ug/L (micrograms per liter)), and the Perrine marl maximum-application field by manganese (60 ug/L) and lead (85 ug/L), and at the

  16. Analysis of Streamflow Trends, Ground-Water and Surface-Water Interactions, and Water Quality in the Upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Paul, Angela P.; Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin

    2008-01-01

    Changes in land and water use and increasing development of water resources in the Carson River basin may affect flow of the river and, in turn, affect downstream water users dependent on sustained river flows to Lahontan Reservoir. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Churchill County, and the Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, began a study in April 2006 to compile data on changes in land and water use, ground-water levels and pumping, streamflow, and water quality, and to make preliminary analyses of ground-water and surface-water interactions in the Carson River basin upstream of Lahontan Reservoir. The part of the basin upstream of Lahontan Reservoir is called the upper Carson River basin in this report. In 2005, irrigated agricultural land covered about 39,000 acres in Carson Valley, 3,100 acres in Dayton Valley, and 1,200 acres in Churchill Valley. Changes in land use in Carson Valley from the 1970s to 2005 included the development of about 2,700 acres of native phreatophytes, the development of 2,200 acres of irrigated land, 900 acres of land irrigated in the 1970s that appeared fallow in 2005, and the irrigation of about 2,100 acres of new agricultural land. In Dayton and Churchill Valleys, about 1,000 acres of phreatophytes and 900 acres of irrigated land were developed, about 140 acres of phreatophytes were replaced by irrigation, and about 600 acres of land irrigated in the 1970s were not irrigated in 2006. Ground-water pumping in the upper Carson River basin increases during dry years to supplement surface-water irrigation. Total annual pumping exceeded 20,000 acre-ft in the dry year of 1976, exceeded 30,000 acre-ft in the dry years from 1987 to 1992, and increased rapidly during the dry years from 1999 to 2004, and exceeded 50,000 acre-ft in 2004. As many as 67 public supply wells and 46 irrigation wells have been drilled within 0.5 mile of the Carson River. Pumping from these

  17. Municipal solid-waste disposal and ground-water quality in a coastal environment, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, Mario, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Solid waste is defined along with various methods of disposal and the hydrogeologic factors to be considered when locating land-fills is presented. Types of solid waste, composition, and sources are identified. Generation of municipal solid waste in Florida has been estimated at 4.5 pounds per day per person or about 7.8 million tons per year. Leachate is generated when precipitation and ground water percolate through the waste. Gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, are also produced. Leachate generally contains high concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic matter. The two typical hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida are (1) permeable sand overlying clay and limestone and (2) permeable sand overlying limestone. These conditions are discussed in relation to leachate migration. Factors in landfill site selection are presented and discussed, followed by a discussion on monitoring landfills. Monitoring of landfills includes the drilling of test holes, measuring physical properties of the corings, installation of monitoring wells, and water-quality monitoring. (USGS)

  18. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  20. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  1. Ground-Water Quality in Unmined Areas and Near Reclaimed Surface Coal Mines in the Northern and Central Appalachian Coal Regions, Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Findings are presented from investigations during 1996-1998 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Ground-water quality in 58 wells downgradient of reclaimed surface coal mines is compared to ground-water quality from 25 wells in unmined areas (background concentrations) in the bituminous coal fields of the northern Appalachian coal region (high-sulfur coal region) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia and the central Appalachian coal region (low-sulfur coal region) in West Virginia. Ground water in the mined high-sulfur coal region has significantly greater median concentrations of sulfate, hardness, calcium, and specific conductance compared to the unmined high-sulfur coal region and to both mined and unmined areas in the low-sulfur coal region. Ground water in mined areas had median values of mine-drainage constituents (sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, hardness, calcium, magnesium, turbidity, and specific conductance) that were significantly greater than medians for wells in unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents include cations such as calcium and magnesium that become elevated compared to levels in unmined areas because of exposure of acidic mine drainage to calcareous materials. The transport of pyrite-oxidation products from the mined site and subsequent neutralization reactions by calcareous materials at the mine site or along the flow path are likely processes that result in greater concentrations of mine-drainage constituents in mined areas compared to unmined areas. Mine-drainage constituents generally exceeded unmined-area background concentrations within about 500 feet of mined sites but were at or below background levels in wells more than 1,000 feet downgradient of mined sites. Concentrations of sulfate, hardness, and total dissolved solids were greatest at well depths of 50 to 150 feet but generally were less than background concentrations in wells deeper than 150 feet. Concentrations of iron, manganese

  2. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  3. Ground-water quality of the surficial aquifer system and the upper Floridan Aquifer, Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida, 1990-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, J.C.; Knowles, Leel, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Data from 217 ground-water samples were statistically analyzed to assess the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida. Samples were collected from 49 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 141 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 27 springs that discharge water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. A total of 136 samples was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1999. These data were supplemented with 81 samples collected by the St. Johns River Water Management District and Lake County Water Resources Management from 1990 through 1998. In general, the surficial aquifer system has low concentrations of total dissolved solids (median was 41 milligrams per liter) and major ions. Water quality of the surficial aquifer system, however, is not homogeneous throughout the study area. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, many major ions, and nutrients are greater in samples from Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest than in samples from within the Forest. These results indicate that the surficial aquifer system in Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest probably is being affected by agricultural and (or) urban land-use practices. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen (less than 0.1 to 8.2 milligrams per liter) in the surficial aquifer system underlying the Ocala National Forest indicate that the aquifer is readily recharged by precipitation and is susceptible to surface contamination. Concentrations of total dissolved solids were significantly greater in the Upper Floridan aquifer (median was 182 milligrams per liter) than in the surficial aquifer system. In general, water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer was homogeneous, primarily being a calcium or calciummagnesium- bicarbonate water type. Near the St. Johns River, the water type of the Upper Floridan aquifer is sodium-chloride, corresponding to an increase in total dissolved

  4. Application of health-based screening levels to ground-water quality data in a state-scale pilot effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Phillips, Robyn H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Krietzman, Sandra J.; Post, Gloria B.

    2004-01-01

    A state-scale pilot effort was conducted to evaluate a Health-Based Screening Level (HBSL) approach developed for communicating findings from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program in a human-health context. Many aquifers sampled by USGS are used as drinking-water sources, and water-quality conditions historically have been assessed by comparing measured contaminant concentrations to established drinking-water standards and guidelines. Because drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many analyzed contaminants, HBSL values were developed collaboratively by the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, and Oregon Health & Science University, using USEPA toxicity values and USEPA Office of Water methodologies. The main objective of this report is to demonstrate the use of HBSL approach as a tool for communicating water-quality data in a human-health context by conducting a retrospective analysis of ground-water quality data from New Jersey. Another important objective is to provide guidance on the use and interpretation of HBSL values and other human-health benchmarks in the analyses of water-quality data in a human-health context. Ground-water samples collected during 1996-98 from 30 public-supply, 82 domestic, and 108 monitoring wells were analyzed for 97 pesticides and 85 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The occurrence of individual pesticides and VOCs was evaluated in a human-health context by calculating Benchmark Quotients (BQs), defined as ratios of measured concentrations of regulated compounds (that is, compounds with Federal or state drinking-water standards) to Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) values and ratios of measured concentrations of unregulated compounds to HBSL values. Contaminants were identified as being of potential human-health concern if maximum detected concentrations were within a factor of 10 of the associated MCL or HBSL

  5. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  6. Simulated ground-water flow and water quality of the Mississippi River alluvium near Burlington, Iowa, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples collected from the alluvium indicated ground water can be classified as a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate type. Reducing conditions likely occur in some localized areas of the alluvium, as suggested by relatively large concentrations of dissolved iron (4,390 micrograms per liter) and manganese (2, 430 micrograms per liter) in some ground-water samples. Nitrite plus nitrate was detected at concentrations greater than or equal to 8 milligrams per liter in three samples collected from observation wells completed in close proximity to cropland; the nitrite plus nitrate concentration in one groundwater sample exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for nitrate in drinking water (10 milligrams per liter as N). Triazine herbicides (atrazine, cyanazine, propazine, simazine, and selected degradation products) and chloroacetanilide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor) were detected in some water samples. A greater number of herbicide compounds were detected in surface-water samples than in ground-water samples. Herbicide concentrations typically were at least an order of magnitude greater in surfacewater samples than in ground-water samples. The Maximum Contaminant Level for alachlor (2 micrograms per liter) was exceeded in a sample from Dry Branch Creek at Tama Road and for atrazine (3 micrograms per liter) was exceeded in samples collected from Dry Branch Creek at Tama Road and the county drainage ditch at Tama Road.

  7. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the Chromic Acid Pit site, US Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chromic Acid Pit site is an inactive waste disposal site that is regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. The 2.2-cubic-yard cement-lined pit was operated from 1980 to 1983 by a contractor to the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss. The pit, located on the Fort Bliss military reservation, in El Paso, Texas, was used for disposal and evaporation of chromic acid waste generated from chrome plating operations. The site was certified closed in 1989 and the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission issued Permit Number HW-50296 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Permit Number TX4213720101), which approved and implemented post-closure care for the Chromic Acid Pit site. In accordance with an approved post-closure plan, the U.S. Geological Survey is cooperating with the U.S. Army in evaluating hydrogeologic conditions and ground- water quality at the site. One upgradient and two downgradient ground-water monitoring wells were installed adjacent to the chromic acid pit by a private contractor. Quarterly ground-water sampling of these wells by the U.S. Geological Survey began in December 1993. The Chromic Acid Pit site is situated in the Hueco Bolson intermontane valley. The Hueco Bolson is a primary source of ground water in the El Paso area. City of El Paso and U.S. Army water-supply wells are located on all sides of the study area and are completed 600 to more than 1,200 feet below land surface. The ground-water level in the area of the Chromic Acid Pit site has declined about 25 feet from 1982 to 1993. Depth to water at the Chromic Acid Pit site in September 1994 was about 284 feet below land surface; ground-water flow is to the southeast. Ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells at the Chromic Acid Pit site contained dissolved-solids concentrations of 442 to 564 milligrams per liter. Nitrate as nitrogen concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 2.7 milligrams per liter; nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen

  8. Water quality, hydrology, and phosphorus loading to Little St. Germain Lake, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of winter aeration and ground-water inputs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Several empirical water-quality models were used to simulate how the East and Upper East Bays of the lake should respond to reductions in phosphorus loading from Muskellunge Creek. Simulation results indicated that reductions in tributary loading could improve the water quality of the East and Upper East Bays. Improving the water quality of these bays would also improve the water quality of the South and Second South Bays because of the flow of water through the lake. However, even with phosphorus loading from Muskellunge Creek completely eliminated, most of the lake would remain borderline mesotrophic/eutrophic because of the contributions of phosphorus from ground water.

  9. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Land uses in the urban land use study area affected the concentrations of some water-quality constituents. Concentrations of nitrate and chloride, and frequencies of detection of pesticides and of volatile organic compounds, were greater in water samples from the surficial sand and gravel aquifer underlying the urban land use study area than in water samples from similar aquifers from part of the Upper Mississippi River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment study unit. Land uses within 500-meter radii of each well were quantified by digitizing overlays of aerial photographs that were verified and updated in the field. Concentrations of magnesium and sulfate were greater in ground water beneath areas of denser residential development, which may be a natural artifact of better drainage and a deeper water table in those areas. Frequencies of detection of some pesticides and volatile organic compounds were greater in water from wells with greater proportions of industrial and transportation land uses. Ground water in areas with less dense residential development, mostly the more recently-developed areas, tended to have greater concentrations of agricultural herbicides and some nutrients probably a relict of previous agricultural land use.

  10. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  11. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A., Jr.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  12. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  13. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  14. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Papio-Missouri river natural resources district, Eastern Nebraska, July through September 1992. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraeten, I.M.; Ellis, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe the water quality of the principal aquifers in the study area. Wells representative of the geology and land use in the study area were selected for water-quality sampling. Variations in constituent concentration among aquifers are discussed. The report describes the spatial distributions of dissolved nitrite plus-nitrate as nitrogen and triazine and other acetanilide herbicides and evaluates the effects of cropland application of nitrogen and herbicides on the ground-water quality within the study area. The report also summarizes the concentrations of dissolved major and trace constituents including radionuclide activity and concentration.

  15. Hydrology, water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow at a taconite-tailings basin near Keewatin, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myette, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical-model simulations of ground-water flow near the vicinity of the tailings basin indicate that, if areal recharge were doubled during spring and fall, water levels in wells could average about 4 feet above 1983 levels during these periods. Model results indicate that water levels in the tailings could possibly remain about 5 feet above 1983 levels at the end of the year. Water levels in the tailings at the outlet of the basin could be about 1 foot above 1983 levels during the spring stress period and could be nearly 1.5 feet above 1983 levels during the fall stress period. Under these hypothetical climatic conditions, ground-water contribution to discharge at the outlet could be about 50 cubic feet per second during spring and about 80 cubic feet per second during fall.

  16. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Freshwater Injection Wells in Mitigating Ground-Water Quality Degradation at Selected Well Fields in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Spechler, Rick M.

    2004-01-01

    The Fernandina permeable zone contains brackish water in parts of Duval County, Florida. Upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone to the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer increases chloride concentrations in ground water in parts of Duval County. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida, were used to (1) estimate the vertical flows between the low-quality water of the Fernandina permeable zone and the high-quality water of the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of Deerwood 3 and Brierwood well fields, based on 2000 ground-water withdrawal rates; (2) determine how such vertical flows change as several scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods are simulated in the two well fields; and (3) evaluate the effects of changes in less certain hydraulic parameters on the vertical flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The ground-water flow system was simulated with a four-layer model using MODFLOW-2000, which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The first layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system with prescribed water levels. The second layer simulates the Upper Floridan aquifer. The third and fourth layers simulate the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Fernandina permeable zone, respectively. Average flow conditions in 2000 were approximated with a steady-state simulation. The changes in upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone due to periods of injections and withdrawals were analyzed with transient simulations. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 250-foot cells, with 400 columns and 400 rows. The active model area encompasses about 360 square miles in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida. Ground-water flow simulation was limited vertically to the bottom of the Fernandina

  17. Ground-water sampling methods and quality-control data for the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menheer, M.A.; Brigham, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Quality-control data demonstrated that most constituents measured for this study yielded reproducible data, with low to undetectable contamination from the sampling and analytical procedures. Several constituents were occasionally or frequently detected in blank samples at levels similar to low-concentration ground-water-quality samples. For example, iron was detected in 75 percent of the blank samples, with a maximum concentration of 27 [ig/L, indicating that iron contamination may interfere with its determination at low levels in ground waters. Copper, aluminum, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in blank samples overlap those determined in ground-waterquality samples, thereby precluding quantitative reporting of those constituents. Most pesticide data are reproducible, with minimal bias. Some pesticides had low but consistent recoveries; these data may be useful if spike and surrogate data are carefully considered. Data for some pesticides measured in this study should not be quantitatively reported or used, because they may underestimate the concentrations of those pesticides in ground waters.

  18. Quality-assurance design applied to an assessment of agricultural pesticides in ground water from carbonate bedrock aquifers in the Great Valley of eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Assessments to determine whether agricultural pesticides are present in ground water are performed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania under the aquifer monitoring provisions of the State Pesticides and Ground Water Strategy. Pennsylvania?s Department of Agriculture conducts the monitoring and collects samples; the Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) Laboratory analyzes the samples to measure pesticide concentration. To evaluate the quality of the measurements of pesticide concentration for a groundwater assessment, a quality-assurance design was developed and applied to a selected assessment area in Pennsylvania. This report describes the quality-assurance design, describes how and where the design was applied, describes procedures used to collect and analyze samples and to evaluate the results, and summarizes the quality assurance results along with the assessment results. The design was applied in an agricultural area of the Delaware River Basin in Berks, Lebanon, Lehigh, and Northampton Counties to evaluate the bias and variability in laboratory results for pesticides. The design?with random spatial and temporal components?included four data-quality objectives for bias and variability. The spatial design was primary and represented an area comprising 30 sampling cells. A quality-assurance sampling frequency of 20 percent of cells was selected to ensure a sample number of five or more for analysis. Quality-control samples included blanks, spikes, and replicates of laboratory water and spikes, replicates, and 2-lab splits of groundwater. Two analytical laboratories, the PaDEP Laboratory and a U.S. Geological Survey Laboratory, were part of the design. Bias and variability were evaluated by use of data collected from October 1997 through January 1998 for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, simazine, pendimethalin, metribuzin, and chlorpyrifos. Results of analyses of field blanks indicate that collection, processing, transport, and laboratory

  19. Use of borehole and surface geophysics to investigate ground-water quality near a road-deicing salt-storage facility, Valparaiso, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, M.R.; Robinson, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Two surface surveys of terrain electromagnetic conductivity were used to map the horizontal extent of the saltwater plume in areas without monitoring wells. Background values of terrain conductivity were measured in an area where water-quality and borehole geophysical data did not indicate saline or brackish water. Based on a guideline from previous case studies, the boundaries of the saltwater plume were mapped where terrain conductivity was 1.5 times background. The extent of the saltwater plume, based on terrain conductivity, generally was consistent with the available water-quality and borehole electromagnetic-conductivity data and with directions of ground-water flow determined from water-level altitudes.

  20. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Carolina, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Carolina, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resources data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated for one continuous-record gaging station, based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency analysis. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for seven partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics were computed for the one continuous-record gaging station and were estimated for the partial-record stations using the relation curves developed from the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land and water use. Low-flow statistics may substantially change as a result of streamflow diversions for public supply, and an increase in ground-water development, waste-water discharges, and flood-control measures; the current analysis provides baseline information to evaluate these impacts and develop water budgets. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 29 sampling stations to evaluate the sanitary quality of about 87 miles of stream channels. River and stream samples were collected on two occasions during base-flow conditions and were analyzed for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus. Bacteriological analyses indicate that a significant portion of the stream reaches within the municipio of Carolina may have fecal coliform

  1. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  2. Ground water near Newton, Jasper County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality in the South Skunk River and the alluvial aquifer was similar, except most ground-water samples contained low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in ground water resulted in high concentrations of iron and manganese in some locations and reduced forms of nitrogen.

  3. Mississippi Embayment Regional Ground Water Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased water usage in the southeastern United States in the tri-state area of Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas poses a dilemma to ensuring long-term sustainability of the quantity and quality of ground-water resources that underlie the region. Demand for ground water by ag...

  4. Methods and Sources of Data Used to Develop Selected Water-Quality Indicators for Streams and Ground Water for EPA's 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Wilson, John T.; Moran, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was one of numerous governmental agencies, private organizations, and the academic community that provided data and interpretations for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (USEPA) 2007 Report on the Environment: Science Report. This report documents the sources of data and methods used to develop selected water?quality indicators for the 2007 edition of the report compiled by USEPA. Stream and ground?water?quality data collected nationally in a consistent manner as part of the USGS?s National Water?Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) were provided for several water?quality indicators, including Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; Pesticides in Streams in Agricultural Watersheds; and Nitrate and Pesticides in Shallow Ground Water in Agricultural Watersheds. In addition, the USGS provided nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite) and phosphorus riverine load estimates calculated from water?quality and streamflow data collected as part of its National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and its Federal?State Cooperative Program for the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Discharge from Large Rivers indicator.

  5. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality in the Black Belt area of west-central Alabama, and estimated water use for aquaculture, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, R.E.; Lambeth, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial production of catfish in west-central Alabama began about 1970, and by 1991 catfish ponds covered about 16,000 acres in the Black Belt area of the State. The rapid increase in catfish farming or aquaculture and the associated demand for ground water led the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies in 1990 to initiate a study to better define the ground-water resources in the Black Belt area. The major aquifers in the study area are sand and gravel beds in the Eutaw, Gordo, and Coker Formations. Recharge to these aquifers occurs primarily in areas where those formations crop out. The average recharge to the major aquifers in the study area, as estimated from baseflow analysis of streams in the outcrop area, is 11.4 inches per year. Water from the major aquifers in the study area generally is of good quality and suitable for most uses. Water from the Eutaw aquifer, however, contains chloride in concentrations greater than 500 milligrams per liter in central Greene County and in downdip areas in Marengo and Wilcox Counties and is not suitable for public water supply. Some ground water with elevated chloride concentrations is used for catfish farming in these areas, however. The total estimated water use for aquaculture in the study area in 1990 was 21.83 million gallons per day, 16.08 million gallons per day from ground-water sources, and 5.75 million per day from surface water sources. About 13.54 million gallons per day of water was used for filling catfish ponds and an additional 8.29 million gallons per day was used to replace evaporation losses.

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  7. COMPILATION OF GROUND-WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground-water modeling is a computer-based methodology for mathematical analysis of the mechanisms and controls of ground-water systems for the evaluation of policies, action, and designs that may affect such systems. n addition to satisfying scientific interest in the workings of...

  8. Spatial patterns and temporal variability in water quality from City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells and piezometer nests, with implications for the ground-water flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality data for 93 City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells, 7 deep piezometer nests, and selected additional wells were examined to improve understanding of the regional ground-water system and its response to pumpage. Plots of median values of several major parameters showed discernible water-quality differences both areally and with depth in the aquifer. Areal differences were sufficiently large to enable delineation of five regions of generally distinct water quality, which are consistent with areas of separate recharge defined by previous investigators. Data for deep piezometer nests indicate that water quality generally degrades somewhat with depth, except in areas where local recharge influenced by evapotranspiration or contamination could be affecting shallow water. The orientations of the five water-quality regions indicate that the direction of ground-water flow has historically been primarily north to south. This is generally consistent with maps of predevelopment hydraulic heads, although some areas lack consistency, possibly because of differences in time scales or depths represented by water quality as opposed to hydraulic head. The primary sources of recharge to ground water in the study area appear to be mountain-front recharge along the Sandia Mountains to the east and the Jemez Mountains to the north, seepage from the Rio Grande, and infiltration through Tijeras Arroyo. Elevated concentrations of many chemical constituents in part of the study area appear to be associated with a source of water having large dissolved solids, possibly moving upward from depth. Hydraulic-head data for deep piezometer nests indicate that vertical head gradients differ in direction and magnitude across the study area. Hydraulic-head gradients are downward in the central and western parts of the study area and upward across much of the eastern part, except at the mountain front. Water-quality data for the piezometers indicate that the ground water is not

  9. Factors Affecting Occurrence and Distribution of Selected Contaminants in Ground Water From Selected Areas in the Piedmont Aquifer System, Eastern United States, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Falls, William F.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2006-01-01

    Results of ground-water sampling from 255 wells and 19 springs in 11 studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program within the Piedmont Aquifer System (PAS) were analyzed to determine the factors affecting occurrence and distribution of selected contaminants. The contaminants, which were selected on the basis of potential human-health effects, included nitrate, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and radon. The PAS was subdivided on the basis of the general rock type of the aquifers into three areas for the study-crystalline, carbonate, and siliciclastic. The 11 studies were designed to areally represent an individual aquifer rock type and overall are representative of the PAS in their distribution; 7 studies are in the crystalline-rock aquifers, 3 studies are in the siliciclastic-rock aquifers, and 1 study is in the carbonate-rock aquifers. Four of the studies were focused on land use, 1 in an agricultural area and 3 in urban areas. The remaining studies had wells representing a range of land-use types. Analysis of results of nitrate sampling indicated that in 8 of the 10 areas where nitrate concentrations were measured, median concentrations of nitrate were below 3 mg/L (milligrams per liter); 2 of the 10 areas had statistically significant higher median concentrations when compared to the other 8 areas. The agricultural land-use study in the carbonate-rock aquifer in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin had the highest median nitrate concentration (11 mg/L), and 60 percent of the wells sampled exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L. The major aquifer study in the crystalline-rock aquifer of the Lower Susquehanna River Basin Study Unit had the second-highest median nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations were positively correlated to the percentage of agricultural land use around the well, the total input of nitrogen from all sources

  10. Preliminary estimates of residence times and apparent ages of ground water in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and water-quality data from a survey of springs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Plummer, L. Neil; Bohlke, John K.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Bachman, L. Joseph; Powars, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the residence times of the ground-water systems in Chesapeake Bay watershed helps resource managers anticipate potential delays between implementation of land-management practices and any improve-ments in river and estuary water quality. This report presents preliminary estimates of ground-water residence times and apparent ages of water in the shallow aquifers of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A simple reservoir model, published data, and analyses of spring water were used to estimate residence times and apparent ages of ground-water discharge. Ranges of aquifer hydraulic characteristics throughout the Bay watershed were derived from published literature and were used to estimate ground-water residence times on the basis of a simple reservoir model. Simple combinations of rock type and physiographic province were used to delineate hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMR?s) for the study area. The HGMR?s are used to facilitate organization and display of the data and analyses. Illustrations depicting the relation of aquifer characteristics and associated residence times as a continuum for each HGMR were developed. In this way, the natural variation of aquifer characteristics can be seen graphically by use of data from selected representative studies. Water samples collected in September and November 1996, from 46 springs throughout the watershed were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFC?s) to estimate the apparent age of ground water. For comparison purposes, apparent ages of water from springs were calculated assuming piston flow. Additi-onal data are given to estimate apparent ages assuming an exponential distribution of ages in spring discharge. Additionally, results from previous studies of CFC-dating of ground water from other springs and wells in the watershed were compiled. The CFC data, and the data on major ions, nutrients, and nitrogen isotopes in the water collected from the 46 springs are included in this report. The apparent ages of water

  11. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 17. Geomorphology of the Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, and Influence on Ground-Water Flow in the Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, Kirk R.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley of north-central New Mexico. This report is one in a series of reports that can be used to determine pre-mining ground-water conditions at the mine site. Molycorp?s Questa molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico, is located near the margin of the Questa caldera in a highly mineralized region. The bedrock of the Taos Range surrounding the Red River is composed of Proterozoic rocks of various types, which are intruded and overlain by Oligocene volcanic rocks associated with the Questa caldera. Locally, these rocks were altered by hydrothermal activity. The alteration zones that contain sulfide minerals are particularly important because they constitute the commercial ore bodies of the region and, where exposed to weathering, form sites of rapid erosion referred to as alteration scars. Over the past thousand years, if not over the entire Holocene, erosion rates were spatially variable. Forested hillslopes eroded at about 0.04 millimeter per year, whereas alteration scars eroded at about 2.7 millimeters per year. The erosion rate of the alteration scars is unusually rapid for naturally occurring sites that have not been disturbed by humans. Watersheds containing large alteration scars delivered more sediment to the Red River Valley than the Red River could remove. Consequently, large debris fans, as much as 80 meters thick, developed within the valley. The geomorphology of the Red River Valley has had several large influences on the hydrology of the shallow alluvial aquifer, and those influences were in effect before the onset of mining within the watershed. Several reaches where alluvial ground water emerges to become Red River streamflow were observed by a tracer dilution study conducted in 2001. The aquifer narrows

  12. Laboratory and quality assurance protocols for the analysis of herbicides in ground water from the Management Systems Evaluation Area, Princeton, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; VanderLoop, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and quality assurance procedures for the analysis of ground-water samples for herbicides at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton, Minnesota are described. The target herbicides include atrazine, de-ethylatrazine, de-isopropylatrazine, metribuzin, alachlor, 2,6-diethylaniline, and metolachlor. The analytical techniques used are solid-phase extraction, and analysis by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection. Descriptions of cleaning procedures, preparation of standard solutions, isolation of analytes from water, sample transfer methods, instrumental analysis, and data analysis are included.

  13. Ground-water quality and geochemical processes at a municipal landfill, Town of Brookhaven, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearsall, Kenneth A.; Aufderheide, Mary Jean

    1995-01-01

    The principal geochemical process within a plume of leachate-contaminated ground water downgradient from the municipal landfill in the Town of Brookhaven is the oxidation of organic matter. Concurrent reducing processes are the reduction of iron and manganese oxyhydroxides to soluble ferrous and manganous forms, of nitrate and nitrite to nitrogen and ammonia, of sulfate to sulfide (sulfide precipitates from solution as iron and manganese sulfides), and, under extreme conditions, of some organic matter to methane. Secondary processes unrelated to bacterial activity and redox processes are the exchange of dissolved sodium and potassium for calcium and magnesium at ion-exchange sites and the dissolution of calcium and magnesium silicate minerals; these processes cause sodium and potassium concentrations to decrease with depth and with distance from the landfill and cause calcium, magnesium, and silica concentrations to increase.

  14. Selected ground-water-quality data of the Lockport Dolomite in Darke, Miami, Montgomery, and Preble Counties, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumouchelle, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, 25 samples of ground water from the Lockport Dolomite in western Ohio were analyzed for major ions, trace elements, and arsenic. Samples were collected from residential wells in Darke, Miami, Montgomery, and Preble Counties. The water sampled was untreated, except perhaps for water from one well. In general, samples from the northern part of the study area had the highest concentrations of common constituents such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfate, boron, and strontium. Iron and strontium concentrations were generally high throughout the study area, with median concentrations of 4,500 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) and 1,500 ?g/L, respectively. Arsenic concentrations, which ranged from less than 1 ?g/L to 29 ?g/L, did not exceed the drink ing-water standard of 50 ?g/L.

  15. Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, D.W.; Tullis, J.A.; Dolenc, M.R.; Thurow, T.L.; Skiba, P.A.

    1982-09-01

    Ground-water monitoring near the Raft River site was initiated in 1974 by the IDWR. This effort consisted of semiannual chemical sampling of 22 irrigation wells near the Raft River geothermal development area. This program yielded useful baseline chemical data; however, several problems were inherent. For example, access to water pumped from the wells is limited to the irrigation season (April through September). All the wells are not continuously pumped; thus, some wells that are sampled one season cannot be sampled the next. In addition, information on well construction, completion, and production is often unreliable or not available. These data are to be supplemented by establishing a series of monitor wells in the proposed geothermal withdrawal and injection area. These wells were to be located and designed to provide data necessary for evaluating and predicting the impact of geothermal development on the Shallow Aquifer system.

  16. Surface-Water, Water-Quality, and Ground-Water Assessment of the Municipio of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Guzman-Rios, Senen; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Oliveras-Feliciano, Mario L.

    2004-01-01

    five hydrogeologic terranes. This integrated database then was used to evaluate the ground-water potential of each hydrogeologic terrane. Lineament-trace analysis was used to help assess the ground-water development potential in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. Analyses suggest that areas with slopes greater than 15 degrees have relatively low ground-water development potential. The presence of fractures, independent of the topographic slope, may locally enhance the water-bearing properties in the hydrogeologic terranes containing igneous rocks. The results of this study indicate that induced streamflow generally is needed to sustain low to moderate ground-water withdrawal rates in the five hydrogeologic terranes. The ground-water flow systems in the hydrogeologic terranes are only able to sustain small withdrawal rates that rarely exceed 50 gallons per minute. Areas with a high density of fractures, as could be the case at the intersection of lineament traces in the upper parts of the Rio Ca?as and Rio Yaguez watersheds, are worthy of exploratory drilling for ground-water development.

  17. Well-construction, water-level, geophysical, and water-quality data for ground-water monitoring wells for Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, C.J.; Mahoney, E.N.; Robinson, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-five wells were installed at 39 sites in the Arnold Air Force Base area in Coffee and Franklin Counties, Tennessee. The wells were installed to provide information on subsurface lithology, aquifer characteristics, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Well depths ranged from 11 to 384 feet. Water-quality samples were collected from 60 wells and analyzed for common inorganic ions, trace metals, and volatile organic compounds. The median dissolved-solids concentrations were 60 milligrams per liter in the shallow aquifer, 48 million gallons per liter in the Manchester aquifer, 1,235 milligrams per liter in the Fort Payne aquifer, and 1,712 milligrams per liter in the upper Central Basin aquifer. Caliper, temperature, natural gamma, electric, neutron porosity, gamma-gamma density, and acoustic velocity borehole-geophysical logs were obtained for the six deep wells completed below the Chattanooga Shale. Petrographic and modal analysis were performed on rock samples from each deep well. These six deep wells provide the first information in the study area on hydraulic head and water quality from below the Chattanooga Shale.

  18. Ground-Water-Quality Data for a Treated-Wastewater Plume Undergoing Natural Restoration, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1994-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; Smith, Richard L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Hess, Kathryn M.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Barber, Larry B.

    2006-01-01

    A plume of contaminated ground water extends from former disposal beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation wastewater-treatment plant toward Ashumet Pond, and farther southward toward coastal ponds and Vineyard Sound, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Treated sewage-derived wastewater was discharged to the rapid-infiltration beds for nearly 60 years before the disposal site was moved to a different location in December 1995. Water-quality samples were collected periodically from monitoring wells and multilevel samplers during and after the disposal period to characterize the nature and extent of the contaminated ground water and to observe the water-quality changes after the wastewater disposal ceased. Data are presented here for water samples collected from 1994 through 2004 from 16 wells (at 2 locations) and 14 multilevel samplers (at 9 locations) along a longitudinal transect that extends through one of the disposal beds. Data collected from the treated-wastewater plume are presented in tabular format. These data include field parameters; concentrations of cations, anions, nitrate, ammonium, and organic and inorganic carbon species; and ultraviolet/visible absorbance. The natural restoration of the sand and gravel aquifer after removal of the nearly 60-year-long treated-wastewater source, along with interpretations of the water quality in the treated-wastewater plume on Cape Cod, have been documented in several published reports that are listed in the references.

  19. Factors affecting leaching in agricultural areas and an assessment of agricultural chemicals in the ground water of Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.A.; Robbins, F.V.; Barnes, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    As assessment of hydrologic factors and agricultural practices that may affect the leaching of agricultural chemicals to groundwater was conducted to evaluate the extent and severity of chemical contamination of groundwater resources in Kansas. The climate of a particular area determines the length of the growing season and the availability of water, at the surface and in the ground, for the growth of plants. Climate, together with surficial geology, soil, and principal aquifers, determines the types of crops to be planted,types of tillage, conservation and irrigation practices, and affects the quantity and method of application of agricultural chemicals. Examination of groundwater nitrate-nitrogen data collected from 766 wells throughout Kansas during 1976-81 indicated that 13 of 14 geohydrologic regions had wells producing samples that exceeded the 10-mg/L drinking water standard determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One or more herbicides were detected in water samples from 11 of 56 wells during 1985-86 located in areas susceptible to agricultural leaching. Atrazine was the most common herbicide that was detected; it was detected in water at 9 of 11 wells. Cyanazine was detected in water at three wells; metolachlor at two wells; and metribuzin, alachlor, simazine, and propazine were detected at one well each. (USGS)

  20. Surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the Municipio of Comerio, Puerto Rico, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Santiago-Rivera, Luis; Oliveras-Feliciano, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for a safe and adequate supply of water in the municipio of Comerio, an integrated surface-water, water-quality, and ground-water assessment of the area was conducted. The major results of this study and other important hydrologic and water-quality features were compiled in a Geographic Information System, and are presented in two 1:30,000-scale map plates to facilitate interpretation and use of the diverse water-resource data. Because the supply of safe drinking water was a critical issue during recent dry periods, the surface-water assessment portion of this study focused on analysis of low-flow characteristics in local streams and rivers. Low-flow characteristics were evaluated at one continuous-record gaging station based on graphical curve-fitting techniques and log-Pearson Type III frequency curves. Estimates of low-flow characteristics for 13 partial-record stations were generated using graphical-correlation techniques. Flow-duration characteristics for the continuous- and partial-record stations were estimated using the relation curves developed for the low-flow study. Stream low-flow statistics document the general hydrology under current land- and water-use conditions. A sanitary quality survey of streams utilized 24 sampling stations to evaluate about 84 miles of stream channels with drainage to or within the municipio of Comerio. River and stream samples for fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus analyses were collected on two occasions at base-flow conditions to evaluate the sanitary quality of streams. Bacteriological analyses indicate that about 27 miles of stream reaches within the municipio of Comerio may have fecal coliform bacteria concentrations above the water-quality goal established by the Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board (Junta de Calidad Ambiental de Puerto Rico) for inland surface waters. Sources of fecal contamination may include illegal discharge of sewage to storm-water drains, malfunction of sanitary

  1. Arsenic in Illinois ground water : community and private supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Martin, Angel; Arnold, Terri L.

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the distribution of arsenic in ground water from community-water supplies, private supplies, or monitoring wells is part of the process of determining the risk of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Illinois. Lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors make certain members of the population more susceptible to adverse health effects from repeated exposure to drinking water with high arsenic concentrations (Ryker, 2001). In addition, such factors may have geographic distribution patterns that complicate the analysis of the relation between arsenic in drinking water and health effects. For example, arsenic may not be the only constituent affecting the quality of drinking water in a region (Ryker, 2001); however, determining the extent and distribution of arsenic in ground water is a starting place to assess the potential risk for persons drinking from a community or private supply. Understanding the potential sources and pathways that mobilize arsenic in ground water is a necessary step in protecting the drinking-water supply in Illinois.

  2. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  3. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  4. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  5. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    water occurs in the northwestern part of the area. The variations in chemical quality of water en route through the '500-foot' sand are virtually proportional to increases or decreases of the major chemical constituents. The variations are chiefly attributed to the mixing or blending of water from different directions or sources of recharge as wells are pumped. As water levels are lowered by continuous pumping in the future, increasing rates of recharge from the outcrop areas and from shallow aquifers will probably cause little, if any, change in chemical quality of the water. Certainly, the effects on quality are not expected to be detrimental. Although future changes in chemical quality of water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area will probably be neither intense nor extensive, some changes can be anticipated as a result of man's activities associated with the continued growth and development of the area. Increased pumping at existing pumping centers will deepen existing cones of depression and thereby increase gradients. These increases will not necessarily cause a change in chemical quality unless the increases in pumping are unevenly distributed. If a major well field were developed in the '500-foot' sand in the southwestern part of the Memphis area, little change in quality would result because water would be caused to move toward the well field from both the northwest and southeast. This movement would not affect the blending of updip and downdip water at other well fields If water were impounded in the Wolf River a few miles upstream from Memphis, the impoundment could furnish recharge, at least temporarily, to the '500-foot' sand. It is improbable that any detrimental effects on the chemical quality of the water supply of Memphis would result, because the water in the impoundment would probably be softer ,and less mineralized than the water in the '500-foot' sand in that area.

  6. Ground-water quality in the West Salt River Valley, Arizona, 1996-98: relations to hydrogeology, water use, and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonds, Robert J.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed ground-water samples in the West Salt River Valley from 64 existing wells selected by a stratified-random procedure. Samples from an areally distributed group of 35 of these wells were used to characterize overall ground-water quality in the basin-fill aquifer. Analytes included the principal inorganic constituents, trace constituents, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Additional analytes were tritium, radon, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses of replicate samples and blank samples provided evidence that the analyses of the ground-water samples were adequate for interpretation. The median concentration of dissolved solids in samples from the 35 wells was 560 milligrams per liter, which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water. Eleven of the 35 samples had a nitrate concentration (as nitrogen) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Pesticides were detected in eight samples; concentrations were below the Maximum Contaminant Levels. Deethylatrazine was most commonly detected. The pesticides were detected in samples from wells in agricultural or urban areas that have been irrigated. Concentrations of all trace constituents, except arsenic, were less than the Maximum Contaminant Levels. The concentration of arsenic exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level of 50 micrograms per liter in two samples. Nine monitoring wells were constructed in an area near Buckeye to assess the effects of agricultural land use on shallow ground water. The median concentration of dissolved solids was 3,340 milligrams per liter in samples collected from these wells in August 1997. The nitrate concentration (as nitrogen) exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (10 milligrams per liter) in samples from eight of the nine monitoring wells in August 1997 and again in

  7. Questa Baseline and Premining Ground-Water Quality Investigation 18. Characterization of Brittle Structures in the Questa Caldera and Their Potential Influence on Bedrock Ground-Water Flow, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan Saul

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a field-based characterization of fractured and faulted crystalline bedrock in the southern portion of the Questa caldera and its margin. The focus is (1) the identification and description of brittle geological structures and (2) speculation on the potential effects and controls that these structures might have on the potential fluxes of paleo to present-day ground water in relation to natural or mining-related metal and acid loads to surface and ground water. The entire study area is pervasively jointed with a few distinctive patterns such as orthogonal, oblique orthogonal, and conjugate joint sets. Joint intensity, the number of joints measured per unit line length, is high to extreme. Three types of fault zones are present that include partially silicified, low- and high-angle faults with well-developed damage zones and clay-rich cores and high-angle, unsilicified open faults. Conceptually, the joint networks can be thought of as providing the background porosity and permeability structure of the bedrock aquifer system. This background is cut by discrete entities such as the faults with clay-rich cores and open faults that may act as important hydrologic heterogeneities. The southern caldera margin runs parallel to the course of the Red River Valley, whose incision has left an extreme topographic gradient at high angles to the river. Many of the faults and fault intersections run parallel to this assumed hydraulic gradient; thus, these structures have great potential to provide paleo and present-day, discrete and anisotropic pathways for solute transport within the otherwise relatively low porosity and permeability bedrock background aquifer system. Although brittle fracture networks and faults are pervasive and complex, simple Darcy calculations are used to estimate the hydraulic conductivity and potential ground-water discharges of the bedrock aquifer, caldera margin, and other faults in order to gain insight into the potential

  8. Ground-Water Hydrology and Water Quality of the Southern High Plains Aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico, 1994-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Falk, Sarah E.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Blanchard, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey has collected hydrologic data about the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base in east-central New Mexico since 1994. Under the guidance of the State of New Mexico, ground-water quality of the aquifer has been analyzed as part of annual monitoring at regulated sites at the base. This report provides a summary and interpretation of all available hydrologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for Cannon Air Force Base environmental managers for the regulated sites of Landfill 5 and the Sewage Lagoons between 1994 and 2005. Cannon Air Force Base is in the Southern High Plains physiographic region, and saturated deposits of the Ogallala Formation underlying the base are within the western boundary of the Southern High Plains aquifer. The general direction of ground-water flow in the Southern High Plains aquifer at Cannon Air Force Base is from northwest to southeast. In 1962, ground water predominantly flowed northwest to southeast with minimal change in direction. Ground-water altitudes declined from 1962 to 1997, and a pronounced water-level recession (area of receding water level) developed northwest of the base, altering flow direction in this area. The recession northwest of the base and the subsequent change in direction of ground-water flow are indicative of local ground-water withdrawals upgradient from Cannon Air Force Base. Historical water levels in wells within a 3-mile radius of Cannon Air Force Base declined in 52 of 56 wells for various periods of record between 1962 and 2004. Forty-three of the wells indicated strong linear decreases with time, and the largest decline was 91.80 feet, an average annual decline of about 2.13 feet per year. Water levels in monitoring wells at Cannon Air Force Base reflected the regional decline; water levels declined for all wells with periods of record greater than 1 year, and the decreases were strongly linear. From 1994 to 2005

  9. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the county road a disposal site on the Bad River Indian Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin: 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunning, C.P.; Yeskis, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    The County Road A disposal site, located on the Bad River Indian Reservation, Ashland County, Wisconsin, contains papermill sludge generated by a former mill in the City of Ashland. Since the time of disposal (1968-1970) the site has been the subject of investigations by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and private consultants. During 1997- 1998, an investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Natural Resources Department of the Bad River Indian Tribe, to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of the disposal site, particularly with respect to the hydraulic connection between two ponds at the site and the shallow ground-waterflow system. Additional monitoring wells and well points were installed, and additional hydrogeologic, ground-water quality, and geophysical data were collected. The data from this and previous studies were integrated and interpreted.

  10. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 13. Mineral Microscopy and Chemistry of Mined and Unmined Porphyry Molybdenum Mineralization Along the Red River, New Mexico: Implications for Ground- and Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoff; Lowers, Heather; Ludington, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Briggs, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This report is one in a series presenting results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the pre-mining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized but unmined Straight Creek drainage is being used as an analogue for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity at the mine site prior to mining. This report summarizes results of reconnaissance mineralogical and chemical characterization studies of rock samples collected from the various scars and the Molycorp open pit, and of drill cuttings or drill core from bedrock beneath the scars and adjacent debris fans.

  11. Hydrogeologic, geophysical, water-quality, transient-tracer and flow-model analysis of the ground-water flow system near Dillon, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, D.A.; Clark, D.W.; Shapiro, S.D.; Lawlor, S.M.

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of the report is describe the groundwater flow system in the basin-fill aquifer in the lower Blacktail Deer Creek, lower Beaverhead River, and lower Rattlesnake Creek valleys near Dillon. Specific objectives of the study, conducted during 1993--1994, were to: (1) Describe the ground-water flow system in the basin-fill aquifer using water-level data; (2) Help to further define the hydrogeologic framework of the basin-fill aquifer using the geophysical technique, seismic refraction; (3) Differentiate sources of recharge to the aquifer based on water-quality data collected in the study area; (4) Determine the ages of groundwater in the aquifer from samples collected from wells throughout the study area using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium and helium isotope (({sup 3}H)-({sup 3}He)) dating techniques; and (5) Develop a conceptual and numerical cross-sectional ground-water flow model of the flow system along a designated flow path in the aquifer.

  12. Study Relating to the Spatial Distribution of Ground Water Quality for Different Elements using Legacy Data of RWS&S, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, P.; Das, A. Kumar; Sandilya, C. V. S.

    2014-11-01

    The state of Andhra Pradesh, India falls in water stress4 area. The primary objective of this study is to examine the spatial distribution of different chemical elements with respect to its contamination level. About 70 % of drinking water needs in rural areas and 40 % drinking water needs in urban areas are met from groundwater resources. In the last decades, rapid population growth coupled with agricultural expansion due to subsidized power to agriculture has significantly increased demand on groundwater resources. Combined to this, the effect of Global warming has put stress on ground water which is resulting in declines in water levels and deterioration of ground water quality. This may be evidenced by the fact that the phreatic aquifer which was in use two decades ago, is existing no more now in some of the parts of the study area and the water is being drawn from deeper aquifers beyond phreatic aquifers. The study has been carried out for which one or more elements are contaminated and to study its spatial distribution.

  13. US Environmental rotection Agency's strategy for ground-water-quality monitoring at hazardous-waste land-disposal facilities located in karst terranes

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    Ground-water monitoring of hazardous-waste land-disposal units by a network of wells is ineffective when located in karstic terranes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently proposing to modify its current ground-water-quality monitoring requirement of one upgradient well and three downgradient wells for disposal units located in karstic terranes. The convergent nature of subsurface flow to cave streams in karstic terranes requires that effective monitoring wells intercept the cave streams. Wells located around a hazardous-waste disposal unit, but not in the specific cave stream draining the site, are only providing irrelevant data and a false sense of security because the water samples from such wells are not necessarily from the hazardous-waste disposal unit. A case study is provided in this paper. EPA is drafting a guidance document that will allow monitoring by wells, only if the up- and down-gradient wells can be demonstrated to be hydraulically connected by means of dye-trace studies. If not, then the monitoring of springs shown to be hydraulically connected to the facility by dye-tracing studies would be required. Monitoring for sinkhole development will also be required to provide advance warning of sinkhole collapse. The investigation and determination of the probability of sinkhole collapse is given special treatment.

  14. Ground water in Myrtle Creek - Glendale area, Douglas County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe briefly the occurence of ground water and to present ground-water information that will help water users, public officials, and planners to determine the probability of obtaining adequate quanitities of good-quality ground water in the Myrtle Creek-Glendale area.

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for July through December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Dennison, D.I.; Bryce, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Krupka, K.M.; Hinman, N.W.; Jacobson, E.A.; Freshley, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between July and December 1987 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water, geochemical evaluations of unconfined ground-water data, and calibration of ground-water flow and transport models. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. The MINTEQ geochemical code was used to identify chemical reactions that may be affecting the concentrations of dissolved hazardous chemicals in the unconfined ground water. Results indicate that many cations are present mainly as dissolved carbonate complexes and that a majority of the ground-water samples are in near equilibrium with carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite, dolomite, otavite).

  16. Water quality and chemical evolution of ground water within the north coast limestone aquifers of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, Angel J.; Lee, Roger W.

    1985-01-01

    Waters within the north coastal limestoneaquifers are suitable for public supply, industrial and agricultural uses. For the artesian aquifer and the updip parts of the watertable aquifer, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ionic species with total dissolved solids and chloride concentrations below 500 and 250 mg/L, respectively. In coastal areas of thewater table aquifer, where a freshwater-saltwater mixing zone occurs, the calcium bicarbonate facie grade to a sodium-chloride facie. Within this zone, concentrations of total dissolved solids and chloride are greater than 250 and 500 mg/L respectively, affecting the suitability of the water for some uses. Geochemical models were constructed to determine the physical and chemicalreasons for the prevailing water quality patterns of the north coastlimestone aquifers. Models indicate that calcite and carbon dioxide dissolution, precipitation or degassing are the primary processes. The mixing of recharge water or saltwater with aquifer waters is an important feature within the water table aquifer. The models provide further evidence that support the circulation of groundwater within the north coast limestone.

  17. Changes in Ground-Water Quality near Two Granular-Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers in a Sand and Gravel Aquifer, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; Kent, Douglas B.; Smith, Richard L.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Hubble, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Two experimental permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) of granular zero-valent iron were emplaced in the path of a tetrachloroethene plume (the Chemical Spill-10 plume) at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in June 1998. The goal of the field experiment was to achieve emplacement of a granular-iron PRB deeper than attempted before. The PRBs were expected to create a reducing environment and degrade the tetrachloroethene by reductive dechlorination. The goal of the work presented in this report was to observe temporary and sustained changes to the ground-water chemistry downgradient from the PRBs. A hydraulic-fracturing method involving injection of the granular iron with a guar-biopolymer and enzyme slurry was used to install the parallel 30- to 33-foot-wide wall-shaped barriers at a depth of 82 to 113 feet below land surface. An acetic acid and enzyme mixture was subsequently injected in wells near the barriers to degrade the guar biopolymer. Prior to the emplacement, tetrachloroethene concentrations in the Chemical Spill-10 plume at the study area were as high as 250 micrograms per liter. Other water properties in the plume generally were similar to the properties of uncontaminated ground water in the area, which typically has dissolved oxygen concentrations of 250 to 375 micromoles per liter, pH of 5.5 to 6.0, and specific conductance of 60 to 90 microsiemens per centimeter. Water-quality samples were collected periodically from monitoring wells near the PRBs to determine how the emplacement of the granular-iron walls altered the ground-water quality. In addition, an automated well-sampling device measured temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen every 1?4 days for 16 months in a well downgradient from the two parallel PRBs. Temporary increases (lasting about 5 to 6 months) in specific conductance were observed downgradient from the PRBs as a result of the sodium chloride, potassium carbonate, and other salts

  18. Reconnaissance of surface-water and ground-water quality at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City, Indiana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2005-01-01

    In cooperation with the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated water quality of key water bodies at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City in southwestern Indiana. The key water bodies were a stock pond, representing possible nonpoint agricultural effects on water quality; an ephemeral stream, representing the water quality of drainage from forested areas of the park; parking-lot runoff, representing water quality related to roads and parking lots; an unnamed ditch below the parking lot, representing the water quality of drainage from the parking lot and from an adjacent railroad track; and Lincoln Spring, a historical ground-water source representing ground-water conditions near a former diesel-fuel-spill site along a rail line. Water samples were analyzed for pH, temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen and for concentrations of selected major ions and trace metals, nutrients, organic constituents, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Surface-water-quality data of water samples from the park represent baseline conditions for the area in relation to the data available from previous studies of area streams. Specific-conductance values and concentrations of most major ions and various nutrients in surface-water samples from the park were smaller than those reported for samples collected in other USGS studies in areas adjacent to the park. Water-quality-management issues identified by this investigation include potentially impaired water quality from parking-lot runoff, unknown effects on surface-water quality from adjacent railroads, and the potential impairment of water quality in Lincoln Spring from human influences. Parking-lot runoff is a source of calcium, alkalinity, iron, lead, and organic carbon in the water samples from the unnamed ditch. Detection of small concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in water from Lincoln Spring could indicate residual contamination from a 1995 diesel-fuel spill and cleanup

  19. Geohydrology, water quality, and estimation of ground-water recharge in San Francisco, California, 1987-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, S.P.; Hamlin, S.N.; Yates, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    The city of San Francisco is considering further development of local groundwater resources as a supplemental source of water for potable or nonpotable use. By the year 2010, further water demand is projected to exceed the delivery capacity of the existing supply system, which is fed by surface-water sources; thus supplies are susceptible to drought conditions and damage to conveyance lines by earthquakes. The primary purpose of this study is to describe local geohydrology and water quality and to estimate groundwater recharge in the area of the city of San Francisco. Seven groundwater basins were identified in San Francisco on the basis of geologic and geophysical data. Basins on the east side of the city are relatively thin and contain a greater percentage of fine-grained sediments than those on the west side. The relatively small capacity of the basins and greater potential for contamination from sewer sources may limit the potential for groundwater development on the east side. Basins on the west side of the city have a relatively large capacity and low density sewer network. Water-level data indicate that the southern part of the largest basin on the west side of the city (Westside basin) probably cannot accommodate additional groundwater development without adversely affecting water levels and water quality in Lake Merced; however, the remainder of the basin, which is largely undeveloped, could be developed further. A hydrologic routing model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge throughout San Francisco. The model takes into account climatic factors, land and water use, irrigation, leakage from underground pipes, rainfall runoff, evapotranspiration, and other factors associated with an urban environment. Results indicate that area recharge rates for water years 1987-88 for the 7 groundwater basins ranged from 0.32 to 0.78 feet per year. Recharge for the Westside basin was estimated at 0.51 feet per year. Average annual groundwater recharge

  20. Water Quality and Occurrence of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Other Fuel-Related Compounds in Lakes and Ground Water at Lakeside Communities in Sussex and Morris Counties, New Jersey, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baehr, Arthur L.; Reilly, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Densely populated communities surround many of the larger lakes in northwestern New Jersey. These communities derive most of their water supply from wells. The lakes can be navigated by gasoline-powered watercraft, can be in various stages of eutrophication, may contain pathogens associated with bathing and waterfowl, and are periodically subjected to chemical applications to control aquatic plant growth. Another feature that contributes to water-quality concerns in lakeside communities is the widespread use of septic tanks. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline oxygenate, in samples from Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna ranged from 20 to 30 ug/L (micrograms per liter) and 5 to 14 ug/L during the summers of 1998 and 1999, respectively. These levels were persistent throughout the depth of the lakes when mixing conditions were present. MTBE concentrations in samples from the top 20 feet of Lake Hopatcong during summer 1999 were about 10 ug/L and about 2 to 3 ug/L in samples below 20 feet. The source of the MTBE in the lakes was determined to be gasoline-powered watercraft. Other constituents of gasoline--tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)--were detected in the lakes but at much lower concentrations than MTBE. Ambient ground-water quality at Cranberry Lake and Lake Lackawanna appears to be affected by the use of gasoline-powered watercraft. MTBE was detected in water samples from 13 of the 14 wells sampled at Cranberry Lake in fall 1998 and summer 1999. The wells were selected to monitor ambient ground-water quality and had no history of contamination. In ground-water samples collected during fall 1998, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.12 to 19.8 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.43 ug/L. In samples from summer 1999, MTBE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 13.2 ug/L, and the median concentration was 0.38 ug/L. MTBE was detected in samples from four of the five wells at Lake

  1. Ground-water quality and data on wells and springs in Pennsylvania; Volume I, Ohio and St. Lawrence River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koester, Harry E.; Miller, Denise R.

    1980-01-01

    Volume I of the Groundwater Quality and Data on Wells and Springs in Pennsylvania presents groundwater quality and physical data on about 1,200 well and spring sites in the Ohio and St. Lawrence River basins. Locations are shown on site-location maps derived from the hydrologic unit map. Codes showing the geologic age and aquifer are provided. (USGS)

  2. Managing Forage-Based Cow-Calf Operations in Subtropics: Implication to Surface and Ground Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent assessments of water quality status have identified eutrophication as one of the major causes of water quality “impairment” around the world. In most cases, eutrophication has accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus and/or nitrogen due to intensification of crop and animal production sy...

  3. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  4. Surface- and ground-water quality data at selected landfill sites in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddins, W.H.; Cardinell, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an urban water quality study in 1979 in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, to study, among other things, the effects of solid waste disposal on the water quality in Mecklenburg County. Water quality samples (747 inorganic and 168 organic) were collected at 20 surface water sites and 53 monitoring wells at four selected landfills from 1980 to 1986. Samples were analyzed for 142 selected physical and biological parameters, major ions, nutrients, trace metals, and (or) organic compounds. Results from all analyses are presented in tabular form in the appendices. Each appendix is divided into a surface water and a groundwater section. Within each water quality table the data is presented in the following order: field measurements, physical properties, biological constituents (if analyzed), major cations, major anions, dissolved and total solids, nutrients, trace inorganic constituents, and organic constituents.

  5. Compilation of well and ground-water quality data, Groveland-Collins and surrounding areas near Blackfoot, Bingham County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Well-construction, geologic, and water level data from 1978 to 1985 were compiled for 163 sites near Blackfoot, Idaho. Groundwater quality data were compiled for 51 sites for the period 1961-83 and for 54 sites for the period 1984-85. Data were collected in support of the hydrologic and water quality components of the U.S. Geological Survey 's groundwater contamination investigation near Blackfoot. Result of the investigation are presented in an interpretive report, published separately.

  6. Geohydrology of the Antelope Valley Area, California and design for a ground-water-quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    A basinwide ideal network and an actual network were designed to identify ambient groundwater quality, trends in groundwater quality, and degree of threat from potential pollution sources in Antelope Valley, California. In general, throughout the valley groundwater quality has remained unchanged, and no specific trends are apparent. The main source of groundwater for the valley is generally suitable for domestic, irrigation, and most industrial uses. Water quality data for selected constituents of some network wells and surface-water sites are presented. The ideal network of 77 sites was selected on the basis of site-specific criteria, geohydrology, and current land use (agricultural, residential, and industrial). These sites were used as a guide in the design of the actual network consisting of 44 existing wells. Wells are currently being monitored and were selected whenever possible because of budgetary constraints. Of the remaining ideal sites, 20 have existing wells not part of a current water quality network, and 13 are locations where no wells exist. The methodology used for the selection of sites, constituents monitored, and frequency of analysis will enable network users to make appropriate future changes to the monitoring network. (USGS)

  7. Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. 

  8. Geologic Setting, Geohydrology, and Ground-Water Quality near the Helendale Fault in the Mojave River Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Cox, Brett F.; Izbicki, John A.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2003-01-01

    The proximity of the Mojave River ground-water basin to the highly urbanized Los Angeles region has resulted in rapid population growth and, consequently, an increase in the demand for water. The Mojave River, the primary source of surface water for the region, normally is dry--except for periods of flow after intense storms; therefore, the region relies almost entirely on ground water to meet its agricultural and municipal needs. The area where the Helendale Fault intersects the Mojave River is of particular hydrogeologic interest because of its importance as a boundary between two water-management subareas of the Mojave Water Agency. The fault is the boundary between the upper Mojave River Basin (Oeste, Alto, and Este subareas) and the lower Mojave River Basin (Centro and Baja subareas); specifically, the fault is the boundary between the Alto and the Centro subareas. To obtain the information necessary to help better understand the hydrogeology of the area near the fault, multiple-well monitoring sites were installed, the surface geology was mapped in detail, and water-level and water-quality data were collected from wells in the study area. Detailed surficial geologic maps and water-level measurements indicate that the Helendale Fault impedes the flow of ground water in the deeper regional aquifer, but not in the overlying floodplain aquifer. Other faults mapped in the area impede the flow of ground water in both aquifers. Evidence of flowing water in the Mojave River upgradient of the Helendale Fault exists in the historical record, suggesting an upward gradient of ground-water flow. However, water-level data from this study indicate that pumping upstream of the Helendale Fault has reversed the vertical gradient of ground-water flow since predevelopment conditions, and the potential now exists for water to flow downward from the floodplain aquifer to the regional aquifer. Sixty-seven ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and stable

  9. Analysis of nutrient and ancillary water-quality data for surface and ground water of the Willamette Basin, Oregon, 1980-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, B.A.; Hinkle, S.R.; Wentz, D.A.; Uhrich, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of historical water-quality data for surface and ground water collected in the Willamette and Sandy River Basins during the 1980-90 water years was performed. For surface water, most data were concentrated at sites on the main stem Willamette River or near the mouths of major tributaries. All seasons were represented. Data for nitrogen and phosphorus species were readily available, but simultaneously collected discharge measurements frequently were not. Seven primary sites were used for a quantitative analysis of nutrient data in surface water. At six of the seven primary sites, median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorus were less than 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as nitrogen (N) and 0.1 mg/L as phosphorus (P), respectively. These concen- trations were lower than national median concen- trations for basins with similar land uses. At the Pudding River site, which received significant point-source and agricultural nonpoint-source inputs, median values for nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorus were 1.4 mg/L as N and 0.2 mg/L as P, respectively. Nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations at this site were seasonally dependent, with the highest concentrations occurring during winter. Forested sites had significantly lower water temperatures and nutrient concentrations than urban or agricultural sites. Evidence of diel variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH values suggest that, at some sites, low dissolved oxygen concentrations may be a problem during early morning hours in the summer. Historical nutrient data for ground water were limited primarily to nitrate and nitrite-plus-nitrate determinations for wells completed in the basin-fill and alluvial aquifer. Nitrate and nitrite-plus-nitrate concentrations in this aquifer showed a weak inverse relationship with depth.

  10. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Van Metre, P.C.; Wirt, L.; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe: (1) the water quality of the Puerco River alluvial aquifer, (2) the movement of water between the Puerco River and underlying alluvial aquifer, and (3) changes in the water quality of the alluvial and bedrock aquifers related to releases of contaminants by uranium-mining activities. This report focuses on the alluvial aquifer near the reach of the Puerco River that was subjected to continuous flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow from the tailings-pond spill.

  11. Data on ground-water quality for the southern Nevada part of the Kingman 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater were compiled for the Kingman 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of southern Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area are also presented in a table. (USGS)

  12. Managing forage-based cow-calf operations in subtropics: Implication to surface and ground water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    water quality “impairment” around the world. In most cases, eutrophication has accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus and/or nitrogen due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990’s. As animal-based agriculture has evolved to larger production in subtropica...

  13. Data on ground-water quality for the Lovelock 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater has been compiled for the Lovelock 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of western Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area are also presented in a table. (USGS)

  14. Data on ground-water quality for the Reno 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater has been compiled for the Reno 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of western Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area is also presented in a table. (USGS)

  15. USE OF TRACER DYE TECHNIQUES IS ASSESSING GROUND WATER AVAILABILTY AND QUALITY IN A KARST AQUIFER SYSTEM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem: The Leetown Science Center and ~ 500 acre research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biological Resources Division (BRD) In West Virginia investigates the health and habitats of aquatic species. Large quantities of good quality cold water are needed ...

  16. Effects of three phosphate industrial sites on ground-water quality in central Florida, 1979 to 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, hydrologic, and water quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida are presented. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at the AMAX Phosphate, Inc. chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS Agri-Chemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximately 5,400 field and laboratory water quality determinations on water samples collected from about 100 test holes and 28 surface-water , 5 rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste disposal operations are tabulated. Maps are included to show sampling sites. (USGS)

  17. Economic-impact study for proposed Ground-water-Quality Standards 35 IL Admin. Code 260. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R.; Buss, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    The state passed the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act (IGPA) in September 1987, which among other things, directed the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) to develop groundwater classification system and nondegradation procedures. The IGPA also mandated that the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources conduct an Economic Impact Study of the IEPA's proposed regulations. The report also analyzed alternatives considered during the development of the Code 620 regulations in addition to the final outcome. The proposed regulations would establish a groundwater classification which would be partially use-based and partially water quality-based. Numeric groundwater quality standards are also established which apply to General Resource and Potable Resource Groundwater. Cleanup criteria are identified for sites of contamination. As determined by this investigation, the most significant costs of the IEPA's proposed regulations could be expected to be groundwater remediation costs, which are those costs associated with returning contaminated groundwater to compliance with the standards.

  18. Program for monitoring the chemical quality of ground water in Utah - Summary of data collected through 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.; Arnow, T.

    1986-01-01

    The US Geological Survey formally started a program for monitoring groundwater quality in Utah during 1957 in cooperation with the Utah Geological Survey. The monitoring program was initiated to detect any changes in chemical quality that might be associated with the withdrawal of water from wells. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water samples collected from the observation wells through 1984 ranged from 92 to 19,000 mg/L. An observation well in the Uinta Basin yielded the sample with the smallest dissolved solids concentration, and another well in the Uinta Basin yielded the sample with the largest dissolved solids concentration. There was a progressive increase in salinity of water produced by several of the observation wells in Pahvant Valley and in the Milford and Beryl-Enterprise areas. Water quality changes related either to groundwater withdrawals or groundwater recharge also were detected in several other areas. Water produced from wells in Goshen Valley and the upper Fremont River valley had short term increases in chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations, indicating possible local contamination of the groundwater. Also, since the late 1950's, dissolved solids concentrations have increased in water produced by a well completed in the principal aquifer in Salt Lake Valley downgradient from areas where extensive use has been made of road salt. 40 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Hydrology and water quality near the South Well Field, southern Franklin County, Ohio, with emphasis on the simulation of ground-water flow and transport of Scioto River. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, C.J.O.; Sheets, R.A.; Bair, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    At present (1990), about 15 percent of the total water supply for the City of Columbus, Ohio, is provided by ground water withdrawn from the South Well Field in southern Franklin County. Much of the flow of Scioto River at the South Well Field originates from the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF), one of two municipal wastewater-treatment plants operated by the City of Columbus. The Jackson Pike WTF discharges effluent into Scioto River about 6 mi upstream from the South Well Field. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), undertook a study to evaluate the hydrologic consequences of changes in effluent discharge to Scioto River and to clarify the interaction of Scioto River and carbonate bedrock and glacial drift aquifers at the South Well Field. The report describes the hydrology and water quality of the South Well Field area by presenting the results of (1) surface-water-transport simulations of a conservative constituent during low flow of Scioto River from Frank Road to the South Well Field and (2) ground-water-flow simulations of the glacial drift and carbonate bedrock aquifers at the South Well Field. The simulations are examined along with surface-water and ground-water quality to describe the relation between the quantity and quality of flow in the Scioto River; the nature of the ground-water-flow system; and the quantity, quality, and sources of water pumped from the South Well Field. Data collection in the study area in August and September 1987 and 1988 included sampling for surface-water and ground-water quality and measurement of surface-water discharge, Scioto River travel-times, ground-water levels, and vertical riverbed hydraulic conductivity.

  20. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    In view of complex environmental/energy decisions, the Environmental Impacts Division of the Office of Technology Impacts develops analytical methods for conducting policy analyses supporting decision making. The methods development process often begins with a workshop of leading experts and specialists in the relevant disciplines and issue areas; workshop findings are subsequently utilized by OTI to form a more solid foundation for viable policies. The National Workshop on Ground Water and Energy Production was envisioned as a tool through which OTI could obtain insights, information, and methods (on environmental, economical, physical, political, legal, and social issues) to use in its analyses, models, and assessments. To accomplish this, the Workshop comprised both plenary sessions and individual working groups. The former provided opportunities for all participants to explore issues from a broad perspective, whereas the latter enabled participants to focus on the three following areas: ground water supply; conflicts and barriers to its use; and alternatives or solutions to the various issues. This report summarizes information and insights gained by the Office of Technology Impacts during the course of the Workshop. The Key Findings section summarizes the most important facts discovered during the Workshop. The three general topics that follow (Supply, Conflicts and Barriers, and Alternatives) are those described in the Core Issues statements. The statements are reflective of the recommendations and analyses prepared by the several working groups.

  1. Effects of the proposed Prosperity Reservoir on ground water and water quality in lower Center Creek basin, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, Wayne R.; Barks, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of the proposed Prosperity Reservoir on groundwater and water quality in lower Center Creek basin, Mo., depend partly on the effectiveness of Grove Creek as a hydrologic boundary between the reservoir site and the Oronogo-Duenweg mining belt. Results of two dye traces indicate that Grove Creek probably is not an effective boundary. Therefore, higher water levels near the reservoir could cause more groundwater to move into the mining belt and cause a greater discharge of zinc-laden mine water into Center Creek. Fertilizer industry wastes discharged into Grove Creek resulted in significant increases of nitrogen and phosphorus in lower Center Creek. Results of seepage runs confirm that mine-water discharge and seepage account for the increased zinc concentrations in Center Creek during base flow. The nutrient and zinc concentrations in Center Creek, after the completion of the proposed reservoir, would depend upon the release schedule. (USGS)

  2. Ground-water flow and effects of agricultural application of sewage sludge and other fertilizers on the chemical quality of sediments in the unsaturated zone and ground water near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaggiani, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    From fall 1985 through 1989, 6,431 dry tons of anaerobic, digested, sewage sludge were applied as a fertilizer on about 1 square mile of sandy farm- land near Platteville, Colorado. Mean nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the surficial aquifer increased during the period of sewage- sludge application. However, the effects of municipal sewage sludge applied to the soil in section 16 are difficult to ascertain because anhydrous ammonia and cattle and chicken manure were applied to section 16 prior to sewage-sludge application and anhydrous ammonia was applied during the period of sewage-sludge application. Mostly ammonia plus organic nitrogen was detected in the unsaturated zone while nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen predominated in the surficial aquifer. The areas of largest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were in the northeastern and southwestern quarter sections os section 16. Changes in nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations with depth and time were detected in water samples from the multilevel ground-water sampling devices in the surficial aquifer. Nitrogen probably entered the saturated zone in the irrigated areas and low temporarily ponded areas and moved to the northeast with water in the surficial aquifer.

  3. Baseline data-collection and quality-control protocols and procedures for the Equus beds ground-water recharge demonstration project near Wichita, Kansas, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziegler, A.C.; Combs, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Equus Beds Ground-Water Recharge Demonstration Project is being conducted from 1995 through 1999 as part of the High Plains States Groundwater Recharge Demonstration Program to determine if recharge of the Equus beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is a viable alternative in meeting the increased demands for water in this rapidly growing part of the State. As part of the demonstration project, protocols and procedures were developed for the collection of baseline hydrologic and water-quality data from September 1995 through September 1996 and are described in this report. During this initial phase of the demonstration project, 33 data-collection sites were identified and instrumented, and an aquifer test at one site was conducted to determine transmissivity, specific yield, hydraulic conductivity, and riverbed conductance of the Equus beds aquifer in the area northwest of Wichita, Kansas. Selected water-quality samples were analyzed for as many as 340 chemical constituents to determine the baseline or ambient concentrations of inorganic and orgainc constituents.

  4. Ground-water resources of the Paintrock irrigation project, Wyoming, with a section on the quality of the water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Frank Albert; Bach, W. Kenneth; Swenson, Herbert A.

    1951-01-01

    The Millers Pond test site, in northeastern Burke County, Georgia, was constructed during 1991-92 to better characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality characteristics of a multi-aquifer system in Coastal Plain sediments. These data are presented for 1992-93. The test site consists of a continuously cored 859 feet (ft) deep hole thatpenetrated the entire thickness of Coastal Plain sediments, and seven test wells developed at depths ranging from 80 to 735 ft. Lithologic and paleontologic examination of core indicated that there are at least 11 district lithologic units of Lake Cretaceous through Eocene age at the site, having a total thickness of 852 ft. The test wells were screened in the Upper Three Runs aquifer, Dublin aquifer system, and Midville aquifer system. Upon completion and development of each well, a 72-hour aquifer test was conducted, water samples were collected and analyzed for chemical constituents, and continuous water-level recorders were installed. Water-level fluctuations in wells completed in the confined aquifers at the Millers Pond test site were coincident and appear to mostly represent a mass-loading response to fluctuations of Savannah River stage, about 2 miles east of the site. Water-levels in the Upper Three Runs (water table) aquifer, however, showed little similarity to water levels in wells completed in the deeper confined aquifers, and are apparently influenced by precipitation, evapotranspiration, and possibly pumping. Water from each of the seven zones screened at the Millers Pond test site is of good quality and low in dissolved solids. Concentrations of iron, however, exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary drinking-water standards in all zones except the Upper Three Runs aquifer. Water from the Upper Three Runs (water table) aquifer contained 730 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L) of tritium. Tritium at concentrations slightly above the 1 pCi/L detection limit were measured in two wells screened in

  5. Data on ground-water quality, Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas, Douglas County, Nevada, for year ending September 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thodal, Carl E.

    1989-01-01

    Douglas County, Nevada encompasses 708 sq mi and has been one of the fastest growing counties in the Nation, according to the 1980 census. This rapid population growth has led to concern about the present and future impacts of development upon the groundwater. A network of 33 wells was recently established (1985) in the Carson Valley and Topaz Lake areas of Douglas County to characterize the current groundwater quality and its seasonal variability and to monitor temporal responses to changing land-use activities. This report presents data collected from that network during November 1985 through September 1986. The primary drinking water standard was exceeded for fluoride at two domestic wells, for nitrate-nitrogen at one domestic well, and for arsenic in one non-domestic shallow monitoring well. Secondary drinking water standards were exceeded as follows: pH at one public-supply well and one domestic well; sulfate at one shallow monitoring well; and manganese at three shallow monitoring wells and one public-supply well. Concentrations of unidentified organic compounds were estimated by gas chromatograph and flame ionization detector for groundwater samples collected from 30 network wells. Seven wells (2 domestic and 5 non-domestic) had concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/L relative to the internal standard compound perdeuteronaphthalene. (Thacker-USGS)

  6. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Linn County landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Falwell, R.; Bigsby, P.R.; Myers, N.C. )

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the hydrogeology and groundwater quality conditions near the Linn County Landfill, eastern Kansas was conducted from July 1988 through June 1989. The landfill is located in an unreclaimed coal strip-mine area near Prescott. Analysis of water levels from nine temporary wells and from strip-mine ponds indicated that groundwater flows southwest through the present landfill. A county road west of the landfill acts as a barrier to shallow westerly groundwater flow. Seasonal variations in the direction of groundwater flow may occur. Water samples from monitoring wells and a strip-mine pond were analyzed for inorganic and organic compounds. Iron, manganese, and dissolved-organic-carbon concentrations were good indicators of the presence of landfill leachate in the groundwater. Benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were also detected. None of the inorganic or organic compounds detected exceeded Kansas primary drinking-water standards. Chemical concentrations and water levels in some nested wells indicate there is a hydraulic connection between the strip-mine spoil material and the underlying limestone. Leachate-contaminated groundwater has the potential to migrate southwest corner of the landfill through either strip-mine spoil material or through the underlying Pawnee Limestone.

  7. Ground-water quality and discharge to Chincoteague and Sinepuxent Bays adjacent to Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillow, Jonathan J.A.; Banks, William S.L.; Smigaj, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    , somatic coliphage, or bacteriophages of Bacteroides fragilis. About 3 percent of the sam-ples (3 of 87) had oxidized nitrogen concentra-tions that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Maximum Contaminant Level of 10.0 milligrams per liter. A statistical analysis showed that no significant relation exists between the presence of bacteria or coliphage and all variables, except the mean temperature of the water sample as measured in the field. Additionally, the concentration of total coliform bacteria had a statistically significant, moderately strong cor-relation with the concentration of sulfate and sample pH as measured at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colorado.

  8. Effects on ground-water quality of seepage from a phosphatic clayey waste settling pond, north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.D.; Seaber, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Water samples were taken from test wells drilled near an inactive phosphatic clayey waste storage settling pond, from the settling pond and its perimeter ditch, and from an active settling pond near White Springs, Hamilton County, in north-central Florida. The purpose was to document the seepage of chemical constituents from the inactive settling pond and ditch into the adjacent surficial groundwater system, and to assess the potential for movement of these constituents into the deeper Floridan aquifer system which is the major source of public supply in the area. The study area is underlain by a 2 ,500-ft-thick sequence of Coastal Plain sediments of Early Cretaceous to Holocene age. The rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age that underlie the test site area can be grouped into three major geohydrologic units. In descending order, these units are: surficial aquifer, Hawthorn confining unit, and Floridan aquifer system. Phosphate deposits occur in the upper part of the surficial aquifer. Water in the active settling pond is a calcium magnesium sulfate type with a dissolved solids concentration of 250 mg/L, containing greater amounts of phosphorus, iron, aluminum, barium, zinc, and chromium than the other surface waters. Water in the perimeter ditch is a calcium sulfate type with a dissolved solids concentration of 360 to 390 mg/L, containing greater amounts of calcium, sulfate, nitrogen, and fluoride than other surface waters. Water from the inactive settling pond is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with a dissolved solids concentration of 140 mg/L, containing more bicarbonate than the other surface waters. Large amounts of chemical constituents in the phosphate waste disposal slurry are apparently trapped in the sediments of the settling ponds. The quality of water in the upper part of the surficial aquifer from wells within 200 to 400 ft of the inactive settling pond shows no signs of chemical contamination from phosphate industry operations. The horizontal

  9. Preventing ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.

    1985-07-12

    A recent Office of Technology Assessment report to Congress indicates that the associated health risks from ground water contamination are likely to increase because federal and state laws provide inadequate protection. Road de-icing salts, pesticide runoff, septic tanks, and seepage from livestock manure and fertilizers are all major causes that are difficult to control. A primary source that can be corrected is improper or unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes that are dumped into landfills or surface ponds or injected into deep wells. Congress has tried to deal with the problem by strengthening existing and introducing new legislation. Because getting rid of hazardous waste is increasingly expensive and difficult, companies are beginning to look for ways to prevent pollution at the source by using new technologies that are economically sound. 17 references, 4 figures.

  10. Effects of land use and geohydrology on the quality of shallow ground water in two agricultural areas in the western Lake Michigan drainages, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, David A.

    1997-01-01

     Estimated recharge dates showed that historic patterns of atrazine plus deethyl atrazine concentrations in ground water mimic historic patterns of atrazine use on corn. Concentrations in ground water that recharged prior to the early 1960s, when atrazine started to become widely used on corn in Wisconsin, were very low or not detectable. As atrazine use on corn steadily increased from the late 1960s to the late 1970s and early 1980s, detectable concentrations of atrazine plus deethyl atrazine in ground water became more common. The recharge dates of some of the highest measured concentrations of atrazine plus ethyl atrazine in ground water from both study areas correspond to the period of highest atrazine use on corn within the State.

  11. Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 21. Hydrology and water balance of the Red River basin, New Mexico 1930-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McAda, Douglas P.; Myers, Nathan C.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the hydrology of the Red River Basin of northern New Mexico, including development of a pre- mining water balance, contributes to a greater understanding of processes affecting the flow and chemistry of water in the Red River and its alluvial aquifer. Estimates of mean annual precipitation for the Red River Basin ranged from 22.32 to 25.19 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration for the Red River Basin ranged from 15.02 to 22.45 inches or 63.23 to 94.49 percent of mean annual precipitation. Mean annual yield from the Red River Basin estimated using regression equations ranged from 45.26 to 51.57 cubic feet per second. Mean annual yield from the Red River Basin estimated by subtracting evapotranspiration from mean annual precipitation ranged from 55.58 to 93.15 cubic feet per second. In comparison, naturalized 1930-2004 mean annual streamflow at the Red River near Questa gage was 48.9 cubic feet per second. Although estimates developed using regression equations appear to be a good representation of yield from the Red River Basin as a whole, the methods that consider evapotranspiration may more accurately represent yield from smaller basins that have a substantial amount of sparsely vegetated scar area. Hydrograph separation using the HYSEP computer program indicated that subsurface flow for 1930-2004 ranged from 76 to 94 percent of streamflow for individual years with a mean of 87 percent of streamflow. By using a chloride mass-balance method, ground-water recharge was estimated to range from 7 to 17 percent of mean annual precipitation for water samples from wells in Capulin Canyon and the Hansen, Hottentot, La Bobita, and Straight Creek Basins and was 21 percent of mean annual precipitation for water samples from the Red River. Comparisons of mean annual basin yield and measured streamflow indicate that streamflow does not consistently increase as cumulative estimated mean annual basin yield increases. Comparisons of estimated mean annual yield and

  13. Protecting ground water: pesticides and agricultural practices. Technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The booklet presents the results of a project conducted by EPA's Office of Ground-Water Protection to evaluate the potential impacts of various agronomic, irrigation, and pesticide application practices on ground water. The report provides State and local water quality and agricultural officials with technical information to help in the development of programs to protect ground water from pesticide contamination. The report explains the principles involved in reducing the risk of pesticide contamination and describes what is known about the impact of various agricultural practices on pesticide leaching. It is hoped that the information will be helpful to water-quality officials in developing and implementing ground-water protection programs.

  14. Response of the Rio Grande and shallow ground water in the Mesilla Bolson to irrigation, climate stress, and pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton, J.; Ohlmacher, G.; Utz, D.; Kutianawala, M.

    1999-01-01

    The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez metropolitan area obtains its water from the Rio Grande and intermontane-basin aquifers. Shallow ground water in this region is in close communications with the surface water system. A major problem with both systems is salinity. Upstream usage of the water in the Rio Grande for irrigation and municipalities has led to concentration of soluble salts to the point where the surface water commonly exceeds drinking water standards. Shallow ground water is recharged by surface water (primarily irrigation canals and agricultural fields) and discharges to surface water (agricultural drains) and deeper ground water. The source of water entering the Rio Grande varies seasonally. During the irrigation season, water is released from reservoirs and mixes with the return flow from irrigation drains. During the non-irrigation season (winter), flow is from irrigation drains and river water quality is indicative of shallow ground water. The annual cycle can be ascertained from the inverse correlation between ion concentrations and discharge in the river. Water-quality data indicate that the salinity of shallow ground water increases each year during a drought. Water-management strategies in the region can affect water quality. Increasing the pumping rate of water-supply wells will cause shallow ground water to flow into the deeper aquifers and degrade the water quality. Lining the canals in the irrigation system to stop water leakage will lead to water quality degradation in shallow ground water and, eventually, deep ground water by removing a major source of high quality recharge that currently lowers the salinity of the shallow ground water.

  15. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  16. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER VOLUME I: GROUND WATER AND CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an extensively revised version of the Ground Water Handbook, originally published in 1987 as EPA/625/6-87/016. It has been published in two volumes: Volume I: Ground Water and Contamination, EPA/625/6-90/016a, and Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-90/016b. Volume...

  17. GROUND-WATER DATA MANAGEMENT WITH STORET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual has been designed to address both ground-water quality data and the related well site characteristics. For non-USGS wells, appropriate fields have been added to include the information on site characteristics. Much of the information has been adopted from the site char...

  18. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  19. Long-term effects of nitrogen fertilizer use on ground water nitrate in two small watersheds.

    PubMed

    Tomer, M D; Burkart, M R

    2003-01-01

    Changes in agricultural management can minimize NO3-N leaching, but then the time needed to improve ground water quality is uncertain. A study was conducted in two first-order watersheds (30 and 34 ha) in Iowa's Loess Hills. Both were managed in continuous corn (Zea mays L.) from 1964 through 1995 with similar N fertilizer applications (average 178 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)), except one received applications averaging 446 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) between 1969 and 1974. This study determined if NO3-N from these large applications could persist in ground water and baseflow, and affect comparison between new crop rotations implemented in 1996. Piezometer nests were installed and deep cores collected in 1996, then ground water levels and NO3-N concentrations were monitored. Tritium and stable isotopes (2H, 18O) were determined on 33 water samples in 2001. Baseflow from the heavily N-fertilized watershed had larger average NO3-N concentrations, by 8 mg L(-1). Time-of-travel calculations and tritium data showed ground water resides in these watersheds for decades. "Bomb-peak" precipitation (1963-1980) most influenced tritium concentrations near lower slope positions, while deep ground water was dominantly pre-1953 precipitation. Near the stream, greater recharge and mixed-age ground water was suggested by stable isotope and tritium data, respectively. Using sediment-core data collected from the deep unsaturated zone between 1972 and 1996, the increasing depth of a NO3-N pulse was related to cumulative baseflow (r2 = 0.98), suggesting slow downward movement of NO3-N since the first experiment. Management changes implemented in 1996 will take years to fully influence ground water NO3-N. Determining ground water quality responses to new agricultural practices may take decades in some watersheds. PMID:14674538

  20. Ground-water and stream-water interaction in the Owl Creek basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogle, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding of the interaction of ground-water and surface-water resources is vital to water management when water availability is limited.Inflow of ground water is the primary source ofwater during stream base flow. The water chemistry of streams may substantially be affected by that inflow of ground water. This report is part of a study to examine ground-water and surface-water interaction in the Owl Creek Basin, Wyoming, completed by the U.S. Geological Survey incooperation with the Northern Arapaho Tribe and the Shoshone Tribe. During a low flow period between November\\x1113 - 17, 1991, streamflowmeasurements and water-quality samples were collected at 16 selected sites along major streams and tributaries in the Owl Creek Basin,Wyoming. The data were used to identify stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow and to examine causes of changes in stream chemistry.Streamflow measurements, radon-222 activity load, and dissolved solids load were used to identified stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow.Streamflow measurements identified three stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Analysis of radon-222 activity load identified five stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. Dissolvedsolids load identified six stream reaches receiving ground-water inflow. When these three methods were combined, stream reaches in two areas, theEmbar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area, were identified as receiving ground-water inflow.The Embar Area and the Thermopolis Anticline Area were then evaluated to determine the source of increased chemical load in stream water. Three potential sources were analyzed: tributary inflow, surficial geology, and anticlines. Two sources,tributary inflow and surficial geology, were related to changes in isotopic ratios and chemical load in the Embar Area. In two reaches in the Embar Area, isotopic ratios of 18O/16O, D/H, and 34S/32S indicated that tributary inflow affected stream-water chemistry. Increased chemical load of

  1. Effects of sediment depositional environment and ground-water flow on the quality and geochemistry of water in aquifers in sediments of Cretaceous age in the coastal plain of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, Gary K.; Aucott, Walter R.

    1994-01-01

    The quality and geochemistry of ground water are significantly affected by the depositional environment of aquifer sediments. Cretaceous sediments in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina have been deposited in fluvial, delta-plain, marginal-marine, and marine environments. Depositional environments of sediments within a single aquifer may grade from nonmarine, fluvial, or upper delta plain near the updip limit of the aquifer to transitional, lower delta plain and to marine toward the coast. In nonmarine sediments the major source of inorganic carbon in the water is the decomposition of organic material. The major aqueous geochemical processes are the dissolution and alteration of silicate minerals. Silica makes up a major part of the dissolved constituents in water from these sediments. In transitional and marine sediments the major aqueous geochemical processes are (1) the dissolution of calcium carbonate by hydrolysis and by carbonic acid derived from the decomposition of organic material and (2) the exchange of calcium in solution for sodium on the marine-clay minerals. The clay minerals may also serve as buffers by neutralizing the hydroxyl ion produced by hydrolysis. The effects of incompletely flushed dilute saltwater on water quality increase toward the coast and toward the northeast.

  2. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  3. Effect of On-Site Wastewater Disposal on Quality of Ground Water and Base Flow - A Pilot Study in Chester County, Southeastern Pennsylvania, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    On-site wastewater disposal has the potential to introduce contaminants into ground water and subsequently, by ground-water discharge, to streams. A pilot study was conducted during 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Health Department and the Chester County Water Resources Authority to determine if wastewater components, including inorganic constituents and selected organic wastewater compounds, such as detergents, considered to be emerging contaminants, were present in ground water and stream base flow in areas with on-site wastewater disposal. The study area was a small watershed (about 7.1 square miles) of mixed land use drained by Broad Run in central Chester County, Pa. The area is underlain by fractured metamorphic rocks that form aquifers recharged by precipitation. Surface- and ground-water sampling was done in areas with and without on-site wastewater disposal for comparison, including a relatively densely populated village with cesspools and septic systems, a residential area with septic systems, a residential area served by sewers, and agricultural land. Samples were collected in May-June and September 2005 from eight headwater stream sites under base-flow conditions and in June 2005 from eight wells and two springs. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, boron, bacteria, and a suite of organic wastewater compounds. Several emerging contaminant wastewater compounds, including detergent components, insect repellents, and flame retardants, were detected in base-flow and ground-water samples. Stream base-flow samples generally contained more compounds and higher concentrations of those compounds than did ground-water samples, and of the ground-water samples, samples from springs contained more compounds and higher concentrations than samples from wells. Concentrations of nitrate, chloride, and boron (inorganic constituents associated with wastewater) generally were all elevated in base-flow and ground-water

  4. Aquifer geochemistry and effects of pumping on ground-water quality at the Green Belt Parkway Well Field, Holbrook, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Colabufo, Steven; Coates, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Geochemistry, microbiology, and water quality of the Magothy aquifer at a new supply well in Holbrook were studied to help identify factors that contribute to iron-related biofouling of public-supply wells. The organic carbon content of borehole sediments from the screen zone, and the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), varied by depth. TEAP assays of core sediments indicated that iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and undetermined (possibly oxic) reactions and microbial activity are correlated with organic carbon (lignite) content. The quality of water from this well, therefore, reflects the wide range of aquifer microenvironments at this site. High concentrations of dissolved iron (3.6 to 6.4 micromoles per liter) in water samples from this well indicate that some water is derived from Fe(III)-reducing sediments within the aquifer, but traces of dissolved oxygen indicate inflow of shallow, oxygenated water from shallow units that overlie the local confining units. Water-quality monitoring before and during a 2-day pumping test indicates that continuous pumping from the Magothy aquifer at this site can induce downward flow of shallow, oxygenated water despite the locally confined conditions. Average concentrations of dissolved oxygen are high (5.2 milligrams per liter, or mg/L) in the overlying upper glacial aquifer and at the top of the Magothy aquifer (4.3 mg/L), and low (<0.1 mg/L) in the deeper, anaerobic part of the Magothy; average concentrations of phosphate are high (0.4 mg/L) in the upper glacial aquifer and lower (0.008 mg/L) at the top of the Magothy aquifer and in the deeper part of the Magothy (0.013 mg/L). Concentrations of both constituents increased during the 2 days of pumping. The d34S of sulfate in shallow ground water from observation wells (3.8 to 6.4 per mil) was much heavier than that in the supplywell water (-0.1 per mil) and was used to help identify sources of water entering the supply well. The d34S of sulfate in a

  5. Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY CONSTITUTENTS RELATED TO THE PRESENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN GROUND WATER FROM SMALL PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES IN SOUTHEASTERN MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of small public ground-water-supply wells that produce water from discontinuous sand and gravel aquifers was done from July 1999 through July 2001 in southeastern Michigan. Samples were collected to determine the occurrence of viral pathogens and microbiological indicato...

  7. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  8. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  9. Historical water-quality data for the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study Area in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming, 1930-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Litke, David W.

    2001-01-01

    excess of the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter. Comparison of dissolved-solids concentrations prior to 1980 to concentrations after 1980 indicates dissolved-solids concentrations have increased in the alluvial valleys of the Platte, the Republican, and the Arkansas Rivers, as well as in the Ogallala Formation?South hydrogeologic unit.Water-quality results indicate that human activities are affecting the water of the High Plains aquifer. Because there is a potential for water quality to become impaired relative to the historical uses of the aquifer, water quality needs to be considered when evaluating the sustainability of the High Plains aquifer. Data collected as part of the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study will help to fill in gaps in water-quality information and provide additional information for understanding the factors that govern ambient water quality.

  10. Ground-Water Age and its Water-Management Implications, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2002-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin encompasses 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Approximately 350,000 people, more than half of Alaska?s population, reside in the basin, mostly in the Anchorage area. However, rapid growth is occurring in the Matanuska?Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs to the north and south of Anchorage. Ground-water resources provide about one-third of the water used for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes in the Anchorage metropolitan area and are the sole sources of water for industries and residents outside Anchorage. In 1997, a study of the Cook Inlet Basin was begun as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Samples of ground water were collected from 35 existing wells in unconsolidated glacial and alluvial aquifers during 1999 to determine the regional quality of ground water beneath about 790 mi2 of developed land and to gain a better understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the water quality (Glass, 2001). Of the 35 wells sampled, 31 had water analyzed for atmospherically derived substances to determine the ground water?s travel time from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge?also known as ground-water age. Ground water moves slowly from its point of recharge to its point of use or discharge. This water starts as rain and melting snow that soak into the ground as recharge. In the Matanuska?Susitna, Anchorage, and Kenai Peninsula areas, ground water generally moves from near the mountain fronts toward Cook Inlet or the major rivers. Much of the water pumped by domestic and public-supply wells may have traveled less than 10 miles, and the trip may have taken as short a time as a few days or as long as several decades. This ground water is vulnerable to contamination from the land surface, and many contaminants in the water would follow the same paths and have similar travel times from recharge areas to points of use as the chemical substances analyzed in

  11. Ground water and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Döll, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F.P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  12. Ground Water and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; Konikow, Leonard; Green, Timothy R.; Chen, Jianyao; Taniguchi, Makoto; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; MacDonald, Alan; Fan, Ying; Maxwell, Reed M.; Yechieli, Yossi; Gurdak, Jason J.; Allen, Diana M.; Shamsudduha, Mohammad; Hiscock, Kevin; Yeh, Pat J. -F; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  13. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...

  15. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction A new automated ground-water monitoring system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automation of water-quality monitoring systems in the field, in laboratories, and in industry have increased data density and utility while reducing operating costs. Uses for an automated ground-water monitoring system include, (but are not limited to) monitoring ground-water quality for research, monitoring known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, and as an early warning system monitoring groundwater quality near public water-supply wells.

  16. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of

  17. Water-Quality Data for Pharmaceuticals and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Ground Water and in Untreated Drinking Water Sources in the United States, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The five most frequently detected compounds in samples collected from ambient ground-water sites are N,N-diethyltoluamide (35 percent, insect repellant), bisphenol A (30 percent, plasticizer), tri(2-chloroethy) phosphate (30 percent, fire retardant), sulfamethoxazole (23 percent, veterinary and human antibiotic), and 4-octylphenol monoethoxylate (19 percent, detergent metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from surface-water sources are cholesterol (59 percent, natural sterol), metolachlor (53 percent, herbicide), cotinine (51 percent, nicotine metabolite), β-sitosterol (37 percent, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27 percent, caffeine metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from ground-water sources are tetrachloroethylene (24 percent, solvent), carbamazepine (20 percent, pharmaceutical), bisphenol A (20 percent, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16 percent, caffeine metabolite), and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12 percent, fire retardant).

  18. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

  19. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  20. Hydrogeology, water quality, water budgets, and simulated responses to hydrologic changes in Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creek ground-water basins, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Eugene B.; Van Konyenburg, Kathryn M.

    1998-01-01

    Santa Rosa and San Simeon Creeks are underlain by thin, narrow ground-water basins that supply nearly all water used for local agricultural and municipal purposes. The creeks discharge to the Pacific Ocean near the northwestern corner of San Luis Obispo County, California. The basins contain heterogeneous, unconsolidated alluvial deposits and are underlain by relatively impermeable bedrock. Both creeks usually stop flowing during the summer dry season, and most of the pumpage during that time is derived from ground-water storage. Annual pumpage increased substantially during 1956?88 and is now a large fraction of basin storage capacity. Consequently, dry-season water levels are lower and the water supply is more vulnerable to drought. The creeks are the largest source of ground-water recharge, and complete basin recharge can occur within the first few weeks of winter streamflow. Agricultural and municipal pumpages are the largest outflows and cause dry-season water-level declines throughout the San Simeon Basin. Pumping effects are more localized in the Santa Rosa Basin because of subsurface flow obstructions. Even without pumpage, a large quantity of water naturally drains out of storage at the upper ends of the basins during the dry season. Ground water is more saline in areas close to the coast than in inland areas. Although seawater intrusion has occurred in the past, it probably was not the cause of high salinity in 1988?89. Ground water is very hard, and concentrations of dissolved solids, chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some locations. Probability distributions of streamflow were estimated indirectly from a 120-year rainfall record because the periods of record for local stream-gaging stations were wetter than average. Dry-season durations with recurrence intervals between 5 and 43 years are likely to dry up some wells but not cause seawater intrusion. A winter with no streamflow is likely to occur about every 32 years and to

  1. Ground-water effects of the UCG experiments at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, S.W.; Wang, F.T.; Stuermer, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Ground-water changes and subsidence effects associated with three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been monitored at the Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Ground-water quality measurements have extended over a period of four years and have been supplemented by laboratory studies of contaminant sorption by coal. It was found that a broad range of residual gasification products are introduced into the ground-water system. These contaminants may be of environmental significance if they find their way, in sufficient concentrations, into surface waters, or into aquifers from which water is extracted for drinking or agricultural purposes. Fortunately, the concentrations of these contaminants are substantially reduced by sorption on the surrounding coal. However, recent field measurements indicate that there may be significant limitations on this natural cleansing process. The contaminants of potential concern, and the mechanisms that affect their deposition and persistence have been identified.

  2. Trace Perchlorate in Background Ground Water and Local Precipitation, Northern Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, M.; Longmire, P.; Granzow, K. P.; Englert, D.; Yanicak, S.; Larson, T.; Rearick, M.; Heikoop, J.; Perkins, G.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate occurs at detectable concentrations of 0.07 to 0.45 parts per billion (ppb) in ground water of background quality within the northern Rio Grande basin, New Mexico. Ground-water samples were collected from 47 wells and springs near Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Taos, New Mexico. Analytical methods consisted of liquid and ion chromatography-mass spectrometry mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS and IC/MS/MS). An upper tolerance limit (mean plus two standard deviations) of 0.40 ppb was calculated from 184 analytical results for the background samples. Six distinguishable ground-water zones were sampled based on location, age, and hydrochemistry. In the Los Alamos area, ground water within the mountain-front and mountain-block region is mostly young or modern (less than 50 years). The regional aquifer including the White Rock Canyon springs are of sub-modern age (greater than 50 years). Tritium data from springs north of Taos indicate ground water of modern and sub-modern ages. Background perchlorate concentrations within the Los Alamos area were consistently higher than those measured in the Taos area. Ground water from the Taos area contains less perchlorate and has lower δ18O and δ2H values than ground water from the Los Alamos area. The elevation at which precipitation occurs with respect to recharge and/or the amount of evapotranspiration may play a role in perchlorate concentration in ground water. Natural variability, hydrogeology, and atmospheric inputs may also affect perchlorate concentration in ground water. A linear regression through perchlorate and chloride concentrations for all stations resulted in an r2 = 0. However, the r2 value of the Los Alamos regional aquifer for perchlorate versus chloride was 0.66. Thirteen precipitation samples were collected in the Los Alamos area. Results from eleven of these samples showed no perchlorate greater than 0.05 and 0.009 ppb, the method detection limit (MDL). Two precipitation samples analyzed using the IC

  3. GROUND WATER SAMPLING USING LOW-FLOW TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. The sampling device or method used to collect samples from monitoring or compliance well can significantly impact data quality and reliability. Low-flo...

  4. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Carson River basin, Nevada and California; analysis of available water-quality data through 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, A.H.; Plume, R.W.; Frick, E.A.; Hughes, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data on groundwater quality, hydrogeology, and land and water use for the Carson River basin, Nevada and California were analyzed as part of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program. The basin consists of six hydrographic areas--a mountainous headwaters area and five downstream areas interconnected by the Carson River. Each valley contains one or more basin-fill aquifers. The data on groundwater quality came from several agencies and were screened to verify site location and to avoid analyses of treated water. The screened data are stored in the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Information System data base. Differences in sample-collection and preservation procedures among some of the data-collection agencies restrict use of the data to a descriptive analysis. Drinking water standards were employed as the basis for evaluating reported concentrations. Frequencies with which primary or secondary standards are exceeded increase from upstream parts of the basin to downstream parts. Primary standards commonly exceeded are fluoride in upstream areas and arsenic and fluoride in downstream areas. Secondary standards commonly exceeded are iron and manganese in upstream areas and chloride, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, and sulfate in downstream areas. The poorer-quality groundwater generally is a result of natural geochemical reactions, rather than the introduction of chemicals by man. Limited data indicate, however , that manmade organic compounds are present, mostly at or near urban land. (USGS)

  5. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    PubMed Central

    MOSADEGHRAD, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Conclusion Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality. PMID:26060745

  6. An Excel Workbook for Identifying Redox Processes in Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jurgens, Bryant C.; McMahon, Peter B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    The reduction/oxidation (redox) condition of ground water affects the concentration, transport, and fate of many anthropogenic and natural contaminants. The redox state of a ground-water sample is defined by the dominant type of reduction/oxidation reaction, or redox process, occurring in the sample, as inferred from water-quality data. However, because of the difficulty in defining and applying a systematic redox framework to samples from diverse hydrogeologic settings, many regional water-quality investigations do not attempt to determine the predominant redox process in ground water. Recently, McMahon and Chapelle (2008) devised a redox framework that was applied to a large number of samples from 15 principal aquifer systems in the United States to examine the effect of redox processes on water quality. This framework was expanded by Chapelle and others (in press) to use measured sulfide data to differentiate between iron(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions. These investigations showed that a systematic approach to characterize redox conditions in ground water could be applied to datasets from diverse hydrogeologic settings using water-quality data routinely collected in regional water-quality investigations. This report describes the Microsoft Excel workbook, RedoxAssignment_McMahon&Chapelle.xls, that assigns the predominant redox process to samples using the framework created by McMahon and Chapelle (2008) and expanded by Chapelle and others (in press). Assignment of redox conditions is based on concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3-), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), sulfate (SO42-), and sulfide (sum of dihydrogen sulfide [aqueous H2S], hydrogen sulfide [HS-], and sulfide [S2-]). The logical arguments for assigning the predominant redox process to each sample are performed by a program written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The program is called from buttons on the main worksheet. The number of samples that can be analyzed

  7. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  8. Effects of waste-disposal practices on ground-water quality at five poultry (broiler) farms in north-central Florida, 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatzell, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    Waste-disposal areas such as chicken-house floors, litter stockpiles, fields that receive applications of litter, and dead-chicken pits are potential sources of nitrates and other chemical constituents in downward-percolating recharge water. Broiler- farms in north-central Florida are concentrated in a region where the Upper Floridan aquifer is unconfined and susceptible to contamination. Eighteen monitoring wells installed at five sites were sampled quarterly from March 1992 through January 1993. Increases in median concentrations of constituents relative to an upgradient well were used to determine the source of the nitrate at two sites. At these sites, increases in the median concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in ground water in the vicinity of waste-disposal areas at these sites were: 5.4 mg/L for one chicken house; 9.0 mg/L for a second chicken house; 2.0 mg/L for a fallow field that received an application of litter; and, 2.0 mg/L for a dead-chicken pit. At the three remaining sites where the direction of local ground-water flow could not be ascertained, the sources of concentrations of nitrate and other constituents could not be determined. However, median nitrate concentrations in the vicinity of waste-disposal areas at these sites were: 45.5 mg/L for a set of two chicken houses; 3.0 mg/L for a stockpile area; and 2.1 mg/L for a hayfield that received an application of litter. The nitrate concentration in ground water in the vicinity of a field that had previously received heavy applications of litter increased from 3.0 mg/L to 105 mg/L approximately 4 months after receiving an application of commercial fertilizer. Increases in concentrations of organic nitrogen in ground water in the vicinity of waste-disposal areas may be related to the decomposition of litter and subsequent movement with downward percolating recharge water.(USGS)

  9. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Peck, M.F.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 134 wells and more than 700 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1983 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1983. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1974-83. Mean annual water levels ranged from 9 feet higher to 6 feet lower in 1983 than in 1982. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of areal and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the upper and lower water-bearing zones of the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady in the Brunswick and Hilton Head Island areas. (USGS)

  10. Ground-water data for Georgia, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.S.; Longsworth, S.A.; McFadden, K.W.; Peck, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Continuous water-level records from 155 wells and more than 800 water-level measurements made in Georgia during 1984 provide the basic data for this report. Selected wells illustrate the effects that changes in recharge and pumping have had on the various ground-water resources in the State. Daily mean water levels are shown in hydrographs for 1984. Monthly means are shown for the 10-year period 1975-84. Mean annual water levels ranged from 7 feet lower to 7 feet higher in 1984 than in 1983. Water-quality samples are collected periodically throughout Georgia and analyzed as part of a real and regional ground-water studies. Along the coast, chloride concentrations in the Floridan aquifer system generally remained steady. (USGS)

  11. Controls on ground water chemistry in the central Couloir Sud Rifain, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benaabidate, Lahcen; Fryar, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation, urbanization, and drought pose challenges for the sustainable use of ground water in the central Couloir sud rifain, a major agricultural region in north-central Morocco, which includes the cities of Fès and Meknès. The central Couloir is underlain by unconfined and confined carbonate aquifers that have suffered declines in hydraulic head and reductions in spring flow in recent decades. Previous studies have surveyed ground water flow and water quality in wells and springs but have not comprehensively addressed the chemistry of the regional aquifer system. Using graphical techniques and saturation index calculations, we infer that major ion chemistry is controlled (1) in the surficial aquifer by cation exchange, calcite dissolution, mixing with deep ground water, and possibly calcite precipitation and (2) in the confined aquifer and warm springs by calcite dissolution, dolomite dissolution, mixing with water that has dissolved gypsum and halite, and calcite precipitation. Analyses of (2)H and (18)O indicate that shallow ground water is affected by evaporation during recharge (either of infiltrating precipitation or return flow), whereas deep ground water is sustained by meteoric recharge with little evaporation. Mechanisms of recharge and hydrochemical evolution are broadly consistent with those delineated for similar regional aquifer systems elsewhere in Morocco and in southern Spain. PMID:19210561

  12. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Costle, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents found most frequently. Because 100 million Americans may be threatened by unfit drinking water, EPA has developed a new ground water strategy. It will enlist the help of State and local governments who already have programs under way and it will involve broad public debate and participation.

  13. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUND SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as “Superfund” sites. A review of Superfund R...

  14. CONTAMINATION OF PUBLIC GROUND WATER SUPPLIES BY SUPERFUNDSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple sources of contamination can affect ground water supplies, including municipal landfills, industrial operations, leaking underground storage tanks, septic tank systems, and prioritized uncontrolled hazardous waste sites known as "Superfund" sites. eview of Superfund Reco...

  15. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation 4. Historical surface-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico, 1965 to 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maest, Ann S.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; LoVetere, Sara H.

    2004-01-01

    Historical water-quality samples collected from the Red River over the past 35 years were compiled, reviewed for quality, and evaluated to determine influences on water quality over time. Hydrologic conditions in the Red River were found to have a major effect on water quality. The lowest sulfate concentrations were associated with the highest flow events, especially peak, rising limb, and falling limb conditions. The highest sulfate concentrations were associated with the early part of the rising limb of summer thunderstorm events and early snowmelt runoff, transient events that can be difficult to capture as part of planned sampling programs but were observed in some of the data. The first increase in flows in the spring, or during summer thunderstorm events, causes a flushing of sulfide oxidation products from scars and mine-disturbed areas to the Red River before being diluted by rising river waters. A trend of increasing sulfate concentrations and loads over long time periods also was noted at the Questa Ranger Station gage on the Red River, possibly related to mining activities, because the same trend is not apparent for concentrations upstream. This trend was only apparent when the dynamic events of snowmelt and summer rainstorms were eliminated and only low-flow concentrations were considered. An increase in sulfate concentrations and loads over time was not seen at locations upstream from the Molycorp, Inc., molybdenum mine and downstream from scar areas. Sulfate concentrations and loads and zinc concentrations downstream from the mine were uniformly higher, and alkalinity values were consistently lower, than those upstream from the mine, suggesting that additional sources of sulfate, zinc, and acidity enter the river in the vicinity of the mine. During storm events, alkalinity values decreased both upstream and downstream of the mine, indicating that natural sources, most likely scar areas, can cause short-term changes in the buffering capacity of the Red

  16. Methods and Sources of Data Used to Develop Selected Water-Quality Indicators for Streams and Ground Water for the 2007 Edition of The State of the Nation's Ecosystems Report with Comparisons to the 2002 Edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John T.; Baker, Nancy T.; Moran, Michael J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Nowell, Lisa H.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Wilber, William G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was one of numerous governmental, private, and academic entities that provided input to the report The State of the Nation?s Ecosystems published periodically by the Heinz Center. This report describes the sources of data and methods used by the USGS to develop selected water?quality indicators for the 2007 edition of the Heinz Center report and documents modifications in the data sources and interpretations between the 2002 and 2007 editions of the Heinz Center report. Stream and ground?water quality data collected nationally as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program were used to develop the ecosystem indicators for the Heinz Center report, including Core National indicators for the Movement of Nitrogen and Chemical Contamination and for selected ecosystems classified as Farmlands, Forest, Grasslands and Shrublands, Freshwater, and Urban and Suburban. In addition, the USGS provided water?quality and streamflow data collected as part of the National Stream Water Quality Accounting Network and the Federal?State Cooperative Program. The documentation provided herein serves not only as a reference for current and future editions of The State of the Nation?s Ecosystems but also provides critical information for future assessments of changes in contaminant occurrence in streams and ground water of the United States.

  17. GROUND WATER TECHNICAL SUPPORT CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Research and Development operates a Ground Water Technical Support Center (GWTSC). The Center provides support on issues regarding subsurface contamination, contaminant fluxes to other media (e.g., surface water or air), and ecosystem restoration. The GWTSC creat...

  18. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  19. GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR VOCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling protocol should be dictated by the sampling objective(s). It is important to obtain representative ground water samples, regardless of the sampling objective(s). Low-flow (minimum draw-down) purging and sampling techniques are best in most instances, particularly for VOC...

  20. Quality of ground water in the Biscayne Aquifer in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, Florida, 1996-1998, with emphasis on contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, Anne; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Kish, George; Bernard, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The high permeability of the sand and limestone sediments and shallow water table of the Biscayne aquifer make ground water vulnerable to contamination by human activities. To assess potential contamination in the aquifer, untreated ground water was sampled from 30 public-supply wells (40-165 feet deep) in Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach Counties, 32 shallow wells (10-50 feet deep) in a recently urbanized (residential and light commercial) part of Broward County, and 3 shallow reference wells in Broward County. Results from sample analyses indicate that major ions, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were generally within the range indicative of background concentrations, except for: (1) substantially higher bromide concentrations in water from public-supply wells in southern Miami-Dade County; (2) a few relatively high (greater than 2 milligrams per liter) concentrations of nitrate in water from public-supply wells near agricultural lands in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties; and (3) a few relatively high concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) in water from some shallow urban wells near golf courses. Pesticides were detected in every public-supply well, in most of the shallow, urban monitoring wells (78 percent), and in one reference well; however, no pesticide concentration exceeded any drinking-water standard. Fifteen different pesticides or their degradation products were detected. The most frequently detected pesticides were atrazine and tebuthiuron; less frequently detected were the herbicides diuron, fenuron, prometon, metolachlor, simazine, and 2,6-diethylaniline. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in most of the public-supply wells (77 percent) and shallow, urban wells (91 percent) and in two of the three reference wells. Thirty-two different VOCs were detected in ground water in the Biscayne aquifer, with cis-1,2-dichloroethene the most frequently detected VOC in the public

  1. Geology and ground-water resources of the Two Medicine unit and adjacent areas, Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, with a section on chemical quality of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Q.F.; Zimmerman, Tom V.; Langford, Russell H.

    1965-01-01

    The Two Medicine Irrigation Unit, on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of northern Montana, is irrigated by water diverted from Two Medicine Creek. Waterlogging because of overapplication of water and locally inadequate subsurface drainage is a serious problem. This study was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs to evaluate the problem and to suggest remedies. For this study, the geology was mapped, and data concerning 129 wells and test holes were gathered. The water level in 63 wells was measured periodically. Three test holes were drilled and 4 single-well and 1 multiple-well pump tests were made. Nineteen samples of ground water were collected and analyzed chemically, and applied irrigation water was analyzed periodically.

  2. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Bates, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality across the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of mobile radionuclides and identify chemicals present in ground water as a result of Site operations and whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. To comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, additional monitoring was conducted at individual waste sites by the Site Operating Contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), to assess the impact that specific facilities have had on ground-water quality. Six hundred and twenty-nine wells were sampled during 1990 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities.

  3. Areas contributing ground water to the Peconic Estuary, and ground-water budgets for the north and south forks and Shelter Island, eastern Suffolk County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Peconic Estuary, at the eastern end of Long Island, has been plagued by a recurrent algal bloom, locally referred to as ?Brown Tide,? that has caused the severe decline of local marine resources. Although the factors that trigger Brown Tide blooms remain uncertain, groundwater discharge has previously been shown to affect surface-water quality in the western part of the estuary. A U.S. Geological Survey groundwater- flow model of the main body of Long Island indicates that a total of about 7.5 x 106 ft3/d (cubic feet per day) of freshwater discharges to the western part of the estuary, but the model does not include the ground-water flow systems on the North and South Forks and Shelter Island, which contribute significant amounts of freshwater to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. The need for information on freshwater discharge to the entire estuary prompted the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate ground-water discharge from the North and South Forks and Shelter Island. Source areas that contribute ground water to the Peconic Estuary were delineated, and groundwater budgets for these areas were developed, to evaluate the distribution and magnitude of ground-water discharge to the central and eastern parts of the estuary. Contributing-area boundaries that were delineated coincide with the hydraulic boundaries of the fresh ground-water-flow systems of the North and South Forks and Shelter Island; these boundaries are of two types? external (saltwater bodies) and internal (groundwater divides). Hydrologic components that were evaluated include recharge from precipitation, public-supply withdrawal and return flow, and agricultural withdrawal. Values for each of these components were calculated or estimated for the individual freshwater flow subsystems that form each ground-water-budget area, then summed to obtain the total discharge of fresh ground water to tidewater. Ground-water discharge to the Peconic Estuary is about 3.8 x 106 ft3/d from the North

  4. Characterization of Ground-Water Flow and Water Quality for the Madison and Minnelusa Aquifers in Northern Lawrence County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are used extensively for water supplies for the city of Spearfish and other users in northern Lawrence County, South Dakota. Ground water in the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the study area generally flows north from outcrop areas where recharge from sinking streams and infiltration of precipitation occurs. Ground water that moves northward and eastward around the Black Hills enters the study area from the west and results in hydraulic heads that are several hundred feet higher on the western side of the study area than on the eastern side. The estimated average recharge rate of 38 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation is less than the total estimated average spring discharge rate of 51 ft3/s in the northwestern part of the study area. Sixteen pounds of fluorescein dye were injected into Spearfish Creek on March 25, 2003, when streamflow was 6.6 ft3/s. The dye was detected in water samples from four wells completed in the Madison aquifer ranging from 2.6 to 4.5 miles north of the injection site. First arrival times ranged from 5 to 169 days, and ground-water velocities ranged from about 0.1 to 0.5 mile per day. Sixty-four pounds of Rhodamine WT was injected into Spearfish Creek at the same location on May 9, 2003, when streamflow was 5.6 ft3/s. Rhodamine WT dye concentrations measured in samples from the same four wells were about an order of magnitude less than measured fluorescein concentrations. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Cox Lake and McNenny Pond springs indicated a probable component of spring discharge that originates from outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation on the Limestone Plateau south of the study area. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for samples from Mirror Lake spring indicated possible contributions from overlying aquifers and local recharge. Oxygen- and deuterium-isotope values for the combined springflow

  5. Assessing background ground water chemistry beneath a new unsewered subdivision

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bradbury, K.R.; Thomas, C.L.; Bahr, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous site-specific studies designed to assess the impacts of unsewered subdivisions on ground water quality have relied on upgradient monitoring wells or very limited background data to characterize conditions prior to development. In this study, an extensive monitoring program was designed to document ground water conditions prior to construction of a rural subdivision in south-central Wisconsin. Previous agricultural land use has impacted ground water quality; concentrations of chloride, nitrate-nitrogen, and atrazine ranged from below the level of detection to 296 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 0.8 ??g/L, respectively, and were highly variable from well to well and through time. Seasonal variations in recharge, surface topography, aquifer heterogeneities, surficial loading patterns, and well casing depth explain observed variations in ground water chemistry. This variability would not have been detected if background conditions were determined from only a few monitoring wells or inferred from wells located upgradient of the subdivision site. This project demonstrates the importance of characterizing both ground water quality and chemical variability prior to land-use change to detect any changes once homes are constructed. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Ground water in the Piedmont upland of central Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Claire A.

    1982-01-01

    This report, describing ground-water occurrence in a 130-square-mile area of the central Maryland Piedmont, was originally designed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in replying to a request for designation of the aquifers to be the sole or principal source of ground water. However, the information contained in the report is pertinent to other crystalline-rock areas as well. The study area is underlain chiefly by crystalline rocks and partly by unaltered sandstones and siltstones. The ground water is derived from local precipitation and generally occurs under water-table conditions. Its movement is restricted by the lack of interconnected openings, and most ground water occurs within 300 feet of the land surface. Hydrographs indicate no long-term change in ground-water storage. A few wells yield more than 100 gallons per minute, but about 70 percent of 286 inventoried wells yield 10 gallons per minute or less; most specific capacities are less than 1.0 gallon per minute per foot. The ground-water quality is generally satisfactory without treatment, and there are no known widespread pollution problems. Estimated daily figures on ground-water use are as follows: 780,000 gallons for domestic purposes; 55,000, for commercial purposes; and 160,000, for public supply. Although part of the area is served by an existing surface-water supply and could be served by possible extension of it and of other public-supply water mains, much of the rural population is dependent on the ground water available from private wells tapping the single aquifer that underlies any given location. Neither the ground-water conditions nor this dependence on individual wells is unique to the study area, but, rather, applies to the entire Piedmont province.

  7. Analysis of nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1980-98, National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, ground water was the source of drinking water to about 52 percent of the population served by public drinking water systems in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit, which includes parts of Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming. Existing nitrate and volatile organic compound data for ground water collected in the study unit were compiled and summarized as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s objective to describe water-quality conditions in the Nation?s aquifers. Prerequisites for the inclusion of nitrate and volatile organic compound data into this retrospective analysis are that the data set is available in electronic form, the data were collected during 1980-98, the data set is somewhat regional in coverage, and the locations of the sampled sites are known. Ground-water data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water Information Systemand the Idaho and Utah Public DrinkingWater Systems databases were reviewed. Only the most recent analysis was included in the data sets if more than one analysis was available for a site. The National Water Information System data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 480 wells. The median concentration of nitratewas 1.30 milligrams per liter for the 388 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate as established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was exceeded in water from 10 of the 200 wells less than or equal to 150 feet deep and in water from3 of 280 wells greater than 150 feet deep. The Public Drinking Water Systems data set contained nitrate analyses for water from 587 wells. The median concentration of nitrate was 1.12 milligrams per liter for the 548 values above minimum reporting limits. The maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded at 1 site and 22 sites had concentrations equal to or greater than 5 milligrams per liter. The types of land use surrounding a well and the well depth were related to measured nitrate concentrations in the

  8. Atrazine and metolachlor occurrence in shallow ground water of the United States, 1993 to 1995: Relations to explanatory factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Barbash, J.E.; Gilliom, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the quality of the Nation's water resources. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of why pesticides are found in shallow ground water on a national scale, a set of factors likely to affect the fate and transport of two herbicides in the subsurface were examined. Atrazine and metolachlor were selected for this discussion because they were among the most frequently detected pesticides in ground water during the first phase of the NAWQA Program (1993 to 1995), and each was the most frequently detected compound in its chemical class (triazines and acetanilides, respectively). The factors that most strongly correlated with the frequencies of atrazine detection in shallow ground-water networks were those that provided either: (1) an indication of the potential susceptibility of ground water to atrazine contamination, or (2) an indication of relative ground-water age. The factors most closely related to the frequencies of metolachlor detection in ground water, however, were those that estimated or indicated the intensity of the agricultural use of metolachlor. This difference is probably the result of detailed use estimates for these compounds being available only for agricultural settings. While atrazine use is relatively extensive in nonagricultural settings, in addition to its widespread agricultural use, metolachlor is used almost exclusively for agricultural purposes. As a result, estimates of agricultural applications provide a less reliable indication of total chemical use for atrazine than for metolachlor. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors of interest explained about 50 percent of the variance in atrazine and metolachlor detection frequencies among the NAWQA land-use studies examined. The inclusion of other factors related to pesticide fate and transport in ground water, or improvements in the quality and

  9. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R., (Edited By)

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  10. Potential nitrogen contamination of ground water as affected by soil, water, and land-use relationships. Technical report, 1 Apr 89-31 Mar 90

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, J.R.; Pierce, F.J.; Vitosh, M.L.; Knezek, B.D.

    1990-04-01

    To assess nitrate leaching to soil profile characteristics and its association with land use, suction lysimeters were installed in production alfalfa and corn fields and in an adjacent hardwood forest. The amount of N at approximately one meter depth in the soil was greatest in the corn (averaged about 26 ppm N for the year), was less in the alfalfa (averaged about 16 ppm N for the year), and was just above the level of detection (about 0.2 ppm N for the year) in the hardwood forest. N availability is reduced in the second year following alfalfa reducing yield and quality of corn. These effects are more pronounced in no-tillage and ridge-tillage than in conventional tillage systems. Total inorganic N contents in the 0-60 cm soil profile did not vary between tillage or N treatments. The manured soils had significantly higher profile inorganic N contents in July, 1989. Soil nitrate and ammonium levels and potato petiole nitrate concentrations were directly related to the rate of N application and declined with time. Tuber size was significantly improved by either 60 or 120 pounds/acre rate of sidedress N. Specific gravity of potato tubers was unaffected by N application rate.

  11. Geohydrology, water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow in the vicinity of a former waste-oil refinery near Westville, Indiana, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duwelius, Richard F.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Wilson, John T.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional, four layer groundwater- flow model was constructed and calibrated to match ground-water levels and streamflow measured during December 1997. The model was used to simulate possible mechanisms of contaminant release, the effect of increased pumpage from water-supply wells, and pumping at the leading edge of the plume as a possible means of remediation. Based on simulation of threewaste-oil lagoons, a vertical hydraulic conductivity of 0.2 feet per day was required to move contaminants into the bottom layer of the model at a constant leakage rate of about 98 gallons per minute. Simulations of a disposal well in layer 3 of the model indicated an injection rate of 50 gallons per minute was necessary to spread contaminants vertically in the aquifer. Simulated pumping rates of about 300 and 1,000 gallons per minute were required for watersupply wells at the Town of Westville and the Westville Correctional Facility to draw water from the plume of 1,4-dioxane. Simulated pumping from hypothetical wells at the leading edge of the plume indicated that three wells, each pumping 25 gallons per minute from model layer 3, would capture the plume of 1,4-dioxane.

  12. Effects of small-scale vertical variations in well-screen inflow rates and concentrations of organic compounds on the collection of representative ground-water-quality samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibs, Jacob; Brown, G. Allan; Turner, Kenneth S.; MacLeod, Cecilia L.; Jelinski, James; Koehnlein, Susan A.

    1993-01-01

    Because a water sample collected from a well is an integration of water from different depths along the well screen, measured concentrations can be biased if analyte concentrations are not uniform along the length of the well screen. The resulting concentration in the sample, therefore, is a function of variations in well-screen inflow rate and analyte concentration with depth. A multiport sampler with seven short screened intervals was designed and used to investigate small-scale vertical variations in water chemistry and aquifer hydraulic conductivity in ground water contaminated by leaded gasoline at Galloway Township, Atlantic County, New Jersey. The multiport samplers were used to collect independent samples from seven intervals within the screened zone that were flow-rate weighted and integrated to simulate a 5-foot-long, 2.375-inch- outside-diameter conventional wire-wound screen. The integration of the results of analyses of samples collected from two multiport samplers showed that a conventional 5-foot-long well screen would integrate contaminant concentrations over its length and resulted in an apparent contaminant concentration that was a little as 28 percent of the maximum concentration observed in the multiport sampler.

  13. Ground-water solute transport with hydrogeochemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Delgado, R.A.; Koussis, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    Chemical contamination of ground water is typically associated with multicomponent solutions of reactive substances, the mobility of which is affected by their reactivity. In predicting geochemical transport, it is therefore important that the liquid and solid phase reactions be modeled, along with the flow-controlled processes. This demanding task is typically carried out on powerful computers. Frequently, however, field data are available for a limited number of species, or, a small number of species suffices to characterize ground-water quality. In such cases it is desirable to be able to model the transport on a widely available class of inexpensive computers. The authors report on the development of a 2-D model for the transport of reactive species that runs efficiently on PCs. The model follows a modified one-step procedure that adopts total (aqueous and adsorbed) concentrations and aqueous concentrations of components, and accounts for aqueous complexation and for competitive sorption via isotherms or selectivity coefficients. The use of principal directions of transport coordinates, dimensional splitting, and a specialized algorithm for handling advection-dominated transport render it compact and efficient. Mass conservation is satisfied with high accuracy.

  14. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    ). Recharge (rainfall minus evapotranspiration) to the Upper Floridan aquifer consists of vertical leakage through the surficial deposits. Discharge is primarily through springs and diffuse upward leakage that maintains the extensive swamps along the Gulf of Mexico. The ground-water basins had slightly different partitioning of hydrologic components, reflecting variation among the regions. Trends in hydrologic data were identified using nonparametric statistical techniques to infer long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and yielded mixed results. No trend in rainfall was detected during the past century. No trend in spring flow was detected in 1931-98. Although monotonic trends were not detected, rainfall patterns are naturally variable from month to month and year to year; this variability is reflected in ground-water levels and spring flows. A decreasing trend in ground-water levels was detected in the Weeki Wachee well (1966-98), but the trend was statistically weak. At current ground-water withdrawal rates, there is no discernible affect on ground-water levels and spring flows. Sporadic data records, lack of continuous data, and inconsistent periods of record among the hydrologic components impeded analysis of long-term changes to the hydrologic system and interrelations among components. The ongoing collection of hydrologic data from index sites could provide much needed information to assess the hydrologic factors affecting the quantity and quality of spring flow in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin.

  15. Effects of Climatic Extremes on Ground Water in Western Utah, 1930-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic extremes affect ground-water levels and quality in the basins of western Utah. The five droughts since 1930: 1930-36, 1953-65, 1974-78, 1988-93, and 1999-2004--resulted in much-less-than-average recharge, and the pronounced wet period of 1982-86 resulted in much-greater-than-average recharge. Decreased recharge lowered the ground-water level, and increased recharge raised it. These changes were largest in recharge areas-in discharge areas the water level is relatively constant and the primary effect is a change in the discharge area-smaller during a drought and larger during a pronounced wet period. The largest part of water-level change during climatic extremes, however, is not a result of changes in recharge but is related to changes in ground-water withdrawal. During a drought withdrawals increase to satisfy increased demand for ground water, especially in irrigated areas, and water levels decline. During a pronounced wet period, withdrawals decrease because of less demand and water levels rise. The amount of water-level change in representative observation wells in a basin is generally proportional to the basin's withdrawal. In undeveloped Tule Valley, water-level changes related to climatic extremes during 1981-2005 are less than 2 feet. In Snake Valley (small withdrawal), Tooele Valley (moderate withdrawal), and Pahvant Valley (large withdrawal), water-level declines in representative wells from 1985-86 to 2005 were 13.4, 23.8, and 63.8 feet, respectively. Ground-water quality is also affected by climatic extremes. In six irrigated areas in western Utah, water-level decline during drought has induced flow of water with large dissolved-solids concentrations toward areas of pumping, increasing the dissolved-solids concentrations in water sampled from observation wells. During the 1982-86 wet period, increased recharge resulted in a later decrease in dissolved-solids concentrations in three basins.

  16. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, K.R.; Shelton, James L.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  18. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  19. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION POWERED WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical challenge: Resource conservation has become a critical concept in the remediation of contaminated ground water supplies. Ground water remedies which include surface discharge of treated ground water are often viewed as wasteful and non-sustainable....

  20. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    occurred as a result of chemical precipitation of these metals from ground water upstream in the Red River. Comparisons of the geochemistry of the post-1979 sediment core with both mine wastes and with premining sediment from the vicinity of the Questa mine indicate that both are possible sources for this new component of sediment. Existing data have not resolved this enigma.

  1. Sustainability of ground-water resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Franke, O. Lehn

    1999-01-01

    The pumpage of fresh ground water in the United States in 1995 was estimated to be approximately 77 billion gallons per day (Solley and others, 1998), which is about 8 percent of the estimated 1 trillion gallons per day of natural recharge to the Nation's ground-water systems (Nace, 1960). From an overall national perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample. Locally, however, the availability of ground water varies widely. Moreover, only a part of the ground water stored in the subsurface can be recovered by wells in an economic manner and without adverse consequences.

  2. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  3. Ground-water hydraulics - A summary of lectures presented by John G. Ferris at short courses conducted by the Ground Water Branch, part 1, Theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, D.B.

    1955-01-01

    The objective of the Ground Water Branch is to evaluate the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water.  The science of ground-water hydrology is applied toward attaining that goal.  Although many ground-water investigations are of a qualitative nature, quantitative studies are necessarily an integral component of the complete evaluation of occurrence and availability.  The worth of an aquifer as a fully developed source of water depends largely on two inherent characteristics: its ability to store, and its ability to transmit water.  Furthermore, quantitative knowledge of these characteristics facilitates measurement of hydrologic entities such as recharge, leakage, evapotranspiration, etc.  It is recognized that these two characteristics, referred to as the coefficients of storage and transmissibility, generally provide the very foundation on which quantitative studies are constructed.  Within the science of ground-water hydrology, ground-water hydraulics methods are applied to determine these constats from field data.

  4. Hydrogeology, degradation of ground-water quality, and simulation of infiltration from the Delaware River into the Potomac aquifers, northern Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Brackish water is infiltrating from the Delaware River into the underlying Potomac aquifers in the Cretaceous Potomac Formation in northern Delaware. Evidence that infiltration at the river is actually occurring includes chloride concentrations in the aquifers that are above ambient levels and chemical characteristics of groundwater and river water that are similar. Water quality within the Potomac aquifers has been degraded by the infiltration of river water and by leachate from waste disposal sites. The ambient groundwater has chloride concentrations from 10 to 21 mg/L. Chemical analyses indicate that the ambient groundwater is a sodium magnesium calcium-chloride sulfate bicarbonate type. Areas of the Potomac aquifers that have been degraded have chloride concentrations from 40 to 8,600 m/L, with specific conductances of 200 to 27 ,200 microsiemens/cm at 25 C. Chemical analyses indicate the groundwater in these areas is a sodium-chlorate type. Two wells in the lower Potomac aquifer near the Wilmington Marine Terminal also have been affected by the infiltration of river water. Leachate from waste disposal sites has caused localized groundwater degradation in all three Potomac aquifers, especially north of the Delaware Memorial Bridge and at sites near Army Creek and Red Lion Creek. Chloride concentrations up to 8,600 mg/L have resulted from waste disposal leachate. Simulated infiltration of river water into the Potomac aquifers accounts for approximately 6 to 12% of the total aquifer recharge in the area of influence of the pumping. There is a direct correlation between the rate of infiltration of river water and the total well-field pumpage. The rate of infiltration of river water for the pumping scenarios ranged from 0.31 to 0.62 million gal/day. Simulations of freshwater injection demonstrated that 12 barriers wells, each injecting 300 gal/min, would be needed to create a barrier against the infiltration of river water in the upper Potomac aquifer, whereas the

  5. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 24. Seismic Refraction Tomography for Volume Analysis of Saturated Alluvium in the Straight Creek Drainage and Its Confluence With Red River, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research effort directed by the New Mexico Environment Department to determine pre-mining water quality of the Red River at a molybdenum mining site in northern New Mexico, we used seismic refraction tomography to create subsurface compressional-wave velocity images along six lines that crossed the Straight Creek drainage and three that crossed the valley of Red River. Field work was performed in June 2002 (lines 1-4) and September 2003 (lines 5-9). We interpreted the images to determine depths to the water table and to the top of bedrock. Depths to water and bedrock in boreholes near the lines correlate well with our interpretations based on seismic data. In general, the images suggest that the alluvium in this area has a trapezoidal cross section. Using a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation model grid of surface elevations of this region and the interpreted elevations to water table and bedrock obtained from the seismic data, we generated new models of the shape of the buried bedrock surface and the water table through surface interpolation and extrapolation. Then, using elevation differences between the two grids, we calculated volumes of dry and wet alluvium in the two drainages. The Red River alluvium is about 51 percent saturated, whereas the much smaller volume of alluvium in the tributary Straight Creek is only about 18 percent saturated. When combined with average ground-water velocity values, the information we present can be used to determine discharge of Straight Creek into Red River relative to the total discharge of Red River moving past Straight Creek. This information will contribute to more accurate models of ground-water flow, which are needed to determine the pre-mining water quality in the Red River.

  6. MEASURING BASE-FLOW CHEMISTRY AS AN INDICATOR OF REGIONAL GROUND-WATER QUALITY IN THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality in headwater (first-order) streams of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain during base flow in the winter and spring is related to land use, hydrogeology, and other natural and human influences. A random survey of water quality in 174 headwater streams in the Mid-Atlantic...

  7. Nitrates in Wisconsin ground water.

    PubMed

    Schuknecht, B; Lawton, G W; Steinka, P; Delfino, J J

    1975-01-01

    Nitrate analyses were performed on ground water well samples originating from sources throughout Wisconsin. The data ranged from below the analytical detection limit up to 140 mg NO3-N/1. Over nine percent of all wells sampled has nitrate concentrations in excess of 10 mg NO3-N/1. Six individual counties had more than 10 mg NO3-N/1 in at least twenty percent of the wells covered in this survey. However, data reported for over eight thousand new wells driven in 1971-1972 showed only slightly more than two percent with nitrate levels above 10 mg NO3-N/1. This reflected the trend toward drilling deeper wells which are influenced less by nitrate seepage as well as adherence to new and stricter well construction codes. PMID:1183417

  8. Ground-water quality in the Santa Rita, Buellton, and Los Olivos hydrologic subareas of the Santa Ynez River basin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the upper Santa Ynez River Valley in Santa Barbara County has degraded due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. The semiarid climate and uneven distribution of rainfall has limited freshwater recharge and caused salt buildup in water supplies. Tertiary rocks supply mineralized water. Agricultural activities (irrigation return flow containing fertilizers and pesticides, cultivation, feedlot waste disposal) are a primary cause of water quality degradation. Urban development, which also causes water quality degradation (introduced contaminants, wastewater disposal, septic system discharge, and land fill disposal of waste), has imposed stricter requirements on water supply quality. A well network was designed to monitor changes in groundwater quality related to anthropogenic activities. Information from this network may aid in efficient management of the groundwater basins as public water supplies, centered around three basic goals. First is to increase freshwater recharge to the basins by conjunctive surface/groundwater use and surface-spreading techniques. Second is to optimize groundwater discharge by efficient timing and spacing of pumping. Third is to control and reduce sources of groundwater contamination by regulating wastewater quality and distribution and, preferably, by exporting wastewaters from the basin. (USGS)

  9. Hydrologic significance of carbon monoxide concentrations in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) is present in ground water produced from a variety of aquifer systems at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20 nanomoles per liter (0.0056 to 0.56 ??g/L). In two shallow aquifers, one an unconsolidated coastal plain aquifer in Kings Bay, Georgia, and the other a fractured-bedrock aquifer in West Trenton, New Jersey, long-term monitoring showed that CO concentrations varied over time by as much as a factor of 10. Field and laboratory evidence suggests that the delivery of dissolved oxygen to the soil zone and underlying aquifers by periodic recharge events stimulates oxic metabolism and produces transiently high CO concentrations. In between recharge events, the aquifers become anoxic and more substrate limited, CO is consumed as a carbon source, and CO concentrations decrease. According to this model, CO concentrations provide a transient record of oxic metabolism affecting ground water systems after dissolved oxygen has been fully consumed. Because the delivery of oxygen affects the fate and transport of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in ground water, CO concentration changes may be useful for identifying predominantly anoxic ground water systems subject to periodic oxic or microaerophilic conditions. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Selection, Installation, and Documentation of Wells, and Collection of Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, Wayne W.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Koterba, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for well installation and documentation are included in a 1989 report written for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Pilot Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols were reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the National Water-Quality Assessment Program and the Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and procedures discussed are well selection, installation of monitoring wells, documentation, and the collection of water level and additional hydrogeologic and geologic data.

  11. Effects of streambank fencing of pasture land on benthic macroinvertebrates and the quality of surface water and shallow ground water in the Big Spring Run basin of Mill Creek watershed, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1993-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Low, Dennis J.; O'Brien, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Streambank fencing along stream channels in pastured areas and the exclusion of pasture animals from the channel are best-management practices designed to reduce nutrient and suspended-sediment yields from drainage basins. Establishment of vegetation in the fenced area helps to stabilize streambanks and provides better habitat for wildlife in and near the stream. This study documented the effectiveness of a 5- to 12-foot-wide buffer strip on the quality of surface water and near-stream ground water in a 1.42-mi2 treatment basin in Lancaster County, Pa. Two miles of stream were fenced in the basin in 1997 following a 3- to 4-year pre-treatment period of monitoring surface- and ground-water variables in the treatment and control basins. Changes in surface- and ground-water quality were monitored for about 4 years after fence installation. To alleviate problems in result interpretation associated with climatic and hydrologic variation over the study period, a nested experimental design including paired-basin and upstream/downstream components was used to study the effects of fencing on surface-water quality and benthic-macroinvertebrate communities. Five surface-water sites, one at the outlet of a 1.77-mi2 control basin (C-1), two sites in the treatment basin (T-3 and T-4) that were above any fence installation, and two sites (one at an upstream tributary site (T-2) and one at the outlet (T-1)) that were treated, were sampled intensively. Low-flow samples were collected at each site (approximately 25-30 per year at each site), and stormflow was sampled with automatic samplers at all sites except T-3. For each site where stormflow was sampled, from 35 to 60 percent of the storm events were sampled over the entire study period. Surface-water sites were sampled for analyses of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal streptococcus (only low-flow samples), with field parameters (only low-flow samples) measured during sample collection. Benthic-macroinvertebrate samples

  12. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 260 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1975 to 1976. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Ground-water quality and geochemistry of Las Vegas Valley, Clark County, Nevada, 1981-83; implementation of a monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of rapid urban growth in Las Vegas Valley, rates of water use and wastewater disposal have grown rapidly during the last 25 years. Concern has developed over the potential water quality effects of this growth. The deep percolation of wastewater and irrigation return flow (much of which originates as imported water from Lake Mead), along with severe overdraft conditions in the principal aquifers of the valley, could combine to pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality. The quantitative investigations of groundwater quality and geochemical conditions in the valley necessary to address these concerns would include the establishment of data collection networks on a valley-wide scale that differ substantially from existing networks. The valley-wide networks would have a uniform areal distribution of sampling sites, would sample from all major depth zones, and would entail repeated sampling from each site. With these criteria in mind, 40 wells were chosen for inclusion in a demonstration monitoring network. Groundwater in the northern half of the valley generally contains 200 to 400 mg/L of dissolved solids, and is dominated by calcium, magnesium , and bicarbonate ions, reflecting a chemical equilibrium between the groundwater and the dominantly carbonate rocks in the aquifers of this area. The intermediate to deep groundwater in the southern half of the valley is of poorer quality (containing 700 to 1,500 mg/L of dissolved solids) and is dominated by calcium, magnesium, sulfate, and bicarbonate ions, reflecting the occurrence of other rock types including evaporite minerals among the still-dominant carbonate rocks in the aquifers of this part of the valley. The poorest quality groundwater in the valley is generally in the lowland parts of the valley in the first few feet beneath the water table, where dissolved solids concentrations range from 2,000 to > 7,000 mg/L , and probably reflects the effects of evaporite dissolution, secondary recharge, and

  14. Ground water for irrigation in the Viking Basin, west-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    The Viking Basin consists of six glacial outwash areas in Douglas, Ottertail, and Todd Counties, west-central Minnesota. Total area is 340 square miles (880 square kilometres). Soils are sandy and excessively well-drained. Crops grown on the outwash would benefit from supplemental irrigation. Irrigation supplies can be obtained from wells in the surface outwash aquifer in significant parts of the large outwash areas near Carlos and Parkers Prairie and the small outwash area near Clotho. Irrigation supplies are unlikely in the outwash areas near Alexandria, Urbank, and Rose City. Major use of ground water for irrigation may lower ground-water levels sufficiently to affect lake and marsh levels and streamflow out of the irrigation areas. Water from the outwash is of excellent chemical quality for irrigation.

  15. Ground-water monitoring plan, water quality, and variability of agricultural chemicals in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the City of Independence, Missouri, well field, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    A detailed ground-water sampling plan was developed and executed for 64 monitoring wells in the city of Independence well field to characterize ground-water quality in the 10-year zone of contribution. Samples were collected from monitoring wells, combined Independence well field pumpage, and the Missouri River at St. Joseph, Missouri, from 1998 through 2000. In 328 ground-water samples from the 64 monitoring wells and combined well field pumpage samples, specific conductance values ranged from 511 to 1,690 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, pH values ranged from 6.4 to 7.7, water temperature ranged from 11.3 to 23.6 degrees Celsius, and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 0 to 3.3 milligrams per liter. In 12 samples from the combined well field pumpage samples, specific conductance values ranged from 558 to 856 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, pH values ranged from 6.9 to 7.7, water temperature ranged from 5.8 to 22.9 degrees Celsius, and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 0 to 2.4 milligrams per liter. In 45 Missouri River samples, specific conductance values ranged from 531 to 830 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius, pH ranged from 7.2 to 8.7, water temperature ranged from 0 to 30 degrees Celsius, and dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 17.6 milligrams per liter. The secondary maximum contaminant level for sulfate in drinking water was exceeded once in samples from two monitoring wells, the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for antimony was exceeded once in a sample from one monitoring well, and the MCL for barium was exceeded once in a sample from one monitoring well. The MCL for iron was exceeded in samples from all monitoring wells except two. The MCL for manganese was exceeded in all samples from monitoring wells and combined well field pumpage. Enzyme linked immunoassay methods indicate total benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) was detected in samples from five

  16. Data on ground-water quality for the western Nevada part of the Death Valley 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater has been compiled for the Nevada part of the Death Valley 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of western Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area are also presented in a table. (USGS)

  17. A Mass-balance nitrate model for predicting the effects of land use on ground-water quality in municipal wellhead-protection areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, M.H.; Donohue, J.J.; Rapacz, M.V.; Beye, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    A mass-balance accounting model can be used to guide the management of septic systems and fertilizers to control the degradation of groundwater quality in zones of an aquifer that contributes water to public supply wells. The nitrate nitrogen concentration of the mixture in the well can be predicted for steady-state conditions by calculating the concentration that results from the total weight of nitrogen and total volume of water entering the zone of contribution to the well. These calculations will allow water-quality managers to predict the nitrate concentrations that would be produced by different types and levels of development, and to plan development accordingly. Computations for different development schemes provide a technical basis for planners and managers to compare water quality effects and to select alternatives that limit nitrate concentration in wells. Appendix A contains tables of nitrate loads and water volumes from common sources for use with the accounting model. Appendix B describes the preparation of a spreadsheet for the nitrate loading calculations with a software package generally available for desktop computers. (USGS)

  18. Geology, ground-water flow, and dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water along hydrogeologic sections through Wisconsin aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was begun with the objectives of describing water quality and its relation to the hydrology of Wisconsin's principal aquifers and summarizing instances of ground-water contamination and quality problems from information available in DNR files. The first objective was met by a hydrologic investigation done by the USGS, and the second, by preparation of a report by the DNR, for their internal use, that describes the State's water resources and known ground-water quality and contamination problems and makes policy recommendations for ground-water management.The USGS investigation was divided into two phases. The first phase consisted of compiling available water-quality and hydrogeologic data and collecting new data to describe general regional water-quality and hydrogeologic relations within and between Wisconsin aquifers. The second phase began concurrently with the later part of the first phase and consisted of an areal description of water quality and flow in the State's shallow aquifer system (Kammerer, 1995). The overall purpose of this investigation was to provide a regional framework that could serve as a basis for intensive local and site specific ground-water investigations by State and local government agencies.This report presents the results of the first phase of the USGS investigation. Regional hydrogeologic and water-quality relations within and between aquifers are shown along 15 hydrogeologic sections that traverse the State. Maps are used to show surficial geology of bedrock and unconsolidated deposits and horizontal direction of ground-water flow. Interpretations on the maps and hydrogeologic sections are based on data from a variety of sources and provide the basis for the areal appraisal of water quality in the State's shallow aquifer system in the second phase of the investigation.

  19. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, P. F.

    Aquifer remediation is one of our most difficult environmental challenges; technological limitations and problems arising from the physical and chemical complexities of contaminated subsurface environments thwart our best efforts. A 19-member committee of leaders in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, epidemiology, environmental economics, and environmental policy has written an ambitious book that broadly addresses the groundwater remediation problem. Topics include site characterization, capabilities and limitations of pump-and-treat and alternative technologies, alternative goals for ground water cleanup, and policy implications.One of the book's strengths is its information base, which includes various public and private groups, data from 80 pump-and-treat sites, and an extensive literature review. The text is clearly written and well organized. Specific conclusions are stated at the end of each major chapter, and sound policy recommendations are offered at the end of the final chapter. An appendix summarizes pump-andtreat systems reviewed during the study. Several case studies, diagrams, and photographs effectively illustrate concepts and ideas conveyed in the text.

  20. Ground-water resources of Kings and Queens counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    From 1981 through 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the ground-water system of western Long Island, New York, including Kings and Queens counties. This report describes the structure and operation of the western part of the Long Island ground-water system, and the hydrologic effects associated with human development from 1900 to the early 1980's. Recent (early 1980's) ground-water quantity and quality characteristics are described.

  1. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  2. Technology Transfer Opportunities: Automated Ground-Water Monitoring, A Proven Technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed and tested an automated ground-water monitoring system that measures and records values of selected water-quality properties and constituents using protocols approved for manual sampling. Prototypes using the automated process have demonstrated the ability to increase the quantity and quality of data collected and have shown the potential for reducing labor and material costs for ground-water quality data collection. Automated ground-water monitoring systems can be used to monitor known or potential contaminant sites, such as near landfills, underground storage tanks, or other facilities where potential contaminants are stored, to serve as early warning systems monitoring ground-water quality near public water-supply wells, and for ground-water quality research.

  3. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in the Boone Formation and Cotter Dolomite in karst terrain of northwestern Boone County, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Leidy, V.A.; Morris, E.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Shallow groundwater flow systems in karst terrain of northwestern Boone County, Arkansas, are particularly susceptible to contamination. The potential for groundwater contamination probably is greater in the northern one-half of the study area where there are more photolineaments and presumably subsurface fractures. Groundwater samples from 17 springs discharging from the Boone Formation and 17 wells completed in the Cotter Dolomite were analyzed to determine ambient groundwater quality and to document water quality variations. The chemical constituents in groundwater generally did not exceed US Environmental Protection Agency primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels. However, fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected in most springs and in three wells. One spring, located near an abandoned wood-treatment plant (a designated Superfund site), had maximum iron, manganese, lead, and pentachlorophenol concentration that exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency's primary or secondary maximum contamination levels for drinking water. Water samples collected from selected springs emerging from the Boone Formation exhibited an overall decrease in specific conductance and total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride concentrations and an overall increase in nitrate, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus bacteria concentrations 3 to 8 hours after a rainstorm.

  4. Computer software for converting ground-water and water-quality data from the National Water Information System for use in a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is computer software that provides the capabilities to rapidly display and analyze spatially referenced data. To use a GIS efficiently, software is needed that provides a link between existing spatially referenced data-base systems and the GIS. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stores large amounts of spatially referenced hydrologic data in computerized data-base systems. Currently, these data-base systems are physically located on computers that are installed in many USGS offices nationwide. This report describes software that can be used quickly and easily to convert site-description and water-quality data from these data-base systems to the GIS that is used by the USGS. The software described in this report is designed to be used with the same hardware and software that is available to most USGS personnel.

  5. Maps of the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley, San Diego County, California, showing geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.

    1985-01-01

    In November 1984, 84 wells and 1 spring in the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley were inventoried by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Depth to water in 38 wells ranged from 1.3 to 38 ft and 23 wells had depths to water less than 10 feet. Dissolved solids concentration of water from 29 wells and 1 spring sampled in autumn 1983 and spring 1984 ranged from 574 to 2,370 mgs/L. Groundwater with a dissolved solids concentration less than 1,000 mgs/L was generally restricted to the eastern part of the aquifer. The total volume of alluvial fill in the Bonsall area is 113,000 acre-feet; the amount of groundwater storage available in the alluvial aquifer is 18,000 acre-feet. The alluvial aquifer is, in part, surrounded and underlain by colluvium and weathered crystalline rock that add some additional groundwater storage capacity to the system. Data in this report are presented on five maps showing well locations , thickness of alluvial fill, water level contours in November 1983 and hydrographs of selected wells, groundwater quality in spring 1960 and graphs showing changes in dissolved solids concentrations of water from selected wells with time, and groundwater quality in spring 1984. This report is part of a larger cooperative project between the Rainbow Municipal Irrigation District and the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the larger project is to develop an appropriate groundwater management plan for the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley. (USGS)

  6. Effects of Irrigation, Drought, and Ground-Water Withdrawals on Ground-Water Levels in the Southern Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2006-01-01

    the model could also affect ground-water levels in the southern Lihue Basin in the future.

  7. Geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality of the Galena-Platteville Aquifer in the vicinity of the Parson's Casket Hardware Superfund Site, Belvidere, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.

    2000-01-01

    The geology, hydrology, and distribution of contaminants in the Galena-Platteville aquifer in the vicinity of the Parson?s Casket Hardware Superfund site in northeastern Belvidere, Ill., were characterized on the basis of data collected from boreholes using geophysical logging and packer assemblies. Horizontal flow in the Galena- Platteville aquifer is affected by a network of subhorizontal fractures that are concentrated in the weathered part of the bedrock, vugs and fractures present from the bottom of the weathered bedrock to the top of a shaley layer at about 662 ft (feet) above sea level, and through a widespread subhorizontal fracture at about 524 ft. Inclined fractures provide pathways for vertical flow within the Galena-Platteville aquifer. Some fractures and flow pathways appear to be affected by the stratigraphy of the Galena-Platteville deposits. Water-level data indicate the potential for downward flow within the Galena-Platteville aquifer. During periods when pumping in nearby municipal-supply wells is minimal or absent, the direction of flow through the fracture at about 524 ft above sea level is south toward two industrial-supply wells. Flow through the fracture is toward the municipal-supply wells when they are being pumped. Flow in the upper part of the Galena-Platteville aquifer does not appear to be affected by pumping in nearby water-supply wells. Chlorinated ethenes were the volatile organic compounds detected most often and at the highest concentration in the Galena-Platteville aquifer beneath northeastern Belvidere. Volatile organic compounds are migrating primarily to the southeast toward the Kishwaukee River, with components of movement to the north, east, and west. Volatile organic compound and monitored natural attenuation parameter data indicate reductive dechlorination of some chlorinated ethene compounds is occurring under either nitrate or iron-reducing conditions in the unconsolidated deposits and possibly the upper part of the

  8. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania : characterization of surface-runoff and ground-water quantity and quality in a small carbonate basin near Churchtown, Pennsylvania, prior to terracing and implementation of nutrient management : water-quality study of the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, Patricia L.; Hall, D.W.; Langland, M.J.; Chichester, D.C.; Ward, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Surface-runoff and ground-water quantity and quality of a 22.1-acre field site were characterized from January 1983 through September 1984, before implementation of terracing and nutrient-management practices. The site, underlain by carbonate rock, was cropland used primarily for the production of corn and alfalfa. Average annual application of nutrients to the 14.4 acres of cornfields was 410 pounds of nitrogen and 110 pounds of phosphorus. About three times more nutrients were applied during the 1984 water year than during the 1983 water year. During the investigation, 714,000 cubic feet of runoff transported 244 tons of suspended sediment, 300 pounds of nitrogen, and 170 pounds of phosphorus during the 1984 water year. Runoff from storms on frozen ground produced the highest loads of nitrogen. Regression analyses indicate that runoff rates and quantities were controlled by precipitation intensities of quantities and the amount of crop cover, and that mean concentrations of nitrogen for runoff events increased with increased surface-nitrogen applications made prior to runoff. Ground-water levels responded quickly to recharge, with peaks occurring several hours to a day after precipitation. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate in ground water ranged from 9.2 to 13 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. A lag time of 1 to 3 months was observed between the time that nitrogen was applied to the land surface and local maximums in nitrate concentrations were detected in ground water unaffected by recharge events. About 3 million cubic feet of ground water and an associated 2,200 pounds of nitrate-nitrogen discharged from the site during the study period. For the study period, 42 percent of the precipitation recharged to ground water, 10 percent became runoff, and 48 percent evapotranspired. Inputs of nitrogen to the study area were estimated to be 93 percent from manure, 5 percent from commercial fertilizer, and 2 percent from precipitation. Nitrogen outputs from the

  9. Selected water-quality characteristics and flow of ground water in the San Luis basin, including the Conejos River subbasin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S., Jr.; Hammond, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from 99 wells and 19 springs in the San Luis basin in Colorado and New Mexico were evaluated to determine selected water quality characteristics as an aid in understanding the flow of groundwater in the basin. The evaluation shows that the distribution of chemical water types in the basin is consistent with chemical changes to be expected along flow paths in rocks typical of those in the basin. The San Luis basin area is underlain by a surficial (< 100-ft-thick) unconfined aquifer and, in turn, by a confining bed and a deeper confined aquifer. Previous studies have indicated that the groundwater system is recharged around the edges of the basin and that groundwater then moves toward discharge areas in the topographically closed part of the basin and along principal streams. The evaluation of water quality data showed that groundwater at the perimeter of the San Luis basin is primarily a calcium bicarbonate type, which is typical in recharge areas. Groundwater near the center of the basin is primarily a sodium bicarbonate type, which is typical of groundwater in downgradient areas. The change in principal cation from calcium to sodium indicates chemical evolution of the water along the groundwater flow path and supports previously developed concepts of groundwater movement in the basin. The exchange of calcium for sodium along the flow path also is assumed to occur in the Conejos River subbasin. Upgradient wells yield calcium bicarbonate type water, whereas downgradient wells yield sodium bicarbonate type water. However, an exception to this relation is found at McIntire Spring, which yields calcium bicarbonate type water from a downgradient location. The source of water discharging from the spring may be the confined aquifer, with hydraulic connection along the Manassa fault. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from both the unconfined and confined aquifers increases downgradient. The increase is dramatic in the closed basin

  10. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the northern part of the Town of Oyster Bay, Nassau County, New York, in 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilburn, Chabot; Krulikas, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents geohydrologic and water quality data from the northern part of the Town of Oyster Bay, in the north-shore area of Long Island. The groundwater reservoir underlying the area consists of clay, silt, sand, and gravel layers that form six geohydrologic units; from bottom to top: the Lloyd aquifer, Raritan clay, Magothy aquifer, Port Washington aquifer, Port Washington confining unit, and the upper glacial aquifer. Crystalline bedrock underlies the Lloyd aquifer and forms the base of the groundwater system. The regional drought of 1962-67 caused groundwater levels to decline as much as 16 feet, but the water table altitude in 1980 equaled or exceeded predrought levels. Water levels measured in wells screened in the lower part of the Magothy aquifer and in the Lloyd aquifer throughout much of the area are still below those measured before the drought but are recovering. Groundwater in some areas contains nitrates, volatile organic compounds, and chloride in concentrations that exceed New York State drinking-water standards. Contamination is limited largely to the upper glacial aquifer and upper part of the Magothy aquifer. Saltwater has been reported in some wells along the shore but probably represents a natural condition rather than saltwater encroachment due to excessive pumping. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Relation between land use and ground-water quality in the upper glacial aquifer in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, D.A.; Flipse, W.J., Jr.; Oaksford, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical quality of groundwater in the upper glacial (water-table) aquifer beneath the 10 types of land-use areas of Nassau and Suffolk Counties, NY was examined to evaluate the effect of human activities on groundwater. The highest median chloride and total dissolved-solids concentrations were found in wells in high-density residential areas (more than five dwellings/acre), and the highest median nitrate, sulfate, and calcium concentrations were found in wells in agricultural and high density residential areas. Relatively low median concentrations of inorganic chemical constituents were found in wells in undeveloped and low-density residential areas (1 or fewer/acre): volatile organic compounds were rarely detected in these same areas. The highest concentrations and most frequent detection of volatile organic compounds were in industrial and commercial areas. The most commonly detected volatile organic compounds were 1,1,1-trichloroethane (24% of wells), tetrachloroethylene (20%), trichloroethylene (18%), chloroform (9%), and 1,2-dichloroethylene (5%). The spatial distributions of trichloroethylene, chloroform and other volatile organic compounds in the upper glacial aquifer are directly correlated with population density in the two-county area. (USGS)

  12. Well-construction, water-quality, and water-level data, and pond-infiltration estimates, for three ground-water subbasins, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, C.A.; Kaehler, C.A.; Christensen, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    Reclaimed water in the Eastern Municipal Water District of Riverside County,California, is used within the service area for agricultural irrigation.Owing to the seasonal demand for reclaimed water, storage/infiltration ponds were constructed in the Winchester, Menifee, and south Perris subbasins.Reclaimed water infiltrates from these ponds and enters the groundwater system. Little is known of the effects of the reclaimed water on groundwater quality. In cooperation with the Eastern MunicipalWater District, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1995 to determine the quantity and fate of reclaimed water percolating from these storage ponds. Data compiled during the first phase of this study are presented in this report. Field reconnaissance of the Winchester, Menifee, and south Perris subbasins indicated the existence of many wells. Wellconstruction data for 115 of these wells were tabulated. Available historical waterquality and waterlevel data for 178 wells in the subbasins also were tabulated. In addition, water levels in 86 wells were measured during the spring and autumn of 1995. On the basis of these data, waterlevel contour lines were drawn and the direction of groundwater flow was determined.Three lithologic sections through the subbasins were constructed from drillers' logs of 26 wells.

  13. INTRODUCTION TO ARTIFICIAL GROUND-WATER RECHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial ground-water recharge has been practiced for scores of years throughout the world. The purpose of artificial recharge is to increase the rate at which water infiltrates the land surface in order to supplement the quantity of ground water in storage. A variety of rechar...

  14. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER VOLUME II: METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is an extensively revised version of the Ground Water Handbook, originally published in 1987 as EPA/625/6-87/016. It has been published in two volumes: Volume I: Ground Water and Contamination, EPA/625/6-90/016a, and Volume II: Methodology, EPA/625/6-90/016b. Volume...

  15. Geohydrology, water quality, and preliminary simulations of ground-water flow of the alluvial aquifer in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckles, D.R.; Watts, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Black Squirrel Creek basin in eastern El Paso County, Colorado, is underlain by an alluvial aquifer and four bedrock aquifers. Groundwater pumpage from the alluvial aquifer has increased since the mid-1950's, and water level declines have been substantial; the bedrock aquifers virtually are undeveloped. Groundwater pumpage for domestic, stock, agricultural, and municipal uses have exceeded recharge for the past 25 years. The present extent of the effect of pumpage on the alluvial aquifer was evaluated, and a groundwater flow model was used to simulate the future effect of continued pumpage on the aquifer. Measured water level declines from 1974 through 1984 were as much as 30 ft in an area north of Ellicott, Colorado. On the basis of the simulations, water level declines from October 1984 to April 1999 north of Ellicott might be as much as 20 to 30 ft and as much as 1 to 10 ft in most of the aquifer. The groundwater flow models provided a means of evaluating the importance of groundwater evapotranspiration at various stages of aquifer development. Simulated groundwater evapotranspiration was about 43% of the outflow from the aquifer during predevelopment stages but was less than 3% of the outflow from the aquifer during late-development stages. Analyses of 36 groundwater samples collected during 1984 indicated that concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen generally were large. Samples from 5 of the 36 wells had concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen that exceeded drinking water standards. Water from the alluvial aquifer generally is of suitable quality for most uses. (USGS)

  16. Geology and ground-water resources of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-water resources of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation are facing increased development for domestic and public drinking-water supplies and for industrial use. Along with the increased demand for ground-water data to address water-rights issues, water-quality concerns, and water-management decisions. The increased demand for ground water and ground-water data highlighted the need for a better understanding of the reservations’s ground-water resources. To fulfill this need, a 3-year long investigation of the geology and ground-water resources of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Blackfeet Water Resources Department.

  17. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  18. A Computerized Data-Base System for Land-Use and Land-Cover Data Collected at Ground-Water Sampling Sites in the Pilot National Water Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Jonathon C.

    1989-01-01

    Data-base software has been developed for the management of land-use and land-cover data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a pilot program to test and refine concepts for a National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report describes the purpose, use, and design of the land-use and land-cover data-base software. The software provides capabilities for interactive storage and retrieval of land-use and land-cover data collected at ground-water sampling sites. Users of the software can add, update, and delete land-use and land-cover data. The software also provides capabilities to group, print, and summarize the data. The land-use and land-cover data-base software supports multiple data-base systems so that data can be accessed by persons in different offices. Data-base systems are organized in a tiered structure. Each data-base system contains all the data stored in the data-base systems located in the lower tiers of the structure. Data can be readily transmitted from lower tiers to high tiers of the structure. Therefore, the data-base system at the highest tier of the structure contains land-use and land-cover data for the entire pilot program.

  19. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  20. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Represent the quality of ground water passing the point of compliance. (3) Allow for the detection of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water monitoring... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  1. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  2. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 280 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1976 to 1977. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. The program of groundwater observation is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the city of Cheyenne. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  4. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  5. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  6. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  7. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  8. 40 CFR 265.91 - Ground-water monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water monitoring system. 265.91... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Ground-Water Monitoring § 265.91 Ground-water monitoring system. (a) A ground-water monitoring system must be capable of yielding ground-water samples for analysis and must consist of:...

  9. Nitrate behavior in ground water of the southeastern USA

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, B.T.

    1999-10-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed with water-quality data from studies conducted during 1993 to 1995 to explore potential nitrate-attenuation processes in ground waters of the southeastern USA. Nitrate reduction is an important attenuation process in selected areas of the Southeast. A nitrate-reduction component explains 23% of the total variance in the data and indicates that nitrate and dissolved oxygen (DO) are inversely related to ammonium, iron, manganese, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Additional components extracted by PCA include calcite dissolution (18% of variance explained) and phosphate dissolution (9% of variance explained). Reducing conditions in ground waters of the region influence nitrate behavior through bacterially mediated reduction in the presence of organic matter, and by inhibition of nitrate formation in anoxic ground water beneath forested areas. Component scores are consistent with observed water-quality conditions in the region. For example, median nitrate concentration in ground-water samples from the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin (ALBE) Coastal Plain is {lt}0.05 mg L{sup {minus}1}, median DOC concentration is 4.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median DO concentration is 2.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, consistent with denitrification. Nitrate reduction does not occur uniformly throughout the Southeast. Median DO concentrations in ground-water samples from the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) are 6.2 to 7.1 mg L{sup {minus}1}, and median nitrate concentrations are 0.61 to 2.2 mg L{sup {minus}1}, inconsistent with denitrification. Similarly, median DO concentration in samples from the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) is 6.0 mg L{sup {minus}1} and median nitrate concentration is 5.8 mg L{sup {minus}1}.

  10. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  11. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the