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  1. The virome in host health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Cadwell, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian virome includes diverse commensal and pathogenic viruses that evoke a broad range of immune responses from the host. Sustained viral immunomodulation is implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases, but also confers unexpected benefits to the host. These outcomes of viral infections are often dependent on host genotype. Moreover, it is becoming clear that the virome is part of a dynamic network of microorganisms that inhabit the body. Therefore, viruses can be viewed as a component of the microbiome, and interactions with commensal bacteria and other microbial agents influence their behavior. In this article, our current understanding of how the virome, together with other components of the microbiome, affects the function of the host immune system to regulate health and disease is reviewed. PMID:25992857

  2. Individual experience affects host choice in malaria vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite epidemiological importance, few studies have explored whether individual experience and learning could affect the vertebrate host choice of mosquito disease vectors. Here, we investigated whether a first successful blood meal can modulate mosquito preference during a second blood meal. Methods In no-choice situations, females of the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, one of the primary African malaria vectors, were first allowed to feed on either human, rabbit or guinea pig. Four days later in dual-choice situations, the same mosquitoes were allowed to choose between the two uncommon hosts, rabbit and guinea pig, as a source of blood. ELISA assays were then used to determine which host mosquitoes fed on. Results Our results indicate that, overall, mosquitoes preferred to feed on rabbit over guinea pig and that the nature of the first blood meal had a significant impact on the mosquito host choice during the second blood meal. Compared to mosquitoes that previously fed on guinea pigs or humans, mosquitoes that fed on rabbits were less likely to choose this host species during a second exposition. The decreased preference for rabbit was observed four days after mosquitoes were first exposed to this host, suggesting that the effect lasts at least the duration of a gonotrophic cycle. Furthermore, this effect was observed after only one successful blood meal. Fitness measurements on mosquitoes fed on the three different vertebrate hosts showed that the origin of the blood meal affected mosquito longevity but not fecundity. In particular, human-fed mosquitoes lived longer than guinea pig-fed or rabbit-fed mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that individual experience affects host choice in this mosquito species and might have strong repercussions on biting patterns in natural conditions and hence on malaria transmission. PMID:24885668

  3. Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Xiao; Zhang, Xiang-Fei; Chen, Da-Song; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate that Wolbachia induces strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), increases host fecundity, but has no effects on the longevity of females and the mating competitiveness of males in T. urticae. Most importantly, host mating pattern was found to affect Wolbachia density dynamics during host aging. Mating of an uninfected mite of either sex with an infected mite attenuates the Wolbachia density in the infected mite. According to the results of Wolbachia localization, this finding may be associated with the tropism of Wolbachia for the reproductive tissue in adult spider mites. Our findings describe a new interaction between Wolbachia and their hosts. PMID:23823081

  4. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  5. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  6. Feeding guild of non-host community members affects host-foraging efficiency of a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    De Rijk, Marjolein; Yang, Daowei; Engel, Bas; Dicke, Marcel; Poelman, Erik H

    2016-06-01

    Interactions between predator and prey, or parasitoid and host, are shaped by trait- and density-mediated processes involving other community members. Parasitoids that lay their eggs in herbivorous insects locate their hosts through infochemicals such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) and host-produced kairomones. Hosts are frequently accompanied by non-host herbivores that are unsuitable for the parasitoid. These non-hosts may interfere with host location primarily through trait-mediated processes, by their own infochemicals, and their induction of the emission of plant volatiles. Although it is known that single non-hosts can interfere with parasitoid host location, it is still unknown whether the observed effects are due to species specific characteristics or to the feeding habits of the non-host herbivores. Here we addressed whether the feeding guild of non-host herbivores differentially affects foraging of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata for its common host, caterpillars of Pieris brassicae feeding on Brassica oleracea plants. We used different phloem-feeding and leaf-chewing non-hosts to study their effects on host location by the parasitoid when searching for host-infested plants based on HIPVs and when searching for hosts on the plant using infochemicals. To evaluate the ultimate effect of these two phases in host location, we studied parasitism efficiency of parasitoids in small plant communities under field-tent conditions. We show that leaf-chewing non-hosts primarily affected host location through trait-mediated effects via plant volatiles, whereas phloem-feeding non-hosts exerted trait-mediated effects by affecting foraging efficiency of the parasitoid on the plant. These trait-mediated effects resulted in associational susceptibility of hosts in environments with phloem feeders and associational resistance in environments with non-host leaf chewers. PMID:27459770

  7. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  8. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    PubMed

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  9. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  10. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C.; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  11. Comparative Proteomics Identifies Host Immune System Proteins Affected by Infection with Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    López, Vladimir; Villar, Margarita; Queirós, João; Vicente, Joaquín; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Alves, Paulo C; Alberdi, Pilar; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly impact human and animal health worldwide. The mycobacterial life cycle is complex, and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are natural reservoir hosts for MTBC and a model for mycobacterial infection and tuberculosis (TB). In the wild boar TB model, mycobacterial infection affects the expression of innate and adaptive immune response genes in mandibular lymph nodes and oropharyngeal tonsils, and biomarkers have been proposed as correlates with resistance to natural infection. However, the mechanisms used by mycobacteria to manipulate host immune response are not fully characterized. Our hypothesis is that the immune system proteins under-represented in infected animals, when compared to uninfected controls, are used by mycobacteria to guarantee pathogen infection and transmission. To address this hypothesis, a comparative proteomics approach was used to compare host response between uninfected (TB-) and M. bovis-infected young (TB+) and adult animals with different infection status [TB lesions localized in the head (TB+) or affecting multiple organs (TB++)]. The results identified host immune system proteins that play an important role in host response to mycobacteria. Calcium binding protein A9, Heme peroxidase, Lactotransferrin, Cathelicidin and Peptidoglycan-recognition protein were under-represented in TB+ animals when compared to uninfected TB- controls, but protein levels were higher as infection progressed in TB++ animals when compared to TB- and/or TB+ adult wild boar. MHCI was the only protein over-represented in TB+ adult wild boar when compared to uninfected TB- controls. The results reported here suggest that M. bovis manipulates host immune response by reducing the production of immune system proteins. However, as infection progresses, wild boar immune response recovers to limit pathogen

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid saturation by gut lactic acid bacteria affecting host lipid composition

    PubMed Central

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Takeuchi, Michiki; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Isobe, Yosuke; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Shima, Jun; Takahashi, Satomi; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    In the representative gut bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum, we identified genes encoding the enzymes involved in a saturation metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed in detail the metabolic pathway that generates hydroxy fatty acids, oxo fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids, and partially saturated trans-fatty acids as intermediates. Furthermore, we observed these intermediates, especially hydroxy fatty acids, in host organs. Levels of hydroxy fatty acids were much higher in specific pathogen-free mice than in germ-free mice, indicating that these fatty acids are generated through polyunsaturated fatty acids metabolism of gastrointestinal microorganisms. These findings suggested that lipid metabolism by gastrointestinal microbes affects the health of the host by modifying fatty acid composition. PMID:24127592

  13. Resident microbiota affect Bordetella pertussis infectious dose and host specificity.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Laura S; Feaga, Heather A; Park, Jihye; Muse, Sarah J; Safi, Chetan Y; Rolin, Olivier Y; Young, Sarah E; Harvill, Eric T

    2014-03-01

    Before contacting host tissues, invading pathogens directly or indirectly interact with host microbiota, but the effects of such interactions on the initial stages of infection are poorly understood. Bordetella pertussis is highly infectious among humans but requires large doses to colonize rodents, unlike a closely related zoonotic pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, raising important questions about the contributions of bacterial competition to initial colonization and host selection. We observed that <100 colony-forming units (CFU) of B. bronchiseptica efficiently infected mice and displaced culturable host microbiota, whereas 10 000 CFU of B. pertussis were required to colonize murine nasal cavities and did not displace host microorganisms. Bacteria isolated from murine nasal cavities but not those from the human lower respiratory tract limited B. pertussis growth in vitro, indicating that interspecies competition may limit B. pertussis colonization of mice. Further, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment delivered before B. pertussis inoculation reduced the infectious dose to <100 CFU, and reintroduction of single Staphylococcus or Klebsiella species was sufficient to inhibit B. pertussis colonization of antibiotic-treated mice. Together, these results reveal that resident microorganisms can prevent B. pertussis colonization and influence host specificity, and they provide rationale for manipulating microbiomes to create more-accurate animal models of infectious diseases.

  14. Alterations of the Host Microbiome Affect Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Walker, Deena M.; Calipari, Erin S.; Labonte, Benoit; Issler, Orna; Pena, Catherine J.; Ribeiro, Efrain A.; Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria. Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. These behavioral changes were correlated with adaptations in multiple transcripts encoding important synaptic proteins in the brain’s reward circuitry. This study represents the first evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota affect behavioral response to drugs of abuse. PMID:27752130

  15. Diet-Induced Alterations of Host Cholesterol Metabolism Are Likely To Affect the Gut Microbiota Composition in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Inés; Perdicaro, Diahann J.; Brown, Andrew W.; Hammons, Susan; Carden, Trevor J.; Carr, Timothy P.; Eskridge, Kent M.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota affects the metabolism of the mammalian host and has consequences for health. However, the complexity of gut microbial communities and host metabolic pathways make functional connections difficult to unravel, especially in terms of causation. In this study, we have characterized the fecal microbiota of hamsters whose cholesterol metabolism was extensively modulated by the dietary addition of plant sterol esters (PSE). PSE intake induced dramatic shifts in the fecal microbiota, reducing several bacterial taxa within the families Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae. The abundance of these taxa displayed remarkably high correlations with host cholesterol metabolites. Most importantly, the associations between several bacterial taxa with fecal and biliary cholesterol excretion showed an almost perfect fit to a sigmoidal nonlinear model of bacterial inhibition, suggesting that host cholesterol excretion can shape microbiota structure through the antibacterial action of cholesterol. In vitro experiments suggested a modest antibacterial effect of cholesterol, and especially of cholesteryl-linoleate, but not plant sterols when included in model bile micelles. The findings obtained in this study are relevant to our understanding of gut microbiota-host lipid metabolism interactions, as they provide the first evidence for a role of cholesterol excreted with the bile as a relevant host factor that modulates the gut microbiota. The findings further suggest that the connections between Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae and host lipid metabolism, which have been observed in several studies, could be caused by a metabolic phenotype of the host (cholesterol excretion) affecting the gut microbiota. PMID:23124234

  16. Host response, obesity, and oral health.

    PubMed

    Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata; Słotwiński, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Proper food choices are part of preventing or reducing the risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. A significant association has been proven between oral diseases and the incidence of systemic diseases. Obesity, just like smoking, is one of the major risk factors for oral disease and is a serious social problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. The results of studies on periodontitis confirm the relationship between the values of body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of periodontal diseases. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ and it performs many important functions in the body, such as thermal isolation and protection, storage, and secretion. Many cytokines are secreted proportionally to the amount of fat present and are actively involved in the metabolism of the whole system, including the functioning of the immune system. Therefore, obesity may alter the response of the host to the antigens derived from bacterial plaque, and thus cause disturbances in the inflammatory response in the course of periodontal disease. PMID:26557035

  17. Host response, obesity, and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Słotwiński, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Proper food choices are part of preventing or reducing the risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. A significant association has been proven between oral diseases and the incidence of systemic diseases. Obesity, just like smoking, is one of the major risk factors for oral disease and is a serious social problem that has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. The results of studies on periodontitis confirm the relationship between the values of body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of periodontal diseases. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ and it performs many important functions in the body, such as thermal isolation and protection, storage, and secretion. Many cytokines are secreted proportionally to the amount of fat present and are actively involved in the metabolism of the whole system, including the functioning of the immune system. Therefore, obesity may alter the response of the host to the antigens derived from bacterial plaque, and thus cause disturbances in the inflammatory response in the course of periodontal disease. PMID:26557035

  18. How do host sex and reproductive state affect host preference and feeding duration of ticks?

    PubMed

    Pollock, Nicholas B; Vredevoe, Larisa K; Taylor, Emily N

    2012-08-01

    Parasitism is one of the most notable forms of symbiosis in the biological world, with nearly all organisms hosting parasites. In many vertebrates, males have higher ectoparasite burdens than females, especially when testosterone concentrations are elevated. Furthermore, reproductive females may have higher ectoparasite burdens than non-reproductive females. It is possible that testosterone-stimulated behaviors in males and offspring investment by females incur energetic costs that inhibit immune function. If questing ticks can sense host sex or reproductive condition prior to attachment, they could potentially choose hosts with the poorest immune function, thereby leading to improved feeding success and decreased feeding duration. In this study, we examined the host-parasite relationship between western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) to test the following hypotheses: (1) ticks prefer male lizards to female lizards. (2) Ticks prefer male lizards with higher testosterone. (3) Ticks prefer reproductive female lizards to non-reproductive female lizards. (4) Ticks feed to repletion more rapidly (decreased feeding duration) on reproductive females and males with higher testosterone. In all three experiments, ticks failed to show a preference for one group over another as demonstrated by similar attachment rates between groups. This suggests that observed differences in ectoparasite loads in free-ranging lizards is due to some other factor than host choice. However, tick feeding duration on female lizards was shorter when hosts were reproductive, suggesting that host reproductive condition alters tick feeding, possibly due to a decreased immune response. Interestingly, ticks fed more slowly on male lizards with elevated testosterone, suggesting that testosterone may actually improve immune function against ectoparasites. PMID:22526292

  19. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  20. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  1. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  2. Factors Affecting Health Care Utilization in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Motlagh, Soraya Nouraei; Sabermahani, Asma; Hadian, Mohammad; Lari, Mohsen Asadi; Mahdavi, Mohamad Reza Vaez; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful health system planning and management is dependent on well informed decisions, so having complete knowledge about medical services’ utilization is essential for resource allocation and health plans. The main goal of this study is identification of factors effecting inpatient and outpatient services utilization in public and private sectors. Methods: This study encompasses all regions of Tehran in 2011 and uses Urban HEART questionnaires. This population-based survey included 34700 households with 118000 individuals in Tehran. For determining the most important factors affected on health services consumption, logit model was applied. Results: Regarding to the finding, the most important factors affected on utilization were age, income level and deciles, job status, household dimension and insurance coverage. The main point was the negative relationship between health care utilization and education but it had a positive relationship with private health care utilization. Moreover suffering from chronic disease was the most important variable in health care utilization. Conclusions: According to the mentioned results and the fact that access has effect on health services utilization, policy makers should try to eliminate financial access barriers of households and individuals. This may be done with identification of households with more than 65 or smaller than 5 years old, people in low income deciles or with chronic illness. According to age effect on health services usage and aging population of Iran, results of this study show more importance of attention to aged population needs in future years. PMID:26153189

  3. Host species and developmental stage, but not host social structure, affects bacterial community structure in socially polymorphic bees.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Wcislo, William T; Hout, Michael C; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2014-05-01

    Social transmission and host developmental stage are thought to profoundly affect the structure of bacterial communities associated with honey bees and bumble bees, but these ideas have not been explored in other bee species. The halictid bees Megalopta centralis and M. genalis exhibit intrapopulation social polymorphism, which we exploit to test whether bacterial communities differ by host social structure, developmental stage, or host species. We collected social and solitary Megalopta nests and sampled bees and nest contents from all stages of host development. To survey these bacterial communities, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing. We found no effect of social structure, but found differences by host species and developmental stage. Wolbachia prevalence differed between the two host species. Bacterial communities associated with different developmental stages appeared to be driven by environmentally acquired bacteria. A Lactobacillus kunkeei clade bacterium that is consistently associated with other bee species was dominant in pollen provisions and larval samples, but less abundant in mature larvae and pupae. Foraging adults appeared to often reacquire L. kunkeei clade bacteria, likely while foraging at flowers. Environmental transmission appears to be more important than social transmission for Megalopta bees at the cusp between social and solitary behavior.

  4. Flavonoids Affect Host-Microbiota Crosstalk through TLR Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Rodríguez-Lagunas, Maria J.; Castell, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between host cells and microbes is known as crosstalk. Among other mechanisms, this takes place when certain molecules of the micro-organisms are recognized by the toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the body cells, mainly in the intestinal epithelial cells and in the immune cells. TLRs belong to the pattern-recognition receptors and represent the first line of defense against pathogens, playing a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation in the activity of such receptors can lead to the development of chronic and severe inflammation as well as immunological disorders. Among components present in the diet, flavonoids have been suggested as antioxidant dietary factors able to modulate TLR-mediated signaling pathways. This review focuses on the molecular targets involved in the modulatory action of flavonoids on TLR-mediated signaling pathways, providing an overview of the mechanisms involved in such action. Particular flavonoids have been able to modify the composition of the microbiota, to modulate TLR gene and protein expression, and to regulate the downstream signaling molecules involved in the TLR pathway. These synergistic mechanisms suggest the role of some flavonoids in the preventive effect on certain chronic diseases. PMID:26785232

  5. A Fungal Endosymbiont Affects Host Plant Recruitment Through Seed- and Litter-mediated Mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Many grass species are associated with maternally transmitted fungal endophytes. Increasing evidence shows that endophytes enhance host plant success under varied conditions, yet studies have rarely considered alternative mechanisms whereby these mutualistic symbionts may affect regeneration from...

  6. Soil resources area affects herbivore health.

    PubMed

    Garner, James A; Ahmad, H Anwar; Dacus, Chad M

    2011-06-01

    Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer) in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991-1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass), kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL) and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI), which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P≤0.001). Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P≤0.002). Mass and conception date (CD) were affected (P≤0.001) by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P≤0.001) and CD (P<0.04). Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  7. The impact of refugees on the health status and health services of host communities: Compounding bad with worse?

    PubMed

    Dick, B

    1985-12-01

    Although there have been a number of recent developments in our understanding of refugee health problems that have influenced policies and action, the effects of refugees on the health status and services of host communities remain relatively neglected. This article sets out to explain why this is an important issue with implications for policy, planning surveillance and evaluation, training and research. The first sections outline some of the problems facing host governments and communities in Africa and discuss the changing rhetoric between the first and second International Conferences for Assistance to Refugees in Africa. A number of possible ways in which refugees could affect the individual, agent and environmental causes of disease are considered, as are the characteristics of the refugees, the host communities and the response which may all modify this impact. Policy implications of the impact of the refugees, both negative and positive, are discussed, and detailed consideration is given to the pros and cons of integrated and parallel approaches to health care provision. The need to monitor carefully the health status and services of host communities is emphasized and recommendations are made for this and other essential developments relating to training and research.

  8. Some demographic issues affecting private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Brian

    2004-01-01

    There will be significant changes in the demography of persons with Private Health Insurance (PHI). Two methods of projecting PHI coverage are discussed in this paper. The first assumes the only factors affecting PHI coverage are demographic change and mortality and facilitates comparisons between actual and projected PHI coverage. The second projects the percentage of the population insured in each five year age cohort, and makes allowance for changes in PHI coverage due to all factors. Demographic change will increase Registered Health Benefit Organization (RHBO) premiums by 1.7% per annum. The role of these projections in analysing the effect of future premium increases on PHI retention rates is also discussed. PMID:15362293

  9. Amino acid metabolism in intestinal bacteria: links between gut ecology and host health.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhao-Lai; Wu, Guoyao; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract play an important role in the metabolism of dietary substances in the gut and extraintestinal tissues. Amino acids (AA) should be taken into consideration in the development of new strategies to enhance efficiency of nutrient utilization because they are not only major components in the diet and building blocks for protein but also regulate energy and protein homeostasis in organisms. The diversity of the AA-fermenting bacteria and their metabolic redundancy make them easier to survive and interact with their neighboring species or eukaryotic host during transition along GI tract. The outcomes of the interactions have important impacts on gut health and whole-body homeostasis. The AA-derived molecules produced by intestinal bacteria affect host health by regulating either host immunity and cell function or microbial composition and metabolism. Emerging evidence shows that dietary factors, such as protein, non-digestible carbohydrates, probiotics, synbiotics and phytochemicals, modulate AA utilization by gut microorganisms. Interdisciplinary research involving nutritionists and microbiologists is expected to rapidly expand knowledge about crucial roles for AA in gut ecology and host health. PMID:21196263

  10. Phylogenetic isolation of host trees affects assembly of local Heteroptera communities.

    PubMed

    Vialatte, A; Bailey, R I; Vasseur, C; Matocq, A; Gossner, M M; Everhart, D; Vitrac, X; Belhadj, A; Ernoult, A; Prinzing, A

    2010-07-22

    A host may be physically isolated in space and then may correspond to a geographical island, but it may also be separated from its local neighbours by hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary history, and may form in this case an evolutionarily distinct island. We test how this affects the assembly processes of the host's colonizers, this question being until now only invoked at the scale of physically distinct islands or patches. We studied the assembly of true bugs in crowns of oaks surrounded by phylogenetically more or less closely related trees. Despite the short distances (less than 150 m) between phylogenetically isolated and non-isolated trees, we found major differences between their Heteroptera faunas. We show that phylogenetically isolated trees support smaller numbers and fewer species of Heteroptera, an increasing proportion of phytophages and a decreasing proportion of omnivores, and proportionally more non-host-specialists. These differences were not due to changes in the nutritional quality of the trees, i.e. species sorting, which we accounted for. Comparison with predictions from meta-community theories suggests that the assembly of local Heteroptera communities may be strongly driven by independent metapopulation processes at the level of the individual species. We conclude that the assembly of communities on hosts separated from their neighbours by long periods of evolutionary history is qualitatively and quantitatively different from that on hosts established surrounded by closely related trees. Potentially, the biotic selection pressure on a host might thus change with the evolutionary proximity of the surrounding hosts.

  11. Systematic identification of novel, essential host genes affecting bromovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gancarz, Brandi L; Hao, Linhui; He, Qiuling; Newton, Michael A; Ahlquist, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA virus replication involves viral proteins and cellular proteins at nearly every replication step. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a well-established model for dissecting virus-host interactions and is one of very few viruses whose RNA replication, gene expression and encapsidation have been reproduced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously, our laboratory identified ∼100 non-essential host genes whose loss inhibited or enhanced BMV replication at least 3-fold. However, our isolation of additional BMV-modulating host genes by classical genetics and other results underscore that genes essential for cell growth also contribute to BMV RNA replication at a frequency that may be greater than that of non-essential genes. To systematically identify novel, essential host genes affecting BMV RNA replication, we tested a collection of ∼900 yeast strains, each with a single essential gene promoter replaced by a doxycycline-repressible promoter, allowing repression of gene expression by adding doxycycline to the growth medium. Using this strain array of ∼81% of essential yeast genes, we identified 24 essential host genes whose depleted expression reproducibly inhibited or enhanced BMV RNA replication. Relevant host genes are involved in ribosome biosynthesis, cell cycle regulation and protein homeostasis, among other cellular processes. BMV 2a(Pol) levels were significantly increased in strains depleted for a heat shock protein (HSF1) or proteasome components (PRE1 and RPT6), suggesting these genes may affect BMV RNA replication by directly or indirectly modulating 2a(Pol) localization, post-translational modification or interacting partners. Investigating the diverse functions of these newly identified essential host genes should advance our understanding of BMV-host interactions and normal cellular pathways, and suggest new modes of virus control.

  12. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Family Members Are Differentially Affected by Alterations in Host Glycans and Membrane Cholesterol*

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Aria; Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J.; Gargi, Amandeep; Cardwell, Marissa M.; Prouty, Michael G.; Blanke, Steven R.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are tripartite protein exotoxins produced by a diverse group of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Based on their ability to induce DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of cultured cells, CDTs are proposed to enhance virulence by blocking cellular division and/or directly killing epithelial and immune cells. Despite the widespread distribution of CDTs among several important human pathogens, our understanding of how these toxins interact with host cells is limited. Here we demonstrate that CDTs from Haemophilus ducreyi, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni differ in their abilities to intoxicate host cells with defined defects in host factors previously implicated in CDT binding, including glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids. The absence of cell surface sialic acid sensitized cells to intoxication by three of the four CDTs tested. Surprisingly, fucosylated N-linked glycans and glycolipids, previously implicated in CDT-host interactions, were not required for intoxication by any of the CDTs tested. Finally, altering host-cellular cholesterol, also previously implicated in CDT binding, affected intoxication by only a subset of CDTs tested. The findings presented here provide insight into the molecular and cellular basis of CDT-host interactions. PMID:20385557

  13. Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Laurence; Henri, Hélène; Charif, Delphine; Boulétreau, Michel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-04-22

    Regulation of microbial population density is a necessity in stable symbiotic interactions. In Wolbachia symbiosis, both bacterial and host genotypes are involved in density regulation, but environmental factors may also affect bacterial population density. Here, we studied the interaction between three strains of Wolbachia in two divergent homozygous lines of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma at two different temperatures. Wolbachia density varied between the two host genotypes at only one temperature. Moreover, at this temperature, reciprocal-cross F1 insects displayed identical Wolbachia densities, which were intermediate between the densities in the two parental lines. While these findings confirm that the host genotype plays an important role in Wolbachia density, they also highlight its interaction with environmental conditions, making possible the evolution of local adaptations for the regulation of Wolbachia density. PMID:17251124

  14. Inclusion of chloromethane guests affects conformation and internal dynamics of cryptophane-D host.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Zoltan; Brotin, Thierry; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Lang, Jan; Todde, Guido; Kowalewski, Jozef

    2012-07-12

    Cryptophane-D is composed of two nonequivalent cyclotribenzylene caps bound together by three OCH2CH2O bridges in a syn arrangement. Host-guest complexes with chloroform and dichloromethane were investigated in solution by NMR spectroscopy. Variable temperature NMR (1)H and (13)C spectra showed effects of chemical exchange between the free and bound guest and of conformational exchange for the host, strongly and specifically affected by guest binding. We found in particular that the carbon-13 chemical shifts for the linkers connecting the two cyclotribenzylene units are very informative. The NMR results were supported by DFT calculations. The guest exchange was also studied quantitatively, either by EXSY measurements (for chloroform as guest) or by line-shape analysis (for dichloromethane as guest). In the case of chloroform guest, we also investigated cross-relaxation between the guest and host protons, as well as carbon-13 longitudinal relaxation and heteronuclear NOE at three different fields. The results were interpreted in terms of orientation and dynamics of the guest inside the host cavity. Putting together various types of evidence resulted in remarkably detailed insight into the process of molecular recognition of the two guests by cryptophane-D host.

  15. The bee microbiome: Impact on bee health and model for evolution and ecology of host-microbe interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K.; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E.; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, Robert S.; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D.; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L.; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A.; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G.; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J.; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M.; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health.

  16. The Bee Microbiome: Impact on Bee Health and Model for Evolution and Ecology of Host-Microbe Interactions.

    PubMed

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, R Scott; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health. PMID:27118586

  17. The Bee Microbiome: Impact on Bee Health and Model for Evolution and Ecology of Host-Microbe Interactions.

    PubMed

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, R Scott; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-04-26

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health.

  18. The Bee Microbiome: Impact on Bee Health and Model for Evolution and Ecology of Host-Microbe Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Waldan K.; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E.; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, R. Scott; Dainat, Jacques; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D.; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L.; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A.; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G.; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J.; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M.; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Schwarz, Ryan S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health. PMID:27118586

  19. Host-related metabolic cues affect colonization strategies of a root endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Lahrmann, Urs; Ding, Yi; Banhara, Aline; Rath, Magnus; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R.; Döhlemann, Stefanie; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Parniske, Martin; Zuccaro, Alga

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underpinning broad compatibility in root symbiosis are largely unexplored. The generalist root endophyte Piriformospora indica establishes long-lasting interactions with morphologically and biochemically different hosts, stimulating their growth, alleviating salt stress, and inducing local and systemic resistance to pathogens. Cytological studies and global investigations of fungal transcriptional responses to colonization of barley and Arabidopsis at different symbiotic stages identified host-dependent colonization strategies and host-specifically induced effector candidates. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, P. indica establishes and maintains biotrophic nutrition within living epidermal cells, whereas in barley the symbiont undergoes a nutritional switch to saprotrophy that is associated with the production of secondary thinner hyphae in dead cortex cells. Consistent with a diversified trophic behavior and with the occurrence of nitrogen deficiency at the onset of saprotrophy in barley, fungal genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters were highly induced in this host but not in Arabidopsis. Silencing of the high-affinity ammonium transporter PiAMT1 gene, whose transcripts are accumulating during nitrogen starvation and in barley, resulted in enhanced colonization of this host, whereas it had no effect on the colonization of Arabidopsis. Increased levels of free amino acids and reduced enzymatic activity for the cell-death marker VPE (vacuolar-processing enzyme) in colonized barley roots coincided with an extended biotrophic lifestyle of P. indica upon silencing of PiAMT1. This suggests that PiAmt1 functions as a nitrogen sensor mediating the signal that triggers the in planta activation of the saprotrophic program. Thus, host-related metabolic cues affect the expression of P. indica’s alternative lifestyles. PMID:23918389

  20. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  1. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  2. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Oppel, Craig

    2012-06-01

    In laboratory assays, we evaluated the potential impact of host plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group sizes (densities), and parasitoid-to-host ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval endoparasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), newly introduced for biological control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in the United States. Results from our study showed that offspring production and critical fitness parameters (body size and sex ratio) of T. planipennisi from parasitized emerald ash borer larvae are significantly influenced by host plant substrate type, host-parasitoid group size, parasitoid-to-host ratio, or a combination in the primary exposure assay. The number of both female and male T. planipennisi progeny was significantly greater when emerald ash borer larvae were inserted into tropical ash [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh.] logs rather than green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica Marshall). When maintained at a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, assays with larger host-parasitoid group sizes (3:3-12:12) produced significantly greater numbers of both male and female offspring per parental wasp compared with those with the single host-parasitoid (1:1) group treatment. As the parasitoid-to-host ratio increased from 1:1 to 8:1 in the assay, the average brood size (number of offspring per parasitized emerald ash borer larva) increased significantly, whereas the average brood sex ratio (female to male) changed from being female-biased (6:1) to male-biased (1:2); body size of female offspring as measured by the length of ovipositor and left hind tibia also was reduced significantly. Based on these findings, we suggest that the current method of rearing T. planipennisi with artificially infested-emerald ash borer larvae use the tropical ash logs for emerald ash borer insertion, a larger (> or = 3:3) host-parasitoid group size and 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio in the primary

  3. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier

    PubMed Central

    Marchesi, Julian R; Adams, David H; Fava, Francesca; Hermes, Gerben D A; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hold, Georgina; Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil; Kinross, James; Smidt, Hauke; Tuohy, Kieran M; Thomas, Linda V; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Hart, Ailsa

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 10–15 years, our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially. To a large extent, this has been due to new ‘omic’ technologies that have facilitated large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of this microbial community, revealing it to be comparable in influence to a new organ in the body and offering the possibility of a new route for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, it might be more accurate to think of it like an immune system: a collection of cells that work in unison with the host and that can promote health but sometimes initiate disease. This review gives an update on the current knowledge in the area of gut disorders, in particular metabolic syndrome and obesity-related disease, liver disease, IBD and colorectal cancer. The potential of manipulating the gut microbiota in these disorders is assessed, with an examination of the latest and most relevant evidence relating to antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, polyphenols and faecal microbiota transplantation. PMID:26338727

  4. A Novel Statistical Model to Estimate Host Genetic Effects Affecting Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Garcia-Cortés, Luis Alberto; Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that genetic diversity can affect the spread of diseases, potentially affecting plant and livestock disease control as well as the emergence of human disease outbreaks. Nevertheless, even though computational tools can guide the control of infectious diseases, few epidemiological models can simultaneously accommodate the inherent individual heterogeneity in multiple infectious disease traits influencing disease transmission, such as the frequently modeled propensity to become infected and infectivity, which describes the host ability to transmit the infection to susceptible individuals. Furthermore, current quantitative genetic models fail to fully capture the heritable variation in host infectivity, mainly because they cannot accommodate the nonlinear infection dynamics underlying epidemiological data. We present in this article a novel statistical model and an inference method to estimate genetic parameters associated with both host susceptibility and infectivity. Our methodology combines quantitative genetic models of social interactions with stochastic processes to model the random, nonlinear, and dynamic nature of infections and uses adaptive Bayesian computational techniques to estimate the model parameters. Results using simulated epidemic data show that our model can accurately estimate heritabilities and genetic risks not only of susceptibility but also of infectivity, therefore exploring a trait whose heritable variation is currently ignored in disease genetics and can greatly influence the spread of infectious diseases. Our proposed methodology offers potential impacts in areas such as livestock disease control through selective breeding and also in predicting and controlling the emergence of disease outbreaks in human populations. PMID:26405030

  5. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in vivo: host sex and intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-07-01

    The development of plant-derived cysteine proteinases, such as those in papaya latex, as novel anthelmintics requires that the variables affecting efficacy be fully evaluated. Here, we conducted two experiments, the first to test for any effect of host sex and the second to determine whether the intensity of the worm burden carried by mice would influence efficacy. In both experiments, we used the standard C3H mouse reference strain in which papaya latex supernatant (PLS) consistently shows >80 % reduction in Heligmosomoides bakeri worm burdens, but to broaden the perspective, we also included for comparison mice of other strains that are known to respond more poorly to treatment with papaya latex. Our results confirmed that there is a strong genetic influence affecting efficacy of PLS in removing adult worm burdens. However, there was no effect of host sex on efficacy (C3H and NIH) and no effect of infection intensity (C3H and BALB/c). These results offer optimism that plant-derived cysteine proteinases (CPs), such as these from papaya latex, can function as effective anthelmintics, with neither host sex nor infection intensity presenting further hurdles to impede their development for future medicinal and veterinary usage.

  6. Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Daniel; Safi, Kamran; Avril, Alexis; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Wikelski, Martin; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Elmberg, Johan; Tolf, Conny; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence.

  7. Does influenza A virus infection affect movement behaviour during stopover in its wild reservoir host?

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Daniel; Safi, Kamran; Avril, Alexis; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Wikelski, Martin; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Elmberg, Johan; Tolf, Conny; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surge in research on avian influenza A viruses (IAVs), in part fuelled by the emergence, spread and potential zoonotic importance of highly pathogenic virus subtypes. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most numerous and widespread dabbling duck in the world, and one of the most important natural hosts for studying IAV transmission dynamics. In order to predict the likelihood of IAV transmission between individual ducks and to other hosts, as well as between geographical regions, it is important to understand how IAV infection affects the host. In this study, we analysed the movements of 40 mallards equipped with GPS transmitters and three-dimensional accelerometers, of which 20 were naturally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), at a major stopover site in the Northwest European flyway. Movements differed substantially between day and night, as well as between mallards returning to the capture site and those feeding in natural habitats. However, movement patterns did not differ between LPAIV infected and uninfected birds. Hence, LPAIV infection probably does not affect mallard movements during stopover, with high possibility of virus spread along the migration route as a consequence. PMID:26998334

  8. Factors affecting patterns of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitism in a rodent host.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-07-30

    Here we offer a multivariable analysis that explores associations of different factors (i.e., environmental, host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites) with the interaction of Amblyomma triste immature stages and one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. Monthly and for two years, we captured and sampled rodents at 16 points located at 4 different sites in the Parana River Delta region. The analyses were conducted with Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were: (a) environmental: trapping year, season, presence of cattle; type of vegetation (natural grassland or implanted forest); rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length; sex; body condition; blood cell counts; natural antibody titres; and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites: other stage of A. triste; Ixodes loricatus; lice; mites; and fleas. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Larvae were affected by all environmental variables assessed and by the presence of other ectoparasites (lice, fleas and other tick species). Host factors significantly associated with larval count were sex and levels of natural antibodies. Nymphs were associated with season, presence of cattle, body condition, body length and with burdens of I. loricatus. In most cases, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent (many interaction terms were significant). The findings of greater significance and implications of our study are two. Firstly, as burdens of A. triste larvae and nymphs were greater where cattle were present, and larval tick burdens were higher in implanted forests, silvopastoral practices developing in the region may affect the population dynamics of A. triste, and consequently the eco-epidemiology of Rickettsia parkeri. Secondly, strong associations and numerous interactions with other ectoparasites suggest that

  9. How Can Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... some take a second look. Studies show that religion and faith can help to promote good health ... surgery who received strength and comfort from their religion were three times more likely to survive than ...

  10. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  11. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  12. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    PubMed Central

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  13. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level.

    PubMed

    Einzmann, Helena J R; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2014-11-11

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ(13)C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests.

  14. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female's sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  15. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female’s sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  16. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    PubMed

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni pdxA Affects Flagellum-Mediated Motility to Alter Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Hashii, Noritaka; Uema, Masashi; Kawasaki, Nana; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Igimi, Shizunobu; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, PLP) is linked to a variety of biological functions in prokaryotes. Here, we report that the pdxA (putative 4-hydroxy-L-threonine phosphate dehydrogenase) gene plays a pivotal role in the PLP-dependent regulation of flagellar motility, thereby altering host colonization in a leading foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni. A C. jejuni pdxA mutant failed to produce PLP and exhibited a coincident loss of flagellar motility. Mass spectrometric analyses showed a 3-fold reduction in the main flagellar glycan pseudaminic acid (Pse) associated with the disruption of pdxA. The pdxA mutant also exhibited reduced growth rates compared with the WT strain. Comparative metabolomic analyses revealed differences in respiratory/energy metabolism between WT C. jejuni and the pdxA mutant, providing a possible explanation for the differential growth fitness between the two strains. Consistent with the lack of flagellar motility, the pdxA mutant showed impaired motility-mediated responses (bacterial adhesion, ERK1/2 activation, and IL-8 production) in INT407 cells and reduced colonization of chickens compared with the WT strain. Overall, this study demonstrated that the pdxA gene affects the PLP-mediated flagellar motility function, mainly through alteration of Pse modification, and the disruption of this gene also alters the respiratory/energy metabolisms to potentially affect host colonization. Our data therefore present novel implications regarding the utility of PLP and its dependent enzymes as potent target(s) for the control of this pathogen in the poultry host. PMID:23936426

  18. Glycopeptidolipid of Mycobacterium smegmatis J15cs Affects Morphology and Survival in Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Maeda, Shinji; Naka, Takashi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Yamamoto, Saburo; Ayata, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis has been widely used as a mycobacterial infection model. Unlike the M. smegmatis mc2155 strain, M. smegmatis J15cs strain has the advantage of surviving for one week in murine macrophages. In our previous report, we clarified that the J15cs strain has deleted apolar glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) in the cell wall, which may affect its morphology and survival in host cells. In this study, the gene causing the GPL deletion in the J15cs strain was identified. The mps1-2 gene (MSMEG_0400-0402) correlated with GPL biosynthesis. The J15cs strain had 18 bps deleted in the mps1 gene compared to that of the mc2155 strain. The mps1-complemented J15cs mutant restored the expression of GPLs. Although the J15cs strain produces a rough and dry colony, the colony morphology of this mps1-complement was smooth like the mc2155 strain. The length in the mps1-complemented J15cs mutant was shortened by the expression of GPLs. In addition, the GPL-restored J15cs mutant did not survive as long as the parent J15cs strain in the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 cells. The results are direct evidence that the deletion of GPLs in the J15cs strain affects bacterial size, morphology, and survival in host cells. PMID:25970481

  19. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  20. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Comerci, Diego J

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  1. Variation of parasitism patterns in bats during hibernation: the effect of host species, resources, health status, and hibernation period.

    PubMed

    Postawa, Tomasz; Nagy, Zoltan

    2016-10-01

    During critical periods of food shortage or variable climatic conditions, the choice of an appropriate host can increase the survival and reproductive performance of parasites. In turn, one of the unique adaptations to periodical food shortages is hibernation, which is often found among insectivorous bat species in the temperate zone. While hibernating, bats are completely defenseless against both predators and ectoparasites, their immune and endocrine systems are diminished, and survival is dependent on the accumulated fat reserves. Differences in the health status or in the rate of consumption of the resources might also explain species-specific differences in ectoparasite abundance, especially between closely related host species, such as the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) and the lesser mouse-eared bat (M. blythii) during hibernation. In the present study, the abundance of two ecologically distinct (summer and winter) types of ectoparasites was examined in terms of its influence on the body condition and hemoglobin content of the two host species. The effects of demographic factors, such as host sex and age, were also investigated. Despite a similar pattern of deteriorating body condition and hemoglobin concentration, M. myotis was more parasitized than was M. blythii. The marked decrease in hemoglobin content in first-year females of both host species correlated with the highest parasite load and indicated a risk of anemia. At the intraspecific level, ectoparasite abundance was not correlated with body condition (resources), but it negatively affected hemoglobin content; however, this mostly concerned M. blythii, which had a lower parasite load. Therefore, it can be concluded that interspecific differences in ectoparasite abundance may result from parasites selecting the host species that is less sensitive to their activity. In turn, in summer ectoparasites, the preference for female hosts is probably attributable to the likelihood of reinfection

  2. Variation of parasitism patterns in bats during hibernation: the effect of host species, resources, health status, and hibernation period.

    PubMed

    Postawa, Tomasz; Nagy, Zoltan

    2016-10-01

    During critical periods of food shortage or variable climatic conditions, the choice of an appropriate host can increase the survival and reproductive performance of parasites. In turn, one of the unique adaptations to periodical food shortages is hibernation, which is often found among insectivorous bat species in the temperate zone. While hibernating, bats are completely defenseless against both predators and ectoparasites, their immune and endocrine systems are diminished, and survival is dependent on the accumulated fat reserves. Differences in the health status or in the rate of consumption of the resources might also explain species-specific differences in ectoparasite abundance, especially between closely related host species, such as the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) and the lesser mouse-eared bat (M. blythii) during hibernation. In the present study, the abundance of two ecologically distinct (summer and winter) types of ectoparasites was examined in terms of its influence on the body condition and hemoglobin content of the two host species. The effects of demographic factors, such as host sex and age, were also investigated. Despite a similar pattern of deteriorating body condition and hemoglobin concentration, M. myotis was more parasitized than was M. blythii. The marked decrease in hemoglobin content in first-year females of both host species correlated with the highest parasite load and indicated a risk of anemia. At the intraspecific level, ectoparasite abundance was not correlated with body condition (resources), but it negatively affected hemoglobin content; however, this mostly concerned M. blythii, which had a lower parasite load. Therefore, it can be concluded that interspecific differences in ectoparasite abundance may result from parasites selecting the host species that is less sensitive to their activity. In turn, in summer ectoparasites, the preference for female hosts is probably attributable to the likelihood of reinfection

  3. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    PubMed

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed.

  4. Acaricide Treatment Affects Viral Dynamics in Varroa destructor-Infested Honey Bee Colonies via both Host Physiology and Mite Control

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

  5. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future.

  6. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed Central

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

  7. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health.

  8. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health. PMID:27270755

  9. Location of Symbionts in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Affects Their Densities during Host Development and Environmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qi; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Ghanim, Murad; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts often enhance the physiological capabilities of their arthropod hosts and enable their hosts to expand into formerly unavailable niches, thus leading to biological diversification. Many arthropods, including the worldwide invasive whitefly Bemisia tabaci, have individuals simultaneously infected with symbionts of multiple genera that occur in different locations in the host. This study examined the population dynamics of symbionts that are located in different areas within B. tabaci. While densities of Portiera and Hamiltonella (which are located in bacteriocytes) appeared to be well-regulated during host development, densities of Rickettsia (which are not located in bacteriocytes) were highly variable among individual hosts during host development. Host mating did not significantly affect symbiont densities. Infection by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus did not affect Portiera and Hamiltonella densities in either sex, but increased Rickettsia densities in females. High and low temperatures did not affect Portiera and Hamiltonella densities, but low temperature (15°C) significantly suppressed Rickettsia densities whereas high temperature (35°C) had little effect on Rickettsia densities. The results are consistent with the view that the population dynamics of bacterial symbionts in B. tabaci are regulated by symbiont location within the host and that the regulation reflects adaptation between the bacteria and insect. PMID:24632746

  10. Host age, sex, and reproductive seasonality affect nematode parasitism in wild Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Andrew J J; Hernandez, Alexander D; Huffman, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Parasites are characteristically aggregated within hosts, but identifying the mechanisms underlying such aggregation can be difficult in wildlife populations. We examined the influence of host age and sex over an annual cycle on the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) of nematode parasites infecting wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Five species of nematode were recorded from 434 fecal samples collected from an age-structured group of 50 individually recognizable macaques. All parasites exhibited aggregated EPG distributions. The age-infection profiles of all three directly transmitted species (Oesophagostomum aculeatum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris trichiura) exhibited convex curves, but concavity better characterized the age-infection curves of the two trophically transmitted species (Streptopharagus pigmentatus and Gongylonema pulchrum). There was a male bias in EPG and prevalence of infection with directly transmitted species, except in the prevalence of O. aculeatum, and no sex bias in the other parasites. Infection with O. aculeatum showed a female bias in prevalence among young adults, and additional interactions with sex and seasonality show higher EPG values in males during the mating season (fall) but in females during the birth season (spring). These patterns suggest that an immunosuppressive role by reproductive hormones may be regulating direct, but not indirect, life-cycle parasites. Exposure at an early age may trigger an immune response that affects all nematodes, but trophically transmitted species appear to accumulate thereafter. Although it is difficult to discern clear mechanistic explanations for parasite distributions in wildlife populations, it is critical to begin examining these patterns in host species that are increasingly endangered by anthropogenic threats.

  11. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

    1997-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  12. Deletion of host histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases strongly affects Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jalal; van Heusden, Gerard Paul H; Hooykaas, Paul J J

    2009-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that genetically transforms plant cells by transferring a part of its Ti-plasmid, the T-strand, to the host cell. Under laboratory conditions, it can also transform cells from many different nonplant organisms, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Collections of S. cerevisiae strains have been developed with systematic deletion of all coding sequences. Here, we used these collections to identify genes involved in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) of S. cerevisiae. We found that deletion of genes (GCN5, NGG1, YAF9 and EAF7) encoding subunits of the SAGA, SLIK, ADA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes highly increased the efficiency of AMT, while deletion of genes (HDA2, HDA3 and HST4) encoding subunits of histone deacetylase complexes decreased AMT. These effects are specific for AMT as the efficiency of chemical (lithium acetate) transformation was not or only slightly affected by these deletions. Our data are consistent with a positive role of host histone deacetylation in AMT.

  13. Genetics and vaccine efficacy: host genetic variation affecting Marek's disease vaccine efficacy in White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Chang, S; Dunn, J R; Heidari, M; Lee, L F; Song, J; Ernst, C W; Ding, Z; Bacon, L D; Zhang, H

    2010-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a T-cell lymphoma disease of domestic chickens induced by MD virus (MDV), a naturally oncogenic and highly contagious cell-associated α-herpesvirus. Earlier reports have shown that the MHC haplotype as well as non-MHC genes are responsible for genetic resistance to MD. The MHC was also shown to affect efficiency of vaccine response. Using specific-pathogen-free chickens from a series of 19 recombinant congenic strains and their 2 progenitor lines (lines 6(3) and 7(2)), vaccine challenge experiments were conducted to examine the effect of host genetic variation on vaccine efficacy. The 21 inbred lines of White Leghorns share the same B*2 MHC haplotype and the genome of each recombinant congenic strain differs by a random 1/8 sample of the susceptible donor line (7(2)) genome. Chickens from each of the lines were divided into 2 groups. One was vaccinated with turkey herpesvirus strain FC126 at the day of hatch and the other was treated as a nonvaccinated control. Chickens of both groups were inoculated with a very virulent plus strain of MDV on the fifth day posthatch. Analyses of the MD data showed that the genetic line significantly influenced MD incidence and days of survival post-MDV infection after vaccination of chickens (P<0.01). The protective indices against MD varied greatly among the lines with a range of 0 up to 84%. This is the first evidence that non-MHC host genetic variation significantly affects MD vaccine efficacy in chickens in a designed prospective study.

  14. Inoculation of Transgenic Resistant Potato by Phytophthora infestans Affects Host Plant Choice of a Generalist Moth.

    PubMed

    Abreha, Kibrom B; Alexandersson, Erik; Vossen, Jack H; Anderson, Peter; Andreasson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack and the plant's response to this attack affect herbivore oviposition preference and larval performance. Introduction of major resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans (Rpi-genes), the cause of the devastating late blight disease, from wild Solanum species into potato changes the plant-pathogen interaction dynamics completely, but little is known about the effects on non-target organisms. Thus, we examined the effect of P. infestans itself and introduction of an Rpi-gene into the crop on host plant preference of the generalist insect herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In two choice bioassays, S. littoralis preferred to oviposit on P. infestans-inoculated plants of both the susceptible potato (cv. Desiree) and an isogenic resistant clone (A01-22: cv. Desiree transformed with Rpi-blb1), when compared to uninoculated plants of the same genotype. Both cv. Desiree and clone A01-22 were equally preferred for oviposition by S. littoralis when uninoculated plants were used, while cv. Desiree received more eggs compared to the resistant clone when both were inoculated with the pathogen. No significant difference in larval and pupal weight was found between S. littoralis larvae reared on leaves of the susceptible potato plants inoculated or uninoculated with P. infestans. Thus, the herbivore's host plant preference in this system was not directly associated with larval performance. The results indicate that the Rpi-blb1 based resistance in itself does not influence insect behavior, but that herbivore oviposition preference is affected by a change in the plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26053171

  15. Inoculation of Transgenic Resistant Potato by Phytophthora infestans Affects Host Plant Choice of a Generalist Moth

    PubMed Central

    Abreha, Kibrom B.; Alexandersson, Erik; Vossen, Jack H.; Anderson, Peter; Andreasson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen attack and the plant’s response to this attack affect herbivore oviposition preference and larval performance. Introduction of major resistance genes against Phytophthora infestans (Rpi-genes), the cause of the devastating late blight disease, from wild Solanum species into potato changes the plant-pathogen interaction dynamics completely, but little is known about the effects on non-target organisms. Thus, we examined the effect of P. infestans itself and introduction of an Rpi-gene into the crop on host plant preference of the generalist insect herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In two choice bioassays, S. littoralis preferred to oviposit on P. infestans-inoculated plants of both the susceptible potato (cv. Desiree) and an isogenic resistant clone (A01-22: cv. Desiree transformed with Rpi-blb1), when compared to uninoculated plants of the same genotype. Both cv. Desiree and clone A01-22 were equally preferred for oviposition by S. littoralis when uninoculated plants were used, while cv. Desiree received more eggs compared to the resistant clone when both were inoculated with the pathogen. No significant difference in larval and pupal weight was found between S. littoralis larvae reared on leaves of the susceptible potato plants inoculated or uninoculated with P. infestans. Thus, the herbivore’s host plant preference in this system was not directly associated with larval performance. The results indicate that the Rpi-blb1 based resistance in itself does not influence insect behavior, but that herbivore oviposition preference is affected by a change in the plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26053171

  16. How Does Bullying Affect Health and Well-Being?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does bullying affect health & well-being? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Bullying can lead to physical injury, social problems, emotional ...

  17. Health and medical blog content and its relationships with blogger credentials and blog host.

    PubMed

    Buis, Lorraine R; Carpenter, Serena

    2009-12-01

    People may utilize various sources when searching for health information, including blogs. This study sought to describe the nature of non-personal journal health and medical blog posts and the frequency of interactive blog feature use within these blogs, as well as to understand the quality of content found within health and medical blogs as determined by blogger expertise and blog host. A quantitative content analysis was performed on 398 blog posts from a constructed 1-week sample of posts in WebMD, Yahoo!Health Expert Blogs, and independently hosted blogs. Results show most health and medical blog posts highlighted and provided commentary pertaining to medical issues found in external media such as books, television, Web sites, magazines, and newspapers, whereas only 16% contained actual health or medical information. In addition, distinct differences in patterns of content were evident between credentialed and noncredentialed bloggers, as well as different blog hosts.

  18. Environment-related and host-related factors affecting the occurrence of lice on rodents in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Michal; Fričová, Jana; Miklisová, Dana; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effects of environment- (habitat, season) and host-related (sex, body mass) factors on the occurrence of four species of lice (Insecta:Phthiraptera:Anoplura) on six rodent species (Rodentia:Muridae). We asked how these factors influence the occurrence of lice on an individual host and whether different rodent-louse associations demonstrate consistent trends in these effects. We found significant effects of at least one environment-related and at least one host-related factor on the louse occurrence in five of six host-louse associations. The effect of habitat was significant in two associations with the occurrence of lice being more frequent in lowland than in mountain habitats. The effect of season was significant in five associations with a higher occurrence of infestation during the warm season in four associations and the cold season in one association. Host sex affected significantly the infestation by lice in three associations with a higher frequency of infestation in males. Host body mass affected the occurrence of lice in all five associations, being negative in wood mice and positive in voles. In conclusion, lice were influenced not only by the host- but also by environment-related factors. The effects of the latter could be mediated via life history parameters of a host.

  19. Exposure to Corticosterone Affects Host Resistance, but Not Tolerance, to an Emerging Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Murone, Julie; DeMarchi, Joseph A.; Venesky, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses to pathogens include defenses that reduce infection burden (i.e., resistance) and traits that reduce the fitness consequences of an infection (i.e., tolerance). Resistance and tolerance are affected by an organism's physiological status. Corticosterone (“CORT”) is a hormone that is associated with the regulation of many physiological processes, including metabolism and reproduction. Because of its role in the stress response, CORT is also considered the primary vertebrate stress hormone. When secreted at high levels, CORT is generally thought to be immunosuppressive. Despite the known association between stress and disease resistance in domesticated organisms, it is unclear whether these associations are ecologically and evolutionary relevant in wildlife species. We conducted a 3x3 fully crossed experiment in which we exposed American toads (Anaxyrus [Bufo] americanus) to one of three levels of exogenous CORT (no CORT, low CORT, or high CORT) and then to either low or high doses of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (“Bd”) or a sham exposure treatment. We assessed Bd infection levels and tested how CORT and Bd affected toad resistance, tolerance, and mortality. Exposure to the high CORT treatment significantly elevated CORT release in toads; however, there was no difference between toads given no CORT or low CORT. Exposure to CORT and Bd each increased toad mortality, but they did not interact to affect mortality. Toads that were exposed to CORT had higher Bd resistance than toads exposed to ethanol controls/low CORT, a pattern opposite that of most studies on domesticated animals. Exposure to CORT did not affect toad tolerance to Bd. Collectively, these results show that physiological stressors can alter a host’s response to a pathogen, but that the outcome might not be straightforward. Future studies that inhibit CORT secretion are needed to better our understanding of the relationship between stress physiology

  20. Drought stress affects plant metabolites and herbivore preference but not host location by its parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Weldegergis, Berhane T; Zhu, Feng; Poelman, Erik H; Dicke, Marcel

    2015-03-01

    One of the main abiotic stresses that strongly affects plant survival and the primary cause of crop loss around the world is drought. Drought stress leads to sequential morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that can have severe effects on plant growth, development and productivity. As a consequence of these changes, the interaction between plants and insects can be altered. Using cultivated Brassica oleracea plants, the parasitoid Microplitis mediator and its herbivorous host Mamestra brassicae, we studied the effect of drought stress on (1) the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) plant hormone titres, (3) preference and performance of the herbivore, and (4) preference of the parasitoid. Higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were recorded in response to herbivory, but no significant differences were observed for salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Drought significantly impacted SA level and showed a significant interactive effect with herbivory for IAA levels. A total of 55 VOCs were recorded and the difference among the treatments was influenced largely by herbivory, where the emission rate of fatty acid-derived volatiles, nitriles and (E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene [(E)-DMNT] was enhanced. Mamestra brassicae moths preferred to lay eggs on drought-stressed over control plants; their offspring performed similarly on plants of both treatments. VOCs due to drought did not affect the choice of M. mediator parasitoids. Overall, our study reveals an influence of drought on plant chemistry and insect-plant interactions. PMID:25370387

  1. Bile Acid Modifications at the Microbe-Host Interface: Potential for Nutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Interventions in Host Health.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Susan A; Gahan, Cormac G M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids have emerged as important signaling molecules in the host, as they interact either locally or systemically with specific cellular receptors, in particular the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. These signaling functions influence systemic lipid and cholesterol metabolism, energy metabolism, immune homeostasis, and intestinal electrolyte balance. Through defined enzymatic activities, the gut microbiota can significantly modify the signaling properties of bile acids and therefore can have an impact upon host health. Alterations to the gut microbiota that influence bile acid metabolism are associated with metabolic disease, obesity, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Clostridium difficile infection, colorectal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we examine the regulation of this gut-microbiota-liver axis in the context of bile acid metabolism and indicate how this pathway represents an important target for the development of new nutraceutical (diet and/or probiotics) and targeted pharmaceutical interventions. PMID:26772409

  2. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  3. Glycogen catabolism, but not its biosynthesis, affects virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on the plant host.

    PubMed

    Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2015-04-01

    The role of glycogen metabolism was investigated in the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Targeted inactivation was performed of genes responsible for glycogen biosynthesis: gnn1 encoding glycogenin, gls1 encoding glycogen synthase, and gbe1 encoding glycogen branching enzyme. Moreover genes involved in glycogen catabolism were deleted: gph1 encoding glycogen phosphorylase and gdb1 encoding glycogen de-branching enzyme. Glycogen reserves increased steadily during growth of the wild type strain in axenic cultures, to reach up to 1500μg glucose equivalents mg(-1) protein after 14 days. Glycogen accumulation was abolished in mutants lacking biosynthesis genes, whereas it increased by 20-40% or 80%, respectively, in the single and double mutants affected in catabolic genes. Transcript levels of glycogen metabolism genes during tomato plant infection peaked at four days post inoculation, similar to the results observed during axenic culture. Significant differences were observed between gdb mutants and the wild type strain for vegetative hyphal fusion ability. The single mutants defective in glycogen metabolism showed similar levels of virulence in the invertebrate animal model Galleria mellonella. Interestingly, the deletion of gdb1 reduced virulence on the plant host up to 40% compared to the wild type in single and in double mutant backgrounds, whereas the other mutants showed the virulence at the wild-type level.

  4. Locally adapted social parasite affects density, social structure, and life history of its ant hosts.

    PubMed

    Foitzik, Susanne; Achenbach, Alexandra; Brandt, Miriam

    2009-05-01

    Selection and adaptation are important processes in the coevolution between parasites and their hosts. The slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus, an obligate ant social parasite, has previously been shown to evolve morphological, behavioral, and chemical adaptations in the coevolutionary arms race with its Temnothorax hosts. Yet empirical studies have given variable results on the strength of the selection pressure this parasite exerts on its host populations. In this study, we directly investigated the pressure exerted by P. americanus and the reactions of the main host species, T. longispinosus, in two ant communities by manipulating parasite density in the field over several years. In addition, a cross-fostering design with the exchange of parasites between host populations allowed us to investigate local adaptation of parasite or host. We demonstrate a severe impact of the social parasite on the two host populations in West Virginia and New York, but also variation in host reactions between sites, as expected by the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution. Host density decreased at the West Virginia site with the presence of local slave-makers, whereas at the ecologically favorable New York site, density was unaffected. Nevertheless, social organization, colony size, and investment patterns of these host colonies at this site changed in response to our parasite manipulation. The release of P. americanus colonies led to a reduction in the number of resident queens and workers, an increase in intranest relatedness, and lower productivity, but also a higher investment in reproductives. In West Virginia, colony demography did not change, but raiding activity by New York slave-makers caused different investment patterns of host colonies. In addition, the cross-fostering element revealed local adaptation of the parasite P. americanus: slave-making colonies fared better in their sympatric host population, as they contained more slave-making ant workers and slaves

  5. How does searching for health information on the Internet affect individuals' demand for health care services?

    PubMed

    Suziedelyte, Agne

    2012-11-01

    The emergence of the Internet made health information, which previously was almost exclusively available to health professionals, accessible to the general public. Access to health information on the Internet is likely to affect individuals' health care related decisions. The aim of this analysis is to determine how health information that people obtain from the Internet affects their demand for health care. I use a novel data set, the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (2003-07), to answer this question. The causal variable of interest is a binary variable that indicates whether or not an individual has recently searched for health information on the Internet. Health care utilization is measured by an individual's number of visits to a health professional in the past 12 months. An individual's decision to use the Internet to search for health information is likely to be correlated to other variables that can also affect his/her demand for health care. To separate the effect of Internet health information from other confounding variables, I control for a number of individual characteristics and use the instrumental variable estimation method. As an instrument for Internet health information, I use U.S. state telecommunication regulations that are shown to affect the supply of Internet services. I find that searching for health information on the Internet has a positive, relatively large, and statistically significant effect on an individual's demand for health care. This effect is larger for the individuals who search for health information online more frequently and people who have health care coverage. Among cancer patients, the effect of Internet health information seeking on health professional visits varies by how long ago they were diagnosed with cancer. Thus, the Internet is found to be a complement to formal health care rather than a substitute for health professional services.

  6. A locus in Drosophila sechellia affecting tolerance of a host plant toxin.

    PubMed

    Hungate, Eric A; Earley, Eric J; Boussy, Ian A; Turissini, David A; Ting, Chau-Ti; Moran, Jennifer R; Wu, Mao-Lien; Wu, Chung-I; Jones, Corbin D

    2013-11-01

    Many insects feed on only one or a few types of host. These host specialists often evolve a preference for chemical cues emanating from their host and develop mechanisms for circumventing their host's defenses. Adaptations like these are central to evolutionary biology, yet our understanding of their genetics remains incomplete. Drosophila sechellia, an emerging model for the genetics of host specialization, is an island endemic that has adapted to chemical toxins present in the fruit of its host plant, Morinda citrifolia. Its sibling species, D. simulans, and many other Drosophila species do not tolerate these toxins and avoid the fruit. Earlier work found a region with a strong effect on tolerance to the major toxin, octanoic acid, on chromosome arm 3R. Using a novel assay, we narrowed this region to a small span near the centromere containing 18 genes, including three odorant binding proteins. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of host specialization is facilitated by genetic linkage between alleles contributing to host preference and alleles contributing to host usage, such as tolerance to secondary compounds. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of this tolerance locus on host preference behavior. Our data were inconsistent with the linkage hypothesis, as flies bearing this tolerance region showed no increase in preference for media containing M. citrifolia toxins, which D. sechellia prefers. Thus, in contrast to some models for host preference, preference and tolerance are not tightly linked at this locus nor is increased tolerance per se sufficient to change preference. Our data are consistent with the previously proposed model that the evolution of D. sechellia as a M. citrifolia specialist occurred through a stepwise loss of aversion and gain of tolerance to M. citrifolia's toxins.

  7. Postemergency health services for refugee and host populations in Uganda, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Orach, Christopher Garimoi; De Brouwere, Vincent

    Since 1990, Uganda has hosted an estimated 200?000 refugees in postemergency settlements interspersed within host communities. We investigated the extent to which obstetric needs were met in the refugee and host populations during 1999-2002. Between September and December, 2000, we retrospectively collected data from 1999 and 2000 on major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications from all five hospitals in Arua, Adjumani, and Moyo districts, Uganda. The same data were collected prospectively for 2001. We did community-based maternal mortality surveys on refugee and host populations in Adjumani district in 2002. Rates of major obstetric interventions were significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in the same rural areas as refugees (1.01% [95% CI 0.77-1.25] vs 0.45% [0.38-0.52]; p<0.0001). Rates of major obstetric interventions were also significantly higher for refugees than for the host population who live in rural areas without refugees (1.01% [0.77-1.25] vs 0.40% [0.36-0.44]; p<0.0001). Maternal mortality was 2.5 times higher in the host population than in refugees in the Adjumani district (322 per 100000 births [247-396] vs 130 [81-179]. Refugees had better access to health services than did the rural host population in the northern Ugandan communities that we surveyed. PMID:15313362

  8. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  9. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

  10. Bees brought to their knees: Microbes affecting honey bee health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biology and health of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been of interest to human societies since the advent of beekeeping. Descriptive scientific research on pathogens affecting honey bees have been published for nearly a century, but it wasn’t until the recent outbreak of heavy colony losses...

  11. Anemic loonie begins to affect health care sector

    PubMed Central

    Mullens, A

    1998-01-01

    Although most news surrounding the declining dollar has concentrated on its impact on Canadian shoppers, economists say it is bound to affect the financially strapped health care system too. They point out that many of the good purchased by Canadian hospitals come from the US, and the weak loonie means their price will rise. PMID:9757181

  12. Tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and host affected by temperature and age in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Kai-Jun; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-11-01

    A phage density model of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which means lytic phages reduce bacterial density associated with CI, significantly enhances our understanding of the tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia and host. However, WO may alternate between lytic and lysogenic life cycles or change phage production under certain conditions including temperature, host age and host species background. Here, extreme temperatures can induce an alteration in the life cycle of WO and change the tripartite associations among WO, Wolbachia and CI. Based on the accumulation of the WO load, WO can transform into the lytic life cycle with increasing age. These findings confirmed that the environment plays an important role in the associations among WO, Wolbachia and host. PMID:22669278

  13. Tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and host affected by temperature and age in Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Hong; Zhang, Kai-Jun; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2012-11-01

    A phage density model of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which means lytic phages reduce bacterial density associated with CI, significantly enhances our understanding of the tripartite associations among bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia and host. However, WO may alternate between lytic and lysogenic life cycles or change phage production under certain conditions including temperature, host age and host species background. Here, extreme temperatures can induce an alteration in the life cycle of WO and change the tripartite associations among WO, Wolbachia and CI. Based on the accumulation of the WO load, WO can transform into the lytic life cycle with increasing age. These findings confirmed that the environment plays an important role in the associations among WO, Wolbachia and host.

  14. Role of community health nurse in earthquake affected areas.

    PubMed

    Gulzar, Saleema Aziz; Faheem, Zahid Ali; Somani, Rozina Karim

    2012-10-01

    The role of Community Health Nurses (CHNs) outside the traditional hospital setting is meant to provide and promote the health care needs of the community. Such nurses can play a substantial role in the community setting including emergencies like disasters. This became evident after the earthquake of October 8, 2005 in Pakistan. The objective was to address the issues, faced by primary healthcare providers working in earthquake-affected areas focusing on participatory approach. The experience of the interventions done by CHN by a guided frame work (assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation components) is described. Issues identified by CHN included: lack of training of health care providers, lack of collaboration, communication between the medical and management staff due to poor infrastructure of the healthcare facilities. The interventions were carried out, utilizing existing resources. Efforts were directed to build capacity of health care providers at grass root level to fill in gaps of health care delivery system for sustainable change. Overall, working in the earthquake affected areas is challenging. Health leadership should foresee role of CHN in emergencies where quality healthcare interventions are essential.

  15. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    PubMed

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  16. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    PubMed

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring. PMID:27281376

  17. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host-microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host-microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia.

  18. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health.

  19. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  20. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  1. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Miguel; Reig-Botella, Adela; Prados, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals. PMID:25902564

  2. The role of diet on intestinal microbiota metabolism: Downstream impacts on host immune function and health, and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Jason R; Sartor, Balfour

    2014-01-01

    Dietary impacts on health may be one of the oldest concepts in medicine; however, only in recent years have technical advances in mass spectroscopy, gnotobiology, and bacterial sequencing enabled our understanding of human physiology to progress to the point where we can begin to understand how individual dietary components can affect specific illnesses. This review explores the current understanding of the complex interplay between dietary factors and the host microbiome, concentrating on the downstream implications on host immune function and the pathogenesis of disease. We discuss the influence of the gut microbiome on body habitus and explore the primary and secondary effects of diet on enteric microbial community structure. We address the impact of consumption of non-digestible polysaccharides (prebiotics and fiber), choline, carnitine, iron, and fats on host health as mediated by the enteric microbiome. Disease processes emphasized include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), IBD, and cardiovascular disease (CVD)/atherosclerosis. The concepts presented in this review have important clinical implications, although more work needs to be done to fully develop and validate potential therapeutic approaches. Specific dietary interventions offer exciting potential for nontoxic, physiologic ways to alter enteric microbial structure and metabolism to benefit the natural history of many intestinal and systemic disorders. PMID:24652102

  3. Trichobaris weevils distinguish amongst toxic host plants by sensing volatiles that do not affect larval performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gisuk; Joo, Youngsung; Diezel, Celia; Lee, Eun Ju; Baldwin, Ian T; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    Herbivorous insects use plant metabolites to inform their host plant selection for oviposition. These host-selection behaviours are often consistent with the preference-performance hypothesis; females oviposit on hosts that maximize the performance of their offspring. However, the metabolites used for these oviposition choices and those responsible for differences in offspring performance remain unknown for ecologically relevant interactions. Here, we examined the host-selection behaviours of two sympatric weevils, the Datura (Trichobaris compacta) and tobacco (T. mucorea) weevils in field and glasshouse experiments with transgenic host plants specifically altered in different components of their secondary metabolism. Adult females of both species strongly preferred to feed on D. wrightii rather than on N. attenuata leaves, but T. mucorea preferred to oviposit on N. attenuata, while T. compacta oviposited only on D. wrightii. These oviposition behaviours increased offspring performance: T. compacta larvae only survived in D. wrightii stems and T. mucorea larvae survived better in N. attenuata than in D. wrightii stems. Choice assays with nicotine-free, JA-impaired, and sesquiterpene-over-produced isogenic N. attenuata plants revealed that although half of the T. compacta larvae survived in nicotine-free N. attenuata lines, nicotine did not influence the oviposition behaviours of both the nicotine-adapted and nicotine-sensitive species. JA-induced sesquiterpene volatiles are key compounds influencing T. mucorea females' oviposition choices, but these sesquiterpenes had no effect on larval performance. We conclude that adult females are able to choose the best host plant for their offspring and use chemicals different from those that influence larval performance to inform their oviposition decisions. PMID:27146082

  4. Affective Forecasting: An Unrecognized Challenge in Making Serious Health Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Patients facing medical decisions that will impact quality of life make assumptions about how they will adjust emotionally to living with health declines and disability. Despite abundant research on decision-making, we have no direct research on how accurately patients envision their future well-being and how this influences their decisions. Outside medicine, psychological research on “affective forecasting” consistently shows that people poorly predict their future ability to adapt to adversity. This finding is important for medicine, since many serious health decisions hinge on quality-of-life judgments. We describe three specific mechanisms for affective forecasting errors that may influence health decisions: focalism, in which people focus more on what will change than on what will stay the same; immune neglect, in which they fail to envision how their own coping skills will lessen their unhappiness; and failure to predict adaptation, in which people fail to envision shifts in what they value. We discuss emotional and social factors that interact with these cognitive biases. We describe how caregivers can recognize these biases in the clinical setting and suggest interventions to help patients recognize and address affective forecasting errors. PMID:18665428

  5. Mating status and body size in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) affect host finding and DEET repellency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variations in the conditions accompanying mosquito development and mating can result in females of variable size that have not been inseminated. In this study, we compared the host finding activity of mated and unmated large and small Aedes albopictus and the repellency to these mosquitoes of 25% D...

  6. Urban sprawl and you: how sprawl adversely affects worker health.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Mary; Fitzgerald, Sheila

    2004-06-01

    Urban sprawl, once thought of as just an environmental issue, is currently gaining momentum as an emerging public health issue worthy of research and political attention. Characteristics seen in sprawling communities include increasing traffic volumes; inadequate public transportation; pedestrian unfriendly streets; and the division of businesses, shops, and homes. These characteristics can affect health in many ways. Greater air pollution contributes to higher asthma and other lung disorder rates. An increased dependence on the automobile encourages a more sedentary lifestyle and can potentially contribute to obesity. The increased danger and stress of long commutes can lead to more accidents, anxiety, and social isolation. Occupational health nurses can become involved by promoting physical activity in the workplace, creating programs for injury prevention and stress management, becoming involved in political smart growth measures, and educating and encouraging colleagues to become active in addressing this issue.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment. PMID:25288547

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment.

  9. Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Health Disparities Health Insurance Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Health Disparities Health Insurance About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  10. Host Plants Affect the Foraging Success of Two Parasitoids that Attack Light Brown Apple Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yi; Wratten, Steve; Sandhu, Harpinder; Keller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is a key pest of wine grapes in Australia. Two parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica and Therophilus unimaculatus, attack the larval stage of this pest. D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus is mainly active in native vegetation. We sought to understand why they differ in their use of habitats. Plants are a major component of habitats of parasitoids, and herbivore-infested plants influence parasitoid foraging efficiency by their architecture and emission of volatile chemicals. We investigated how different plant species infested by E. postvittana could affect the foraging success of the two parasitoid species in both laboratory and field experiments. Four common host-plant species were selected for this study. In paired-choice experiments to determine the innate foraging preferences for plants, both parasitoid species showed differences in innate search preferences among plant species. The plant preference of D. tasmanica was altered by oviposition experience with hosts that were feeding on other plant species. In a behavioral assay, the two parasitoid species allocated their times engaged in various types of behavior differently when foraging on different plant species. For both parasitoids, parasitism on Hardenbergia violacea was the highest of the four plant species. Significantly more larvae dropped from Myoporum insulare when attacked than from the other three host-plant species, which indicates that parasitism is also affected by interactions between plants and host insects. In vineyards, parasitism by D. tasmanica was significantly lower on M. insulare than on the other three host-plant species, but the parasitism rates were similar among the other three plant species. Our results indicate that plants play a role in the habitat preferences of these two parasitoid species by influencing their foraging behavior, and are likely to contribute to their distributions among habitats. PMID

  11. Host Plants Affect the Foraging Success of Two Parasitoids that Attack Light Brown Apple Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Wratten, Steve; Sandhu, Harpinder; Keller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is a key pest of wine grapes in Australia. Two parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica and Therophilus unimaculatus, attack the larval stage of this pest. D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus is mainly active in native vegetation. We sought to understand why they differ in their use of habitats. Plants are a major component of habitats of parasitoids, and herbivore-infested plants influence parasitoid foraging efficiency by their architecture and emission of volatile chemicals. We investigated how different plant species infested by E. postvittana could affect the foraging success of the two parasitoid species in both laboratory and field experiments. Four common host-plant species were selected for this study. In paired-choice experiments to determine the innate foraging preferences for plants, both parasitoid species showed differences in innate search preferences among plant species. The plant preference of D. tasmanica was altered by oviposition experience with hosts that were feeding on other plant species. In a behavioral assay, the two parasitoid species allocated their times engaged in various types of behavior differently when foraging on different plant species. For both parasitoids, parasitism on Hardenbergia violacea was the highest of the four plant species. Significantly more larvae dropped from Myoporum insulare when attacked than from the other three host-plant species, which indicates that parasitism is also affected by interactions between plants and host insects. In vineyards, parasitism by D. tasmanica was significantly lower on M. insulare than on the other three host-plant species, but the parasitism rates were similar among the other three plant species. Our results indicate that plants play a role in the habitat preferences of these two parasitoid species by influencing their foraging behavior, and are likely to contribute to their distributions among habitats. PMID

  12. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  13. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-11-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15-25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  14. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    PubMed

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (<15 weeks) and was not universal among the snail lines. Lines that did not show gigantism were also characterised by a high parasite production rate and low survivorship, perhaps indicating energy reallocation into parasite production and costly immune defense. We observed no differences in total parasite production among lines throughout the entire course of infection, although lines differed in their parasite reproductive rate. The average rate of parasite production varied among lines from 1300 to 2450 cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of

  15. Manipulation of the vertebrate host's testosterone does not affect gametocyte sex ratio of a malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Sarah M; Eisen, Rebecca J; Wargo, Andrew R; Schall, Jos J

    2003-02-01

    Gametocyte sex ratio of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum is variable in its host, the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis), both among infections and within infections over time. We sought to determine the effect of host physiological quality on the gametocyte sex ratio in experimentally induced infections of P. mexicanum. Adult male lizards were assigned to 4 treatment groups: castrated, castrated + testosterone implant, sham implant, and unmanipulated control. No significant difference in gametocyte sex ratio was found among the 4 treatment groups. Two other analyses were performed. A surgery stress analysis compared infection sex ratio of castrated, castrated + testosterone implant, and sham implant groups with the unmanipulated control group. A testosterone alteration analysis compared infection sex ratio of the castrated and castrated + testosterone implant groups with the sham implant and unmanipulated control groups. Again, no significant difference was observed for these 2 comparisons. Thus, physiological changes expected for experimentally induced variation in host testosterone and the stress of surgery were not associated with any change in the gametocyte sex ratio. Also, theex-periment suggests testosterone is not a cue for shaping the sex ratio of gametocytes in P. mexicanum. These results are related to the evolutionary theory of sex ratios as applied to malaria parasites. PMID:12659329

  16. Do climatic conditions affect host and parasite phenotypes differentially? A case study of magpies and great spotted cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Soler, Juan J; De Neve, Liesbeth; Martín-Gálvez, David; Molina-Morales, Mercedes; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    Climatic conditions, through their effects on resource availability, may affect important life history strategies and trade-offs in animals, as well as their interactions with other organisms such as parasites. This impact may depend on species-specific pathways of development that differ even among species with similar resource requirements (e.g., avian brood parasites and their hosts). Here we explore the degree of covariation between environmental-climatic conditions and nestling phenotypes (i.e., tarsus length, body mass, immune response to phytohemagglutinin injection) and ectoparasite loads of great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius) and those of their magpie (Pica pica) hosts, both within and among 11 study years (1997-2011). Our main results were that (1) nestling phenotypes differed among years, but differently for great spotted cuckoos and magpies; (2) nestling phenotypes showed significant among-year covariation with breeding climatic conditions (temperature and precipitation); and (3) these associations differed for cuckoos and magpies for some phenotypic traits. As the average temperature at the beginning of the breeding season (April) increased, body mass and tarsus length increased only for cuckoos, but not for magpie hosts, while immune response decreased in both species. Finally, (4) the strength of the within-year relationships between the probability of ectoparasitism by Carnus hemapterus flies and laying date (used as an estimate of the within-year variation in climatic conditions) was negatively affected by the annual accumulated precipitation in April. These results strongly suggest that variation in climatic conditions would result in asymmetric effects on different species with respect to the probability of ectoparasitism, immunity and body size. Such asymmetric effects may affect animal interactions in general and those of brood parasites and their hosts in particular.

  17. Does vegetation complexity affect host plant chemistry, and thus multitrophic interactions, in a human-altered landscape?

    PubMed

    Wäschke, Nicole; Hancock, Christine; Hilker, Monika; Obermaier, Elisabeth; Meiners, Torsten

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic land use may shape vegetation composition and affect trophic interactions by altering concentrations of host plant metabolites. Here, we investigated the hypotheses that: (1) plant N and defensive secondary metabolite contents of the herb Plantago lanceolata are affected by land use intensity (LUI) and the surrounding vegetation composition (=plant species richness and P. lanceolata density), and that (2) changes in plant chemistry affect abundances of the herbivorous weevils Mecinus pascuorum and Mecinus labilis, as well as their larval parasitoid Mesopolobus incultus, in the field. We determined plant species richness, P. lanceolata density, and abundances of the herbivores and the parasitoid in 77 grassland plots differing in LUI index in three regions across Germany. We also measured the N and secondary metabolite [the iridoid glycosides (IGs) aucubin and catalpol] contents of P. lanceolata leaves. Mixed-model analysis revealed that: (1) concentrations of leaf IGs were positively correlated with plant species richness; leaf N content was positively correlated with the LUI index. Furthermore: (2) herbivore abundance was not related to IG concentrations, but correlated negatively with leaf N content. Parasitoid abundance correlated positively only with host abundance over the three regions. Structural equation models revealed a positive impact of IG concentrations on parasitoid abundance in one region. We conclude that changes in plant chemistry due to land use and/or vegetation composition may affect higher trophic levels and that the manifestation of these effects may depend on local biotic or abiotic features of the landscape. PMID:25986560

  18. Does vegetation complexity affect host plant chemistry, and thus multitrophic interactions, in a human-altered landscape?

    PubMed

    Wäschke, Nicole; Hancock, Christine; Hilker, Monika; Obermaier, Elisabeth; Meiners, Torsten

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic land use may shape vegetation composition and affect trophic interactions by altering concentrations of host plant metabolites. Here, we investigated the hypotheses that: (1) plant N and defensive secondary metabolite contents of the herb Plantago lanceolata are affected by land use intensity (LUI) and the surrounding vegetation composition (=plant species richness and P. lanceolata density), and that (2) changes in plant chemistry affect abundances of the herbivorous weevils Mecinus pascuorum and Mecinus labilis, as well as their larval parasitoid Mesopolobus incultus, in the field. We determined plant species richness, P. lanceolata density, and abundances of the herbivores and the parasitoid in 77 grassland plots differing in LUI index in three regions across Germany. We also measured the N and secondary metabolite [the iridoid glycosides (IGs) aucubin and catalpol] contents of P. lanceolata leaves. Mixed-model analysis revealed that: (1) concentrations of leaf IGs were positively correlated with plant species richness; leaf N content was positively correlated with the LUI index. Furthermore: (2) herbivore abundance was not related to IG concentrations, but correlated negatively with leaf N content. Parasitoid abundance correlated positively only with host abundance over the three regions. Structural equation models revealed a positive impact of IG concentrations on parasitoid abundance in one region. We conclude that changes in plant chemistry due to land use and/or vegetation composition may affect higher trophic levels and that the manifestation of these effects may depend on local biotic or abiotic features of the landscape.

  19. Does debt affect health? Cross country evidence on the debt-health nexus.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Maya; Liñares-Zegarra, José; Wilson, John O S

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the relationship between aggregate household debt and aggregate health outcomes across 17 European countries over the period 1995 to 2012. Using a dataset of country-level standardized and objective measures of household debt, health outcomes and a rich set of control variables, we estimate an instrumental variable (GMM) model to address possible reverse causality concerns. We find that aggregate household debt affects health outcomes, and that this varies by the maturity of debt. Both short and medium-term debt has a positive effect on health outcomes. Long-term unsecured debt and mortgage debt are associated with poorer health outcomes. These findings are robust after controlling for alternative measures of health and debt. Overall, the results suggest that aggregate household debt is an important determinant of aggregate health outcomes across countries.

  20. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns. PMID:27698614

  1. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  2. How health affects small business in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chao, Li-Wei; Pauly, Mark V

    2007-03-01

    Preventable and treatable diseases have taken a devastating human and economic toll on many developing countries. That economic toll is likely to be underestimated because most studies focus on productivity losses in the formal, or large-firm, sector; yet, a large portion of the population of developing countries works in the informal sector in very small businesses, either as an owner-worker or as an employee. It is plausible that ill health might affect small businesses most severely, possibly putting the entire business at risk. This Issue Brief summarizes a three-year study that tracks small businesses in Durban, South Africa, and investigates the connection between the owner's health and business growth, survival, or closure. The results bolster the economic case for investing resources in the prevention and treatment of disease in developing countries. PMID:17458036

  3. [Alcoholism--how it affects health and working capacity].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Jukić, Vlado; Lipozencić, Jasna; Matosić, Ana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Turcić, Nada; Poplasen-Orlovac, Dijana; Bubas, Marija; Prohić, Alef

    2006-12-01

    Alcoholism is a growing medical and public health issue both in adult and in younger populations. It is a multi-aetiological phenomenon influenced by genetic, psychological, cultural and other factors. Alcoholic beverages have traditionally been prepared from various ingredients, such as grapes, malt, and rice. Drinking prevalence has varied and is more pronounced in women and the youth. Alcoholism is shown to be of neurophysiologic origin and may lead to the impairment of all human body systems. The most frequent cause of death in alcoholics are the diseases of the cardiovascular system. Alcoholism at workplace is a very important issue as it affects health, reduces productivity, and may lead to accidents, injuries and decreased working capacity. Alcohol-related difficulties develop much earlier than the clinical picture. The diagnosis of alcoholism includes early detection of alcohol-related problems, so it is necessary to orient the healthcare services towards primary prevention and early intervention.

  4. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  5. Predicting individual affect of health interventions to reduce HPV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R; Sanfilippo, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and HPV is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials, and it is currently available in the USA. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step toward automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a text's affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age- and gender-targeted vaccination schemes.

  6. Understandings of health. How individual perceptions of health affect health promotion needs in organizations.

    PubMed

    Ness, P

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to discover what the concept of health means to the participants and to determine how an organization can assist its members in developing and maintaining their notion of health. The participants for this study were drawn from the employees at a post secondary educational institution. Tape recorded interviews were transcribed by the researcher, and the transcripts were analyzed for common topics and predominant themes. Imbedded in the data were four themes that provided an over arching conceptual framework from which to view health and health promoting activities: well being as a broad definition of health; the concept of balance as a prime contributor to health; the notion of self efficacy in determining one's health, and the value of caring as a significant determinant of health. Findings of the study have significance for individual health, organizations and health, health promoters, and further research. PMID:9250025

  7. Odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes affect host specificity in a fig-pollinator mutualistic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Wang, N X; Niu, L M; Bian, S N; Xiao, J H; Huang, D W

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between figs and their pollinating wasps is regarded as a model system for studying specialized co-evolved mutualism. Chemoreception of fig wasps plays an important role in this interaction, and odorant-binding proteins (OBP) function in the first step of odorant detection. The OBP repertoire of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi is reported to be one of the smallest among insects; however, it is unknown how these OBPs are related to the complicated mating process occurring within the fig cavity and the extreme host specificity of the species. In the present study, we combined a structural analysis of the conserved cysteine pattern and motif order, a phylogenetic analysis, and previous studies on ligand-binding assays to deduce the function of OBPs. We also quantified the expression of OBP genes in different life stages of female and male fig wasps by using real-time quantitative PCR, which can help to predict the function of these genes. The results indicated that CsolOBP1 and CsolOBP2 (or CsolOBP5) in males may bind to pheromones and play important roles in mate choice, whereas CsolOBP4 and CsolOBP5 may primarily function in host localization by females through binding of volatile compounds emitted by receptive figs.

  8. Critical rearing parameters of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as affected by host-plant substrate and host-parasitoid group structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of host-plant substrate types, host-parasitoid group size and host to parasitoid ratios on select fitness parameters of the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, newly introduced for biological control of the invasive eme...

  9. Radiation-induced mouse chimeras: a cellular analysis of the major lymphoid compartments, factors affecting lethal graft versus host disease and host-tumor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The major lymphoid compartments of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras were evaluated for the extent of cell chimerism and distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells. These chimeras contained lymphoid cell primarily of donor origin. The bone marrow compartment was a mixture of host and donor origin cells. The distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells was similar as in normal mice. The effect of adult thymectomy alone or followed by whole-body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution on the distribution of the Thy 1 positive cells was also investigated. Thymectomy with or without WBI and bone marrow reconstitution significantly lowered the number of Thy 1 bearing cells in the blood and spleen. The number of la bearing cells did not appear to be affected by thymectomy. The role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras was studied. Mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow from bled donors had a statistically lower incidence of GVHD than those reconstituted with bone marrow from unbled donors. Addition of mature peripheral lymphocytes from blood to the reconstituting bone marrow cells from bled donors reduplicated the high incidence of lethal GVHD. It was demonstrated that the bone marrow of mice not exsanguinated prior to harvesting of bone marrow contained significant numbers of peripheral contaminating cells in the harvested bone marrow. The role of suppressor cell elimination in resisting tumor growth was investigated using radiation induced mouse chimeras. Local effects of irradiation alone at the site of tumor inoculation could account for this lack of growth.

  10. The interplay between intestinal bacteria and host metabolism in health and disease: lessons from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Adam C. N.; Vanhove, Audrey S.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT All higher organisms negotiate a truce with their commensal microbes and battle pathogenic microbes on a daily basis. Much attention has been given to the role of the innate immune system in controlling intestinal microbes and to the strategies used by intestinal microbes to overcome the host immune response. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the metabolisms of intestinal microbes and their hosts are linked and that this interaction is equally important for host health and well-being. For instance, an individual's array of commensal microbes can influence their predisposition to chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. A better understanding of host–microbe metabolic interactions is important in defining the molecular bases of these disorders and could potentially lead to new therapeutic avenues. Key advances in this area have been made using Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we review studies that have explored the impact of both commensal and pathogenic intestinal microbes on Drosophila carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These studies have helped to elucidate the metabolites produced by intestinal microbes, the intestinal receptors that sense these metabolites, and the signaling pathways through which these metabolites manipulate host metabolism. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting microbial metabolism could represent an effective therapeutic strategy for human metabolic diseases and intestinal infection. PMID:26935105

  11. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    PubMed

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  12. Young doctors' health--I. How do working conditions affect attitudes, health and performance?

    PubMed

    Baldwin, P J; Dodd, M; Wrate, R W

    1997-07-01

    Long hours and other difficult working conditions are thought to affect the health of young doctors, but there has been little evidence to support these assertions. Data are presented from a class cohort of junior doctors in the U.K. showing the relationships between working conditions, health and performance. Long hours appear to have short-term consequences in terms of the doctors feeling unwell and reporting poor performance, as measured by the somatic and social dysfunction scales of the General Health Questionnaire, but there are no demonstrated long-term health consequences. Instead, a number of working conditions, number of emergency admissions, number of deaths on the ward and the number of minor menial tasks contribute to a perception of being overwhelmed, as revealed by factor analysis of the Attitudes to Work questionnaire. This factor correlates significantly with a range of long-term physical and mental health measures as well as measure of work performance. PMID:9203268

  13. Two homologous host proteins interact with potato virus X RNAs and CPs and affect viral replication and movement

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Because viruses encode only a small number of proteins, all steps of virus infection rely on specific interactions between viruses and hosts. We previously screened several Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) proteins that interact with the stem-loop 1 (SL1) RNA structure located at the 5′ end of the potato virus X (PVX) genome. In this study, we characterized two of these proteins (NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b), which are homologous and are induced upon PVX infection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that both proteins bind to either SL1(+) or SL1(−) RNAs of PVX. The two proteins also interact with the PVX capsid protein (CP) in planta. Overexpression of NbCPIP2a positively regulated systemic movement of PVX in N. benthamiana, whereas NbCPIP2b overexpression did not affect systemic movement of PVX. Transient overexpression and silencing experiments demonstrated that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b are positive regulators of PVX replication and that the effect on replication was greater for NbCPIP2a than for NbCPIP2b. Although these two host proteins are associated with plasma membranes, PVX infection did not affect their subcellular localization. Taken together, these results indicate that NbCPIP2a and NbCPIP2b specifically bind to PVX SL1 RNAs as well as to CP and enhance PVX replication and movement. PMID:27353522

  14. Making Global Health Rotations a Two-Way Street: A Model for Hosting International Residents.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Michael B; Gladding, Sophia P; Majinge, Charles R; Butteris, Sabrina M

    2016-01-01

    As US residency programs are increasingly offering global health electives for their trainees, there is a growing call for these opportunities to include bidirectional exchanges-where residents from both the US and international partner institutions rotate at the other's site. Curricular, logistical, and funding challenges of hosting residents from an international site may be barriers to developing these programs. In this report, the authors describe an 8-year experience of a US institution hosting residents from a resource-limited international partner and provide a framework for others institutions to develop bidirectional exchanges. They also report the visiting international residents' perceptions of the impact of the exchange on their clinical practice, teaching, career paths, and their home institution.

  15. Gut microbiota affects sensitivity to acute DSS-induced colitis independently of host genotype.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Brigitta M; Becker, Anne; Ayiseh, Rene B; Hildebrand, Falk; Raes, Jeroen; Huys, Geert; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Caspase-deficient mice and wild-type (WT) mice show significant differences in their gut microbiota composition. These differences coincide with the observation that caspase-3-deficient mice carrying a natural caspase-11 mutation (Casp3/11(-/-)) are less sensitive to acute dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis than WT mice. For these reasons, we investigated the role of the microbiota in the development of colitis by cohousing WT and Casp3/11(-/-) mice. Microbial community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the similarities in gut microbial composition of WT and Casp3/11(-/-) mice increased after cohousing. In the acute dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model, Casp3/11(-/-) mice that were cohoused with WT mice showed increased weight loss and disease activity scores and increased neutrophil infiltration and inflammatory cytokine levels in their colon tissue compared with Casp3/11(-/-) mice that were not cohoused with WT mice. Also, we demonstrate that only the microbiota of the Casp3/11(-/-) mice cohoused with WT mice showed an important increase in Prevotella species. In conclusion, our cohousing experiments revealed that the colitogenic activity of the WT microbiota is transferable to Casp3/11(-/-) mice and that Prevotella species are likely to be involved. By contrast, the relative protection of Casp3/11(-/-) mice against dextran sodium sulfate damage is not transferred to WT mice after cohousing. These results underscore the need for in-depth studies of the bilateral interaction of host genes and microbiota to gain insight into the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Our findings also have important implications for the experimental design of disease studies in genetically modified mice and conclusions drawn from them. PMID:24105395

  16. Identifying host genetic risk factors in the context of public health surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Lingappa, Jairam R; Dumitrescu, Logan; Zimmer, Shanta M; Lynfield, Ruth; McNicholl, Janet M; Messonnier, Nancy E; Whitney, Cynthia G; Crawford, Dana C

    2011-01-01

    Host genetic factors that modify risk of pneumococcal disease may help target future public health interventions to individuals at highest risk of disease. We linked data from population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) with state-based newborn dried bloodspot repositories to identify biological samples from individuals who developed invasive pneumococcal disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from 366 case and 732 anonymous control samples. TagSNPs were selected in 34 candidate genes thought to be associated with host response to invasive pneumococcal disease, and a total of 326 variants were successfully genotyped. Among 543 European Americans (EA) (182 cases and 361 controls), and 166 African Americans (AA) (53 cases and 113 controls), common variants in surfactant protein D (SFTPD) are consistently underrepresented in IPD. SFTPD variants with the strongest association for IPD are intronic rs17886286 (allelic OR 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.25, 0.82], with p = 0.007) in EA and 5' flanking rs12219080 (allelic OR 0.32, 95%CI [0.13, 0.78], with p = 0.009) in AA. Variants in CD46 and IL1R1 are also associated with IPD in both EA and AA, but with effects in different directions; FAS, IL1B, IL4, IL10, IL12B, SFTPA1, SFTPB, and PTAFR variants are associated (p≤0.05) with IPD in EA or AA. We conclude that variants in SFTPD may protect against IPD in EA and AA and genetic variation in other host response pathways may also contribute to risk of IPD. While our associations are not corrected for multiple comparisons and therefore must be replicated in additional cohorts, this pilot study underscores the feasibility of integrating public health surveillance with existing, prospectively collected, newborn dried blood spot repositories to identify host genetic factors associated with infectious diseases.

  17. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles-especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  18. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles—especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  19. Determinants of Host Society Acculturation and Its Relationship with Health Behaviors and Outcomes: A New Research and Intervention Framework.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-10-01

    Host society acculturation (or reverse acculturation) is a complex, multifactorial process reflecting the attitude- and behavior-level impact of immigrants on the host society. However, this phenomenon has rarely been the subject of systematic research in the area of public health. Using qualitative and quantitative findings from different health behavior domains, we strove to identify potential individual- and environment-level determinants of host society acculturation. Next, we developed a context-driven multilevel public health research and intervention framework for the study of the relationship between host society acculturation and health practices and outcomes. The framework posits a number of associations to be evaluated by future multidisciplinary research nationally and internationally. PMID:25225079

  20. Small RNA cloning and sequencing strategy affects host and viral microRNA expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Stik, Grégoire; Muylkens, Benoît; Coupeau, Damien; Laurent, Sylvie; Dambrine, Ginette; Messmer, Mélanie; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Rasschaert, Denis

    2014-07-10

    The establishment of the microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures is the basic element to investigate the role played by these regulatory molecules in the biology of an organism. Marek's disease virus 1 (MDV-1) is an avian herpesvirus that naturally infects chicken and induces T cells lymphomas. During latency, MDV-1, like other herpesviruses, expresses a limited subset of transcripts. These include three miRNA clusters. Several studies identified the expression of virus and host encoded miRNAs from MDV-1 infected cell cultures and chickens. But a high discrepancy was observed when miRNA cloning frequencies obtained from different cloning and sequencing protocols were compared. Thus, we analyzed the effect of small RNA library preparation and sequencing on the miRNA frequencies obtained from the same RNA samples collected during MDV-1 infection of chicken at different steps of the oncoviral pathogenesis. Qualitative and quantitative variations were found in the data, depending on the strategy used. One of the mature miRNA derived from the latency-associated-transcript (LAT), mdv1-miR-M7-5p, showed the highest variation. Its cloning frequency was 50% of the viral miRNA counts when a small scale sequencing approach was used. Its frequency was 100 times less abundant when determined through the deep sequencing approach. Northern blot analysis showed a better correlation with the miRNA frequencies found by the small scale sequencing approach. By analyzing the cellular miRNA repertoire, we also found a gap between the two sequencing approaches. Collectively, our study indicates that next-generation sequencing data considered alone are limited for assessing the absolute copy number of transcripts. Thus, the quantification of small RNA should be addressed by compiling data obtained by using different techniques such as microarrays, qRT-PCR and NB analysis in support of high throughput sequencing data. These observations should be considered when miRNA variations are studied

  1. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools.

  2. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Papazian, Stefano; Poelman, Erik H; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Albrectsen, Benedicte R; Blande, James D

    2015-04-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. PMID:25645061

  3. The free health care initiative: how has it affected health workers in Sierra Leone?

    PubMed

    Witter, Sophie; Wurie, Haja; Bertone, Maria Paola

    2016-02-01

    There is an acknowledged gap in the literature on the impact of fee exemption policies on health staff, and, conversely, the implications of staffing for fee exemption. This article draws from five research tools used to analyse changing health worker policies and incentives in post-war Sierra Leone to document the effects of the Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) of 2010 on health workers.Data were collected through document review (57 documents fully reviewed, published and grey); key informant interviews (23 with government, donors, NGO staff and consultants); analysis of human resource data held by the MoHS; in-depth interviews with health workers (23 doctors, nurses, mid-wives and community health officers); and a health worker survey (312 participants, including all main cadres). The article traces the HR reforms which were triggered by the FHCI and evidence of their effects, which include substantial increases in number and pay (particularly for higher cadres), as well as a reported reduction in absenteeism and attrition, and an increase (at least for some areas, where data is available) in outputs per health worker. The findings highlight how a flagship policy, combined with high profile support and financial and technical resources, can galvanize systemic changes. In this regard, the story of Sierra Leone differs from many countries introducing fee exemptions, where fee exemption has been a stand-alone programme, unconnected to wider health system reforms. The challenge will be sustaining the momentum and the attention to delivering results as the FHCI ceases to be an initiative and becomes just 'business as normal'. The health system in Sierra Leone was fragile and conflict-affected prior to the FHCI and still faces significant challenges, both in human resources for health and more widely, as vividly evidenced by the current Ebola crisis.

  4. Health trajectories reveal the dynamic contributions of host genetic resistance and tolerance to infection outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lough, Graham; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Bergmann, Silke; Lengeling, Andreas; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two alternative strategies hosts can adopt to survive infections. Both strategies may be genetically controlled. To date, the relative contribution of resistance and tolerance to infection outcome is poorly understood. Here, we use a bioluminescent Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection challenge model to study the genetic determination and dynamic contributions of host resistance and tolerance to listeriosis in four genetically diverse mouse strains. Using conventional statistical analyses, we detect significant genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance, but cannot capture the time-dependent relative importance of either host strategy. We overcome these limitations through the development of novel statistical tools to analyse individual infection trajectories portraying simultaneous changes in infection severity and health. Based on these tools, early expression of resistance followed by expression of tolerance emerge as important hallmarks for surviving Lm infections. Our trajectory analysis further reveals that survivors and non-survivors follow distinct infection paths (which are also genetically determined) and provides new survival thresholds as objective endpoints in infection experiments. Future studies may use trajectories as novel traits for mapping and identifying genes that control infection dynamics and outcome. A Matlab script for user-friendly trajectory analysis is provided. PMID:26582028

  5. The affective response to health-related information and its relationship to health anxiety: an ambulatory approach.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Fabian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias; Rommel, Thilo; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Affective reactions to health-related information play a central role in health anxiety. Therefore, using ambulatory assessment, we analysed the time course of negative affect in a control group (CG, n = 60) which only rated their negative affect and an experimental group (EG, n = 97) which also rated the presence of somatic symptoms (e.g., back pain). By means of mixed regression models, we observed a decline of negative affect following the symptom self-ratings in the EG and a stable affect in the CG. The decline of negative affect was not moderated by the degree of health anxiety. Our findings might indicate that evaluating one's health status leads to a general reduction of negative affect in healthy individuals. The results of the study are in line with a bidirectional symptom perception model and underline the crucial role of affect regulation in the processing of health-related information. PMID:24955947

  6. The affective response to health-related information and its relationship to health anxiety: an ambulatory approach.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Fabian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias; Rommel, Thilo; Witthöft, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Affective reactions to health-related information play a central role in health anxiety. Therefore, using ambulatory assessment, we analysed the time course of negative affect in a control group (CG, n = 60) which only rated their negative affect and an experimental group (EG, n = 97) which also rated the presence of somatic symptoms (e.g., back pain). By means of mixed regression models, we observed a decline of negative affect following the symptom self-ratings in the EG and a stable affect in the CG. The decline of negative affect was not moderated by the degree of health anxiety. Our findings might indicate that evaluating one's health status leads to a general reduction of negative affect in healthy individuals. The results of the study are in line with a bidirectional symptom perception model and underline the crucial role of affect regulation in the processing of health-related information.

  7. Asylum Seekers, Violence and Health: A Systematic Review of Research in High-Income Host Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mazeda; Kiss, Ligia; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    We performed a systematic review of literature on violence and related health concerns among asylum seekers in high-income host countries. We extracted data from 23 peer-reviewed studies. Prevalence of torture, variably defined, was above 30% across all studies. Torture history in clinic populations correlated with hunger and posttraumatic stress disorder, although in small, nonrepresentative samples. One study observed that previous exposure to interpersonal violence interacted with longer immigration detention periods, resulting in higher depression scores. Limited evidence suggests that asylum seekers frequently experience violence and health problems, but large-scale studies are needed to inform policies and services for this vulnerable group often at the center of political debate. PMID:23327250

  8. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals.

  9. Barriers and Bridges: Understanding Factors Affecting Health Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Regina

    1981-01-01

    Among areas covered in a health maintenance survey are: (1) health maintenance and preventive medicine; (2) unhealthy lifestyles; (3) knowledge level; (4) obesity; (5) exercise; (6) nutrition; (7) mental health; (8) smoking; (9) drinking; (10) the role of the physician; and (11) the changing role of the employer. (JN)

  10. Cognitive and Affective Dimensions in Health Related Education. Proceedings of a Conference (Gainesville, Florida, January 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Margaret K., Ed.; And Others

    Ten papers dealing with various aspects of cognitive and affective dimensions of the allied health student are presented. They are: "A Review of Research on Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Education for the Health Related Professions" by Margaret K. Morgan, "Methodological Problems in the Study of Affective and Cognitive Characteristics of…

  11. The opsX locus of Xanthomonas campestris affects host range and biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, M T; Gabriel, D W; Marlow, G C; Roberts, P D

    1993-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. citrumelo strain 3048 is the causal agent of citrus bacterial leaf spot disease and has a wide host range that includes rutaceous and leguminous plants. A spontaneous prototrophic mutant of strain 3048 (strain M28) that had lost virulence on citrus but retained virulence on bean plants was recovered. Growth studies in planta showed that M28 cells died rapidly in citrus leaves but grew normally in bean leaves. In addition to the loss of citrus-specific virulence, M28 displayed the following mutant phenotypes in culture: decreased growth rate, reduction of the amount of exopolysaccharide (to ca. 25% of the amount in 3048), loss of capsules, and significant alterations of the two 3048 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bands visualized by silver stain on polyacrylamide gels, consistent with a defect(s) in LPS assembly. A 38-kb DNA fragment from a 3048 total DNA library that complemented the mutant phenotypes of M28 was identified. The 38-kb fragment did not hybridize to two similarly sized fragments carrying different hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes cloned from 3048. Subcloning, DNA sequence analyses, and gene disruption experiments were used to identify a single gene, opsX (for outer-membrane polysaccharide), responsible for the mutant phenotypes of M28. At least one other gene downstream from opsX also affected the same phenotypes and may be part of a gene cluster. We report here the DNA sequence and transcriptional start site of opsX. A search of protein sequence data bases with the predicted 31.3-kDa OpsX sequence found strong similarity to Lsi-1 of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and RfaQ of Escherichia coli (both are involved in LPS core assembly). The host-specific virulence function of opsX appears to involve biosynthesis of the extracellular polysaccharide and a complete LPS. Both may be needed in normal amounts for protection from citrus, but not bean, defense compounds. Images PMID:8376331

  12. Modeling the Context-Dependent Associations between the Gut Microbiome, Its Environment, and Host Health.

    PubMed

    Sharpton, Thomas J; Gaulke, Christopher A

    2015-09-08

    Changes in the gut microbiome are often associated with disease. One of the major goals in microbiome research is determining which components of this complex system are responsible for the observed differences in health state. Most studies apply a reductionist approach, wherein individual organisms are evaluated independently of the surrounding context of the microbiome. While such methods have yielded valuable insights into the microbiome, they fail to identify patterns that may be obscured by contextual variation. A recent report by Schubert et al. [A. M. Schubert, H. Sinani, and P. D. Schloss, mBio 6(4):e00974-15, 2015, doi: 10.1128/mBio.00974-15] communicates an alternative approach to the study of the microbiome's association with host health. By coupling a multifactored experimental design with regression modeling, the authors are able to profile context-dependent changes in the microbiome and predict health status. This work underscores the value of incorporating model-based procedures into the investigation of the microbiome and illustrates the potential clinical transformations that may arise through their use.

  13. Tracking host sources of Cryptosporidium spp. in raw water for improved health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ruecker, Norma J; Braithwaite, Shannon L; Topp, Edward; Edge, Thomas; Lapen, David R; Wilkes, Graham; Robertson, Will; Medeiros, Diane; Sensen, Christoph W; Neumann, Norman F

    2007-06-01

    Recent molecular evidence suggests that different species and/or genotypes of Cryptosporidium display strong host specificity, altering our perceptions regarding the zoonotic potential of this parasite. Molecular forensic profiling of the small-subunit rRNA gene from oocysts enumerated on microscope slides by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 was used to identify the range and prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in the South Nation watershed in Ontario, Canada. Fourteen sites within the watershed were monitored weekly for 10 weeks to assess the occurrence, molecular composition, and host sources of Cryptosporidium parasites impacting water within the region. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype II, Cryptosporidium cervine genotype, C. baileyi, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muskrat genotype I, the Cryptosporidium fox genotype, genotype W1, and genotype W12 were detected in the watershed. The molecular composition of the Cryptosporidium parasites, supported by general land use analysis, indicated that mature cattle were likely the main source of contamination of the watershed. Deer, muskrats, voles, birds, and other wildlife species, in addition to sewage (human or agricultural) may also potentially impact water quality within the study area. Source water protection studies that use land use analysis with molecular genotyping of Cryptosporidium parasites may provide a more robust source-tracking tool to characterize fecal impacts in a watershed. Moreover, the information is vital for assessing environmental and human health risks posed by water contaminated with zoonotic and/or anthroponotic forms of Cryptosporidium. PMID:17483276

  14. Factors in traditional families which affect health and health care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sanader, Ana; Komić, Dubravka; Tandara, Mirko; Serec, Maša; Pavličević, Ivančica; Pesjak, Katja; Svab, Igor

    2014-09-01

    One of the most powerful influences on the patient is the family and its characteristics. In the recent decades families have changed, one of the most well known changes was a shift from extended to nuclear families. The consequences of this shift on health have been poorly researched, although family factors are being taught at medical schools. The aim of this study is to explore differences and similarities in factors between nuclear and extended families which may affect health and health care of family members. We conducted the qualitative study of family reports. The reports were done by students of family medicine. We examined the reports according to fourtheme: (1) Relations between the members of the family and between them and society, (2) Lifestyle, (3) Use of medical services and confidence in doctors and medicine, (4) Ilnesses and attitude towards illnesses. Differences were found in relations between the closest members of the family, close family interactions, domination issues and family roles, attitudes towards independence, parents and children, interaction with other people, attitude towards medicine, taking care of the sick member of the family and the way families endure illnesses. A quantitative research is needed to verify all the differences which we came across in this study. The qualitative data support the importance of family on health.

  15. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... than women are throughout their lifetime, the health effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when someone shows signs of ... alcohol) are more serious in women. These health effects include an ... disease, and fetal alcohol syndrome, in which infants born to mothers who ...

  16. Globalisation: what is it and how does it affect health?

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelley

    2004-02-16

    The term "globalisation" tends to be misused and overused. We need greater clarity in our understanding of the globalisation process, including the distinct changes involved and their relation to human health. The health impacts of globalisation are simultaneously positive and negative, varying according to factors such as geographical location, sex, age, ethnic origin, education level, and socioeconomic status. Globalisation is not an unstoppable force. Our key challenge is to create socially and environmentally sustainable forms of globalisation that provide the greatest benefits and least costs, shared more equitably than is currently the case. The health community must engage more directly in current research and policy debates on globalisation and encourage values that promote human health. At the same time, those at the helm of globalisation processes must recognise that attending to health impacts will strengthen the long-term sustainability of globalisation. PMID:14960132

  17. Understanding how inequality in the distribution of income affects health.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A

    1997-07-01

    Research on the determinants of health has almost exclusively focused on the individual but it seems clear we cannot understand or improve patterns of population health without engaging structural determinants at the societal level. This article traces the development of research on income distribution and health to the most recent epidemiologic studies from the USA that show how income inequality is related to age- adjusted mortality within the 50 States. (r = -0.62, p = 0.0001) even after accounting for absolute levels of income. We discuss potential material, psychological, social and behavioral pathways through which income distribution might be linked to health status. Distributional aspects of the economy are important determinants of health and may well provide one of the most pertinent indicators of overall social well-being.

  18. Globalisation: what is it and how does it affect health?

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelley

    2004-02-16

    The term "globalisation" tends to be misused and overused. We need greater clarity in our understanding of the globalisation process, including the distinct changes involved and their relation to human health. The health impacts of globalisation are simultaneously positive and negative, varying according to factors such as geographical location, sex, age, ethnic origin, education level, and socioeconomic status. Globalisation is not an unstoppable force. Our key challenge is to create socially and environmentally sustainable forms of globalisation that provide the greatest benefits and least costs, shared more equitably than is currently the case. The health community must engage more directly in current research and policy debates on globalisation and encourage values that promote human health. At the same time, those at the helm of globalisation processes must recognise that attending to health impacts will strengthen the long-term sustainability of globalisation.

  19. The scaling of host density with richness affects the direction, shape, and detectability of diversity-disease relationships.

    PubMed

    Mihaljevic, Joseph R; Joseph, Maxwell B; Orlofske, Sarah A; Paull, Sara H

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen transmission responds differently to host richness and abundance, two unique components of host diversity. However, the heated debate around whether biodiversity generally increases or decreases disease has not considered the relationships between host richness and abundance that may exist in natural systems. Here we use a multi-species model to study how the scaling of total host community abundance with species richness mediates diversity-disease relationships. For pathogens with density-dependent transmission, non-monotonic trends emerge between pathogen transmission and host richness when host community abundance saturates with richness. Further, host species identity drives high variability in pathogen transmission in depauperate communities, but this effect diminishes as host richness accumulates. Using simulation we show that high variability in low richness communities and the non-monotonic relationship observed with host community saturation may reduce the detectability of trends in empirical data. Our study emphasizes that understanding the patterns and predictability of host community composition and pathogen transmission mode will be crucial for predicting where and when specific diversity-disease relationships should occur in natural systems.

  20. 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation and chronic inflammatory disorders: lifestyle changes affecting the host-environment interface.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, S; Kaufmann, S H E

    2010-04-01

    In industrialized nations and high-income regions of the world, the decline of infectious diseases is paralleled by an increase in allergic, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases (AACID). Changes in lifestyle in westernized societies, which impact individually and collectively on intestinal microbiota, may - at least in part - account for the AACID pandemic. Many disease genes that contribute to AACID encode pattern recognition and signalling molecules in barrier-associated cells. Interactions between gene products and environmental factors depend highly upon the host's state of maturation, the composition of the skin and gut microflora, and exposure to pollutants, antibiotics and nutrients. Inflammatory stress responses, if regulated appropriately, ensure immunity, health and relative longevity; when they are dysregulated, they can no longer be terminated appropriately and thus precipitate AACID. The 99th Dahlem Conference brought together experts of various disciplines (genetics, evolution biology, molecular biology, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, microbiology, nutrition science, epidemiology and clinical medicine) to discuss the multi-faceted relationships between infection, immunity and inflammation in barrier organs and the development of AACID. In Clinical and Experimental Immunology we are presenting a compilation of background papers that formed the basis of discussions. Controversial viewpoints and gaps in current knowledge were examined and new concepts for prevention and treatment of CID were formulated.

  1. Identification of the key weather factors affecting overwintering success of Apolygus lucorum eggs in dead host tree branches.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009-2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer.

  2. Identification of the Key Weather Factors Affecting Overwintering Success of Apolygus lucorum Eggs in Dead Host Tree Branches

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of weather on insect population dynamics is crucial to simulate and forecast pest outbreaks, which is becoming increasingly important with the effects of climate change. The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is an important pest on cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China, and primarily lays its eggs on dead parts of tree branches in the fall for subsequent overwintering. As such, the eggs that hatch the following spring are most strongly affected by ambient weather factors, rather than by host plant biology. In this study, we investigated the effects of three major weather factors: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, on the hatching rate of A. lucorum eggs overwintering on dead branches of Chinese date tree (Ziziphus jujuba). Under laboratory conditions, rainfall (simulated via soaking) was necessary for the hatching of overwintering A. lucorum eggs. In the absence of rainfall (unsoaked branches), very few nymphs successfully emerged under any of the tested combinations of temperature and relative humidity. In contrast, following simulated rainfall, the hatching rate of the overwintering eggs increased dramatically. Hatching rate and developmental rate were positively correlated with relative humidity and temperature, respectively. Under field conditions, the abundance of nymphs derived from overwintering eggs was positively correlated with rainfall amount during the spring seasons of 2009–2013, while the same was not true for temperature and relative humidity. Overall, our findings indicate that rainfall is the most important factor affecting the hatching rate of overwintering A. lucorum eggs on dead plant parts and nymph population levels during the spring season. It provides the basic information for precisely forecasting the emergence of A. lucorum and subsequently timely managing its population in spring, which will make it possible to regional control of this insect pest widely occurring in multiple crops in summer. PMID

  3. Trimethylamine and Trimethylamine N-Oxide, a Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3)-Mediated Host-Microbiome Metabolic Axis Implicated in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fennema, Diede; Phillips, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is known primarily as an enzyme involved in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs. On a daily basis, however, we are exposed to one of the most abundant substrates of the enzyme trimethylamine (TMA), which is released from various dietary components by the action of gut bacteria. FMO3 converts the odorous TMA to nonodorous TMA N-oxide (TMAO), which is excreted in urine. Impaired FMO3 activity gives rise to the inherited disorder primary trimethylaminuria (TMAU). Affected individuals cannot produce TMAO and, consequently, excrete large amounts of TMA. A dysbiosis in gut bacteria can give rise to secondary TMAU. Recently, there has been much interest in FMO3 and its catalytic product, TMAO, because TMAO has been implicated in various conditions affecting health, including cardiovascular disease, reverse cholesterol transport, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. In this review, we consider the dietary components that can give rise to TMA, the gut bacteria involved in the production of TMA from dietary precursors, the metabolic reactions by which bacteria produce and use TMA, and the enzymes that catalyze the reactions. Also included is information on bacteria that produce TMA in the oral cavity and vagina, two key microbiome niches that can influence health. Finally, we discuss the importance of the TMA/TMAO microbiome-host axis in health and disease, considering factors that affect bacterial production and host metabolism of TMA, the involvement of TMAO and FMO3 in disease, and the implications of the host-microbiome axis for management of TMAU. PMID:27190056

  4. Diversity of ampeloviruses in mealybug and soft scale vectors and in grapevine hosts from leafroll-affected vineyards.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Marsella-Herrick, P; Loeb, G M; Martinson, T E; Hoch, H C

    2009-10-01

    The occurrence and diversity of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in the soft scales Parthenolecanium corni and Pulvinaria innumerabilis and in the mealybug Pseudococcus maritimus was determined in leafroll-affected vineyards in the Finger Lakes region of New York. Groups of 1 to 4 specimens were collected under loose grapevine bark and tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for segments of the second diverged copy of the GLRaV-1 coat protein gene or GLRaV-3 heat-shock protein 70-homologue gene. Virus-specific RT-PCR products were amplified from immature insect vectors and adult mealybugs. Single viral amplicons were obtained mostly from immature vectors (35%, 30 of 85) and dual viral amplicons from immature (16%, 10 of 61) and adult (100%, 14 of 14) mealybugs, including individuals. These observations suggested a simultaneous uptake of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 by individual mealybugs. Furthermore, a comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of viral amplicons from soft scales, mealybugs, and grapevines from which vectors were collected showed identical or highly similar haplotypes, indicating that uptake of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 likely occurred by direct feeding of vectors on their host plants.

  5. Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Oubre, Cherie; Castro, Sarah; Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    While preventive measures limit the presence of many medically significant microorganisms during spaceflight missions, microbial infection of crewmembers cannot be completely prevented. Spaceflight experiments over the past 50 years have demonstrated a unique microbial response to spaceflight culture, although the mechanisms behind those responses and their operational relevance were unclear. In 2007, the operational importance of these microbial responses was emphasized as the results of an experiment aboard STS-115 demonstrated that the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) increased in virulence in a murine model of infection. The experiment was reproduced in 2008 aboard STS-123 confirming this finding. In response to these findings, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies recommended that NASA investigate this risk and its potential impact on the health of the crew during spaceflight. NASA assigned this risk to the Human Research Program. To better understand this risk, evidence has been collected and reported from both spaceflight analog systems and actual spaceflight. Although the performance of virulence studies during spaceflight are challenging and often impractical, additional information has been and continues to be collected to better understand the risk to crew health. Still, the uncertainty concerning the extent and severity of these alterations in host-microorganism interactions is very large and requires more investigation.

  6. Commentary: Medicaid reform issues affecting the Indian health care system.

    PubMed

    Wellever, A; Hill, G; Casey, M

    1998-02-01

    Substantial numbers of Indian people rely on Medicaid for their primary health insurance coverage. When state Medicaid programs enroll Indians in managed care programs, several unintended consequences may ensue. This paper identifies some of the perverse consequences of Medicaid reform for Indians and the Indian health care system and suggests strategies for overcoming them. It discusses the desire of Indian people to receive culturally appropriate services, the need to maintain or improve Indian health care system funding, and the duty of state governments to respect tribal sovereignty. Because of their relatively small numbers, Indians may be treated differently under Medicaid managed care systems without significantly endangering anticipated program savings. Failure of Medicaid programs to recognize the uniqueness of Indian people, however, may severely weaken the Indian health care system. PMID:9491006

  7. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... health and lead to strong feelings of sadness, stress, or anxiety. These things include: Being laid off from your ... having them. Sorting out the causes of sadness, stress, and anxiety in your life can help you manage your ...

  8. Experimental shifts in intraclutch egg color variation do not affect egg rejection in a host of a non-egg-mimetic avian brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins' behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch.

  9. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions. PMID:11070641

  10. Challenges in determining how child work affects child health.

    PubMed

    Levison, Deborah; Murray-Close, Marta

    2005-01-01

    Credible findings from well-crafted research studies are essential in assessing the impact of child work on children's health. Researchers, however, encounter significant challenges in defining the relevant group of workers for a study and identifying an appropriate comparison group. This article describes some of those challenges and explains how choices about study and comparison groups can lead to biased research results. When selecting study groups, researchers should be aware that the impact of work on health may depend on the type and intensity of the work, and on the context in which it occurs. They should avoid drawing conclusions about the health effects of particular work situations from studies of very heterogeneous groups of workers and should not overgeneralize from studies of more homogenous groups. When choosing comparison groups, researchers should select children whose health outcomes are likely to be comparable to the outcomes working children would experience if they did not work. In particular, researchers should attempt to find children who are similar to the workers of interest on relevant non-work characteristics, including socioeconomic status and levels of parental education. In addition, they should consider the extent to which healthier children are more likely to select into the labor force as a result of decisions by parents or employers, or due to their own greater fitness. Ideally, studies of the health effects of child work should use multiple comparison groups, including children who work in relatively safe, non-strenuous occupations.

  11. Workplace bullying in health care affects the meaning of work.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Gray, Marilyn Merritt; Cronkhite, Marcella

    2010-08-01

    Our purpose in this grounded theory study was to explore the impact of workplace bullying (WPB) on women working in health care. We analyzed interviews with 21 women, professionals and nonprofessionals. The women experienced a change in their meaning of work (MOW) when they had experienced WPB, and they addressed this change through a process we called the shifting meaning of work. This process has three stages. The first, developing insight, involves recognizing causes of changed MOW as external. In the second stage, resisting, women defend against changed MOW by sustaining acceptable MOW and work performances, and by confronting causes. In the final stage, rebuilding, women try to adapt and modify approaches to work by coming to terms, adjusting work attitudes, and investing in self. We identified implications of this process for managing health and work issues with women, health care providers, and employers. PMID:20463362

  12. Workplace bullying in health care affects the meaning of work.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Gray, Marilyn Merritt; Cronkhite, Marcella

    2010-08-01

    Our purpose in this grounded theory study was to explore the impact of workplace bullying (WPB) on women working in health care. We analyzed interviews with 21 women, professionals and nonprofessionals. The women experienced a change in their meaning of work (MOW) when they had experienced WPB, and they addressed this change through a process we called the shifting meaning of work. This process has three stages. The first, developing insight, involves recognizing causes of changed MOW as external. In the second stage, resisting, women defend against changed MOW by sustaining acceptable MOW and work performances, and by confronting causes. In the final stage, rebuilding, women try to adapt and modify approaches to work by coming to terms, adjusting work attitudes, and investing in self. We identified implications of this process for managing health and work issues with women, health care providers, and employers.

  13. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health.

    PubMed

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies. PMID:27507964

  14. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies. PMID:27507964

  15. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  16. Adolescents' health behaviors and obesity: Does race affect this epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Mack C.; Hausafus, Cheryl O.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the influence of health behaviors and individual attributes on adolescent overweight and obesity using data from Wave II (Add Health). Structural equation model/path analysis using maximum likelihood estimation was utilized to analyze the relationships of health behaviors and attributes with obesity. Results of the model reveal that the causal paths (adolescents' attributes and health behaviors) for overweight and obesity were different for African American and Caucasian adolescents. Generally, African Americans were more susceptible to overweight and obesity than Caucasians. Although increasing levels of vigorous physical activities lowers the risk for obesity among African American and Caucasian adolescents alike, low family SES and being sedentary were associated with overweight and obesity among Caucasians. No significant associations were found among African Americans. Increased hours of sleep at night relate positively with obesity among African Americans. These findings suggest important elements in the consideration of race in developing effective intervention and prevention approaches for curbing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. PMID:21286412

  17. Aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases block endogenous methylation, affect translation efficiency and fitness of the host

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Goussard, Sylvie; Guerineau, Vincent; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Courvalin, Patrice; Galimand, Marc; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases ArmA and NpmA confer high-level resistance to all clinically useful aminoglycosides by modifying, respectively, G1405 and A1408 in the A-site. These enzymes must coexist with several endogenous methyltransferases that are essential for fine-tuning of the decoding center, such as RsmH and RsmI in Escherichia coli, which methylate C1402 and RsmF C1407. The resistance methyltransferases have a contrasting distribution—ArmA has spread worldwide, whereas a single clinical isolate producing NpmA has been reported. The rate of dissemination of resistance depends on the fitness cost associated with its expression. We have compared ArmA and NpmA in isogenic Escherichia coli harboring the corresponding structural genes and their inactive point mutants cloned under the control of their native constitutive promoter in the stable plasmid pGB2. Growth rate determination and competition experiments showed that ArmA had a fitness cost due to methylation of G1405, whereas NpmA conferred only a slight disadvantage to the host due to production of the enzyme. MALDI MS indicated that ArmA impeded one of the methylations at C1402 by RsmI, and not at C1407 as previously proposed, whereas NpmA blocked the activity of RsmF at C1407. A dual luciferase assay showed that methylation at G1405 and A1408 and lack of methylation at C1407 affect translation accuracy. These results indicate that resistance methyltransferases impair endogenous methylation with different consequences on cell fitness. PMID:24398977

  18. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  19. A Review of Research on Health Outcomes for Workers, Home and Host Communities of Population Mobility Associated with Extractive Industries.

    PubMed

    Carney, Jason G; Gushulak, Brian D

    2016-06-01

    With a growing awareness of the association between extractive industries, the nature of work in remote locations, population mobility and health status, there is a need to advance an evidence-based approach to ensuring the health of migrant and mobile populations, and the home and host communities with whom they interact. Through a narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature, this review examines what is known, and the nature of research activity concerning the range of health impacts determined by the social conditions inherent with population mobility alongside mining and extractive industries; and the extent to which health outcomes impact on workers, and home and host communities. While much of the literature reviewed in the study considered health in a traditional disease or illness based approach, it is clear that many risk factors for the health of mobile workers in the sector reflect broader social determinants. To support the mitigation of individual and population vulnerability to infectious disease endemics, consideration of both the etiology and the social conditions that give rise to adverse health outcomes is required, including an improvement to workers' living conditions, the expansion of diagnostic and medical services, and an approach that ensures the right to health for mobile populations. To further improve upon the rich body of research, resources are required to implement robust data collection including epidemiological surveillance, outbreak monitoring and investigation, and the long term tracking of standardized health information at both origin locations and destination communities. PMID:26902231

  20. Supporting mental health in South African HIV-affected communities: primary health care professionals’ understandings and responses

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Rochelle Ann

    2015-01-01

    How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients’ distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients’ needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients’ mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental

  1. Landscape affects the host-seeking patterns of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Coachella Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Lothrop, H D; Reisen, W K

    2001-03-01

    Effective arbovirus transmission requires that the principal vertebrate hosts and vectors have frequent contact. Vegetation and other landscape features used by roosting or nesting birds at night dictate their exposure to nocturnally active host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett and therefore to western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses. Precipitin tests on 645 Cx. tarsalis that were collected resting and host-seeking near the Salton Sea in Coachella Valley, CA, indicated that passeriform birds (64%) and rabbits (25%) were the most frequent bloodmeal hosts and that the percentage of females feeding on birds varied temporally as an inverse fuction of mosquito abundance. Blood meals were not taken from communally roosting water birds. The spatial distribution of host-seeking females then was investigated by deploying dry ice baited traps within seven sites representative of habitats found along the Salton Sea. Mosquito catch was greatest at traps within elevated vegetation such as Tamarisk, mesquite, cattails, and orchards and lowest at traps positioned at snags over water, sand bars, open fields, and within housing in a small rural community. These data indicate that host-seeking Cx. tarsalis females congregated at specific landscape features that were not necessarily associated with large concentrations of potential bloodmeal hosts. PMID:11296843

  2. How health reform legislation will affect Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Guterman, Stuart; Davis, Karen; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-03-01

    Despite criticism that health reform legislation will result in cuts to Medicare, the bills passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate, as well as President Obama's proposal, contain provisions that would strengthen the program by reducing costs for prescription drugs, expanding coverage for preventive care, providing more help for low-income beneficiaries, and supporting accessible, coordinated, and comprehensive care that effectively responds to patients' needs. The legislation also would help to extend the program's fiscal solvency--for nine years, under the Senate bill. This issue brief examines the provisions in the pending legislation and how each one would work to improve benefits, extend the fiscal solvency of the Medicare Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, reduce pressure on the federal budget, and contribute to moving the health care system toward better access to care, improved quality, and greater efficiency. PMID:20297561

  3. Does sustained participation in an online health community affect sentiment?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaodian; Bantum, Erin; Owen, Jason; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    A large number of patients rely on online health communities to exchange information and psychosocial support with their peers. Examining participation in a community and its impact on members' behaviors and attitudes is one of the key open research questions in the field of study of online health communities. In this paper, we focus on a large public breast cancer community and conduct sentiment analysis on all its posts. We investigate the impact of different factors on post sentiment, such as time since joining the community, posting activity, age of members, and cancer stage of members. We find that there is a significant increase in sentiment of posts through time, with different patterns of sentiment trends for initial posts in threads and reply posts. Factors each play a role; for instance stage-IV members form a particular sub-community with patterns of sentiment and usage distinct from others members.

  4. Does sustained participation in an online health community affect sentiment?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaodian; Bantum, Erin; Owen, Jason; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    A large number of patients rely on online health communities to exchange information and psychosocial support with their peers. Examining participation in a community and its impact on members' behaviors and attitudes is one of the key open research questions in the field of study of online health communities. In this paper, we focus on a large public breast cancer community and conduct sentiment analysis on all its posts. We investigate the impact of different factors on post sentiment, such as time since joining the community, posting activity, age of members, and cancer stage of members. We find that there is a significant increase in sentiment of posts through time, with different patterns of sentiment trends for initial posts in threads and reply posts. Factors each play a role; for instance stage-IV members form a particular sub-community with patterns of sentiment and usage distinct from others members. PMID:25954470

  5. Does Sustained Participation in an Online Health Community Affect Sentiment?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shaodian; Bantum, Erin; Owen, Jason; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    A large number of patients rely on online health communities to exchange information and psychosocial support with their peers. Examining participation in a community and its impact on members’ behaviors and attitudes is one of the key open research questions in the field of study of online health communities. In this paper, we focus on a large public breast cancer community and conduct sentiment analysis on all its posts. We investigate the impact of different factors on post sentiment, such as time since joining the community, posting activity, age of members, and cancer stage of members. We find that there is a significant increase in sentiment of posts through time, with different patterns of sentiment trends for initial posts in threads and reply posts. Factors each play a role; for instance stage-IV members form a particular sub-community with patterns of sentiment and usage distinct from others members. PMID:25954470

  6. Oral health policies and programs affecting the preschool child.

    PubMed

    Casamassimo, P S

    1995-10-01

    Although many policies and programs address the oral health of children, those specifically dealing with the preschool child are few. Review of existing policy suggests a lack of coherence or emphasis on the preschooler as a separate focus for oral health efforts. The importance of locating preschool children within existing policies and programs lies in insuring their access to care and to the benefits of educational and other preventive efforts directed to oral health. The experience of dentists advocating for children in California illustrates the value of an awareness of policies and programs directed at the preschool population. In 1990, a lawsuit brought forth by a coalition of dentists and other child advocates resulted in changes in the Denti-Cal (Medicaid) program for the benefit of children served. These changes increased both access and use by increasing fees and attracting more providers. Two years later, California attempted to stem the costs of success and tried to switch to a mandated capitated program for all Medicaid recipients. Again, through legal action, child advocates were able to argue successfully that such a move would have a negative impact on the children of California. The outcome of the legal action in this situation is still to be decided at this writing, but the series of events and the success of the advocate-dentists speak to the value of a working knowledge of the programs available for children. An individual dentist can also benefit individual children by knowing approved and covered procedures for their care, programmatic characteristics for situations requiring referral, and resources for educational materials. In many cases, knowledge of policies and programs is as valuable as the care dentists render.

  7. MISR Satellite Observations of Aerosol Types Affecting Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Franklin, M.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based observations of pollutants and concentrations of particulate matter (PM), that includes small particles designated PM2.5 and dust-dominated PM10, are the gold standard in studies of environmental impacts on human health. However, because monitoring stations are costly, they typically provide only limited spatial coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. We will demonstrate how data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument that has been flying on NASA's Terra Earth Observing System satellite since early 2000 can be used to provide estimates of surface PM types. The current MISR operational aerosol retrieval uses a combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property information (including dust AOD) globally at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Using the same algorithm with data collected in all 36-channels at 275 m resolution (Local Mode), which is available over greater Los Angeles area, and also was activated during 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California field campaign, high-resolution 4.4 km aerosol retrievals were performed in addition to the standard 17.6 km retrievals. The 4.4 km spatial resolution of the PM information data is fine enough to be able to resolve local differences in PM loading that may be important for understanding regional health effects of pollution in the region. In particular, we demonstrate that MISR high-resolution AOD retrievals are in better agreement with ground-based aerosol observations and reveal more details about the aerosol spatial variability compared to the MISR standard 17.6 km product. Then we will discuss techniques and show examples of the application of high-resolution MISR data to provide estimates of surface PM for the greater Los Angeles area in 2008 and for California San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Finally, we will discuss future NASA instruments that will provide new information allowing for better

  8. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  9. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  10. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  11. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America. PMID:26072908

  12. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D E; Duan, J J; Shrewsbury, P M

    2015-10-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990 s. Although host-plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources of mortality for EAB in Asia, less is known about the importance of different sources of mortality at recently colonized sites in the invaded range of EAB, and how these relate to host tree crown condition. To further our understanding of EAB population dynamics, we used a large-scale field experiment and life-table analyses to quantify the fates of EAB larvae and the relative importance of different biotic mortality factors at 12 recently colonized sites in Maryland. We found that the fates of larvae were highly dependent on EAB life stage and host tree crown condition. In relatively healthy trees (i.e., with a low EAB infestation) and for early instars, host tree resistance was the most important mortality factor. Conversely, in more unhealthy trees (i.e., with a moderate to high EAB infestation) and for later instars, parasitism and predation were the major sources of mortality. Life-table analyses also indicated how the lack of sufficient levels of host tree resistance and natural enemies contribute to rapid population growth of EAB at recently colonized sites. Our findings provide further evidence of the mechanisms by which EAB has been able to successfully establish and spread in North America.

  13. Plant Host Species and Geographic Distance Affect the Structure of Aboveground Fungal Symbiont Communities, and Environmental Filtering Affects Belowground Communities in a Coastal Dune Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    David, Aaron S; Seabloom, Eric W; May, Georgiana

    2016-05-01

    Microbial symbionts inhabit tissues of all plants and animals. Their community composition depends largely on two ecological processes: (1) filtering by abiotic conditions and host species determining the environments that symbionts are able to colonize and (2) dispersal-limitation determining the pool of symbionts available to colonize a given host and community spatial structure. In plants, the above- and belowground tissues represent such distinct habitats for symbionts that we expect different effects of filtering and spatial structuring on their symbiont communities. In this study, we characterized above- and belowground communities of fungal endophytes--fungi living asymptomatically within plants--to understand the contributions of filtering and spatial structure to endophyte community composition. We used a culture-based approach to characterize endophytes growing in leaves and roots of three species of coastal beachgrasses in dunes of the USA Pacific Northwest. For leaves, endophyte isolation frequency and OTU richness depended primarily on plant host species. In comparison, for roots, both isolation frequency and OTU richness increased from the nutrient-poor front of the dune to the higher-nutrient backdune. Endophyte community composition in leaves exhibited a distance-decay relationship across the region. In a laboratory assay, faster growth rates and lower spore production were more often associated with leaf- than root-inhabiting endophytes. Overall, our results reveal a greater importance of biotic filtering by host species and dispersal-limitation over regional geographic distances for aboveground leaf endophyte communities and stronger effects of abiotic environmental filtering and locally patchy distributions for belowground root endophyte communities. PMID:26626912

  14. Mental health burden amongst inhabitants of an arsenic-affected area in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Guo, Xiaojuan; Liu, Jun; You, Lingui; Miyatake, Munetoshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2004-11-01

    Inner Mongolia, China, is an area with high levels of arsenic. The adverse health effects resulting from chronic arsenic exposure include skin keratosis, vascular diseases and cancers. However, the effects of arsenic exposure on mental health have not received much attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of arsenic poisoning on the mental health of the inhabitants of an arsenic-affected area. We performed a cross-sectional study at two villages in Hetao Plain, Inner Mongolia. The populations of both villages were similar in age, sex, lifestyle, socioeconomic conditions, and geographic location. One hundred and thirty four (93.7%) of the 143 inhabitants in the arsenic-affected village and 36 (76.6%) of the 47 inhabitants in the arsenic-free village participated in the study. Subjects with a 30-item version of General Health Questionnaire score of 9 or more were defined as having symptoms of distress. The multiple logistic analyses showed that the mental health of the subjects in the arsenic-affected village was worse than in those in the arsenic-free village (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-6.0). The effect of arsenic on mental health in arsenic-affected areas deserves further investigation. The mental health burden in arsenic-affected areas should be considered in the wider context of public and community health.

  15. What matters most? Evidence-based findings of health dimensions affecting the societal preferences for EQ-5D health states.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Monica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya Valeria Micaela de Souza; Maia, Ana Carolina; Kind, Paul

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes how different health dimensions defined by the EQ-5D-3L instrument affect average individual preferences for health states. This analysis is an important benchmark for the incorporation of health technologies as it takes into consideration Brazilian population preferences in health resource allocation decisions. The EQ-5D instrument defines health in terms of five dimensions (mobility, daily activities, self-care activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) each divided into three levels of severity. Data came from a valuation study with 3,362 literate individuals aged between 18 and 64 living in urban areas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main results reveal that health utility decreases as the level of severity increases. With regard to health issues, mobility stands out as the most important EQ-5D dimension. Independently of severity levels of the other EQ-5D-3L dimensions, the highest decrements in utilities are associated with severe mobility problems. PMID:25402251

  16. The plant host can affect the encapsidation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA: BMV virions are surprisingly heterogeneous.

    PubMed

    Ni, Peng; Vaughan, Robert C; Tragesser, Brady; Hoover, Haley; Kao, C Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) packages its genomic and subgenomic RNAs into three separate viral particles. BMV purified from barley, wheat, and tobacco have distinct relative abundances of the encapsidated RNAs. We seek to identify the basis for the host-dependent differences in viral RNA encapsidation. Sequencing of the viral RNAs revealed recombination events in the 3' untranslated region of RNA1 of BMV purified from barley and wheat, but not from tobacco. However, the relative amounts of the BMV RNAs that accumulated in barley and wheat are similar and RNA accumulation is not sufficient to account for the difference in RNA encapsidation. Virions purified from barley and wheat were found to differ in their isoelectric points, resistance to proteolysis, and contacts between the capsid residues and the RNA. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that virions from the three hosts had different post-translational modifications that should impact the physiochemical properties of the virions. Another major source of variation in RNA encapsidation was due to the purification of BMV particles to homogeneity. Highly enriched BMV present in lysates had a surprising range of sizes, buoyant densities, and distinct relative amounts of encapsidated RNAs. These results show that the encapsidated BMV RNAs reflect a combination of host effects on the physiochemical properties of the viral capsids and the enrichment of a subset of virions. The previously unexpected heterogeneity in BMV should influence the timing of the infection and also the host innate immune responses.

  17. Biotic mortality factors affecting emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) are highly dependent on life stage and host tree crown condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is a serious invasive forest pest in North America responsible for killing tens to hundreds of millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced in the 1990’s. Although host plant resistance and natural enemies are known to be important sources ...

  18. How parasitism affects critical patch-size in a host-parasitoid model: application to the forest tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, C A; Lewis, M A; Lutscher, F; Roland, J

    2005-03-01

    Habitat structure has broad impacts on many biological systems. In particular, habitat fragmentation can increase the probability of species extinction and on the other hand it can lead to population outbreaks in response to a decline in natural enemies. An extreme consequence of fragmentation is the isolation of small regions of suitable habitat surrounded by a large region of hostile matrix. This scenario can be interpreted as a critical patch-size problem, well studied in a continuous time framework, but relatively new to discrete time models. In this paper we present an integrodifference host-parasitoid model, discrete in time and continuous in space, to study how the critical habitat-size necessary for parasitoid survival changes in response to parasitoid life history traits, such as emergence time. We show that early emerging parasitoids may be able to persist in smaller habitats than late emerging species. The model predicts that these early emerging parasitoids lead to more severe host outbreaks. We hypothesise that promoting efficient late emerging parasitoids may be key in reducing outbreak severity, an approach requiring large continuous regions of suitable habitat. We parameterise the model for the host species of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hbn., a pest insect for which fragmented landscape increases the severity of outbreaks. This host is known to have several parasitoids, due to paucity of data and as a first step in the modelling we consider a single generic parasitoid. The model findings are related to observations of the forest tent caterpillar offering insight into this host-parasitoid response to habitat structure. PMID:15713324

  19. How parasitism affects critical patch-size in a host-parasitoid model: application to the forest tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, C A; Lewis, M A; Lutscher, F; Roland, J

    2005-03-01

    Habitat structure has broad impacts on many biological systems. In particular, habitat fragmentation can increase the probability of species extinction and on the other hand it can lead to population outbreaks in response to a decline in natural enemies. An extreme consequence of fragmentation is the isolation of small regions of suitable habitat surrounded by a large region of hostile matrix. This scenario can be interpreted as a critical patch-size problem, well studied in a continuous time framework, but relatively new to discrete time models. In this paper we present an integrodifference host-parasitoid model, discrete in time and continuous in space, to study how the critical habitat-size necessary for parasitoid survival changes in response to parasitoid life history traits, such as emergence time. We show that early emerging parasitoids may be able to persist in smaller habitats than late emerging species. The model predicts that these early emerging parasitoids lead to more severe host outbreaks. We hypothesise that promoting efficient late emerging parasitoids may be key in reducing outbreak severity, an approach requiring large continuous regions of suitable habitat. We parameterise the model for the host species of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hbn., a pest insect for which fragmented landscape increases the severity of outbreaks. This host is known to have several parasitoids, due to paucity of data and as a first step in the modelling we consider a single generic parasitoid. The model findings are related to observations of the forest tent caterpillar offering insight into this host-parasitoid response to habitat structure.

  20. Health in the hot zone - How could global warming affect humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1996-04-06

    A soon-to-be-released report from the World Health Organization examines the health effects of global warming, calling climate change one of the largest public health challenges for the upcoming century. The issue extends beyond tropical illness: deaths caused directly by heat, dwindling agricultural yields etc. could all affect human health. This article looks at the following health related effects and gives an overview of the scientific information available on each: temperature and mortality; tropical trouble, including vecorborne diseases and increase in susceptable populations; and waterborne problems such as cholera, harmful algal bloomes, food shortages.

  1. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable

  2. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other...

  3. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other...

  4. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other...

  5. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other...

  6. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other...

  7. Health and Illness in a Connected World: How Might Sharing Experiences on the Internet Affect People's Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ziebland, Sue; Wyke, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Context The use of the Internet for peer-to-peer connection has been one of its most dramatic and transformational features. Yet this is a new field with no agreement on a theoretical and methodological basis. The scientific base underpinning this activity needs strengthening, especially given the explosion of web resources that feature experiences posted by patients themselves. This review informs a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (UK) research program on the impact of online patients’ accounts of their experiences with health and health care, which includes the development and validation of a new e-health impact questionnaire. Methods We drew on realist review methods to conduct a conceptual review of literature in the social and health sciences. We developed a matrix to summarize the results, which we then distilled from a wide and diverse reading of the literature. We continued reading until we reached data saturation and then further refined the results after testing them with expert colleagues and a public user panel. Findings We identified seven domains through which online patients’ experiences could affect health. Each has the potential for positive and negative impacts. Five of the identified domains (finding information, feeling supported, maintaining relationships with others, affecting behavior, and experiencing health services) are relatively well rehearsed, while two (learning to tell the story and visualizing disease) are less acknowledged but important features of online resources. Conclusions The value of first-person accounts, the appeal and memorability of stories, and the need to make contact with peers all strongly suggest that reading and hearing others’ accounts of their own experiences of health and illnesss will remain a key feature of e-health. The act of participating in the creation of health information (e.g., through blogging and contributing to social networking on health topics) also influences patients

  8. The impact of pre- and/or probiotics on human colonic metabolism: does it affect human health?

    PubMed

    De Preter, Vicky; Hamer, Henrike M; Windey, Karen; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Since many years, the role of the colonic microbiota in maintaining the host's overall health and well-being has been recognized. Dietary modulation of the microbiota composition and activity has been achieved by the use of pre-, pro- and synbiotics. In this review, we will summarize the available evidence on the modification of bacterial metabolism by dietary intervention with pre-, pro- and synbiotics. Enhanced production of SCFA as a marker of increased saccharolytic fermentation is well documented in animal and in vitro studies. Decreased production of potentially toxic protein fermentation metabolites, such as sulfides, phenolic and indolic compounds, has been less frequently demonstrated. Besides, pre-, pro- and synbiotics also affect other metabolic pathways such as the deconjugation of secondary bile acids, bacterial enzyme activities and mineral absorption. Data from human studies are less conclusive. The emergence of new analytical techniques such as metabolite profiling has revealed new pathways affected by dietary intervention. However, an important challenge for current and future research is to relate changes in bacterial metabolism to concrete health benefits. Potential targets and expected benefits have been identified: reduced risk for the metabolic syndrome and prevention of colorectal cancer. PMID:21207512

  9. NS Reassortment of an H7-Type Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Affects Its Propagation by Altering the Regulation of Viral RNA Production and Antiviral Host Response▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongfang; Robb, Nicole C.; Lenz, Eva; Wolff, Thorsten; Fodor, Ervin; Pleschka, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) with reassorted NS segments from H5- and H7-type avian virus strains placed in the genetic background of the A/FPV/Rostock/34 HPAIV (FPV; H7N1) were generated by reverse genetics. Virological characterizations demonstrated that the growth kinetics of the reassortant viruses differed from that of wild-type (wt) FPV and depended on whether cells were of mammalian or avian origin. Surprisingly, molecular analysis revealed that the different reassortant NS segments were not only responsible for alterations in the antiviral host response but also affected viral genome replication and transcription as well as nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP) export. RNP reconstitution experiments demonstrated that the effects on accumulation levels of viral RNA species were dependent on the specific NS segment as well as on the genetic background of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Beta interferon (IFN-β) expression and the induction of apoptosis were found to be inversely correlated with the magnitude of viral growth, while the NS allele, virus subtype, and nonstructural protein NS1 expression levels showed no correlation. Thus, these results demonstrate that the origin of the NS segment can have a dramatic effect on the replication efficiency and host range of HPAIV. Overall, our data suggest that the propagation of NS reassortant influenza viruses is affected at multiple steps of the viral life cycle as a result of the different effects of the NS1 protein on multiple viral and host functions. PMID:20739516

  10. Systematic, genome-wide identification of host genes affecting replication of a positive-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Kushner, David B; Lindenbach, Brett D; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z; Noueiry, Amine O; Paul, Scott M; Ahlquist, Paul

    2003-12-23

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are the largest virus class and include many pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a representative positive-strand RNA virus whose RNA replication, gene expression, and encapsidation have been reproduced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By using traditional yeast genetics, host genes have been identified that function in controlling BMV translation, selecting BMV RNAs as replication templates, activating the replication complex, maintaining a lipid composition required for membrane-associated RNA replication, and other steps. To more globally and systematically identify such host factors, we used engineered BMV derivatives to assay viral RNA replication in each strain of an ordered, genome-wide set of yeast single-gene deletion mutants. Each deletion strain was transformed to express BMV replicase proteins and a BMV RNA replication template with the capsid gene replaced by a luciferase reporter. Luciferase expression, which is dependent on viral RNA replication and RNA-dependent mRNA synthesis, was measured in intact yeast cells. Approximately 4500 yeast deletion strains ( approximately 80% of yeast genes) were screened in duplicate and selected strains analyzed further. This functional genomics approach revealed nearly 100 genes whose absence inhibited or stimulated BMV RNA replication and/or gene expression by 3- to >25-fold. Several of these genes were shown previously to function in BMV replication, validating the approach. Newly identified genes include some in RNA, protein, or membrane modification pathways and genes of unknown function. The results further illuminate virus and cell pathways. Further refinement of virus screening likely will reveal contributions from additional host genes.

  11. How Do Health Policies Affect My Health?: A Performance Task for High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wycoff-Horn, Marcie R.; Caravella, Tracy J.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that chronic diseases are the most common, costly, and preventable of all health issues in the United States. Chronic diseases continue to be a major health concern. Of the top 10 leading causes of mortality, 7 are identified as chronic. More recently, the prevalence of these chronic conditions has increased among the adolescent…

  12. Host and φx 174 Mutations Affecting the Morphogenesis or Stabilization of the 50s Complex, a Single-Stranded DNA Synthesizing Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Ekechukwu, M. C.; Oberste, D. J.; Fane, B. A.

    1995-01-01

    The morphogenetic pathway of bacteriophage φX 174 was investigated in rep mutant hosts that specifically block stage III single-stranded DNA synthesis. The defects conferred by the mutant rep protein most likely affect the formation or stabilization of the 50S complex, a single-stranded DNA synthesizing intermediate, which consists of a viral prohead and a DNA replicating intermediate (preinitiation complex). φX 174 mutants, ogr(rep), which restore the ability to propagate in the mutant rep hosts, were isolated. The ogr(rep) mutations confer amino acid substitutions in the viral coat protein, a constituent of the prohead, and the viral A protein, a constituent of the preinitiation complex. Four of the six coat protein substitutions are localized on or near the twofold axis of symmetry in the atomic structure of the mature virion. PMID:7498760

  13. In the Wake of Hurricane Katrina: Delivering Crisis Mental Health Services to Host Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbley, Aretha Faye

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the country and especially in Texas, local communities opened their arms to hurricane Katrina evacuees. Like the federal government, emergency health and mental health entities were unprepared for the massive numbers of people needing assistance. Mental health professionals, though armed with a wealth of crisis intervention information,…

  14. The Host Genotype and Environment Affect Strain Types of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Inhabiting the Intestinal Tracts of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the influences of host genotype and environment on Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum inhabiting human intestines at the strain level, six pairs of twins, divided into two groups (children and adults), were recruited. Each group consisted of two monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and one dizygotic (DZ) twin pair. Child twins had been living together from birth, while adult twins had been living separately for 5 to 10 years. A total of 345 B. longum subsp. longum isolates obtained from 60 fecal samples from these twins were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and 35 sequence types (STs) were finally acquired. Comparison of strains within and between the twin pairs showed that no strains with identical STs were observed between unrelated individuals or within adult DZ twin pairs. Eight STs were found to be monophyletic, existing within MZ twins and child DZ twins. The similarity of strain types within child cotwins was significantly higher than that within adult cotwins, which indicated that environment was one of the important determinants in B. longum subsp. longum strain types inhabiting human intestines. However, although these differences between MZ and DZ twins were observed, it is still difficult to reach an exact conclusion about the impact of host genotype. This is mainly because of the limited number of subjects tested in the present study and the lack of strain types tracing in the same twin pairs from birth until adulthood. PMID:25956768

  15. Borrelia burgdorferi RevA Significantly Affects Pathogenicity and Host Response in the Mouse Model of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Byram, Rebecca; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Hellekson, Christopher; Stone, Brandee L.; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian; Johnson, Barbara J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, expresses RevA and numerous outer surface lipoproteins during mammalian infection. As an adhesin that promotes bacterial interaction with fibronectin, RevA is poised to interact with the extracellular matrix of the host. To further define the role(s) of RevA during mammalian infection, we created a mutant that is unable to produce RevA. The mutant was still infectious to mice, although it was significantly less well able to infect cardiac tissues. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type revA gene restored heart infectivity to wild-type levels. Additionally, revA mutants led to increased evidence of arthritis, with increased fibrotic collagen deposition in tibiotarsal joints. The mutants also induced increased levels of the chemokine CCL2, a monocyte chemoattractant, in serum, and this increase was abolished in the complemented strain. Therefore, while revA is not absolutely essential for infection, deletion of revA had distinct effects on dissemination, arthritis severity, and host response. PMID:26150536

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi RevA Significantly Affects Pathogenicity and Host Response in the Mouse Model of Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Byram, Rebecca; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Hellekson, Christopher; Stone, Brandee L; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian; Johnson, Barbara J B; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-09-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, expresses RevA and numerous outer surface lipoproteins during mammalian infection. As an adhesin that promotes bacterial interaction with fibronectin, RevA is poised to interact with the extracellular matrix of the host. To further define the role(s) of RevA during mammalian infection, we created a mutant that is unable to produce RevA. The mutant was still infectious to mice, although it was significantly less well able to infect cardiac tissues. Complementation of the mutant with a wild-type revA gene restored heart infectivity to wild-type levels. Additionally, revA mutants led to increased evidence of arthritis, with increased fibrotic collagen deposition in tibiotarsal joints. The mutants also induced increased levels of the chemokine CCL2, a monocyte chemoattractant, in serum, and this increase was abolished in the complemented strain. Therefore, while revA is not absolutely essential for infection, deletion of revA had distinct effects on dissemination, arthritis severity, and host response.

  17. Dietary modification of host blood lipids affect reproduction in the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum(L.).

    PubMed

    Madden, R D; Sauer, J R; Dillwith, J W; Bowman, A S

    1996-04-01

    The feeding and reproductive performance of female lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum (L.)) infesting guinea pigs on diets containing 15% fish oil (FO) or safflower oil (SO) were investigated. Replete ticks fed on FO-fed guinea pigs weighed approximately 30% less than those on the SO-fed guinea pigs. The lower engorged weight resulted in a similar decrease in the mass and number of eggs laid and number of larvae hatching. No effect of host dietary treatment was observed upon the reproductive efficiency index, egg weight, or hatchability. Guinea pig blood on the FO-diet contained high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, which has previously been shown to inhibit the accumulation of arachidonic acid in the tick salivary gland. It is suggested that the ticks on the FO-fed guinea pigs have impaired production and secretion of dienoic prostaglandins in the saliva resulting in poorer feeding performance, possibly by altering the amount of host blood present in the feeding lesion. PMID:8604084

  18. The Interplay of Host Immunity, Environment and the Risk of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Reproductive Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kerry; Mitchell, Caroline M

    2016-08-15

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common causes of vaginal symptoms in US women, but its causal mechanism has not yet been defined. BV is more prevalent in women who are immunosuppressed, and several risk factors for the development of BV are associated with lower quantities of immune mediators in vaginal fluid. In contrast, the poor reproductive health outcomes associated with BV, such as preterm birth and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition, are associated with increased levels of proinflammatory immune mediators in the genital tract. In this article, we discuss how variations in the host immune profile and environmental effects on host immunity may influence the risk of BV, as well as the risk of complications associated with BV.

  19. Access to mental health services and psychotropic drug use in refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Nosè, M; Turrini, G; Barbui, C

    2015-10-01

    In the populations of refugees and asylum seekers hosted in high-income countries, access to mental health care and psychotropic drugs, is a major challenge. A recent Swedish cross-sectional register study has explored this phenomenon in a national cohort of 43 403 young refugees and their families from Iraq, Iran, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Afghanistan. This register study found lower rates of dispensed psychotropic drugs among recently settled refugees, as compared with Swedish-born residents, with an increase in the use with duration of residence. In this commentary, the results of this survey are discussed in view of their global policy implications for high-income countries hosting populations of refugees and asylum seekers. PMID:26145734

  20. Dietary sodium selenite affects host intestinal and systemic immune response and disease susceptibility to necrotic enteritis in commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Xu, S Z; Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Bravo, D

    2015-01-01

    1. This study was to evaluate the effects of supplementary dietary selenium (Se) given as sodium selenite on host immune response against necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial broiler chickens. 2. Chicks were fed from hatching on a non-supplemented diet or diets supplemented with different levels of Se (0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 Se mg/kg). To induce NE, broiler chickens were orally infected with Eimeria maxima at 14 d of age and then with Clostridium perfringens 4 d later using our previously established NE disease model. 3. NE-associated clinical signs and host protective immunity were determined by body weight changes, intestinal lesion scores, and serum antibodies against α-toxin and necrotic enteritis B (NetB) toxin. The effects of dietary Se on the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8LITAF (lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα-factor), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) SF15, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), glutathione peroxidase 7 (GPx7), and avian β-defensins (AvBD) 6, 8, and 13 (following NE infection) were analysed in the intestine and spleen. 4. The results showed that dietary supplementation of newly hatched broiler chicks with 0.25 Se mg/kg from hatch significantly reduced NE-induced gut lesions compared with infected birds given a non-supplemented diet. The levels of serum antibody against the NetB toxin in the chicks fed with 0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg Se were significantly higher than the non-supplemented control group. The transcripts for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, LITAF, and GPx7, as well as AvBD6, 8, and 13 were increased in the intestine and spleen of Se-supplemented groups, whereas transcript for TNFSF15 was decreased in the intestine. 5. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with optimum levels of Se exerted beneficial effects on host immune response to NE and reduced negative consequence of NE-induced immunopathology.

  1. Effects of Piezoelectric (PZT) Sensor Bonding and the Characteristics of the Host Structure on Impedance Based Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalloh, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of certain factors on the impedance signal in structural health monitoring. These factors were: the quality of the bond between the sensor and the host structure, and the characteristics of the host structure, such as geometry, mass, and material properties. This work was carried out to answer a set of questions, related to these factors, that were developed by the project team. The project team was comprised of Dr. Doug Ramers and Dr. Abdul Jalloh of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, Mr. Arnaldo Colon- Perez, a student intern from the University of Puerto Rico of Turabo, and Mr. John Lassiter and Mr. Bob Engberg of the Structural and Dynamics Test Group at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This study was based on a review of the literature on structural health monitoring to investigate the factors referred to above because there was not enough time to plan and conduct the appropriate tests at MSFC during the tenure of the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program project members. The surveyed literature documents works on structural health monitoring that were based on laboratory tests that were conducted using bolted trusses and other civil engineering type structures for the most part. These are not the typical types of structures used in designing and building NASA s space vehicles and systems. It was therefore recommended that tests be conducted using NASA type structures, such as pressure vessels, to validate the observations made in this report.

  2. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Caitlin; Grapov, Dmitry; Fiehn, Oliver; Chandler, Carol J; Burnett, Dustin J; Souza, Elaine C; Casazza, Gretchen A; Gustafson, Mary B; Keim, Nancy L; Newman, John W; Hunter, Gary R; Fernandez, Jose R; Garvey, W Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Hoppel, Charles L; Meissen, John K; Take, Kohei; Adams, Sean H

    2014-01-01

    Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight) were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1) Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin) following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid]) or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol); (2) Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3) Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome. PMID:24416208

  3. Improved Metabolic Health Alters Host Metabolism in Parallel with Changes in Systemic Xeno-Metabolites of Gut Origin

    PubMed Central

    Fiehn, Oliver; Chandler, Carol J.; Burnett, Dustin J.; Souza, Elaine C.; Casazza, Gretchen A.; Gustafson, Mary B.; Keim, Nancy L.; Newman, John W.; Hunter, Gary R.; Fernandez, Jose R.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Hoppel, Charles L.; Meissen, John K.; Take, Kohei; Adams, Sean H.

    2014-01-01

    Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight) were identified before and after a 14–17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1) Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites (“non-self” metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin) following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid]) or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol); (2) Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3) Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary “signatures” of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome. PMID:24416208

  4. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Caitlin; Grapov, Dmitry; Fiehn, Oliver; Chandler, Carol J; Burnett, Dustin J; Souza, Elaine C; Casazza, Gretchen A; Gustafson, Mary B; Keim, Nancy L; Newman, John W; Hunter, Gary R; Fernandez, Jose R; Garvey, W Timothy; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Hoppel, Charles L; Meissen, John K; Take, Kohei; Adams, Sean H

    2014-01-01

    Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight) were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of diet- or microbiome-derived molecules on the systemic metabolome, sampling was during a tightly-controlled feeding test week paradigm. Pairwise and multivariate analysis revealed intervention- and insulin-sensitivity associated: (1) Changes in plasma xeno-metabolites ("non-self" metabolites of dietary or gut microbial origin) following an oral glucose tolerance test (e.g. higher post-OGTT propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate [tricarballylic acid]) or in the overnight-fasted state (e.g., lower γ-tocopherol); (2) Increased indices of saturated very long chain fatty acid elongation capacity; (3) Increased post-OGTT α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG), fasting α-KG inversely correlated with Matsuda index, and altered patterns of malate, pyruvate and glutamine hypothesized to stem from improved mitochondrial efficiency and more robust oxidation of glucose. The results support a working model in which improved metabolic health modifies host metabolism in parallel with altering systemic exposure to xeno-metabolites. This highlights that interpretations regarding the origins of peripheral blood or urinary "signatures" of insulin resistance and metabolic health must consider the potentially important contribution of gut-derived metabolites toward the host's metabolome.

  5. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    PubMed

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  6. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    PubMed

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  7. The Ratio between Positive and Negative Affect and Flourishing Mental Health across Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Berg, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a 30-day diary study with 239 adults (81 young, 81 middle-aged, and 77 older adults) this study examined whether a specific ratio between positive and negative affect distinguished individuals with different mental health status and especially flourishing from non-flourishing individuals. In addition, the study addressed whether there were age differences in the positivity ratio when daily affect data were used, and whether the proposed critical positivity ratio of 2.9 discriminated equally well between individuals with different mental health status across the adult lifespan. Findings showed that the ratio of positive to negative affect differed across adulthood such that age was associated with an increasing preponderance of positive to negative affect. The positivity ratio was also associated with mental health status in the hypothesized direction; higher positivity ratios were associated with better mental health. Finally, although the data supported the notion of a positivity ratio of 2.9 as a “critical value” in young adulthood, this value did not equally well discriminate the mental health status of middle-aged and older adults. PMID:21562989

  8. The ratio between positive and negative affect and flourishing mental health across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L; Berg, Kathleen M

    2011-09-01

    Using data from a 30-day diary study with 239 adults (81 young, 81 middle-aged, and 77 older adults), this study examined whether a specific ratio between positive and negative affect distinguished individuals with different mental health status and especially flourishing from non-flourishing individuals. In addition, the study addressed whether there were age differences in the positivity ratio when daily affect data were used, and whether the proposed critical positivity ratio of 2.9 discriminated equally well between individuals with different mental health status across the adult lifespan. Findings showed that the ratio of positive to negative affect differed across adulthood such that age was associated with an increasing preponderance of positive to negative affect. The positivity ratio was also associated with mental health status in the hypothesized direction; higher positivity ratios were associated with better mental health. Finally, although the data supported the notion of a positivity ratio of 2.9 as a 'critical value' in young adulthood, this value did not equally well discriminate the mental health status of middle-aged and older adults. PMID:21562989

  9. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases.

  10. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: protective processes and pathways to resilience.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain 'invulnerable' children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology.

  11. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: protective processes and pathways to resilience.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain 'invulnerable' children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology. PMID:18569183

  12. How do health insurer market concentration and bargaining power with hospitals affect health insurance premiums?

    PubMed

    Trish, Erin E; Herring, Bradley J

    2015-07-01

    The US health insurance industry is highly concentrated, and health insurance premiums are high and rising rapidly. Policymakers have focused on the possible link between the two, leading to ACA provisions to increase insurer competition. However, while market power may enable insurers to include higher profit margins in their premiums, it may also result in stronger bargaining leverage with hospitals to negotiate lower payment rates to partially offset these higher premiums. We empirically examine the relationship between employer-sponsored fully-insured health insurance premiums and the level of concentration in local insurer and hospital markets using the nationally-representative 2006-2011 KFF/HRET Employer Health Benefits Survey. We exploit a unique feature of employer-sponsored insurance, in which self-insured employers purchase only administrative services from managed care organizations, to disentangle these different effects on insurer concentration by constructing one concentration measure representing fully-insured plans' transactions with employers and the other concentration measure representing insurers' bargaining with hospitals. As expected, we find that premiums are indeed higher for plans sold in markets with higher levels of concentration relevant to insurer transactions with employers, lower for plans in markets with higher levels of insurer concentration relevant to insurer bargaining with hospitals, and higher for plans in markets with higher levels of hospital market concentration. PMID:25910690

  13. Solar and Temperature Treatments Affect the Ability of Human Rotavirus Wa To Bind to Host Cells and Synthesize Viral RNA

    PubMed Central

    Shisler, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus, the leading cause of diarrheal diseases in children under the age of five, is often resistant to conventional wastewater treatment and thus can remain infectious once released into the aquatic environment. Solar and heat treatments can inactivate rotavirus, but it is unknown how these treatments inactivate the virus on a molecular level. To answer this question, our approach was to correlate rotavirus inactivation with the inhibition of portions of the virus life cycle as a means to identify the mechanisms of solar or heat inactivation. Specifically, the integrity of the rotavirus NSP3 gene, virus-host cell interaction, and viral RNA synthesis were examined after heat (57°C) or solar treatment of rotavirus. Only the inhibition of viral RNA synthesis positively correlated with a loss of rotavirus infectivity; 57°C treatment of rotavirus resulted in a decrease of rotavirus RNA synthesis at the same rate as rotavirus infectivity. These data suggest that heat treatment neutralized rotaviruses primarily by targeting viral transcription functions. In contrast, when using solar disinfection, the decrease in RNA synthesis was responsible for approximately one-half of the decrease in infectivity, suggesting that other mechanisms, including posttranslational, contribute to inactivation. Nevertheless, both solar and heat inactivation of rotaviruses disrupted viral RNA synthesis as a mechanism for inactivation. PMID:25862222

  14. Aphids Pick Their Poison: Selective Sequestration of Plant Chemicals Affects Host Plant Use in a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Goodey, Nicole A; Florance, Hannah V; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-10-01

    In some plant-insect interactions, specialist herbivores exploit the chemical defenses of their food plant to their own advantage. Brassica plants produce glucosinolates that are broken down into defensive toxins when tissue is damaged, but the specialist aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, uses these chemicals against its own natural enemies by becoming a "walking mustard-oil bomb". Analysis of glucosinolate concentrations in plant tissue and associated aphid colonies reveals that not only do aphids sequester glucosinolates, but they do so selectively. Aphids specifically accumulate sinigrin to high concentrations while preferentially excreting a structurally similar glucosinolate, progoitrin. Surveys of aphid infestation in wild populations of Brassica oleracea show that this pattern of sequestration and excretion maps onto host plant use. The probability of aphid infestation decreases with increasing concentrations of progoitrin in plants. Brassica brassicae, therefore, appear to select among food plants according to plant secondary metabolite profiles, and selectively store only some compounds that are used against their own enemies. The results demonstrate chemical and behavioral mechanisms that help to explain evidence of geographic patterns and evolutionary dynamics in Brassica-aphid interactions. PMID:26411571

  15. Microbial host selection and periplasmic folding in Escherichia coli affect the biochemical characteristics of a cutinase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Kokkinou, Areti; Karpusas, Michael; Topakas, Evangelos

    2016-11-01

    A cutinase from the mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum (FoCut5a) was functionally expressed in different hosts and their recombinant products were characterized regarding their activity, thermostability and tolerance in organic solvents. The cutinase gene cut5a was expressed in the BL21 and Origami 2 Escherichia coli strains and the resulting protein was folded either in the cytoplasm or in the periplasmic space, with the aim of correct formation of disulfide bonds. Increase of thermostability occurred when the enzyme was expressed in the oxidative cytoplasm of Origami 2. All expression products showed maximum enzyme activity at 40 °C, while thermostability increased by 73% when expressed in the Origami strain compared to the cytoplasmic expression in BL21 cells. The melting temperature of each protein construct was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy showing an additional transition at about 63 °C for enzymes expressed in Origami cells, indicating the co-presence of a different thermostable species. Kinetic studies performed on three p-nitrophenyl synthetic esters of aliphatic acids (C2, C4, C12) indicated that this cutinase shows higher affinity for the hydrolysis of the butyl ester. PMID:27302766

  16. Solar and temperature treatments affect the ability of human rotavirus wa to bind to host cells and synthesize viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C; Shisler, Joanna L; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2015-06-15

    Rotavirus, the leading cause of diarrheal diseases in children under the age of five, is often resistant to conventional wastewater treatment and thus can remain infectious once released into the aquatic environment. Solar and heat treatments can inactivate rotavirus, but it is unknown how these treatments inactivate the virus on a molecular level. To answer this question, our approach was to correlate rotavirus inactivation with the inhibition of portions of the virus life cycle as a means to identify the mechanisms of solar or heat inactivation. Specifically, the integrity of the rotavirus NSP3 gene, virus-host cell interaction, and viral RNA synthesis were examined after heat (57°C) or solar treatment of rotavirus. Only the inhibition of viral RNA synthesis positively correlated with a loss of rotavirus infectivity; 57°C treatment of rotavirus resulted in a decrease of rotavirus RNA synthesis at the same rate as rotavirus infectivity. These data suggest that heat treatment neutralized rotaviruses primarily by targeting viral transcription functions. In contrast, when using solar disinfection, the decrease in RNA synthesis was responsible for approximately one-half of the decrease in infectivity, suggesting that other mechanisms, including posttranslational, contribute to inactivation. Nevertheless, both solar and heat inactivation of rotaviruses disrupted viral RNA synthesis as a mechanism for inactivation.

  17. Aphids Pick Their Poison: Selective Sequestration of Plant Chemicals Affects Host Plant Use in a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Goodey, Nicole A; Florance, Hannah V; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-10-01

    In some plant-insect interactions, specialist herbivores exploit the chemical defenses of their food plant to their own advantage. Brassica plants produce glucosinolates that are broken down into defensive toxins when tissue is damaged, but the specialist aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, uses these chemicals against its own natural enemies by becoming a "walking mustard-oil bomb". Analysis of glucosinolate concentrations in plant tissue and associated aphid colonies reveals that not only do aphids sequester glucosinolates, but they do so selectively. Aphids specifically accumulate sinigrin to high concentrations while preferentially excreting a structurally similar glucosinolate, progoitrin. Surveys of aphid infestation in wild populations of Brassica oleracea show that this pattern of sequestration and excretion maps onto host plant use. The probability of aphid infestation decreases with increasing concentrations of progoitrin in plants. Brassica brassicae, therefore, appear to select among food plants according to plant secondary metabolite profiles, and selectively store only some compounds that are used against their own enemies. The results demonstrate chemical and behavioral mechanisms that help to explain evidence of geographic patterns and evolutionary dynamics in Brassica-aphid interactions.

  18. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population.

  19. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population. PMID:18392351

  20. Host-feeding sources and habitats jointly affect wing developmental stability depending on sex in the major Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    PubMed

    Nattero, Julieta; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; del Pilar Fernández, María; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), a slight and random departure from bilateral symmetry that is normally distributed around a 0 mean, has been widely used to infer developmental instability. We investigated whether habitats (ecotopes) and host-feeding sources influenced wing FA of the hematophagous bug Triatoma infestans. Because bug populations occupying distinct habitats differed substantially and consistently in various aspects such as feeding rates, engorgement status and the proportion of gravid females, we predicted that bugs from more open peridomestic habitats (i.e., goat corrals) were more likely to exhibit higher FA than bugs from domiciles. We examined patterns of asymmetry and the amount of wing size and shape FA in 196 adult T. infestans collected across a gradient of habitat suitability and stability that decreased from domiciles, storerooms, kitchens, chicken coops, pig corrals, to goat corrals in a well-defined area of Figueroa, northwestern Argentina. The bugs had unmixed blood meals on human, chicken, pig and goat depending on the bug collection ecotope. We documented the occurrence of FA in wing shape for bugs fed on all host-feeding sources and in all ecotopes except for females from domiciles or fed on humans. FA indices for wing shape differed significantly among host-feeding sources, ecotopes and sexes. The patterns of wing asymmetry in females from domiciles and from goat corrals were significantly different; differences in male FA were congruent with evidence showing that they had higher mobility than females across habitats. The host-feeding sources and habitats of T. infestans affected wing developmental stability depending on sex.

  1. Vector-borne pathogens: New and emerging arboviral diseases affecting public health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dengue and Zika have quickly become two of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting Public health around the world. This presentation will introduce vector-borne diseases and all the vectors implicated. A focus will be made on the most important arboviral diseases (Zika and dengue) describ...

  2. Stress and Burnout among Health-Care Staff Working with People Affected by HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David

    1995-01-01

    The nature, causes, consequences, and symptoms of stress and burnout among health-care staff working with people affected by HIV are identified. The extent to which these characteristics are specific to HIV/AIDS workers is discussed. Some options for prevention and management of burnout are presented. (Author)

  3. Handgrip Strength, Positive Affect, and Perceived Health Are Prospectively Associated with Fewer Functional Limitations among Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Warren D.; Margrett, Jennifer A.; Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the association between perceived health, fatigue, positive and negative affect, handgrip strength, objectively measured physical activity, body mass index, and self-reported functional limitations, assessed 6 months later, among 11 centenarians (age = 102 plus or minus 1). Activities of daily living, assessed 6 months prior to…

  4. Trends that will affect your future … a portrait of American societal health.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephan A

    2011-01-01

    The SchwartzReport tracks emerging trends that will affect the world, particularly the United States. For EXPLORE, it focuses on matters of health in the broadest sense of that term, including medical issues, changes in the biosphere, technology, and policy considerations, all of which will shape our culture and our lives. PMID:21194667

  5. How Does Tele-Mental Health Affect Group Therapy Process? Secondary Analysis of a Noninferiority Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Carolyn J.; Morland, Leslie A.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubbs, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Video teleconferencing (VTC) is used for mental health treatment delivery to geographically remote, underserved populations. However, few studies have examined how VTC affects individual or group psychotherapy processes. This study compares process variables such as therapeutic alliance and attrition among participants receiving anger…

  6. Evidence that the structural conformation of envelope gp120 affects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity, host range, and syncytium-forming ability.

    PubMed Central

    Stamatatos, L; Cheng-Mayer, C

    1993-01-01

    We investigated how amino acid changes within and outside the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influence the infectivity, host range, and syncytium-forming ability of the virus. Our studies show that on the genomic backgrounds of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains SF2 and SF13, a reciprocal exchange of full-loop sequences does not alter the syncytium-forming ability of the viruses, indicating that a determinant(s) for this biological property maps outside the loop. However, specific amino acid substitutions, both within and outside the V3 loop, resulted in loss of infectivity, host range, and syncytium-forming potential of the virus. Furthermore, it appears that a functional interaction of the V3 loop with regions in the C2 domain of envelope gp120 plays a role in determining these biological properties. Structural studies of mutant glycoproteins show that the mutations introduced affect the proper association of gp120 with the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Our results suggest that mutations that alter the structure of the V3 loop can affect the overall conformation of gp120 and that, reciprocally, the structure of the V3 loop is influenced by the conformation of other regions of gp120. Since the changes in the replicative potential, host range, and fusogenic ability of the mutant viruses correlate well with the changes in gp120 conformation, as monitored by the association of gp120 with gp41, our results support a close relationship between envelope gp120 structural conformation and the biological phenotype of the virus. Images PMID:8350416

  7. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], p<.001) and positively associated with negative affect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], p<.001). In comparison, we found no association between n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect. PMID:27188896

  8. Expression of the transposase gene tnpA of Tn4652 is positively affected by integration host factor.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, R; Kivisaar, M

    1998-06-01

    Tn4652 is a derivative of the toluene degradation transposon Tn4651 that belongs to the Tn3 family of transposons (M. Tsuda and T. Iino, Mol. Gen. Genet. 210:270-276, 1987). We have sequenced the transposase gene tnpA of transposon Tn4652 and mapped its promoter to the right end of the element. The deduced amino acid sequence of tnpA revealed 96.2% identity with the putative transposase of Tn5041. Homology with other Tn3 family transposases was only moderate (about 20 to 24% identity), suggesting that Tn4652 and Tn5041 are distantly related members of the Tn3 family. Functional analysis of the tnpA promoter revealed that it is active in Pseudomonas putida but silent in Escherichia coli, indicating that some P. putida-specific factor is required for the transcription from this promoter. Additionally, tnpA promoter activity was shown to be modulated by integration host factor (IHF). The presence of an IHF-binding site upstream of the tnpA promoter enhanced the promoter activity. The positive role of IHF was also confirmed by the finding that the enhancing effect of IHF was not detected in the P. putida ihfA-deficient strain A8759. Moreover, the Tn4652 terminal sequences had a negative effect on transcription from the tnpA promoter in the ihfA-defective strain. This finding suggests that IHF not only enhances transcription from the tnpA promoter but also alleviates the negative effect of terminal sequences of Tn4652 on the promoter activity. Also, an in vitro binding assay demonstrated that both ends of Tn4652 bind IHF from a cell lysate of E. coli. PMID:9603867

  9. Host plant resistance in romaine lettuce affects feeding behavior and biology of Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; McAuslane, Heather J; Nagata, Russell T; Nuessly, Gregg S

    2006-12-01

    Lettuce quality and yield can be reduced by feeding of several lepidopterous pests, particularly cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), and beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Host plant resistance to these insects is an environmentally sound adjunct to conventional chemical control. In this study we compared the survival, development, and feeding behavior of cabbage looper and beet armyworm on two romaine lettuce cultivars, resistant 'Valmaine' and susceptible 'Tall Guzmaine'. Larval mortality of both species was significantly higher on resistant Valmaine than on susceptible Tall Guzmaine. The average weight per larva after feeding for 1 wk on Tall Guzmaine plants was 6 times (beet armyworm) and 2 times (cabbage looper) greater than that of larvae feeding on Valmaine plants. Significant reduction in larval growth on Valmaine compared with that on Tall Guzmaine resulted in a 5.9- (beet armyworm) and 2.6-d (cabbage looper) increase in larval duration and almost a 1-d increase in pupal duration. Average pupal and adult weights and successful pupation of cabbage looper and beet armyworm were reduced on Valmaine compared with Tall Guzmaine. The sex ratio of progeny did not deviate from 1:1 when larvae were reared on either Valmaine or Tall Guzmaine. The fecundity of cabbage looper and beet armyworm adults that developed from larvae reared on Valmaine was about one-third that of adults from Tall Guzmaine, but adult longevity did not significantly differ on the two lettuce cultivars. The two insect species showed different feeding preferences for leaves of different age groups on Valmaine and Tall Guzmaine. Cabbage loopers cut narrow trenches on the leaf before actual feeding to block the flow of latex to the intended site of feeding. In contrast, beet armyworms did not trench. The different feeding behavior of the two species on Valmaine may explain the superior performance of cabbage looper compared with beet armyworm. PMID:17195688

  10. Spinocerebellar Ataxia: Patient and Health Professional Perspectives on Whether and How Patents Affect Access to Clinical Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Ashton; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing for spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is used in diagnosis of rare movement disorders. Such testing generally does not affect treatment, but confirmation of mutations in a known gene can confirm diagnosis and end an often years-long quest for the cause of distressing and disabling symptoms. Through interviews and a web forum hosted by the National Ataxia Foundation, patients and health professionals related their experiences with patents’ impact on access to genetic testing for SCA. In the United States, Athena Diagnostics holds either a patent or an exclusive license to a patent in the case of 6 SCA variants (SCA1-3 & 6-8) and two other hereditary ataxias (Friedreich’s Ataxia and Early Onset Ataxia). Athena has enforced its exclusive rights to SCA-related patents by sending cease and desist letters to multiple laboratories offering genetic testing for inherited neurological conditions, including SCA. Roughly half of web forum respondents had decided not to get genetic tests. Price, coverage and reimbursement by insurers and health plans, and fear of genetic discrimination were the main reasons cited for deciding not to get tested. Price was cited as an access concern by the physicians, and as sole US provider, coverage and reimbursement depend on having payment agreements between Athena and payers. In cases where payers do not reimburse, the patient is responsible for payment, although some patients can apply to the voluntary Athena Access and Patient Protection Programs offered by the company. PMID:20393313

  11. Personal, Electronic, Secure National Library of Medicine Hosts Health Records Conference

    MedlinePlus

    ... care providers in the decisions affecting their care."— Daniel Masys, Chair, Department of Biomedical Informatics, and Professor ... for our patients for quality and safety."— G. Daniel Martich, MD, Professor of Critical Care Medicine, Vice ...

  12. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study.

  13. Perseverative thoughts and subjective health complaints in adolescence: Mediating effects of perceived stress and negative affects.

    PubMed

    Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Józan, Anna; Morgan, Antony; Szemenyei, Eszter; Urbán, Róbert; Reinhardt, Melinda; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as trait rumination and worry can influence somatic health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between perseverative thoughts and somatic complaints, and the possible mediating effects of perceived stress, negative and positive affectivity in adolescence. Having an acute or a chronic condition was also assessed to be controlled for and to reveal their effects on symptom reporting. Three hundred and six adolescents from 7th to 12th grade with mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.29) participated in the study. Mediation analysis suggested that impact of trait-like perseverative thoughts on complaints were mediated by perceived stress and negative affectivity. Having an acute condition had also an effect on symptom reporting through increased negative affectivity. Our results highlight that ruminations or worry as stable intrapersonal characteristics are relevant processes in health and can be potential targets in prevention programmes in adolescence.

  14. Cross-talk between bile acids and intestinal microbiota in host metabolism and health*

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yang-fan; Hu, Jun; Yan, Xiang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid (BA) is de novo synthesized exclusively in the liver and has direct or indirect antimicrobial effects. On the other hand, the composition and size of the BA pool can be altered by intestinal microbiota via the biotransformation of primary BAs to secondary BAs, and subsequently regulate the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4). The BA-activated FXR plays important roles in BA synthesis and metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, and even hepatic autophagy. BAs can also play a role in the interplays among intestinal microbes. In this review, we mainly discuss the interactions between BAs and intestinal microbiota and their roles in regulating host metabolism, and probably the autophagic signaling pathway. PMID:26055905

  15. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health

    PubMed Central

    Umu, Özgün C. O.; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning. PMID:27695121

  16. Squeezing blood from a stone: how income inequality affects the health of the American workforce.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jessica Allia R; Rosenstock, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Income inequality is very topical-in both political and economic circles-but although income and socioeconomic status are known determinants of health status, income inequality has garnered scant attention with respect to the health of US workers. By several measures, income inequality in the United States has risen since 1960. In addition to pressures from an increasingly competitive labor market, with cash wages losing out to benefits, workers face pressures from changes in work organization. We explored these factors and the mounting evidence of income inequality as a contributing factor to poorer health for the workforce. Although political differences may divide the policy approaches undertaken, addressing income inequality is likely to improve the overall social and health conditions for those affected.

  17. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health.

  18. Women, men and public health-how the choice of normative theory affects resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Ohman, Ann

    2004-09-01

    Women live longer than men in almost all countries, but men are more privileged in terms of power, influence, resources and probably morbidity. This investigation aims at illustrating how the choice of normative framework affects judgements about the fairness in these sex differences, and about desired societal change. The selected theories are welfare economics, health sector extra-welfarism, justice as fairness and feminist justice. By means of five Swedish proposals aiming at improving the population's health or "sex equity", facts and values are applied to resource allocation. Although we do not claim a specific ethical foundation, it seems to us that the feminist criterion has great potential in public health policy. The overall conclusion is that the normative framework must be explicitly discussed and stated in issues of women's and men's health. PMID:15276314

  19. Spouse health status, depressed affect, and resilience in mid and late life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-04-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on average, depressive symptoms were compared in 4 groups varying in their experience of spousal health transitions: those whose spouse remained ill at T1 and T2, those whose spouse declined in health from T1 to T2, those whose spouse's health improved from T1 to T2, and those whose spouse remained healthy at both time points. Mixed analyses of covariance showed that, as hypothesized, having a spouse who became or remained ill over time was linked to greater depressed affect by T2, whereas having a spouse improve in health was associated with a decline in depressive symptomatology. Moderated regression analyses indicated that while higher mastery and self-esteem were linked to lower depressed affect in general, these resources were especially protective against depressed affect for those whose spouse remained ill at both time points. These findings are at the intersection of life course theory and the stress process model highlighting the contextual forces in and the interconnectedness of individual development as well as the plasticity and resilience evident in adaptation to stress during mid and late life.

  20. Interventions for Children Affected by War: An Ecological Perspective on Psychosocial Support and Mental Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra P.; Tol, Wietse A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents exposed to armed conflict are at high risk of developing mental health problems. To date, a range of psychosocial approaches and clinical/psychiatric interventions has been used to address mental health needs in these groups. Aims To provide an overview of peer-reviewed psychosocial and mental health interventions designed to address mental health needs of conflict-affected children, and to highlight areas in which policy and research need strengthening. Methods We used standard review methodology to identify interventions aimed at improving or treating mental health problems in conflict-affected youth. An ecological lens was used to organize studies according to the individual, family, peer/school, and community factors targeted by each intervention. Interventions were also evaluated for their orientation toward prevention, treatment, or maintenance, and for the strength of the scientific evidence of reported effects. Results Of 2305 studies returned from online searches of the literature and 21 sources identified through bibliography mining, 58 qualified for full review, with 40 peer-reviewed studies included in the final narrative synthesis. Overall, the peer-reviewed literature focused largely on school-based interventions. Very few family and community-based interventions have been empirically evaluated. Only two studies assessed multilevel or stepped-care packages. Conclusions The evidence base on effective and efficacious interventions for conflict-affected youth requires strengthening. Postconflict development agendas must be retooled to target the vulnerabilities characterizing conflict-affected youth, and these approaches must be collaborative across bodies responsible for the care of youth and families. PMID:23656831

  1. Quality of life and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients in a Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Syed, Emdadul H; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Ahsan, Habibul; Jimba, Masamine

    2012-09-01

    Contamination of groundwater by inorganic arsenic is one of the major public-health problems in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients and (b) to identify the factors associated with the QOL. Of 1,456 individuals, 521 (35.78%) were selected as case and control participants, using a systematic random-sampling method. The selection criteria for cases (n=259) included presence of at least one of the following: melanosis, leucomelanosis on at least 10% of the body, or keratosis on the hands or feet. Control (nonpatient) participants (n=262) were selected from the same villages by matching age (±5 years) and gender. The Bangladeshi version of the WHOQOL-BREF was used for assessing the QOL, and the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ) was used for assessing the general mental health status. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the WHOQOL-BREF and SRQ scores between the patients and the non-patients were compared. The mean scores of QOL were significantly lower in the patients than those in the non-patients of both the sexes. Moreover, the mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients (mean score for males=8.4 and females=10.3) showed greater disturbances than those of the non-patients (mean score for males=5.2 and females=6.1) of both the sexes. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors potentially contributing to the lower QOL scores included: being an arsenic-affected patient, having lower age, and having lower annual income. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the QOL and mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients were significantly lower than those of the non-patients in Bangladesh. Appropriate interventions are necessary to improve the well-being of the patients.

  2. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration affects interactions between Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and two host plant species outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Caulfield, F.; Bunce, J.A. )

    1994-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner), larvae were placed on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) and pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) plants in outdoor chambers in which the plants were growing at either the ambient ([approximately] 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) or ambient plus 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] ([approximately] 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) carbon dioxide concentration. A series of experiments was performed to determine if larvae reduced plant growth differently at the two carbon dioxide concentrations in either species and if the insect growth or survival differed with carbon dioxide concentration. Leaf nitrogen, water, starch, and soluble carbohydrate contents were measured to assess carbon dioxide concentration effects on leaf quality. Insect feeding significantly reduced plant growth in sugarbeet plants at 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] but not at 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] nor in pigweed at either carbon dioxide concentration. Larval survival was greater on sugarbeet plants at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Increased survival occurred only if the insects were at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration and consumed leaf material grown at the elevated concentration. Leaf quality was only marginally affected by growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in these experiments. The results indicate that in designing experiments to predict effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on plant-insect interactions, both plants and insects should be exposed to the experimental carbon dioxide concentrations, as well as to as realistic environmental conditions as possible.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores host bacteria that affect nutrient biodynamics and biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Andre Freire; Ishii, Takaaki

    2012-01-01

    Summary The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize bacteria from spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We designated these bacteria ‘probable endobacteria’ (PE). Three bacterial strains were isolated from approximately 500 spores of Gigaspora margarita (Becker and Hall) using a hypodermic needle (diameter, 200 μm). The bacteria were identified by morphological methods and on the basis of ribosomal gene sequences as Bacillus sp. (KTCIGM01), Bacillus thuringiensis (KTCIGM02), and Paenibacillus rhizospherae (KTCIGM03). We evaluated the effect of these probable endobacteria on antagonistic activity to the soil-borne plant pathogens (SBPPs) Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae MAFF 744088, Rosellinia necatrix, Rhizoctonia solani MAFF 237426, and Pythium ultimum NBRC 100123. We also tested whether these probable endobacteria affected phosphorus solubilization, ethylene production, nitrogenase activity (NA), and stimulation of AMF hyphal growth. In addition, fresh samples of spores and hyphae were photographed using an in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Quanta 250FEG; FEI Co., Japan). Bacterial aggregates (BAs), structures similar to biofilms, could be detected on the surface of hyphae and spores. We demonstrate that using extraction with an ultrathin needle, it is possible to isolate AMF-associated bacterial species that are likely derived from inside the fungal spores. PMID:23213368

  4. Foreclosure and Health in Southern Europe: Results from the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2016-04-01

    Housing instability has been shown to be related to poorer health outcomes in various studies, mainly in the USA and UK. Affected individuals are more prone to psychiatric (e.g., major depression, anxiety) and physical disorders (e.g., hypertension). This situation has deteriorated with the onset of the economic crisis. One of the most affected countries is Spain, which has high rates of foreclosure and eviction that continue to rise. In response, a civil movement, The Platform for People Affected by Mortgages (PAH), works to provide solutions to its members affected by foreclosure and advocates for the right to decent housing. The aims of this study ware to describe and compare the health status of PAH members from Catalonia to a sample of the general population and to analyze the association between health status and mortgage status, foreclosure stage, and other socioeconomic variables, among members of the PAH. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered online questionnaire (2014) administered to 905 PAH members in Catalonia (>18 years; 559 women and 346 men). Results were compared with health indicators from The Health Survey of Catalonia 2013 (n = 4830). The dependent variables were poor mental health (GHQ 12 ≥ 3), and poor self-reported health (fair or poor). All analyses were stratified by sex. We computed age-standardized prevalence and prevalence ratios of poor mental and self-reported health in both samples. We also analyzed health outcomes among PAH members according to mortgage status (mortgage holders or guarantors), stage of foreclosure, and other socioeconomic variables by computing prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regression models. The prevalence of poor mental health among PAH members was 90.6 % in women and 84.4 % in men, and 15.5 and 10.2 % in the general population, respectively. The prevalence of poor self-reported health was 55.6 % in women and 39.4 % in men from the PAH, and 19.2 and 16.1 % in the general

  5. Factors Affecting Job Motivation among Health Workers: A Study From Iran

    PubMed Central

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers’ motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed questionnaire that included 17 motivating factors and 6 demotivating factors and 8 questions to assess the current status of some factors. Validity and reliability of the tool were confirmed. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistical tests. Results: The main motivating factors for health workers were good management, supervisors and managers’ support and good working relationship with colleagues. On the other hand, unfair treatment, poor management and lack of appreciation were the main demotivating factors. Furthermore, 47.2% of health workers believed that existing schemes for supervision were unhelpful in improving their performance. Conclusion: Strengthening management capacities in health services can increase job motivation and improve health workers’ performance. The findings suggests that special attention should be paid to some aspects such as management competencies, social support in the workplace, treating employees fairly and performance management practices, especially supervision and performance appraisal. PMID:25948438

  6. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    PubMed

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  7. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    PubMed

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

  8. Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat

    PubMed Central

    Palmnäs, Marie S. A.; Cowan, Theresa E.; Bomhof, Marc R.; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A.; Vogel, Hans J.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5–7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10–12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation. PMID:25313461

  9. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    PubMed

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05). Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  10. Clinical Research and the Training of Host Country Investigators: Essential Health Priorities for Disease-Endemic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Koita, Ousmane A.; Murphy, Robert L.; Fongoro, Saharé; Diallo, Boubakar; Doumbia, Seydou O.; Traoré, Moussa; Krogstad, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    The health-care needs and resources of disease-endemic regions such as west Africa have been a major focus during the recent Ebola outbreak. On the basis of that experience, we call attention to two priorities that have unfortunately been ignored thus far: 1) the development of clinical research facilities and 2) the training of host country investigators to ensure that the facilities and expertise necessary to evaluate candidate interventions are available on-site in endemic regions when and where they are needed. In their absence, as illustrated by the recent uncertainty about the use of antivirals and other interventions for Ebola virus disease, the only treatment available may be supportive care, case fatality rates may be unacceptably high and there may be long delays between the time potential interventions become available and it becomes clear whether those interventions are safe or effective. On the basis of our experience in Mali, we urge that the development of clinical research facilities and the training of host country investigators be prioritized in disease-endemic regions such as west Africa. PMID:26598570

  11. A Study of Predictive Factors Affecting Health: Promoting Behaviors of North Korean Adolescent Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Yun, Hyo-Young; Park, Hyunchun; Yu, Shi-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods: Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p<0.05), having family members in South Korea (t=2.02, p<0.05), and subjective health status (t=4.96, p<0.01). Scores on health-responsible behaviors were higher with higher age (t=2.90, p<0.01) and for subjects without family or friends (t=2.43, p<0.05). Higher physical-activity behaviors were observed in males (t=3.32, p<0.01), in those with better subjective health status (t=3.46, p<0.05) and lower body mas index (t=3.48, p<0.05), and in smokers (t=3.17, p<0.01). Nutritional behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=2.17, p<0.05). Spiritual growth behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=4.21, p<0.001), had no family in South Korea (t=2.04, p<0.05), and had higher subjective health status (t=5.74, p<0.01). Scores on interpersonal relationships and stress-management behaviors were higher for those with higher subjective health status. A multiple regression analysis showed greater effects on health-promoting behaviors when subjective health status was better. Older people and non-smokers exhibited more health-responsible behaviors, while more physical-activity behaviors and spiritual growth activities were observed when subjective health status was better. Interpersonal relationship behaviors had positive effects on those with good subjective heath status and on non-smokers. Conclusions: Based on the results of the current study, an alternative was suggested for promoting health in North Korean adolescent refugees. PMID:26429289

  12. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  13. Does fiscal discipline towards subnational governments affect citizens' well-being? Evidence on health.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Massimiliano; Turati, Gilberto

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to assess the impact on citizens' well-being of fiscal discipline imposed by the central government on subnational governments. Because healthcare policies involve strategic interactions between different layers of governments in many different countries, we focus on a particular dimension of well-being, namely citizens' health. We model fiscal discipline by considering government expectations of future deficit bailouts from the central government. We then study how these bailout expectations affect the expenditure for healthcare policies carried out by decentralized governments. To investigate this issue, we separate efficient health spending from inefficiencies by estimating an input requirement frontier. This allows us to assess the effects of bailout expectations on both the structural component of health expenditure and its deviations from the 'best practice'. The evidence from the 15 Italian ordinary statute regions (observed from 1993 to 2006) points out that bailout expectations do not significantly influence the position of the frontier, thus not affecting citizens' health. However, they do appear to exert a remarkable impact on excess spending. PMID:23408583

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient–provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  15. Context matters: Community characteristics and mental health among war-affected youth in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; McBain, Ryan; Newnham, Elizabeth A.; Brennan, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, over one billion children and adolescents live in war-affected settings. At present, only limited research has investigated linkages between disrupted social ecology and adverse mental health outcomes among war-affected youth. In this study, we examine three community-level characteristics—social disorder and collective efficacy within the community, as reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma as reported by youth—in relation to externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms among male and female former child soldiers in post-conflict Sierra Leone. Methods 243 former child soldiers (30% female, mean age at baseline: 16.6 years) and their primary caregivers participated in interviews in 2004 and 2008, as part of a larger prospective cohort study of war-affected youth in Sierra Leone. Two-point growth models were estimated to examine the relationship between community-level characteristics and externalizing and internalizing outcomes across the time points. Results Both social disorder within the community, reported by caregivers, and perceived stigma, reported by youth, positively co-varied with youths’ externalizing and internalizing scores—indicating that higher levels of each at baseline and follow-up were associated with higher levels of mental health problems at both time points (p<0.05). The relationship between collective efficacy and mental health outcomes was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study offers a rare glimpse into the role that the post-conflict social context plays in shaping mental health among former child soldiers. Results indicate that both social disorder and perceived stigma within the community demonstrate an important relationship to externalizing and internalizing problems among adolescent ex-combatants. Moreover, these relationships persisted over a four-year period of follow up. These results underscore the importance of the post-conflict social environment and the need to develop post

  16. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty.

  17. Mild eczema affects self-perceived health among pre-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Natalia; Östblom, Eva; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Kull, Inger

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of eczema on health-related quality of life in the population-based birth cohort BAMSE with 2,756 pre-adolescent children. All answered the following questions on self-perceived health; "How are you feeling?", "How healthy do you consider yourself to be?" and "How happy are you with your life right now?". Children with ongoing eczema answered the "Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI)" questionnaire. In total, 350 (12.7%) of the children had eczema. Girls with eczema reported impaired self-perceived health as evaluated in the 3 questions; adjusted OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.16-2.55), 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) and 1.69 (95% CI 1.18-2.42). Eczema among boys was not associated with impairment of self-perceived health. The mean CDLQI score was 3.98 (95% CI 3.37-4.58). Since eczema affects up to 20% of pre-adolescent girls, the findings have implications both for health care providers and for society as a whole.

  18. Using photovoice to examine community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Ndejjo, Rawlance; George, Asha

    2015-05-01

    Uganda continues to have poor maternal health indicators including a high maternal mortality ratio. This paper explores community level barriers affecting maternal health in rural Wakiso district, Uganda. Using photovoice, a community-based participatory research approach, over a five-month period, ten young community members aged 18-29 years took photographs and analysed them, developing an understanding of the emerging issues and engaging in community dialogue on them. From the study, known health systems problems including inadequate transport, long distance to health facilities, long waiting times at facilities and poor quality of care were confirmed, but other aspects that needed to be addressed were also established. These included key gender-related determinants of maternal health, such as domestic violence, low contraceptive use and early teenage pregnancy, as well as problems of unclean water, poor sanitation and women's lack of income. Community members appreciated learning about the research findings precisely hence designing and implementing appropriate solutions to the problems identified because they could see photographs from their own local area. Photovoice's strength is in generating evidence by community members in ways that articulate their perspectives, support local action and allow direct communication with stakeholders.

  19. Direct health care costs of treating seasonal affective disorder: a comparison of light therapy and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Amy; Dewa, Carolyn; Michalak, Erin E; Browne, Gina; Levitt, Anthony; Levitan, Robert D; Enns, Murray W; Morehouse, Rachel L; Lam, Raymond W

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare the direct mental health care costs between individuals with Seasonal Affective Disorder randomized to either fluoxetine or light therapy. Methods. Data from the CANSAD study was used. CANSAD was an 8-week multicentre double-blind study that randomized participants to receive either light therapy plus placebo capsules or placebo light therapy plus fluoxetine. Participants were aged 18-65 who met criteria for major depressive episodes with a seasonal (winter) pattern. Mental health care service use was collected for each subject for 4 weeks prior to the start of treatment and for 4 weeks prior to the end of treatment. All direct mental health care services costs were analysed, including inpatient and outpatient services, investigations, and medications. Results. The difference in mental health costs was significantly higher after treatment for the light therapy group compared to the medication group-a difference of $111.25 (z = -3.77, P = 0.000). However, when the amortized cost of the light box was taken into the account, the groups were switched with the fluoxetine group incurring greater direct care costs-a difference of $75.41 (z = -2.635, P = 0.008). Conclusion. The results suggest that individuals treated with medication had significantly less mental health care cost after-treatment compared to those treated with light therapy.

  20. An Analysis of the Structural Factors Affecting the Public Participation in Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Ghaumi, Raheleh; Aminee, Tayebe; Aminaee, Akram; Dastoury, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on analyzing national and international Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) studies published from 2000 to 2012 in order to identify and categorize the possible factors that affect social participation for improving the public health. Clearly, improving the public health necessitates a combination of the participation and responsibility by the social members and the attempts by public health policy-makers and planners. CBPR studies are selected as the corpus since they seek to encourage active and informed participation of the social members in fulfilling the health related goals. The present study is conducted through meta-synthesis within a qualitative framework. The results revealed a set of factors within the structural capacities which were employed by the CBPR researchers for achieving the health promotion goals. The structural capacities employed in the interventions could be considered on the cultural and social grounds. The cultural grounds were divided into scientific and religious attempts. For the scientific attempts, the results highlighted the participation of higher education institutes including universities and research centers as well as educational institutes such as schools and the relevant institutions. And regarding the religious attempts, the results indicated that the cooptation of religious centers played the greatest role in enhancing the public participation. PMID:27045401

  1. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  2. An Analysis of the Structural Factors Affecting the Public Participation in Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Ghaumi, Raheleh; Aminee, Tayebe; Aminaee, Akram; Dastoury, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on analyzing national and international Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) studies published from 2000 to 2010 in order to identify and categorize the possible factors that affect social participation for improving the public health. Clearly, improving the public health necessitates a combination of the participation and responsibility by the social members and the attempts by public health policy-makers and planners. CBPR studies are selected as the corpus since they seek to encourage active and informed participation of the social members in fulfilling the health related goals. The present study is conducted through meta-synthesis within a qualitative framework. The results revealed a set of factors within the structural capacities which were employed by the CBPR researchers for achieving the health promotion goals. The structural capacities employed in the interventions could be considered on the cultural and social grounds. The cultural grounds were divided into scientific and religious attempts. For the scientific attempts, the results highlighted the participation of higher education institutes including universities and research centers as well as educational institutes such as schools and the relevant institutions. And regarding the religious attempts, the results indicated that the cooptation of religious centers played the greatest role in enhancing the public participation. PMID:27045401

  3. Factors Affecting the Downward Mobility of Psychiatric Patients: A Korean Study of National Health Insurance Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the magnitude of and the factors associated with the downward mobility of first-episode psychiatric patients. Methods: This study used the claims data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The study population included 19 293 first-episode psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD-10] code F10), schizophrenia and related disorders (ICD-10 codes F20-F29), and mood disorders (ICD-10 codes F30-F33) in the first half of 2005. This study included only National Health Insurance beneficiaries in 2005. The dependent variable was the occurrence of downward mobility, which was defined as a health insurance status change from National Health Insurance to Medical Aid. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with downward drift of first-episode psychiatric patients. Results: About 10% of the study population who were National Health Insurance beneficiaries in 2005 became Medical Aid recipients in 2007. The logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, primary diagnosis, type of hospital at first admission, regular use of outpatient clinic, and long-term hospitalization are significant predictors in determining downward drift in newly diagnosed psychiatric patients. Conclusions: This research showed that the downward mobility of psychiatric patients is affected by long-term hospitalization and medical care utilization. The findings suggest that early intensive intervention might reduce long-term hospitalization and the downward mobility of psychiatric patients. PMID:26841885

  4. Quality of Life and Mental Health Status of Arsenic-affected Patients in a Bangladeshi Population

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Emdadul H.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Ahsan, Habibul

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by inorganic arsenic is one of the major public-health problems in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and mental health status of arsenic-affected patients and (b) to identify the factors associated with the QOL. Of 1,456 individuals, 521 (35.78%) were selected as case and control participants, using a systematic random-sampling method. The selection criteria for cases (n=259) included presence of at least one of the following: melanosis, leucomelanosis on at least 10% of the body, or keratosis on the hands or feet. Control (non-patient) participants (n=262) were selected from the same villages by matching age (±5 years) and gender. The Bangladeshi version of the WHOQOL-BREF was used for assessing the QOL, and the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ) was used for assessing the general mental health status. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the WHOQOL-BREF and SRQ scores between the patients and the non-patients were compared. The mean scores of QOL were significantly lower in the patients than those in the non-patients of both the sexes. Moreover, the mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients (mean score for males=8.4 and females=10.3) showed greater disturbances than those of the non-patients (mean score for males=5.2 and females=6.1) of both the sexes. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that the factors potentially contributing to the lower QOL scores included: being an arsenic-affected patient, having lower age, and having lower annual income. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the QOL and mental health status of the arsenic-affected patients were significantly lower than those of the non-patients in Bangladesh. Appropriate interventions are necessary to improve the well-being of the patients. PMID:23082628

  5. The Impact of Climate Trends on a Tick Affecting Public Health: A Retrospective Modeling Approach for Hyalomma marginatum (Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín; de la Fuente, José; Latapia, Tamara; Ortega, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    The impact of climate trends during the period 1901–2009 on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum in Europe was modeled to assess changes in the physiological processes of this threat to public health. Monthly records of temperature and water vapour at a resolution of 0.5° and equations describing the life cycle processes of the tick were used. The climate in the target region affected the rates of the life cycle processes of H. marginatum: development rates increased, mortality rates in molting stages decreased, and the survival rates of questing ticks decreased in wide territories of the Mediterranean basin. The modeling framework indicated the existence of critical areas in the Balkans, central Europe, and the western coast of France, where the physiological processes of the tick improved to extents that are consistent with the persistence of populations if introduced. A spatially explicit risk assessment was performed to detect candidate areas where active surveys should be performed to monitor changes in tick density or persistence after a hypothetical introduction. We detected areas where the critical abiotic (climate) and biotic (host density) factors overlap, including most of the Iberian peninsula, the Mediterranean coast of France, eastern Turkey, and portions of the western Black Sea region. Wild ungulate densities are unavailable for large regions of the territory, a factor that might affect the outcome of the study. The risk of successfully establishing H. marginatum populations at northern latitudes of its current colonization range seems to be still low, even if the climate has improved the performance of the tick in these areas. PMID:25955315

  6. Children's Mental Health in the Area Affected by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woo-Chul; Lim, Myungho; Kwon, Hojang; Choi, Yeyong; Yoo, Seung-Jin; Noh, Su Ryun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Children are one of the most vulnerable populations to the impact of disasters. We aimed to examine children's mental health in the area affected by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident on December 7, 2007. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted using the Korean versions of the Children's Depression Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory for Children on 1,362 children attending elementary schools in the affected area. The information on distances between the nearest contaminated coastline to the child's residential house or attending school were obtained using a web-based map by inputting two address points. The symptom risks of depression and state anxiety were estimated by multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and other covariates. Results Children with the closest distance (in the fourth quartile) to the school from the contaminated coastline showed a significantly higher symptom risk of depression compared to those with the farthest distance (first quartile)(odds ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-5.33), while there was no significant association between anxiety symptoms and distance. Conclusions Children, a vulnerable population for mental health impact by the oil spill accident, should be included in mental health programs in the community along with their family as victims of the disaster. PMID:24010065

  7. Integrating cognitive and affective dimensions of pain experience into health professions education

    PubMed Central

    Murinson, Beth B; Mezei, Lina; Nenortas, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Pain is prevalent in clinical settings, and yet it is relatively under-represented in the education of most students in the health professions. Because pain includes both sensory-discriminative and affective features, teaching students about pain presents unique challenges and opportunities. The present article describes the evolution of a new blueprint for clinical excellence that, among other competencies, incorporates a need for the emotional development of clinical trainees. The framework has been applied to the development and implementation of two new courses in pain. The first course is designed to provide a comprehensive foundation of medical knowledge regarding pain, while integratively introducing students to the affective dimensions of pain. The second course is designed to enhance students’ appreciation for the protean effects of pain through use of the humanities to represent medical experience. It is concluded that, to be most effective, fostering the emotional development of trainees in the health professions necessitates the incorporation of affect-focused learning objectives, educational tasks and assessment methods. PMID:22184551

  8. Host-targeted approaches to managing animal health: old problems and new tools.

    PubMed

    Cook, M E; Bütz, D E; Yang, M; Sand, J M

    2016-07-01

    Our fellow medical and regulatory scientists question the animal producer's dependence on antibiotics and antimicrobial chemicals in the production of animal products. Retail distributors and consumers are putting even more pressure on the animal industry to find new ways to produce meat without antibiotics and chemicals. In addition, federal funding agencies are increasingly pressuring researchers to conduct science that has application. In the review that follows, we outline our approach to finding novel ways to improve animal performance and health. We use a strict set of guidelines in our applied research as follows: (1) Does the work have value to society? (2) Does our team have the skills to innovate in the field? (3) Is the product we produce commercially cost-effective? (4) Are there any reasons why the general consumer will reject the technology? (5) Is it safe for the animal, consumer, and the environment? Within this framework, we describe 4 areas of research that have produced useful products, areas that we hope other scientists will likewise explore and innovate such as (1) methods to detect infection in herds and flocks, (2) methods to control systemic and mucosal inflammation, (3) improvements to intestinal barrier function, and (4) methods to strategically potentiate immune defense. We recognize that others are working in these areas, using different strategies, but believe our examples will illustrate the vast opportunity for research and innovation in a world without antibiotics. Animal scientists have been given a new challenge that may help shape the future of both animal and human medicine. PMID:27345308

  9. Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvantaged informal urban settlement of Kibera in Nairobi. Methods A cross-sectional cluster sample design was used to select 59 health facilities that yielded interviews with 404 health care workers, grouped into 10 different types of service providers. Data were collected in November 2011 using structured questionnaires and a Focus Group Discussion guide. Findings were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods of the associations and determinants of health worker motivation and retention. Results The levels of education and gender factors were lowest in Turkana with female HCWs representing only 30% of the workers against a national average of 53%. A smaller proportion of HCWs in Turkana feel that they have adequate training for their jobs. Overall, 13% of the HCWs indicated that they had changed their job in the last 12 months and 20% indicated that they could leave their current job within the next two years. In terms of work environment, inadequate access to electricity, equipment, transport, housing, and the physical state of the health facility were cited as most critical, particularly in Turkana. The working environment is rated as better in private facilities. Adequate training, job security, salary, supervisor support, and manageable workload were identified as critical satisfaction factors. Family health care, salary, and terminal benefits were rated as important compensatory factors. Conclusions There are distinct motivational and retention factors that affect

  10. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women <20 gestation weeks. Women were provided with one daily iron-folic acid capsule (IFA), one capsule with 18 micronutrients (MMN) or one sachet of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) containing protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and 21 micronutrients. Oral examination of 1024 participants was conducted and panoramic X-ray taken within 6 weeks after delivery. The supplement groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  11. How does violence exposure affect the psychological health and parenting of young African-American mothers?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2010-02-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.

  12. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population. PMID:27656936

  13. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  14. Does distrust in providers affect health-care utilization in China?

    PubMed

    Duckett, Jane; Hunt, Kate; Munro, Neil; Sutton, Matt

    2016-10-01

    How trust affects health-care utilization is not well-understood, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This article focuses on China, a middle-income country where low trust in health-care settings has become a prominent issue, but actual levels of distrust and their implications for utilization are unknown. We conducted a nationally representative survey of the Chinese population (November 2012 to January 2013), which resulted in a sample of 3680 adult men and women. Respondents rated their trust in different types of health-care providers. Using multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models, we estimated the association between distrust in clinics and respondents' hospital visits in the last year; whether they had sought hospital treatment first for two common symptoms (headache, cold) in the last 2 months; and whether they said they would go first to a hospital if they had a minor or major illness. We analysed these associations before and after adjusting for performance evaluations of clinics and hospitals, controlling for sex, age, education, income, insurance status, household registration and self-assessed health. We found that distrust in hospitals is low, but distrust in clinics is high and strongly associated with increased hospital utilization, especially for minor symptoms and illnesses. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for distrust in clinics because its effects are not fully accounted for by poor evaluations of their competence.

  15. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology-hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5-10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development.

  16. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology—hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5–10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development. PMID:27631605

  17. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health.

    PubMed

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology-hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5-10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development. PMID:27631605

  18. Does distrust in providers affect health-care utilization in China?

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Jane; Hunt, Kate; Munro, Neil; Sutton, Matt

    2016-01-01

    How trust affects health-care utilization is not well-understood, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This article focuses on China, a middle-income country where low trust in health-care settings has become a prominent issue, but actual levels of distrust and their implications for utilization are unknown. We conducted a nationally representative survey of the Chinese population (November 2012 to January 2013), which resulted in a sample of 3680 adult men and women. Respondents rated their trust in different types of health-care providers. Using multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models, we estimated the association between distrust in clinics and respondents’ hospital visits in the last year; whether they had sought hospital treatment first for two common symptoms (headache, cold) in the last 2 months; and whether they said they would go first to a hospital if they had a minor or major illness. We analysed these associations before and after adjusting for performance evaluations of clinics and hospitals, controlling for sex, age, education, income, insurance status, household registration and self-assessed health. We found that distrust in hospitals is low, but distrust in clinics is high and strongly associated with increased hospital utilization, especially for minor symptoms and illnesses. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for distrust in clinics because its effects are not fully accounted for by poor evaluations of their competence. PMID:27117483

  19. [Environmental risk, health and justice: the protagonism of affected populations in the production of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Finamore, Renan

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the role of populations affected by environmental injustice situations in the production of knowledge about environmental health stemming from inequalities and discrimination in the distribution of risks and benefits of economic development. Special attention is given to the epistemological and political limits to producing knowledge and alternatives that enable advances in building more just and sustainable societies are highlighted. Based on a broader view of health, the limits of scientific approaches are called into question by acknowledging the importance of local knowledge are discussed, either to analyze environmental risks or their effects on health, including epidemiological studies. These limits are linked primarily to the concealment of conflicts and uncertainties, the lack of contextualization of exposure to risk and effects on health, as well as the difficulties of dialogue with the communities. The article also presents contributions and advances presented by environmental justice movements. The conclusion is that a constructivist, procedural and democratic perspective of confronting forms of knowledge and practices can guide the scientific production to benefit of environmental justice.

  20. Does distrust in providers affect health-care utilization in China?

    PubMed

    Duckett, Jane; Hunt, Kate; Munro, Neil; Sutton, Matt

    2016-10-01

    How trust affects health-care utilization is not well-understood, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This article focuses on China, a middle-income country where low trust in health-care settings has become a prominent issue, but actual levels of distrust and their implications for utilization are unknown. We conducted a nationally representative survey of the Chinese population (November 2012 to January 2013), which resulted in a sample of 3680 adult men and women. Respondents rated their trust in different types of health-care providers. Using multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models, we estimated the association between distrust in clinics and respondents' hospital visits in the last year; whether they had sought hospital treatment first for two common symptoms (headache, cold) in the last 2 months; and whether they said they would go first to a hospital if they had a minor or major illness. We analysed these associations before and after adjusting for performance evaluations of clinics and hospitals, controlling for sex, age, education, income, insurance status, household registration and self-assessed health. We found that distrust in hospitals is low, but distrust in clinics is high and strongly associated with increased hospital utilization, especially for minor symptoms and illnesses. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for distrust in clinics because its effects are not fully accounted for by poor evaluations of their competence. PMID:27117483

  1. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed by aggregating momentary experience samples of happiness over a working day and was inversely related to cortisol output over the day, independently of age, gender, socioeconomic position, body mass, and smoking. Similar patterns were observed on a leisure day. Happiness was also inversely related to heart rate assessed by using ambulatory monitoring methods over the day. Participants underwent mental stress testing in the laboratory, where plasma fibrinogen stress responses were smaller in happier individuals. These effects were independent of psychological distress, supporting the notion that positive well-being is directly related to health-relevant biological processes. PMID:15840727

  2. Examining direct and indirect pathways to health behaviour: the influence of cognitive and affective probability beliefs.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to extricate the influence of rational (e.g., 'I think …') and intuitive (e.g., 'I feel …') probability beliefs in the behavioural decision-making process regarding skin cancer prevention practices. Structural equation modelling was used in two longitudinal surveys (sun protection during winter sports [N = 491]; sun protection during summer [N = 277]) to examine direct and indirect behavioural effects of affective and cognitive likelihood (i.e. unmediated or mediated by intention), controlled for attitude, social influence and self-efficacy. Affective likelihood was directly related to sun protection in both studies, whereas no direct effects were found for cognitive likelihood. After accounting for past sun protective behaviour, affective likelihood was only directly related to sun protection in Study 1. No support was found for the indirect effects of affective and cognitive likelihood through intention. The findings underscore the importance of feelings of (cancer) risk in the decision-making process and should be acknowledged by health behaviour theories and risk communication practices. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages is not affected by host infection status but depends on the infecting bacterial genotype.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Nicole S; Mitchell, Rebecca M; Baumgart, Martin; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Schukken, Ynte H

    2007-12-15

    In this study we investigated the ability of different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) strains to survive in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of cows naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis and control cows. We tested the hypotheses that infection status of cows affects macrophage killing ability and that survival of M. paratuberculosis in macrophages is dependent on the strain. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from Johne's disease-positive (n=3) and age and stage of lactation matched Johne's disease-negative (n=3) multiparious cows. Following differentiation, MDMs were challenged in vitro with four M. paratuberculosis strains of different host specificity (cattle and sheep). Two hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after infection, ingestion, and intracellular survival of M. paratuberculosis strains were determined by fluorescence microscopy. There was no effect of the origin of MDMs (Johne's disease-positive or control animals) on phagocytosis, survival of bacteria, or macrophage survival. In contrast, important strain differences were observed. These findings suggest that some M. paratuberculosis strains interfere more successfully than others with the ability of macrophages to kill intracellular pathogens which may make it important to include strain typing when designing control programs.

  4. Genome-wide screening and identification of factors affecting the biosynthesis of prodigiosin by Hahella chejuensis, using Escherichia coli as a surrogate host.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Park, Yon-Kyoung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2010-03-01

    A marine bacterium, Hahella chejuensis, recently has attracted attention due to its lytic activity against a red-tide dinoflagellate. The algicidal function originates from its red pigment, prodigiosin, which also exhibits immunosuppressive or anticancer activity. Genome sequencing and functional analysis revealed a gene set contained in the hap gene cluster that is responsible for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin. To screen for the factors affecting the prodigiosin biosynthesis, we constructed a plasmid library of the H. chejuensis genomic DNA, introduced it into Escherichia coli strains harboring the hap cluster, and observed changes in production of the red pigment. Among the screened clones, hapXY genes whose products constitute a two-component signal transduction system were elucidated as positive regulators of the pigment production. In addition, an Hfq-dependent, noncoding region located at one end of the hap cluster was confirmed to play roles in regulation. Identification of factors involved in the regulation of prodigiosin biosynthesis should help in understanding how the prodigiosin-biosynthetic pathway is organized and controlled and also aid in modulating the overexpression of prodigiosin in a heterologous host, such as E. coli, or in the natural producer, H. chejuensis.

  5. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    2016-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  6. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reetu; Webster, Premila; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita

    2014-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Design The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. Results This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education), professional (e.g. training, job security), and organisational (e.g. infrastructure) factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. Conclusion In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health. PMID:25319596

  7. Electrostatics in the environment: How they may affect health and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, K. S.; Simon, H. M. Ap; Bell, J. N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Lifestyles and the built environment have changed considerably during the past century and have greatly influenced the electric field, small air ion and charged submicron aerosol regimes to which individuals are often exposed. In particular the use of electrical items, synthetic materials/finishes and low humidity levels that can lead to the generation of high electrostatic charges, along with inadequate grounding protocols and building techniques which create 'Faraday cage'-like conditions, have all greatly altered the electromagnetic nature of the microclimates many people occupy for prolonged periods of time. It is suggested that the type, polarity and strengths of electric fields individuals are exposed to may affect their likelihood of succumbing to ill-health through influencing biological functioning, oxygen-uptake and retention rates of inhaled submicron contaminants to a far greater degree than previously realised. These factors can also influence the degree of local surface contamination and adhesion that occurs. It is further suggested that both health and work productivity can be affected by such factors, and that improved 'best practice' electro-hygiene/productivity protocols should be adopted wherever practical.

  8. High-fibre sunflower cake affects small intestinal digestion and health in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalmendal, R; Elwinger, K; Holm, L; Tauson, R

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate high-fibre sunflower cake (HF-SFC); a feed ingredient distinguished by large amounts of crude fibre and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (i-NSP). 2. Broiler chickens (n = 160) were fed on pelleted maize-based diets free from coccidiostats and antibiotic growth promoters between 15 and 31 d of age. Diets included 0, 10, 20 or 30% HF-SFC. Performance and small intestinal health were assessed. 3. In general, HF-SFC inclusion mediated significant linear increases in ileal digestibility of fat and protein and significant linear decreases in ileal digestibility of dry matter, ash and energy. 4. Weight gain increased linearly with HF-SFC inclusion. Feed conversion was negatively affected by 30% HF-SFC but not by 20% HF-SFC. 5. In the jejunal lumen, inclusion of HF-SFC was associated with significant decreases in colony counts of Clostridium spp. 6. HF-SFC inclusion resulted in significant linear reductions of villus height, thickness of muscularis mucosa, and the circular and longitudinal layers of muscularis in the jejunum. Crypt depth and submucosal thickness were not affected. 7. The data indicate that broiler chickens may thrive on feeds with insoluble fibre contents far exceeding those used in practice, and that HF-SFC exerts some positive effects on digestion and small intestinal health. PMID:21337203

  9. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L.; Olsson, Craig A.; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K.; Patton, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology. PMID:25678548

  10. Associations between early adrenarche, affective brain function and mental health in children.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L; Olsson, Craig A; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-09-01

    Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology.

  11. Factors affecting the choice of cooking fuel, cooking place and respiratory health in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Owusu Boadi, Kwasi; Kuitunen, Markku

    2006-05-01

    Indoor air pollution resulting from the combustion of solid fuels has been identified as a major health threat in the developing world. This study examines how the choice of cooking fuel, place of cooking and behavioural risk factors affect respiratory health infections in Accra, Ghana. About 65.3% of respondents use charcoal and 4.2% use unprocessed wood. A total of 241 (25.4%) respondents who cook had had respiratory health symptoms in the two weeks preceding the study. Household socioeconomic status and educational attainment of respondents were found to have a significant impact on respiratory health through their particular influence on the choice of cooking fuel. Households that use wood and charcoal have a high incidence of respiratory health symptoms. The poor are more affected by respiratory health problems due to their heavy dependence on solid fuels as compared with their wealthy counterparts. Households that cook in multiple purpose rooms are more affected by respiratory health problems than those that cook outdoors. There is a positive correlation between the presence of children in the kitchen during cooking and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among children (r=0.31, p<0.0001). Poverty and lack of education and awareness are the major factors affecting the choice of cooking fuel, place of cooking and respiratory health in Accra. PMID:16613624

  12. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities. PMID:26103702

  13. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  14. Perception of Lay People Regarding Determinants of Health and Factors Affecting It: An Aggregated Analysis from 29 Countries

    PubMed Central

    ZAHRA, Aqeela; LEE, Eun-Whan; SUN, Li-Yuan; PARK, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the perception of lay people regarding determinants of health at global level and factors affecting it. Methods: Data was collected from International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and World Bank website. Multilevel regression analysis was done and lay people’s perception regarding health behavior, environment, poverty and genes as health determinants was assessed. Various socio demographic factors were used as independent variables. Results: The highest percentage of people agreed environment as determinant of health. An inverse relationship was observed between GNI quartiles and an individual’s agreement with poverty, health behavior, and environment as health determinant. There was a significant negative association of females with health damaging behavior (P<0.05) and positive association with environment and genes (P<0.05) as health determinants. Elderly people agreed with poverty as determinant of health (P<0.05). GNI was negatively related to environment (P<0.05) and poverty (P<0.05) as health determinant. Conclusion: The common public is now becoming aware of a broadened concept of health and people belonging to different backgrounds have different perceptions regarding determinants of health. Our results show that highest percentage of people agreed with environment as determinant of health, which is consistent with scientific view of increased burden of disease, caused by environmental factors. Thus, tailored health programs and policies that address an individual’s specific problems are likely to induce a change in behavior and attitude, hence decreasing the disease burden. PMID:26811813

  15. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    PubMed Central

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1) political debates about abortion, (2) gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3) pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1) gender is the basis of social norms and (2) gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance of women as the

  16. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70%) with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20%) met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70%) evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services. PMID:26767134

  17. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  18. Factors affecting health seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Webair, Hana Hasan; Bin-Gouth, Abdulla Salim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate medical care seeking could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. This study aims to determine factors affecting health seeking behavior (HSB) for childhood illnesses, thereby improving child survival. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out from January 11 to April 2, 2012. A total of 212 caretakers of children under the age of 5 years participated. Caretakers who visited the vaccination unit in the Shehair Health Center during the study period and had a child with a history of diarrhea, fever, cough, and/or difficulty of breathing during the last 14 days were included. The data were collected by interviewing caretakers and the answers were reported in pretested structured questionnaires. Results Medical care was sought for about half of the sick children (n=109, 51.42%). Seeking medical care was frequently initiated for illnesses that did not improve or worsened. The major reasons for not seeking medical care were “illness was mild” (n=40, 38.83%) and “illness is not for medical treatment” (n=32, 31.07%). The caretakers sought medical care significantly more when they had a higher level of school education (POR [prevalence odds ratio] 5.85, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.34–14.61), when the illness was perceived as severe (POR 5.39, 95% CI: 2.81–10.33), and when the child had difficulty of breathing (POR 2.93, 95% CI: 1.10–7.80). Conclusion For the preventable childhood illnesses with existing interventions, appropriate HSB prevalence is low. Symptom type, caretakers’ education, and perception of illness severity are the predictors of HSB. Educational improvement of the mothers, introduction of community based integrated management of childhood illness, and in-depth research are imperative to improve mothers’ HSB. PMID:24187490

  19. Differential precocious sexual development of Proctoeces lintoni (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) in three sympatric species of keyhole limpets Fissurella spp. may affect transmission to the final host.

    PubMed

    Balboa, L; George-Nascimento, M; Ojeda, F P

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence, abundance, and developmental status of the digenetic trematode Proctoeces lintoni Siddiqui et Cable 1960 were compared in 3 species of keyhole limpets Fissurella. A total of 197 limpets was collected at Caleta Chome, south-central Chile. Fissurella picta and F. costata had the highest prevalence of infection, whereas F. picta showed the greatest abundance of parasites, which increased with host shell length. However, the frequency of P. lintoni specimens with eggs in the uterus was greatest in F. costata. These results suggest that an increased rate of development of a parasite in the intermediate host may shorten the residence time necessary for maturation in the final host. Thus, faster development of the parasite in F. costata suggests the possibility that the parasites transmitted through this host species have shorter maturation times in clingfishes than individuals transmitted via other limpet species.

  20. An examination of the factors affecting people's participation in future health examinations based on community health exam interventions.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shih-Kai; Liao, Hung-En

    2014-01-01

    Community-based intervention health examinations were implemented at a health care facility to comply with the government's primary health care promotion policy. The theory of planned behavior model was applied to examine the effect that community-based health examinations had on people's health concepts regarding seeking future health examinations. The research participants were individuals who had received a health examination provided at two branches of a hospital in central Taiwan in 2012. The hospital's two branches held a total of 14 free community-based health examination sessions. The hospital provided health examination equipment and staff to perform health examinations during public holidays. We conducted an exploratory questionnaire survey to collect data and implemented cross-sectional research based on anonymous self-ratings to examine the public's intention to receive future community-based or hospital-based health examinations. Including of 807 valid questionnaires, accounting for 89.4% of the total number of questionnaires distributed. The correlation coefficients of the second-order structural model indicate that attitudes positively predict behavioral intentions (γ = .66, p < .05), and subjective norms also positively predict behavioral intentions (γ = .66, p < .01). By contrast, perceived behavioral control has no significant relationship with behavioral intentions (γ = -.71, p > .05). The results of the first-order structural model indicated that the second-order constructs had a high explanatory power for the first-order constructs. People's health concepts regarding health examinations and their desire to continue receiving health examinations must be considered when promoting health examinations in the community. Regarding hospital management and the government's implementation of primary health care, health examination services should address people's medical needs to increase coverage and participation rates and reduce the waste of

  1. [Factors affecting health behavior of the people aged forties--a test of the health belief model].

    PubMed

    Tohnai, S; Hata, E

    1994-04-01

    The health behavior of 1120 persons, aged in their forties, living in a city, a mountain village and a fishing village were analyzed according to the Health Belief Model. Women practiced more health behaviors than men. People living in the city and mountain village practiced more than people in fishing village. Company employees, farmers and housewives practiced more than self-employeds and fishermen. Education level had no significant influence in the practice of health behavior. As predicted, people who believed in the effectiveness of health behavior practiced more health behaviors. On the other hand, people who perceived barriers to health behavior practiced less. Paradoxically, people who perceived vulnerability to hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or cancer, and the seriousness of these diseases, practiced less health behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that health beliefs, social supports and information from mass media could account for 33.0% of the Health Behavior Score variation. Perceived barriers to health behavior was the strongest determinant for practice of health behavior. Perceived barriers may account for gender and occupational differences in health behavior.

  2. The impact of positive affect on health cognitions and behaviours: a meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-01-01

    Several reviews suggest that positive affect is associated with improved longevity, fewer physical symptoms, and biological indicators of good health. It is possible that positive affect could influence these outcomes by promoting healthful cognitions and behaviours. The present review identified conceptual pathways from positive affect to health cognitions and behaviour, and used random effects meta-analysis to quantify the impact of positive affect inductions (versus neutral affect conditions) on these outcomes. Literature searches located 54 independent tests that could be included in the review. Across all studies, the findings revealed no reliable effects on intentions (d+ = -.12, 95% CI = -.32 to .08, k = 15) or behaviour (d+ = .15, 95% CI = -.03 to .33, k = 23). There were four reliable effects involving specific cognitions and behaviours, but little clear evidence for generalised benefits or adverse effects of positive emotions on health-related cognitions or actions. Conclusions must be cautious given the paucity of tests available for analysis. The review offers suggestions about research designs that might profitably be deployed in future studies, and calls for additional tests of the impact of discrete positive emotions on health cognitions and behaviour. PMID:27028049

  3. The Integrative Human Microbiome Project: dynamic analysis of microbiome-host omics profiles during periods of human health and disease.

    PubMed

    2014-09-10

    Much has been learned about the diversity and distribution of human-associated microbial communities, but we still know little about the biology of the microbiome, how it interacts with the host, and how the host responds to its resident microbiota. The Integrative Human Microbiome Project (iHMP, http://hmp2.org), the second phase of the NIH Human Microbiome Project, will study these interactions by analyzing microbiome and host activities in longitudinal studies of disease-specific cohorts and by creating integrated data sets of microbiome and host functional properties. These data sets will serve as experimental test beds to evaluate new models, methods, and analyses on the interactions of host and microbiome. Here we describe the three models of microbiome-associated human conditions, on the dynamics of preterm birth, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 2 diabetes, and their underlying hypotheses, as well as the multi-omic data types to be collected, integrated, and distributed through public repositories as a community resource.

  4. Bibliography of Health Issues Affecting North American Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts: 1950-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Mitchell V., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography of 2,414 journal articles provides health professionals and others with quick references on health and related issues of American Indians and Alaska Natives. The citations cover articles published in U.S. and Canadian medical and health-related journals between 1950 and 1988. Five sections deal with major health categories and…

  5. Factors Affecting Mental Health of Local Staff Working in the Vanni Region, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648

  6. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Amo, Luisa; López, Pilar

    2008-04-01

    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception, different types of traits might have evolved to signal similar characteristics of a male quality using different sensory channels. We examined whether ventral coloration and chemicals in femoral gland secretions of male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis, are affected by their health state (blood-parasite load and cell-mediated immune response). Our results indicated that less parasitized lizards had brighter and more yellowish ventral colorations and also femoral secretions with higher proportions of two esters of octadecenoic acid. In addition, lizards with a greater immune response had more saturated coloration and secretions with higher proportions of octadecenoic acid methyl ester. We suggest that these signals would be reliable because only healthier males seemed able to allocate more carotenoids to coloration and presumably costly chemicals to secretions. The use of multiple sensory channels may provide more opportunities to signal a male quality under different circumstances, but also may reinforce the reliability of the signal when both types of traits may be perceived simultaneously.

  7. The ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) differentially affects cells mediating the immune response of its flesh fly host, Sarcophaga bullata Parker (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Rivers, D B.; Ruggiero, L; Hayes, M

    2002-11-01

    In this study, we examined cellular immune responses in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, when parasitized by the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis. In unparasitized, young pharate adults and third instar, wandering larvae of S. bullata, four main hemocyte types were identified by light microscopy: plasmatocytes, granular cells, oenocytoids, and pro-hemocytes. Parasitism of young pharate adults had a differential effect on host hemocytes; oenocytoids and pro-hemocytes appeared to be unaltered by parasitism, whereas adhesion and spreading behavior were completely inhibited in plasmatocytes and granular cells by 60 min after oviposition. The suppression of spreading behavior in granular cells lasted the duration of parasitism. Plasmatocytes were found to decline significantly during the first hour after parasitism and this drop was attributed to cell death. Melanization and clotting of host hemolymph did not occur in parasitized flies, or the onset of both events was retarded by several hours in comparison to unparasitized pharate adults. Hemocytes from envenomated flies were altered in nearly identical fashion to that observed for natural parasitism; the total number of circulating hemocytes declined sharply by 60 min post-envenomation, the number of plasmatocytes declined but not granular cells, and the ability of plasmatocytes and granular cells to spread when cultured in vitro was abolished within 1 h. As with parasitized hosts, the decrease in plasmatocytes was due to cell death, and inhibition of spreading lasted until the host died. Isolated crude venom also blocked adhesion and spreading of these hemocyte types in vitro. Thus, it appears that maternally derived venom disrupts host immune responses almost immediately following oviposition and the inhibition is permanent. The possibility that this ectoparasite disables host defenses to afford protection to feeding larvae and adult females is discussed.

  8. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    PubMed

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care. PMID:25470326

  9. Interactive effect of negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity in terms of mental health among Latinos in primary care.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-09-30

    From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample.

  10. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Beardslee, William R.; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. This study used qualitative methodologies (Free Listing [FL], Key Informant [KI] interviews, and Clinician Interviews [C-KIs]) to understand local perceptions of mental health problems facing HIV/AIDS-affected youth in Rwinkwavu, Rwanda. Several syndrome terms were identified by participants: agahinda kenshi, kwiheba, guhangayika, ihahamuka, umushiha and uburara. While these local syndromes share some similarities with Western mood, anxiety, and conduct disorders, they also contain important culture-specific features and gradations of severity. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding local manifestations of mental health syndromes when conducting mental health assessments and when planning interventions for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in diverse settings. PMID:21271393

  11. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former. PMID:25002272

  12. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  13. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Results Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. Conclusion This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated

  14. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  15. Factors affecting the performance of maternal health care providers in Armenia

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Alfredo L; Voltero, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Background Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. Each of these factors should be supplied by the organization in which the provider works, and thus, organizational support is considered as an overarching element for analysis. Little research, domestically or internationally, has been conducted on the actual effects of each of the factors on performance outcomes and most PI practitioners assume that all the factors are needed in order for performance to improve. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors, individually as well as in combination, affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives) in two regions of Armenia. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five nurses and midwives were observed conducting real or simulated antenatal and postpartum/neonatal care services and interviewed about the presence or absence of the performance factors within their work environment. Results were analyzed to compare average performance with the existence or absence of the factors; then, multiple regression analysis was conducted with the merged datasets to obtain the best models of "predictors" of performance within each clinical service. Results Baseline results revealed that performance was sub-standard in several areas and several performance factors were deficient or nonexistent. The multivariate analysis showed that (a) training in the use of the clinic tools; and (b) receiving recognition from the employer or the client/community, are factors strongly associated with performance, followed by (c) receiving performance feedback in postpartum care. Other – extraneous – variables such as the facility

  16. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  17. Factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan: secondary analysis of Afghanistan Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shahram, Muhammad Shuaib; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Reyer, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study, a secondary analysis of data from Afghanistan Health Survey 2012, aimed to identify factors affecting maternal healthcare utilization in Afghanistan. Subjects were 5,662 women aged 15–49 years who had had one delivery in the two years preceding the survey. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by logistic regression analysis. The study found that 54.0% of mothers used antenatal care (ANC) at least one time, and 47.4% of births were assisted by skilled birth attendants (SBA). Adjusted OR of ANC use was 2.74 (95% CI, 2.08–3.60) for urban residency, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.26–2.27) for primary education relative to no education, 3.94 (95% CI, 3.51–4.42) for knowledge on danger signs of pregnancy, and 1.78 (95% CI, 1.47–2.15) for television and radio relative to no exposure. Adjusted OR of SBA utilization was 3.71 (95% CI, 2.65–5.18) for urban residency, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.91) for age <20 years relative to age 34–49 years, 1.43 (95% CI, 1.03–1.97) for secondary and higher education relative to no education, 1.83 (95% CI, 1.47–2.27) for para 1 relative to para ≥5, 6.66 (95% CI, 5.43–8.15) for ≥4 ANC visits relative to no visit, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.21–1.57) for knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy, 1.62 (95% CI, 1.38–1.90) for radio relative to no exposure, and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.25–3.27) for rich households relative to poor ones. Since women's education and knowledge about danger signs of pregnancy were significant factors of both ANC and SBA, educating women may be an effective step in promoting safe maternal health. PMID:26663938

  18. Factors affecting the technical efficiency of health systems: A case study of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries (2004–10)

    PubMed Central

    Ravangard, Ramin; Hatam, Nahid; Teimourizad, Abedin; Jafari, Abdosaleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Improving efficiency of health sector is of particular importance in all countries. To reach this end, it is paramount to measure the efficiency. On the other hand, there are many factors that affect the efficiency of health systems. This study aimed to measure the Technical Efficiency (TE) of health systems in Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) countries during 2004–10 and to determine the factors affecting their TE. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical and panel study. The required data were gathered using library and field studies, available statistics and international websites through completing data collection forms. In this study, the TE of health systems in 10 ECO countries was measured using their available data and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) through two approaches. The first approach used GDP per capita, education and smoking as its inputs and life expectancy and infant mortality rates as the outputs. The second approach, also, used the health expenditures per capita, the number of physicians per thousand people, and the number of hospital beds per thousand people as its inputs and life expectancy and under-5 mortality rates as the outputs. Then, the factors affecting the TE of health systems were determined using the panel data logit model. Excel 2010, Win4Deap 1.1.2 and Stata 11.0 were used to analyze the collected data. Results: According to the first approach, the mean TE of health systems was 0.497 and based on the second one it was 0.563. Turkey and Turkmenistan had, respectively, the highest and lowest mean of efficiency. Also, the results of panel data logit model showed that only GDP per capita and health expenditures per capita had significant relationships with the TE of health systems. Conclusion: In order to maximize the TE of health systems, health policy-makers should pay special attention to the proper use of healthcare resources according to the people’s needs, the appropriate management of the health

  19. Mental Health and Resilience in HIV/AIDS-Affected Children: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, T.S.; Meyers-Ohki, S.E.; Charrow, A.; Hansen, N.

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding of modifiable protective processes that contribute to resilience in the mental health of children affected by HIV can inform the design of interventions that bolster naturally-occurring supports and contribute to early prevention or better management of risks. Methods We reviewed the recent literature on mental health and resilience in children and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS. Literature searches of PsycInfo and PubMed were conducted during July-December 2011 consistent with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included for review if primary research questions pertained to mental health and coping or protective processes in children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. All studies subject to full review were evaluated for quality using a modified Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) rating system. Results 171 unique studies were returned from online searches of the literature and bibliography mining. Of these, 29 were evaluated as pertaining directly to mental health and resilience in families and children living with HIV/AIDS. Eight studies presented qualitative analyses. Ten quantitative studies examined individual resources contributing to child resilience and four quantitative studies looked at family-level resources. Ten studies also investigated community-level interactions. Four presented findings from resilience-focused interventions. Conclusions There is a clear need for rigorous research on mental health and resilience in HIV-affected children and adolescents. The evidence base would greatly

  20. Text Messaging to Communicate With Public Health Audiences: How the HIPAA Security Rule Affects Practice

    PubMed Central

    Karasz, Hilary N.; Eiden, Amy; Bogan, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Text messaging is a powerful communication tool for public health purposes, particularly because of the potential to customize messages to meet individuals’ needs. However, using text messaging to send personal health information requires analysis of laws addressing the protection of electronic health information. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule is written with flexibility to account for changing technologies. In practice, however, the rule leads to uncertainty about how to make text messaging policy decisions. Text messaging to send health information can be implemented in a public health setting through 2 possible approaches: restructuring text messages to remove personal health information and retaining limited personal health information in the message but conducting a risk analysis and satisfying other requirements to meet the HIPAA Security Rule. PMID:23409902

  1. Intestinal nematodes affect selenium bioaccumulation, oxidative stress biomarkers, and health parameters in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hursky, Olesya; Pietrock, Michael

    2015-02-17

    In environmental studies, parasites are often seen as a product of enhanced host susceptibility due to exposure to one or several stressors, whereas potential consequences of infections on host responses are often overlooked. Therefore, the present study focused on effects of parasitism on bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Joint effects of biological (parasite) and chemical (Se) stressors on biomarkers of oxidative stress (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), and fish health (condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI), gross energy) were also examined. Fish of the control group received uncontaminated food, while test fish, either experimentally infected with the nematode Raphidascaris acus or not, were exposed to dietary selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an environmentally relevant dose over 7 weeks. Selenium bioaccumulation by the parasite was low relative to its host, and parasitized trout showed slowed Se accumulation in the muscle as compared to uninfected fish. Furthermore, GST and SOD activities of trout exposed to both Se-Met and parasites were generally significantly lower than in fish exposed to Se-Met alone. Gross energy concentrations, but not K or HSI, were reduced in fish exposed to both Se-Met and R. acus. Together the experiment strongly calls for consideration of parasites when interpreting effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms in field investigations. PMID:25633167

  2. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands.

  3. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands. PMID:23428938

  4. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals.

  5. International students. Culture shock can affect the health of students from abroad.

    PubMed

    Hamboyan, H; Bryan, A K

    1995-10-01

    Family physicians and other health care workers who have international students as patients should have a thorough understanding of their circumstances in order to manage their health problems effectively. These students often experience culture shock that could lead to serious psychosocial difficulties and mental health problems. PMID:8829581

  6. Differences in Affective and Behavioral Health-Related Variables Associated with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker; Soeken, Karen L.

    Although considerable data exist linking individual lifestyle variables to health outcomes, little is known about how the elderly differ from younger adults with respect to both their health seeking behavior and their beliefs about health. A national survey contrasted 155 persons aged 65 years of age or older with 1100 younger adults in order to…

  7. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  8. Children and Society Policy Review: Health Policy Affecting Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkiss, Doug

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Social Care Act comes into force in April 2013. It changes the organisation of the health service and accelerates the integration of health and social care. New relationships between primary and secondary healthcare will develop and the culture of clinical and cost effectiveness will expand into social care; work on children in…

  9. Operating Ratios and Institutional Characteristics Affecting the Responsiveness of Black Colleges and Universities to Professional Allied Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Everlena M.; Andrew, Loyd D.

    Factors that affect the implementation of professional allied health education programs were studied at 64 four-year black colleges and universities that had no such programs before 1975-76. By 1980, six of the institutions had implemented these programs. Twenty-seven operating ratios and seven institutional characteristics were analyzed, based on…

  10. The factors affecting Nigeria's success toward implementation of global public health priorities.

    PubMed

    Echebiri, Vitalis C

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the challenges facing the Nigerian government toward the implementation of global public health priories. The Nigerian government recognizes the need to implement these priorities by putting in place the necessary policy framework, but political instability, poor infrastructural development and inadequate funding have remained barriers toward the achievement of success in implementing these priorities. The rest of the paper elucidates the fact that despite leadership and influence from the World Health Organization and other United Nations agencies, and some responses from the Nigerian government, tackling these public health problems requires much more fundamental reform to primary health services and a reduction in poverty. Although the government has shown enough political will to tackle these problems, it is expected that a better result will be achieved through injecting more funds into the Nigerian health sector, and deploying astute health administrators to manage the sector rather than pure health professionals without managerial acumen.

  11. The method used to culture host cells (Sf9 cells) can affect the qualities of baculovirus budding particles expressing recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tomomi; Nakanishi, Kohei; Mori, Takaaki; Tomita, Masahiro; Tsumoto, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Budded virus (BV) particles of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus, AcNPV) are harvested from the supernatant of liquid culture of Sf9 host cells by ultracentrifugation. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of BV samples fractionated closely by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, we observed that BVs exhibited different qualities depending on whether they had been harvested from the supernatant from a standing (static), shaking (suspension), or standing/shaking (pre-/post-infection) culture of Sf9 cells. The amount of BV protein apparently increased in the order of standing, standing/shaking, and shaking procedure, and the yield of intact particles showed an opposite trend. TEM observation clearly showed that appropriate fractions of the standing and standing/shaking cultures contained more intact BV particles than those from the shaking culture. These results suggest that the qualities of recombinant BV particles may be related to the culture conditions of the host cells. PMID:26498840

  12. Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Specialization in plant–insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of α-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds α-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

  13. Flavohaemoglobin HmpX from Erwinia chrysanthemi confers nitrosative stress tolerance and affects the plant hypersensitive reaction by intercepting nitric oxide produced by the host.

    PubMed

    Boccara, Martine; Mills, Catherine E; Zeier, Jürgen; Anzi, Chiara; Lamb, Chris; Poole, Robert K; Delledonne, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Host cells respond to infection by generating nitric oxide (NO) as a cytotoxic weapon to facilitate killing of invading microbes. Bacterial flavohaemoglobins are well-known scavengers of NO and play a crucial role in protecting animal pathogens from nitrosative stress during infection. Erwinia chrysanthemi, which causes macerating diseases in a wide variety of plants, possesses a flavohaemoglobin (HmpX) whose function in plant pathogens has remained unclear. Here we show that HmpX consumes NO and prevents inhibition by NO of cell respiration, indicating a role in protection from nitrosative stress. Furthermore, infection of Saintpaulia ionantha plants with an HmpX-deficient mutant of E. chrysanthemi revealed that the lack of NO scavenging activity causes the accumulation of unusually high levels of NO in host tissue and triggers hypersensitive cell death. Introduction of the wild-type hmpX gene in an incompatible strain of Pseudomonas syringae had a dramatic effect on the hypersensitive cell death in soya bean cell suspensions, and markedly reduced the development of macroscopic symptoms in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. These observations indicate that HmpX not only protects against nitrosative stress but also attenuates host hypersensitive reaction during infection by intercepting NO produced by the plant for the execution of the hypersensitive cell death programme. PMID:15998309

  14. Accessory genes in the darA operon of bacteriophage P1 affect antirestriction function, generalized transduction, head morphogenesis, and host cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Iida, S; Hiestand-Nauer, R; Sandmeier, H; Lehnherr, H; Arber, W

    1998-11-10

    Bacteriophage P1 mutants with the 8.86-kb region between the invertible C-segment and the residential IS1 element deleted from their genome are still able to grow vegetatively and to lysogenize stably, but they show several phenotypic changes. These include the formation of minute plaques due to delayed cell lysis, the abundant production of small-headed particles, a lack of specific internal head proteins, sensitivity to type I host restriction systems, and altered properties to mediate generalized transduction. In the wild-type P1 genome, the accessory genes encoding the functions responsible for these characters are localized in the darA operon that is transcribed late during phage production. We determined the relevant DNA sequence that is located between the C-segment and the IS1 element and contains the cin gene for C-inversion and the accessory genes in the darA operon. The darA operon carries eight open reading frames that could encode polypeptides containing >100 amino acids. Genetic studies indicate that some of these open reading frames, in particular those residing in the 5' part of the darA operon, are responsible for the phenotypic traits identified. The study may contribute to a better comprehension of phage morphogenesis, of the mobilization of host DNA into phage particles mediating generalized transduction, of the defense against type I restriction systems, and of the control of host lysis.

  15. How changes to Irish healthcare financing are affecting universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Adam D M

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organisation (WHO) published the World Health Report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. The Director-General of the WHO, Dr Margaret Chan, commissioned the report "in response to a need, expressed by rich and poor countries alike, for practical guidance on ways to finance health care". Given the current context of global economic hardship and difficult budgetary decisions, the report offered timely recommendations for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). This article analyses the current methods of healthcare financing in Ireland and their implications for UHC. Three questions are asked of the Irish healthcare system: firstly, how is the health system financed; secondly, how can the health system protect people from the financial consequences of ill-health and paying for health services; and finally, how can the health system encourage the optimum use of available resources? By answering these three questions, this article argues that the Irish healthcare system is not achieving UHC, and that it is unclear whether recent changes to financing are moving Ireland closer or further away from the WHO's ambition for healthcare for all.

  16. Multilevel Causal Analysis of Socio-Psychological and Behavioral Factors of Health Providers and Clients That Affect Health Behavioral Modification in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Intarakamhang, Patrawut

    2015-01-01

    The Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention, which integrates behavioral therapy, is the main ideal management of the clients with obesity. Various socio-psychological factors can affect outcome of the program. The Purposes: To determine the socio-psychological factors at the client and provider groups that affect health behavior modification (HBM) in obese clients, and to investigate the cross-level interaction of factors that affect HBM. The samples included 87 health providers and 412 clients using stratified random sampling. Hierarchical Linear Model was used to analyze in a questionnaire with reliability of 0.8-0.9. Results: 1) for the clients: 1.1) Attitudes towards healthy behavior (AHB), health-related knowledge, and trust in the provider predicted self-efficacy at 49.40%; 1.2) AHB and support from the provider predicted self-regulation at 75.50%; and 1.3) AHB, trust in the provider and support from the provider predicted self-care at 26.6%. 2) for the health providers: 2.1) Health quotient (HQ), project management (PM), support from the team, and the team emotional quotient (EQ) predicted self-efficacy at 71.30%; 2.2) PM and HQ predicted self-regulation at 51.60%; and 2.3) PM, team EQ and HQ predicted self-care at 77.30%., 3) No cross-level interaction of factors between the clients and the providers was identified to affect HBM. Conclusion: The obese client’s AHB is the factor that significantly influenced self-efficacy, self-regulation and self-care (3SELF).At the health provider level, both HQ and PM significantly influenced 3SELF. Behavioral. PMID:26153178

  17. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    PubMed

    Millar, John S

    2013-05-14

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program.

  18. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    PubMed

    Millar, John S

    2013-01-01

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program. PMID:24044474

  19. Factors affecting utilization of dental health services and satisfaction among adolescent females in Riyadh City

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussyeen, Al Johara A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine factors affecting utilization of dental health services among intermediate female school students in Riyadh. In addition to assessing their satisfaction with the dental care received during the last dental visit. Subjects and methods Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students attending eight public and four private schools. These schools were selected randomly to represent the four different administrative zones in Riyadh. Results Of 600 questionnaires distributed, 531 were complete and suitable for analysis. Nearly three quarters of the students visited the dentist more than once during the last 2 years. A bout 75% had their treatment in private dental clinics and 63% made their visits for routine treatment. The quality of dental care was found to be the most encouraging factor for utilization of dental services, whereas, far geographic location of the dental clinics was the most discouraging factor. For those who received treatment in the government clinics, the most discouraging factor was post operative complications (P < 0.0001), while the most encouraging factor was the availability of friendly staff (P < 0.0001). The high cost of dental care was the most discouraging factor for utilizing the dental services for those who visited private clinics (P < 0.0001), while the high quality of dental care was the most encouraging factor (P < 0.009). Students who made their visits because of pain highly considered modern clinics and those recommended by friends as highly encouraging factors (P < 0.002), while they considered the high cost of dental care as discouraging factor for using dental services (P < 0.038). Students who visited the dentist for routine treatment gave the quality of dental care as encouraging for the use of dental clinics (P < 0.0001). Satisfaction with dental care was found to be significantly associated with high quality of dental care, convenient appointment

  20. Mental health of carers of children affected by HIV attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; Macedo, Ana; Croome, Natasha; Sherr, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) services to improve child outcomes. In a cross-sectional study, we interviewed 952 carers of children (aged 4-13 years) attending 28 randomly selected CBOs funded by 11 major donors in South Africa and Malawi. Psychological morbidity was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire and suicidal ideation was measured using an item from the Patient Health Questionnaire. Carers were asked about care-seeking for emotional problems. Overall, 28% of carers scored above the clinical cut-off for current psychological morbidity and 12.2% reported suicidal ideation. We used logistic regression models to test factors associated with poor outcomes. Household unemployment, living with a sick family member and perceived lack of support from the community were associated with both psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation in carers. Reported child food insecurity was also associated with psychological morbidity. In addition, carers living in South Africa were more likely to present with psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation than carers in Malawi. Rates of help-seeking for mental health problems were low. Carers of children affected by HIV are at risk for mental health problems as a result of HIV, socio-economic, care-giving and community factors. We call for increased recognition of the potential role of CBOs in providing mental health care and support for families as a means to improve equity in mental health care. Specifically, we highlight the need for increased training and

  1. Income, Language, and Citizenship Status: Factors Affecting the Health Care Access and Utilization of Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Michael; Lee, Evelyn; Woo, Kent

    1998-01-01

    The effects of income, language, and citizenship on the use of health-care services by Chinese Americans is examined (N=1808). Focus groups, a telephone survey, and key informant interviews were conducted. Data analysis included an acculturation index, demographic profile, and logistical regression. Health insurance and social factors are…

  2. Factors Affecting the Growth and Usage of a Student Mental Health Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaranto, Ernesto A.; Wepman, Barry J.

    1978-01-01

    The five-year growth of an active Student Mental Health Service (SMHS) in an urban academic health center is described. The function of SMHS is limited strictly to therapeutic and consultative services for the students and operates as an outpatient treatment facility using a standard 12-session goal-oriented treatment plan. (LBH)

  3. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations. PMID:24183183

  4. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  5. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations.

  6. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Shaw, Jenny C

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host's reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host's contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  7. Does Leaders' Health (and Work-Related Experiences) Affect their Evaluation of Followers' Stress?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. Methods The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Results Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Conclusion Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed. PMID:26929835

  8. Health care rationing affecting older persons: rejected in principle but implemented in fact.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2002-01-01

    Health care resources are finite and, therefore, need to be rationed among potential users. Over the past decade and a half in the United States, a variety of explicit, official rationing schemes have been proposed, including some in which chronological age would play a significant role. For ethical and political reasons, it is very unlikely that any age-based rationing schemes will be adopted explicitly and officially. However, various de facto forms of health care rationing are occurring at present. This article outlines the implications of payer behavior, physician practice patterns, the development of evidence-based clinical practice parameters or guidelines, and reliance on consumer choice of health plans as unofficial and generally unacknowledged mechanisms of health care rationing that may exert an important impact on the accessibility of health services for older persons. PMID:12557992

  9. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. PMID:24692342

  10. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Tanner, Kristine; Smith, Marshall E

    2011-10-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by health care practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to treat better those women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  11. Young Workers' Job Self-Efficacy and Affect: Pathways to Health and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubbers, Ralph; Loughlin, Catherine; Zweig, David

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 195 young workers responds to calls for the study of healthy work at discrete life stages. Based on social cognitive and affective events theories and using structural equation modeling, results indicated that both perceived job self-efficacy and job-related affect fully mediate the relationship between interpersonal…

  12. Interactive effect of negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity in terms of mental health among Latinos in primary care.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-09-30

    From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample. PMID:27359301

  13. Does the experience of discrimination affect health? A cross-sectional study of Korean elders.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heeran; Kang, Minah; Cho, Sung-il; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted among 992 Koreans aged 60 to 89 to examine the effects of perceived discrimination on the health of an ethnically homogenous older population. Perceived discrimination was measured with a self-report instrument. Health outcomes included depressive symptoms, poor self-rated health, and chronic diseases. Of the elderly Koreans surveyed, 23.5% reported having experienced discrimination based on education, age, birthplace, birth order, or gender. Among women, 23.1% reported experiencing gender discrimination, compared to 0.9% among men. Men reported education and age discrimination most frequently-9.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Those who reported experiencing any discrimination were 2.19 times more likely to report depressive symptoms (95% confidence interval = 1.50-3.22) and 1.40 times more likely to report poor self-rated health (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.93). The health effects of educational discrimination appeared most prominent. This study supports the positive associations between perceived discrimination and poorer health, particularly mental health, in later life.

  14. Do Physicians' Financial Incentives Affect Medical Treatment and Patient Health?†

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Jeffrey; Gottlieb, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether physicians' financial incentives influence health care supply, technology diffusion, and resulting patient outcomes. In 1997, Medicare consolidated the geographic regions across which it adjusts physician payments, generating area-specific price shocks. Areas with higher payment shocks experience significant increases in health care supply. On average, a 2 percent increase in payment rates leads to a 3 percent increase in care provision. Elective procedures such as cataract surgery respond much more strongly than less discretionary services. Non-radiologists expand their provision of MRIs, suggesting effects on technology adoption. We estimate economically small health impacts, albeit with limited precision. PMID:25170174

  15. Evaluation of Antenatal to Neonatal Continuum Care Services Affecting Neonatal Health in a Tertiary Health-Care Setup

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Jarina; Ali, Syed Irfan; Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal and child mortality and morbidity continue to be high despite existence of various national health programmes in India. Annually 41% of all Under 5 mortality is comprised of neonates, 3/4 of who die within the first week of life. Even though effective programmes are existing, optimum utilization is still a question. So the present study was planned to assess utilisation of maternal and neonatal health services and its influence on neonatal health. Objectives: 1. To assess the utilization of MCH services before admission to SNCU. 2. To analyse the process of implementation of IMNCI before referral and during the admission. 3. To observe the impact on neonatal health and give necessary recommendations. Methodology: The information regarding utilization of MCH services was obtained by conducting in depth interviews with the responsible adults accompanying the sick neonate. The Pre-treatment and referral slips were verified and compared with that of the prescribed guidelines laid down by the IMNCI for young infants (0-2 months) at SNCU. Results and Discussion: Some of the important observations were mentioned here. 100% women had TT immunization whereas 72% had the full ANC, 58.7% had full course of IFA, 76% had utilized JSY benefits and 48.34% had their PNC. 84% neonates had required immunization, 59.01% were on exclusive breast feeding. 38.9% were paid home visits, only 42% had an idea about the danger signs of neonatal period. 23% sick babies were treated under IMNCI guideline. Among them 98% given initial treatment, only 34% given proper diagnosis/classification, 56% were given adequate advice. PMID:27385875

  16. Pathways to vocational services: factors affecting entry by veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration mental health services.

    PubMed

    Drebing, Charles E; Mueller, Lisa; Van Ormer, E Alice; Duffy, Patricia; LePage, James; Rosenheck, Robert; Drake, Robert; Rose, Gary S; King, Kendra; Penk, Walter

    2012-02-01

    The current study provides naturalistic data documenting the pathways-to-care to vocational services for 155 veterans who were receiving some form of mental health care from the Veterans Health Administration and had a vocational need but were not currently enrolled in vocational services. Of the participants, 94.2% had recognized their vocational need, 80.6% reported that they or someone else had sought help to alleviate the need, and 77.4% had previously received some form of vocational services. The median length of the participants' vocational need was more than 4.2 years. Delays associated with recognition, help-seeking, and treatment entry all contributed to the overall delay in entering appropriate care. Filtering factors associated with quicker recognition, seeking help, and receiving services included diagnosis, level of disability, type of vocational need, and support from primary providers, family, and friends. The results provide information for designing interventions to improve service entry by adults with mental health problems and vocational needs.

  17. A public health approach to the needs of children affected by terrorism.

    PubMed

    Baker, Duiona R

    2002-01-01

    The devastating terrorist incidents of Pan Am Flight 103, the Oklahoma City bombing, the bombings of the embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and the World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001, have forever changed America. These terrorist acts have deeply shaken the sense of safety, security, and well-being of our surviving children and families. These terrorist acts may also have increased the public health risks of substance abuse and mental illness for our children. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration is responsible for strengthening prevention and treatment of substance abuse and mental illness in children and families. America's children may exhibit a wide range of emotional, physical, and psychological reactions following natural and man-made disasters. Large-scale disasters witnessed by children all underscore the need for a broad mental health and substance abuse public health approach. This approach is critical for our children's well-being.

  18. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  19. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: do housing and neighborhoods affect children's mental health?

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-02-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children's mental health, as addressed by Flouri et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014), is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it is a necessary shift for improving population health. PMID:25527210

  20. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation: do housing and neighborhoods affect children's mental health?

    PubMed

    Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-02-01

    The impact of housing and neighborhood context on children's mental health, as addressed by Flouri et al. (Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014), is an important, understudied topic in social epidemiology. Although the vast majority of this body of research has been descriptive, generating translational research is essential. This article offers guidance on interpreting evidence from observational studies for translation into policy, related to three policy-relevant elements of housing: receipt of affordable housing subsidies, the target population to which results generalize, and operationalization and modeling of neighborhood context. Policy translation is imperative for understanding which levers outside the health sector can be manipulated to change fundamental causes of mental health related to housing and neighborhood. Shifting from policy relevance to policy translation may be challenging, especially for understanding social causation in observational studies, but it is a necessary shift for improving population health.

  1. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Oral health was assessed in different teeth of 41 cats of different ages and diets. It was found that oral health in cats varies with the variables considered. Incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet, had better health in comparison to cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early-age cheek teeth hygiene and provision of abrasive dry food. Abstract In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001) and diet (p < 0.001) were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05). Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01), age × diet (p < 0.01), teeth × diet (p < 0.001), and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001). The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food. PMID:26479140

  2. An exploration of factors affecting the long term psychological impact and deterioration of mental health in flooded households.

    PubMed

    Lamond, Jessica Elizabeth; Joseph, Rotimi D; Proverbs, David G

    2015-07-01

    The long term psychological effect of the distress and trauma caused by the memory of damage and losses associated with flooding of communities remains an under researched impact of flooding. This is particularly important for communities that are likely to be repeatedly flooded where levels of mental health disorder will damage long term resilience to future flooding. There are a variety of factors that affect the prevalence of mental health disorders in the aftermath of flooding including pre-existing mental health, socio-economic factors and flood severity. However previous research has tended to focus on the short term impacts immediately following the flood event and much less focus has been given to the longer terms effects of flooding. Understanding of factors affecting the longer term mental health outcomes for flooded households is critical in order to support communities in improving social resilience. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics associated with psychological distress and mental health deterioration over the longer term. The research examined responses from a postal survey of households flooded during the 2007 flood event across England. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and binomial logistic regression were applied to data representing household characteristics, flood event characteristics and post-flood stressors and coping strategies. These factors were related to reported measures of stress, anxiety, depression and mental health deterioration. The results showed that household income, depth of flooding; having to move out during reinstatement and mitigating actions are related to the prevalence of psycho-social symptoms in previously flooded households. In particular relocation and household income were the most predictive factors. The practical implication of these findings for recovery after flooding are: to consider the preferences of households in terms of the need to move out during restorative

  3. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking to create “movies” of how smoking affects dopamine, the chemical messenger that triggers feelings of pleasure ... brain. These brain movies showed that smoking alters dopamine in the brain at different rates and in ...

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Possible Memory Biases Affecting Support for Racial Health Care Policy

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to test the theory that estimates of racial disparities may be based on small recalled samples of specific individuals (Black vs White), a strategy likely to lead to underestimates of true racial disparities and a corresponding opposition to race-focused health care policies. Methods. We asked a sample of White adults to list the first 5 Black and White individuals who came to mind, and then measured support for various race-focused health care policies. Results. Analyses indicated that the Black individuals recalled by participants tended to be more famous and wealthy than their White counterparts. Furthermore, the tendency to list wealthier Black individuals predicted opposition to progressive racial health care programs. A follow-up study demonstrated that support for certain race-focused health care policies could be increased by informing Whites of potential memory biases. Conclusions. The survival and success of minority health care policies depend partially on public acceptance. Education regarding continuing racial disparities may help to increase support for race-focused health care policies. PMID:22420789

  5. Why don't health workers prescribe ACT? A qualitative study of factors affecting the prescription of artemether-lumefantrine

    PubMed Central

    Wasunna, Beatrice; Zurovac, Dejan; Goodman, Catherine A; Snow, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Background Kenya recently changed its antimalarial drug policy to a specific artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), artemether-lumefantrine (AL). New national guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention were developed and disseminated to health workers together with in-service training. Methods Between January and March 2007, 36 in-depth interviews were conducted in five rural districts with health workers who attended in-service training and were non-adherent to the new guidelines. A further 20 interviews were undertaken with training facilitators and members of District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) to explore reasons underlying health workers' non-adherence. Results Health workers generally perceived AL as being tolerable and efficacious as compared to amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyremethamine. However, a number of key reasons for non-adherence were identified. Insufficient supply of AL was a major issue and hence fears of stock outs and concern about AL costs was an impediment to AL prescription. Training messages that contradicted the recommended guidelines also led to health worker non-adherence, compounded by a lack of follow-up supervision. In addition, the availability of non-recommended antimalarials such as amodiaquine caused prescription confusion. Some health workers and DHMT members maintained that shortage of staff had resulted in increased patient caseload affecting the delivery of the desirable quality of care and adherence to guidelines. Conclusion The introduction of free efficacious ACTs in the public health sector in Kenya and other countries has major potential public health benefits for Africa. These may not be realized if provider prescription practices do not conform to the recommended treatment guidelines. It is essential that high quality training, drug supply and supervision work synergistically to ensure appropriate case management. PMID:18252000

  6. Factors Affecting Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services in Kombolcha District, Eastern Hararghe Zone, Oromia Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zelalem Ayele, Desalew; Belayihun, Bekele; Teji, Kedir; Admassu Ayana, Desalegn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. World health organization estimates that more than half a million women lose their lives in the process of reproduction worldwide every year and most of these mortalities are avoidable if mothers have access to maternal health care services. Objectives. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of utilization of maternal health care services and identifying factors affecting it. Methodology. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in six kebeles of Kombolcha district. A total of 495 women of reproductive age participated in the study and their selection was made using simple random sampling technique and data was collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results. A total of 495 women were included in this study and from these women about 86.1% had at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy. About 61.7% of mothers had less than four visits which is less than the recommended and 46.2% started it in the second trimester. Only 25.3% of respondents gave birth in health institutions and rural women were less likely to use institutional delivery 20.9% compared to urban women 35.9%. Recommendations. More efforts should be given to educate society in general and mothers in particular, to strengthen community participation and to increase the accessibility of maternal health care services. Moreover, providing accurate information about the services provided in the health institutions is required from the concerned governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

  7. How the negative and positive aspects of partner relationships affect the mental health of young married people.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A V; McLaughlin, J; White, H R

    1998-06-01

    The relationship between marriage and positive mental health is one of the most established findings in the stress literature. Few studies, however, examine the problematic as well as the supportive impacts of marriage on mental health. This paper uses a cohort of young adults who were sampled at 18, 21, or 24 years of age and resampled seven years later when they were married at 25, 28, or 31. It examines what factors are associated with the quality of marital relationships, the relative impact of and balance between negative and positive partner relationships on mental health, and sex differences in the determinants and outcomes of marital quality. The results indicate that the structural strains of parenthood and financial need and their interaction predict problematic and supportive spousal relationships and the difference in the levels of these two relationships. Problematic relationships with spouses have considerably stronger impacts than supportive relationships on depression. However, the difference between the amounts of supportive and problematic relationships with spouses has a greater impact on mental health than levels of either considered separately. Finally, relational quality has a greater impact on the mental health of wives than husbands. These findings indicate the importance of considering how marriage affects mental health in complex, rather than in straightforward, ways.

  8. Genetic diversity in Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolates from dogs and cats in China: host specificity and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Karim, Md Robiul; Dong, Haiju; Yu, Fuchang; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Rume, Farzana Islam; Ning, Changshen; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-09-01

    To explore the genetic diversity, host specificity, and zoonotic potential of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, feces from 348 stray and pet dogs and 96 pet cats from different locations in China were examined by internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based PCR. E. bieneusi was detected in 15.5% of the dogs, including 20.5% of stray dogs and 11.7% of pet dogs, and in 11.5% of the pet cats. Higher infection rates were recorded in the >2-year and the 1- to 2-year age groups in dogs and cats, respectively. Altogether, 24 genotypes, including 11 known and 13 new, were detected in 65 infected animals. In 54 positive dogs, 18 genotypes, 9 known (PtEbIX, O, D, CM1, EbpA, Peru8, type IV, EbpC, and PigEBITS5) and 9 new (CD1 to CD9), were found. In contrast, 8 genotypes, 4 known (D, BEB6, I, and PtEbIX) and 4 new (CC1 to CC4), were identified in 11 infected cats. The dominant genotype in dogs was PtEbIX (26/54). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 8 known genotypes (D, Peru8, type IV, CM1, EbpC, PigEBITS5, O, and EbpA) and 7 new genotypes (CD1 to CD4 and CC2 to CC4) were the members of zoonotic group 1, whereas genotypes CD7, CD8, and CD9 together with PtEbIX belonged to the dog-specific group, and genotypes CD6 and CC1 were placed in group 2 with BEB6 and I. Conversely, genotype CD5 clustered with CM4 without belonging to any previous groups. We conclude that zoonotic genotypes are common in dogs and cats, as are host-specific genotypes in dogs.

  9. Racial and cultural factors affecting the mental health of Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Farrell, Jerome A; Lin, Li-Ling

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we employed structural equation modeling to test the degree to which racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were predictive of mental health in a predominantly community-based sample of 367 Asian American adults. We also tested whether bicultural self-efficacy moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health. Finally, we examined whether generational status moderated the impact of racial and cultural predictors of mental health by testing our model across immigrant and U.S.-born samples. Results indicated that our hypothesized structural model represented a good fit to the total sample data. While racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were significant predictors of mental health in the total sample analyses, our generational analyses revealed a differential predictive pattern across generational status. Finally, we found that the buffering effect of bicultural self-efficacy on the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health was significant for U.S.-born individuals only. Implications for research and service delivery are explored.

  10. Legal issues affecting children with preexisting conditions during public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Wissow, Lawrence S; Tung, Gregory J; Marum, Felicity; Barnett, Daniel J

    2013-06-01

    Among the millions of children in the United States exposed to public health emergencies in recent years, those with preexisting health conditions face particular challenges. A public health emergency may, for example, disrupt treatment regimens or cause children to be separated from caregivers. Ongoing shortages of pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists may further exacerbate the risks that children with preexisting conditions face in disaster circumstances. The US Department of Homeland Security recently called for better integration of children's needs into all preparedness activities. To aid in this process, multiple legal concerns relevant to pediatricians and pediatric policymakers must be identified and addressed. Obtaining informed consent from children and parents may be particularly challenging during certain public health emergencies. States may need to invoke legal protections for children who are separated from caregivers during emergencies. Maintaining access to prescription medications may also require pediatricians to use specific legal mechanisms. In addition to practitioners, recommendations are given for policymakers to promote effective pediatric response to public health emergencies.

  11. Quality time: how parents' schooling affects child health through its interaction with childcare time in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bishai, D

    1996-01-01

    A child health production function is presented with the key feature being an interaction term between a caregiver's schooling and their exposure time to the child. The production function is estimated using a 2SLS fixed effects model with lagged childcare time, resource allocation and child health as instruments for the first differences of these same endogenous variables. The 1978 Intrafamily Food Distribution and Feeding Practices Survey dataset from Bangladesh is used together with census data. The production function estimates indicate that part of the salutary effects of parental education on child health require that the child actually be exposed to the educated parent. Given the demographic makeup of the study sample and the assumption that age education and gender completely account for productivity, teenage brothers and fathers would have the highest marginal productivity for child health and mothers and grandmothers the least. If economic opportunity draws mothers away from childcare, the presence of other household members with higher schooling levels offers the potential for an improvement in the overall quality of childcare time. In the present study the households failed to set the marginal labour product of child health for each of the caregivers equal. Thus, the quality of childcare may not be the household's sole concern in determining time allocation. PMID:8922968

  12. Quality time: how parents' schooling affects child health through its interaction with childcare time in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bishai, D

    1996-01-01

    A child health production function is presented with the key feature being an interaction term between a caregiver's schooling and their exposure time to the child. The production function is estimated using a 2SLS fixed effects model with lagged childcare time, resource allocation and child health as instruments for the first differences of these same endogenous variables. The 1978 Intrafamily Food Distribution and Feeding Practices Survey dataset from Bangladesh is used together with census data. The production function estimates indicate that part of the salutary effects of parental education on child health require that the child actually be exposed to the educated parent. Given the demographic makeup of the study sample and the assumption that age education and gender completely account for productivity, teenage brothers and fathers would have the highest marginal productivity for child health and mothers and grandmothers the least. If economic opportunity draws mothers away from childcare, the presence of other household members with higher schooling levels offers the potential for an improvement in the overall quality of childcare time. In the present study the households failed to set the marginal labour product of child health for each of the caregivers equal. Thus, the quality of childcare may not be the household's sole concern in determining time allocation.

  13. Racial and Cultural Factors Affecting the Mental Health of Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Farrell, Jerome A.; Lin, Li-Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we employed structural equation modeling to test the degree to which racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were predictive of mental health in a predominantly community-based sample of 367 Asian American adults. We also tested whether bicultural self-efficacy moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health. Finally, we examined whether generational status moderated the impact of racial and cultural predictors of mental health by testing our model across immigrant and U.S.-born samples. Results indicated that our hypothesized structural model represented a good fit to the total sample data. While racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were significant predictors of mental health in the total sample analyses, our generational analyses revealed a differential predictive pattern across generational status. Finally, we found that the buffering effect of bicultural self-efficacy on the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health was significant for U.S.-born individuals only. Implications for research and service delivery are explored. PMID:21977934

  14. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    PubMed

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences. PMID:25930059

  15. How Has the Affordable Care Act Affected Health Insurers' Financial Performance?

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Starting in 2014, the Affordable Care Act transformed the market for individual health insurance by changing how insurance is sold and by subsidizing coverage for millions of new purchasers. Insurers, who had no previous experience under these market conditions, competed actively but faced uncertainty in how to price their products. This issue brief uses newly available data to understand how health insurers fared financially during the ACA's first year of full reforms. Overall, health insurers' financial performance began to show some strain in 2014, but the ACA's reinsurance program substantially buffered the negative effects for most insurers. Although a quarter of insurers did substantially worse than others, experience under the new market rules could improve the accuracy of pricing decisions in subsequent years. PMID:27459740

  16. How Has the Affordable Care Act Affected Health Insurers' Financial Performance?

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Starting in 2014, the Affordable Care Act transformed the market for individual health insurance by changing how insurance is sold and by subsidizing coverage for millions of new purchasers. Insurers, who had no previous experience under these market conditions, competed actively but faced uncertainty in how to price their products. This issue brief uses newly available data to understand how health insurers fared financially during the ACA's first year of full reforms. Overall, health insurers' financial performance began to show some strain in 2014, but the ACA's reinsurance program substantially buffered the negative effects for most insurers. Although a quarter of insurers did substantially worse than others, experience under the new market rules could improve the accuracy of pricing decisions in subsequent years.

  17. Factors affecting the frequency of health enhancing behaviors by the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, E P; Pollow, R

    1994-01-01

    The authors examined the frequency of health-enhancing behaviors practiced by the elderly living in community settings, with emphasis on the impact of disease and disability on the frequency of those practices. Data were collected through personal interviews with a probability sample of 667 respondents in a 4-county region of northeastern New York. Almost all respondents said they engaged in at least one health-enhancing practice on a regular basis. The most commonly reported behaviors involved dietary practices. Results of the analysis support the importance of differentiating among health-enhancing behaviors that are undertaken as primary levels of prevention, in contrast to those undertaken as secondary or tertiary levels of prevention. PMID:8190861

  18. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    PubMed

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.

  19. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  20. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Emaus, Nina; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Bilden, Unni; Olsen, Jan Abel; Pettersen, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability) following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the “Tromsø Study” (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years). Self-reported data on psychological (threats) and physical violence (beaten/kicked), mental health (anxiety/depression), musculoskeletal pain (MSP), and granting of disability pension (DP) were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group), whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence. PMID:26317970

  1. Health system factors affecting communication with pediatricians: gendered work culture in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Sean

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the roles that practice setting, education level, and gender may play in social workers' communication satisfaction with pediatricians. Taking an ethnographic approach, the researcher interviewed social workers and pediatricians who worked together to provide mental health services in primary care. The results suggested that gender at the health system level may be an issue and that gendered work culture in primary care was a factor in communication. In particular, reimbursement, an aspect of the gendered work culture, was a substantial communication barrier, and the implications for Medicaid billing are discussed. PMID:22085327

  2. Improved metabolic health alters host metabolism in parallel with changes in systemic xeno-metabolites of gut origin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel plasma metabolite patterns reflective of improved metabolic health (insulin sensitivity, fitness, reduced body weight) were identified before and after a 14-17 wk weight loss and exercise intervention in sedentary, obese insulin-resistant women. To control for potential confounding effects of...

  3. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  4. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  5. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  6. Does Neighborhood and Family Poverty Affect Mothers' Parenting, Mental Health, and Social Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebanov, Pamela Kato; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated effects of neighborhood and family poverty on maternal psychological and behavioral characteristics using data from 895 mothers. Neighborhood poverty was associated with poorer home physical environment and with less maternal warmth, controlling for family conditions. Home environment was adversely affected by family poverty, large…

  7. Components that affect the Implementation of Health Services’ Strategic Purchasing: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Peivand; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Kazemifard, Yalda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Strategic purchasing is one of the mechanisms that can increase access, equity, and efficiency as well as the correct management of health resources. The aim of this study was to extract important and influential factors as necessary infrastructures to implement this method. Methods In this comprehensive literature review, 13 databases and search engines were searched from 2000 to 2015 by applying appropriate keywords. From a total of 1403 titles and after ensuring the validity of the study by the Clinical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tool, 18 articles that contained title, abstract, and associated text were used in the study, and their related information was analyzed and extracted using an extraction form and LitAssist software. Results The findings showed six categories of intervention have been effective in the strategic purchasing of all health interventions in different countries. These six categories were “The target group of users of the service” (demand side), “purchased interventions,” “providers and suppliers of interventions” (the supply side), “Methods and incentives” (payment method), “price,” and “Structure and organization.” Conclusion Although the necessity of performing strategic purchasing in the health sector or developing countries is an indisputable fact, it is of great importance to use the experiences of developed countries while considering the factors extracted from the study for implementing this method. In this regard, it is suggested that studies be performed that can lead to assessing the feasibility of strategic purchasing for health services in developing countries and also in Iran to help health policy makers in these countries. PMID:27382441

  8. Redeeming qualities: exploring factors that affect women’s use of reproductive health vouchers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One approach to delivering healthcare in developing countries is through voucher programs, where vouchers are distributed to a specific population for free or subsidized health care. Recent evaluations suggest that vouchers have the potential to extend coverage of priority health services to the poor in developing countries. In Cambodia, a reproductive health voucher program was implemented in January 2011. This study aims to explore women’s early experiences accessing health services with their vouchers at accredited clinics. Methods This qualitative exploratory study used focus group methodology to gather information from five groups of older (>25 years) and four groups of younger (18–25 years) women who were eligible for the voucher program in three rural provinces. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer into English. Data analysis was an iterative process, which comprised of open coding to find commonalities that reflected categories or themes and axial coding to relate initial themes to each other. Next, a basic framework for analysis was formed by integrating the themes into the framework. Results Two overarching themes were identified in the data: 1) factors that facilitate voucher use and 2) factors that inhibit voucher use. Within each of these themes, three subthemes were identified: 1) pre-existing factors, 2) distribution factors, and 3) redemption factors. Overall, women expressed positive feelings towards the voucher program, while several areas for program improvement were identified including the importance of addressing pre-existing demand-side barriers to using reproductive health services, the need for more comprehensive counselling during voucher distribution, and the persistent cost of unofficial payments expected by midwives after delivery irrespective of voucher use. Conclusions Early information from program beneficiaries can lead to timely and responsive changes that can help to maximize

  9. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  10. virF, the host-range-determining virulence gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, affects T-DNA transfer to Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Jarchow, E; Grimsley, N H; Hohn, B

    1991-12-01

    The monocotyledonous plant Zea mays does not develop tumors after inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens and is thus defined as nonhost. Agroinfection, Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of maize streak virus, demonstrates that transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer to the plant does occur. Nopaline-type Agrobacterium strains such as C58 are efficient in the transfer process whereas the octopine-type strain A6 is unable to transfer T-DNA to maize. This phenotypic difference maps to the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid but not to the T-DNA. Steps preceding T-DNA transfer, such as attachment and induction of the virulence genes, were shown to take place in the octopine strain. The nopaline-plasmid-specific locus tzs and the octopine-plasmid-specific locus pinF (virH) are not involved in the strain specificity. However, mutations in the virF locus rendered the octopine strain agroinfectious on maize, whereas such virF-defective octopine strains, when complemented by virF on a plasmid, completely lost their agroinfectivity. We propose that VirF, known to increase the host range of the bacteria in other systems, acts as an inhibitor of T-DNA transfer to maize. PMID:11607242

  11. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  12. Family-based prevention of mental health problems in children affected by HIV and AIDS: an open trial

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Ng, Lauren C.; Kirk, Catherine M.; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Ingabire, Charles; Teta, Sharon; Beardslee, William R.; Brennan, Robert T.; Zahn, Ista; Stulac, Sara; Cyamatare, Felix R.; Sezibera, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention to reduce mental health problems and bolster resilience among children living in households affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. Design Pre-post design, including 6-month follow-up. Methods The Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) aims to reduce mental health problems among HIV-affected children through improved child–caregiver relationships, family communication and parenting skills, HIV psychoeducation and connections to resources. Twenty families (N=39 children) with at least one HIV-positive caregiver and one child 7–17 years old were enrolled in the FSI. Children and caregivers were administered locally adapted and validated measures of child mental health problems, as well as measures of protective processes and parenting. Assessments were administered at pre and postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Multilevel models accounting for clustering by family tested changes in outcomes of interest. Qualitative interviews were completed to understand acceptability, feasibility and satisfaction with the FSI. Results Families reported high satisfaction with the FSI. Caregiver-reported improvements in family connectedness, good parenting, social support and children's pro-social behaviour (P<0.05) were sustained and strengthened from postintervention to 6-month follow-up. Additional improvements in caregiver-reported child perseverance/self-esteem, depression, anxiety and irritability were seen at follow-up (P<.05). Significant decreases in child-reported harsh punishment were observed at postintervention and follow-up, and decreases in caregiver reported harsh punishment were also recorded on follow-up (P<0.05). Conclusion The FSI is a feasible and acceptable intervention that shows promise for improving mental health symptoms and strengthening protective factors among children and families affected by HIV in low-resource settings. PMID:24991909

  13. Increasing the provision of mental health care for vulnerable, disaster-affected people in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bangladesh has the highest natural disaster mortality rate in the world, with over half a million people lost to disaster events since 1970. Most of these people have died during floods or cyclones, both of which are likely to become more frequent due to global climate change. To date, the government’s post-disaster response strategy has focused, increasingly effectively, on the physical needs of survivors, through the provision of shelter, food and medical care. However, the serious and widespread mental health consequences of natural disasters in Bangladesh have not yet received the attention that they deserve. This Debate article proposes a practical model that will facilitate the provision of comprehensive and effective post-disaster mental health services for vulnerable Bangladeshis on a sustainable basis. Discussion A series of socially determined factors render the women and the poor of Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to dying in natural disasters; and, for those who survive, to suffering from some sort of disaster-related mental health illness. For women, this is largely due to the enforced gender separation, or purdah, that they endure; while for the poor, it is the fact that they are, by definition, only able to afford to live in the most climatically dangerous, and under-served parts of the country. Although the disasters themselves are brought by nature, therefore, social determinants increase the vulnerability of particular groups to mental illness as a result of them. While deeply entrenched, these determinants are at least partially amenable to change through policy and action. Summary In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the World Health Organisation developed a framework for providing mental health and psychosocial support after major disasters, which, we argue, could be adapted to Bangladeshi post-cyclone and post-flood contexts. The framework is community-based, it includes both medical and non-clinical components, and it

  14. A systematic review of factors affecting children's right to health in cluster randomized trials in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Oduwo, Elizabeth; Edwards, Sarah J L

    2014-07-16

    Following the South African case, Treatment Action Campaign and Others v Minister of Health and Others, the use of 'pilot' studies to investigate interventions already proven efficacious, offered free of charge to government, but confined by the government to a small part of the population, may violate children's right to health, and the negative duty on governments not to prevent access to treatment. The applicants challenged a government decision to offer Nevirapine in a few pilot sites when evidence showed Nevirapine significantly reduced HIV transmission rates and despite donor offers of a free supply. The government refused to expand access, arguing they needed to collect more information, and citing concerns about long-term hazards, side effects, resistance and inadequate infrastructure. The court ruled this violated children's right to health and asked the government to immediately expand access. Cluster randomized trials involving children are increasingly popular, and are often used to reduce 'contamination': the possibility that members of a cluster adopt behavior of other clusters. However, they raise unique issues insufficiently addressed in literature and ethical guidelines. This case provides additional crucial guidance, based on a common human rights framework, for the Kenyan government and other involved stakeholders. Children possess special rights, often represent a 'captive' group, and so motivate extra consideration. In a systematic review, we therefore investigated whether cluster trial designs are used to prevent or delay children's access to treatment in Kenya or otherwise inconsistently with children's right to health as outlined in the above case. Although we did not find state sponsored cluster trials, most had significant public sector involvement. Core obligations under children's right to health were inadequately addressed across trials. Few cluster trials reported rationale for cluster randomization, offered post- trial access or

  15. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  16. How does national culture affect citizens' rights of access to personal health information and informed consent?

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Sophie; Sandhu, Neelam; Norris, Anthony

    2009-09-01

    Two widely discussed and debated aspects of health law literature are 'informed' consent to medical treatment and the right of access to personal health information. Both are tied to the larger subject of patients' rights, including the right to privacy. This article looks at the issue of informed consent internationally, and goes further to explain some of the inequalities across the world with respect to informed consent and patients' rights legislation via an analysis of the take-up of key legislative attributes in patient consent. Specifically, the effect that national culture, as defined by the GLOBE variables, has on the rate and pattern of adoption of these consent elements is analysed using binary logistic regression to provide evidence of the existence or otherwise of a cultural predicate of the legislative approach. The article concludes by outlining the challenges presented by these differences.

  17. Factors Affecting Participation in the eRedBook: A Personal Child Health Record.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Siobhan; Devlin, Alison M; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mair, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    A personal child health record called the eRedBook was recently piloted in the United Kingdom. A qualitative exploratory case study was used to examine how public health nurses engaged or recruited parents and what factors hindered participation. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with those implementing the eRedBook and those taking part in the pilot study. A range of project documentation was also reviewed. Thematic analysis using the framework approach was applied to draw out themes. Numerous socio-technical factors such as the usability of the software, concerns over data protection and costs, poor digital literacy skills and a lack of Internet connectivity emerged. These barriers need to be addressed before the eRedBook is implemented nationwide. PMID:27332437

  18. Do cigarette taxes affect children's body mass index? The effect of household environment on health.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Jennifer M

    2011-04-01

    Several recent studies demonstrate a positive effect of cigarette prices and taxes on obesity among adults, especially those who smoke. If higher cigarette costs affect smokers' weights by increasing calories consumed or increasing food expenditures, then cigarette taxes and prices may also affect obesity in children of smokers. This study examines the link between child body mass index (BMI) and obesity status and cigarette costs using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-79 (NLSY79). Controlling for various child, mother, and household characteristics as well as child-fixed effects, I find that cigarette taxes and prices increase BMI in the children of smoking mothers. Interestingly, and unlike previous research findings for adults, higher cigarette taxes do not increase the likelihood of obesity in children. These findings are consistent with a causal mechanism in which higher cigarette costs reduce smoking and increase food expenditures and consumption in the household.

  19. Does amblyopia affect educational, health, and social outcomes? Findings from 1958 British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rahi, J S; Cumberland, P M; Peckham, C S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine any association of amblyopia with diverse educational, health, and social outcomes in order to inform current debate about population screening for this condition. Design, setting, and participants Comparison of 8432 people with normal vision in each eye with 429 (4.8%) people with amblyopia (childhood unilateral reduced acuity when tested with correction and unaccounted for by eye disease) from the 1958 British birth cohort, with respect to subsequent health and social functioning. Results No functionally or clinically significant differences existed between people with and without amblyopia in educational outcomes, behavioural difficulties or social maladjustment, participation in social activities, unintended injuries (school, workplace, or road traffic accidents as driver), general or mental health and mortality, paid employment, or occupation based social class trajectories. Conclusions It may be difficult to distinguish, at population level, between the lives of people with amblyopia and those without, in terms of several important outcomes. A pressing need exists for further concerted research on what it means to have amblyopia and, specifically, how this varies with severity and how it changes with treatment, so that screening programmes can best serve those who have the most to gain from early identification. PMID:16520328

  20. Occupational health and safety issues affecting young workers: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Marie; Ledoux, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Many overview articles, reports, book chapters and literature reviews have examined the health and safety of young workers. These sources discuss the relationships between the work conditions of young workers and the various indicators of accidents and occupational diseases. Breslin et al. [12,13] conducted two literature reviews of quantitative studies to determine which factors best predicted work accidents and occupational disorders in young people. The present article proposes a review of young people's occupational health and safety (OHS) factors (e.g., demographic, individual, professional, organizational, temporal and operational factors) in both qualitative and quantitative studies. Five types of problems were analyzed in greater depth, namely MSD symptoms, respiratory, allergy and toxicological problems, mental health and well-being, alcohol and drug consumption, and fatigue. This review likewise examines related dimensions that allow us to adopt a more global perspective on this subject by considering such elements as young people's values, their knowledge and attitudes, safety practices in companies, the safe integration of young people, and rehabilitation. A total of 189 scientific articles were selected on the basis of certain criteria. These articles came from refereed OHS journals published between 1994 and 2005.

  1. A health promotion intervention can affect diet quality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; McNaughton, Sarah A; Lioret, Sandrine; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2013-10-01

    Initiatives to promote children's nutrition and prevent childhood obesity are vital. Dietary patterns are a useful way to characterize whole diets, though no previous early childhood health promotion trial to our knowledge has assessed intervention impact using this approach. This research aimed to assess the effect of a healthy eating and physical activity intervention on young children's dietary patterns. The Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program was a health promotion, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 542 families. Child diets were assessed by multiple 24-h recalls postintervention at ~18 mo of age. An Obesity Protective Dietary Index (OPDI) was created and dietary patterns were also assessed by principal components analysis (PCA). These outcomes were used to compare intervention and control participants to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Children in the intervention arm scored higher (15.6 ± 5.9) than those in the control arm (14.5 ± 6.7) for the OPDI (scores out of 30, P = 0.01). Three dietary patterns were identified by PCA; however, the scores did not substantially differ between the intervention and control arms. In conclusion, this paper presents novel results in both the evaluation of an early childhood health promotion intervention and the assessment of child dietary patterns. The results highlight the capacity for such an initiative to improve child diets and the need for further research in this area. PMID:23966329

  2. A health promotion intervention can affect diet quality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; McNaughton, Sarah A; Lioret, Sandrine; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2013-10-01

    Initiatives to promote children's nutrition and prevent childhood obesity are vital. Dietary patterns are a useful way to characterize whole diets, though no previous early childhood health promotion trial to our knowledge has assessed intervention impact using this approach. This research aimed to assess the effect of a healthy eating and physical activity intervention on young children's dietary patterns. The Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program was a health promotion, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 542 families. Child diets were assessed by multiple 24-h recalls postintervention at ~18 mo of age. An Obesity Protective Dietary Index (OPDI) was created and dietary patterns were also assessed by principal components analysis (PCA). These outcomes were used to compare intervention and control participants to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Children in the intervention arm scored higher (15.6 ± 5.9) than those in the control arm (14.5 ± 6.7) for the OPDI (scores out of 30, P = 0.01). Three dietary patterns were identified by PCA; however, the scores did not substantially differ between the intervention and control arms. In conclusion, this paper presents novel results in both the evaluation of an early childhood health promotion intervention and the assessment of child dietary patterns. The results highlight the capacity for such an initiative to improve child diets and the need for further research in this area.

  3. Mental health and psychosocial support after the tsunami: observations across affected nations.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vijay; Pandav, Rajesh; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2006-06-01

    The countries affected by the tsunami responded to the natural disaster promptly but with different results and outcomes. The reasons for this varied response were many. The outcome depended upon a number of factors, including the extent of the damage to property and lives, accessibility of the areas and existing disaster plans. In this paper we present the overall observations and suggest the way forward. PMID:16753656

  4. Transcription from fusion promoters generated during transposition of transposon Tn4652 is positively affected by integration host factor in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Teras, R; Hõrak, R; Kivisaar, M

    2000-02-01

    We have previously shown that both ends of the Tn3 family transposon Tn4652 contain integration host factor (IHF) binding sites and that IHF positively regulates expression of the Tn4652 transposase gene tnpA in Pseudomonas putida (R. Hõrak, and M. Kivisaar, J. Bacteriol. 180:2822-2829, 1998). Tn4652 can activate silent genes by creating fusion promoters during the transposition. The promoters are created as fusions between the -35 hexamer provided by the terminal inverted repeats of Tn4652 and the -10 hexamers in the target DNA. Two fusion promoters, PRA1 and PLA1, that contain sequences of the right and left termini of Tn4652, respectively, were chosen for the study of mechanisms of transcription activation. Gel mobility shift analysis using crude extracts from P. putida cells allowed us to detect specific binding of P. putida IHF to the ends of the transposon Tn4652. We found that the rate of transcription from the fusion promoter PRA1 is enhanced by IHF. Notably, the positive effect of IHF on transcription from the promoter PRA1 appeared only when cells of P. putida reached the stationary growth phase. We speculate that the intracellular concentration of IHF might be critical for the in vivo effect of IHF on transcription from the fusion promoters in P. putida. In the case of PLA1, the mechanism of transcription modulation by IHF is different than that observed for PRA1. Our results demonstrate that transcription of neighboring genes from outwardly directed promoters at the ends of a mobile DNA element could be influenced by the same factors that control transposition of the element. PMID:10633090

  5. Ethnic variation in the impact of negative affect and emotion inhibition on the health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Cohen, Carl I; Gillespie, Michael

    2002-09-01

    The relations between patterns of emotional experience, emotion inhibition, and physical health have been little studied in older adults or ethnically diverse samples. Testing hypotheses derived from work on younger adults, the authors examined the relations between negative affect and emotion inhibition and that of illness (hypertension, respiratory disease, arthritis, and sleep disorder) in a sample (N = 1,118) of community-dwelling older adults from four ethnic groups: U.S.-born African Americans, African Caribbeans, U.S.-born European Americans, and Eastern European immigrants. Participants completed measures of stress, lifestyle risk factors, health, social support, trait negative emotion, and emotion inhibition. As expected, the interaction of ethnicity with emotion inhibition, and, to a lesser extent, negative affect, was significantly related to illness, even when other known risk factors were controlled for. However, the relations among these variables were complex, and the patterns did not hold for all types of illness or operate in the same direction across ethnic groups. Implications for emotion-health relationships in ethnically diverse samples are discussed.

  6. Realigning government action with public health evidence: the legal and policy environment affecting sex work and HIV in Asia.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.

  7. Negative Health Comparisons Decrease Affective and Cognitive Well-Being in Older Adults. Evidence from a Population-Based Longitudinal Study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of health comparisons on affective (AWB) and cognitive well-being (CWB) in older adults longitudinally. Methods: Data were derived from the third and fourth wave of the German Ageing Survey (DEAS) which is a population-based prospective cohort study of community-dwelling subjects in Germany aged 40 and above (with 8,277 observations in fixed effects regressions). Health comparisons were assessed by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). While AWB was quantified by using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), CWB was assessed by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Fixed effects regressions were used to analyze the effect of health comparisons on AWB and CWB. Results: While positive health comparisons only slightly increased CWB (total sample), negative health comparisons markedly decreased CWB (total sample and women), and negative affects (women). Neither positive nor negative health comparisons affected positive affects. Conclusions: Our findings stress the importance of negative health comparisons for CWB and negative affects in women. Comparison effects are asymmetric and in most cases upwards. Consequently, designing interventions to avoid upwards health comparisons might be a fruitful approach in order to maintain AWB and CWB. PMID:27445953

  8. Offering Mental Health Services in a Conflict Affected Region of Pakistan: Who Comes, and Why?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Safieh; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Van Bellinghen, Benedicte; Severy, Nathalie; Sadiq, Sana; Afridi, Sher Ali; Akhtar, Asma; Maïkére, Jacob; Van Overloop, Catherine; Saeed-ur-Rehman; Khilji, Tahir Bashir-ud-Din; Saleem-ur-Rehman; van Griensven, Johan; Schneider, Serge; Bosman, Philippe; Guillergan, Erwin Lloyd D.; Dazzi, Francesca; Zachariah, Rony

    2014-01-01

    Background North West Pakistan is an area ravaged by conflict and population displacement for over three decades. Recently, drone attacks and military operations have aggravated underlying mental disorders, while access to care is limited. Among patients attending a mental health clinic integrated in district hospital conducted by psychologists; we describe service utilization, patient characteristics, presenting complaints, morbidity patterns, and follow-up details. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective study using routinely collected programme data was conducted from February to December 2012. A total of 1545 consultations were conducted for 928 patients (86% females). There were 71(8%) children and adolescents. An increase was observed from February to July, followed by a decline. 163 new patients (18%) were on psychotropic medication at presentation. The most common morbidity in females (36%) were symptoms of adjustment disorders and acute reactions. Depression and anxiety were common in both genders while post traumatic disorder was frequent in males (21%). Out of the 928 new patients, 639(69%) had a follow up visit planned with their psychologist, but only 220(34%) new patients returned for a follow up visit. Conclusion In a district hospital, mental health services managed by psychologists were well attended. There is a need to consider widening the current package of care to cater to the diversity of mental health disorders, gender difference, children and adolescents. Standardized diagnostic and monitoring tools would also need to be adapted accordingly and to assess patient progress. Innovative approaches to tackle the problem of the low return rate are needed. PMID:24963793

  9. Does training frequency and supervision affect compliance, performance and muscular health? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dalager, Tina; Bredahl, Thomas G V; Pedersen, Mogens T; Boyle, Eleanor; Andersen, Lars L; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of one weekly hour of specific strength training within working hours, performed with the same total training volume but with different training frequencies and durations, or with different levels of supervision, on compliance, muscle health and performance, behavior and work performance. In total, 573 office workers were cluster-randomized to: 1 WS: one 60-min supervised session/week, 3 WS: three 20-min supervised sessions/week, 9 WS: nine 7-min supervised sessions/week, 3 MS: three 20-min sessions/week with minimal supervision, or REF: a reference group without training. Outcomes were diary-based compliance, total training volume, muscle performance and questionnaire-based health, behavior and work performance. Comparisons were made among the WS training groups and between 3 WS and 3 MS. If no difference, training groups were collapsed (TG) and compared with REF. Results demonstrated similar degrees of compliance, mean(range) of 39(33-44)%, and total training volume, 13.266(11.977-15.096)kg. Musculoskeletal pain in neck and shoulders were reduced with approx. 50% in TG, which was significant compared with REF. Only the training groups improved significantly their muscle strength 8(4-13)% and endurance 27(12-37)%, both being significant compared with REF. No change in workability, productivity or self-rated health was demonstrated. Secondary analysis showed exercise self-efficacy to be a significant predictor of compliance. Regardless of training schedule and supervision, similar degrees of compliance were shown together with reduced musculoskeletal pain and improved muscle performance. These findings provide evidence that a great degree of flexibility is legitimate for companies in planning future implementation of physical exercise programs at the workplace. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027390.

  10. Does access to open water affect the health of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)?

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Broom, D M

    2011-02-01

    Access to open water is considered good for the welfare of Pekin ducks. These studies investigated the effect that the type of water resource, provided over either straw bedding or a rubber mesh, had on measures of duck health. Pekin strain ducklings (n = 2,600) were managed in pens of 100 on straw over a solid concrete floor. In study 1, one of two water resources (nipple, n = 5 pens; wide-lip bell drinker, n = 5 pens), was located directly over the straw. In study 2, one of three water resources (narrow-lip bell drinker, n = 6 pens; trough, n = 5 pens; and bath, n = 5 pens) was located over a rubber mesh. On d 16, 24, 29, 35, and 43, (study 1) or d 21, 29, 35, and 43 posthatch (study 2), 10 birds were selected from each pen and weighed, and then feather hygiene, footpad dermatitis, eye health, gait score, and nostril condition scores were taken. Treatment had no effect on BW in either study, but in study 2, ducks in the open water treatments had higher scores (P < 0.001) than those in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment by d 43. In study 1, treatment had no effect on hygiene scores, but scores increased over time (P < 0.001). In study 2, ducks in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment were dirtier than those in the bath treatment (P = 0.01), with those in the trough treatment being intermediate. In both studies, ducks with bell drinkers had worse gait scores than those in the other treatments (study 1, P < 0.01; study 2, P < 0.05). Treatment had no effect on eye health scores. However, ducks were less likely to have dirty nostrils when provided with more open water resources in both studies (P < 0.01), or were less likely to have blocked nostrils in the trough and bath treatments than in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment in study 2 (P = 0.01). Provision of open water, particularly over a properly constructed drainage area, improved some aspects of duck health (improved feather hygiene and BW, and fewer dirty and blocked nostrils). However, further work is

  11. Factors affecting the innovative practice of nurse managers in health organisations.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindy; McMurray, Adela J

    This exploratory study reports on two surveys conducted in metropolitan and rural health organisations. Two questionnaires consisting of open and closed questions were distributed to a total of 340 respondents resulting in 176 usable responses, yielding a response rate of 53%. The findings revealed that nurse managers require fairness, trust, recognition, supervisory encouragement, organisational support, and reward for efforts. These are key aspects of organisational climate, which support innovative practice. Experience and innovation were significantly related and other factors such as, management structures and management styles, also had an impact on nurse managers' ability to exhibit innovative behaviour in the 21st Century workplace.

  12. Energy dissipation channels affecting photoluminescence from resonantly excited Er{sup 3+} ions doped in epitaxial ZnO host films

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei; Shinojima, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-21

    We identified prerequisite conditions to obtain intense photoluminescence at 1.54 μm from Er{sup 3+} ions doped in ZnO host crystals. The epitaxial ZnO:Er films were grown on sapphire C-plane substrates by sputtering, and Er{sup 3+} ions were resonantly excited at a wavelength of 532 nm between energy levels of {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}. There is a threshold deposition temperature between 500 and 550 °C, above which epitaxial ZnO films become free of miss-oriented domains. In this case, Er{sup 3+} ions are outside ZnO crystallites, having the same c-axis lattice parameters as those of undoped ZnO crystals. The improved crystallinity was correlated with enhanced emissions peaking at 1538 nm. Further elevating the deposition temperature up to 650 °C generated cracks in ZnO crystals to relax the lattice mismatch strains, and the emission intensities from cracked regions were three times as large as those from smooth regions. These results can be consistently explained if we assume that emission-active Er{sup 3+} ions are those existing at grain boundaries and bonded to single-crystalline ZnO crystallites. In contrast, ZnO:Er films deposited on a ZnO buffer layer exhibited very weak emissions because of their degraded crystallinity when most Er{sup 3+} ions were accommodated into ZnO crystals. Optimizing the degree of oxidization of ZnO crystals is another important factor because reduced films suffer from non-radiative decay of excited states. The optimum Er content to obtain intense emissions was between 2 and 4 at. %. When 4 at. % was exceeded, the emission intensity was severely attenuated because of concentration quenching as well as the degradation in crystallinity. Precipitation of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals was clearly observed at 22 at. % for films deposited above 650 °C. Minimizing the number of defects and impurities in ZnO crystals prevents energy dissipation, thus exclusively utilizing the excitation energy to emissions from

  13. How does a vacation from work affect employee health and well-being?

    PubMed

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A E; Sonnentag, Sabine; Taris, Toon; de Weerth, Carolina; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2011-12-01

    Health and well-being (H&W) improve during vacation. However, it is unclear whether this general development applies to all employees, while also little is known about the underlying processes causing such an improvement. Our research questions were: (1) Does every worker experience a positive effect of vacation on H&W? and (2) Can vacation activities and experiences explain changes in H&W during vacation? In a 7-week longitudinal field study, 96 workers reported their H&W 2 weeks before, during, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after a winter sports vacation on 6 indicators (health status, mood, fatigue, tension, energy level and satisfaction). Sixty percent of the sample experienced substantial improvement of H&W during and after vacation. Yet, a small group experienced no (23%) or a negative effect of vacation (17%). Spending limited time on passive activities, pleasure derived from vacation activities, and the absence of negative incidents during vacation explained 38% of the variance in the vacation effect. Although vacation has a positive, longer lasting effect for many, it is not invariably positive for all employees. Choosing especially pleasant vacation activities and avoiding negative incidents as well as passive activities during active vacations apparently contributes to the positive effect of vacation on H&W. PMID:21678165

  14. How does private finance affect public health care systems? Marshaling the evidence from OECD nations.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes; Flood, Colleen M; Stabile, Mark

    2004-06-01

    The impact of private finance on publicly funded health care systems depends on how the relationship between public and private finance is structured. This essay first reviews the experience in five nations that exemplify different ways of drawing the public/private boundary to address the particular questions raised by each model. This review is then used to interpret aggregate empirical analyses of the dynamic effects between public and private finance in OECD nations over time. Our findings suggest that while increases in the private share of health spending substitute in part for public finance (and vice versa), this is the result of a complex mix of factors having as much to do with cross-sectoral shifts as with deliberate policy decisions within sectors and that these effects are mediated by the different dynamics of distinctive national models. On balance, we argue that a resort to private finance is more likely to harm than to help publicly financed systems, although the effects will vary depending on the form of private finance.

  15. Does aerobic exercise intensity affect health-related parameters in overweight women?

    PubMed

    Botero, João P; Prado, Wagner L; Guerra, Ricardo L F; Speretta, Guilherme F F; Leite, Richard D; Prestes, Jonato; Sanz, Adrián V; Lyons, Scott; de Azevedo, Paulo H S M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sergio E A; Dâmaso, Ana; da Silva, Rozinaldo G

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a cycling training programme performed at intensity corresponding to the lowest value of the respiratory quotient (RQ) versus at intensity corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT), on body composition and health-related parameters in overweight women. Thirty-two sedentary obese women (27-42 years old) were studied in a randomized trial of either RQ (n = 17) or VT (n = 15). RQ and VT training sessions were equalized by time (60 min) and performed in a cycloergometer. Anthropometry, body composition, lipid profile, glucose, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and fitness (maximal oxygen uptake) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Body weight, body mass index, fatness and fitness were improved in both groups (P<0·001). Triglycerides (TG) levels decreased only in response to RQ (P<0·001) and fat-free mass (FFM) to VT (P = 0·002). No differences were observed between groups. Both exercise intensities seem to be effective for improving health in overweight women. However, low-intensity compared with the high-intensity exercise training appears to have additional benefits on TG levels and to maintenance of FFM.

  16. Periodontal Health and Caries Prevalence Evaluation in Patients Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cicciù, Marco; Risitano, Giacomo; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Bramanti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient's capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group) with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group). The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event. PMID:23320249

  17. How does a vacation from work affect employee health and well-being?

    PubMed

    de Bloom, Jessica; Geurts, Sabine A E; Sonnentag, Sabine; Taris, Toon; de Weerth, Carolina; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2011-12-01

    Health and well-being (H&W) improve during vacation. However, it is unclear whether this general development applies to all employees, while also little is known about the underlying processes causing such an improvement. Our research questions were: (1) Does every worker experience a positive effect of vacation on H&W? and (2) Can vacation activities and experiences explain changes in H&W during vacation? In a 7-week longitudinal field study, 96 workers reported their H&W 2 weeks before, during, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after a winter sports vacation on 6 indicators (health status, mood, fatigue, tension, energy level and satisfaction). Sixty percent of the sample experienced substantial improvement of H&W during and after vacation. Yet, a small group experienced no (23%) or a negative effect of vacation (17%). Spending limited time on passive activities, pleasure derived from vacation activities, and the absence of negative incidents during vacation explained 38% of the variance in the vacation effect. Although vacation has a positive, longer lasting effect for many, it is not invariably positive for all employees. Choosing especially pleasant vacation activities and avoiding negative incidents as well as passive activities during active vacations apparently contributes to the positive effect of vacation on H&W.

  18. Attracting Views and Going Viral: How Message Features and News-Sharing Channels Affect Health News Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how intrinsic as well as perceived message features affect the extent to which online health news stories prompt audience selections and social retransmissions, and how news-sharing channels (e-mail vs. social media) shape what goes viral. The study analyzed actual behavioral data on audience viewing and sharing of New York Times health news articles, and associated article content and context data. News articles with high informational utility and positive sentiment invited more frequent selections and retransmissions. Articles were also more frequently selected when they presented controversial, emotionally evocative, and familiar content. Informational utility and novelty had stronger positive associations with e-mail-specific virality, while emotional evocativeness, content familiarity, and exemplification played a larger role in triggering social media-based retransmissions. PMID:26441472

  19. Changing self-reported physical activity using different types of affectively and cognitively framed health messages, in a student population.

    PubMed

    Morris, Benjamin; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary; Hurling, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present research focused upon the power of different messages to increase self-reported physical activity (PA). Five hundered and ninety six participants were randomised to one of five conditions that varied in the content of message: short-term affective, short-term cognitive, long-term affective, long-term cognitive and a no message control. PA was measured at baseline and follow-up (seven days later) was done using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire over the subsequent seven day period. The affective short-term message (ASM) was shown to be equally effective at increasing self-reported PA as a cognitive long-term message. Furthermore, when controlling for baseline activity levels, the ASM emerged as being the message that produced the highest levels of self-reported PA at follow-up. The findings point to the value of distinguishing between health messages in terms of the focus on affective and cognitive outcomes and the temporal nature of the outcomes (short-term or long-term).

  20. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  1. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    PubMed

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  2. Calving body condition score affects indicators of health in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Schütz, K E; Matthews, L R; Verkerk, G A; Meier, S; Loor, J J; Rogers, A R; McGowan, J; Morgan, S R; Taukiri, S; Webster, J R

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of calving body condition score (BCS) on cow health during the transition period in a pasture-based dairying system. Feed inputs were managed during the second half of the previous lactation so that BCS differed at drying off (BCS 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0 for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively: a 10-point scale); feed allowance was managed after cows were dried off, such that the BCS differences established during lactation remained at the subsequent calving (BCS 5.5, 4.5, and 3.5; n=20, 18, and 19, for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively). After calving, cows were allocated pasture and pasture silage to ensure grazing residuals >1,600 kg of DM/ha. Milk production was measured weekly; blood was sampled regularly pre- and postpartum to measure indicators of health, and udder and uterine health were evaluated during the 6 wk after calving. Milk weight, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and fat content increased with calving BCS during the first 6 wk of lactation. The effect of calving BCS on the metabolic profile was nonlinear. Before calving, cows in the low group had lower mean plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and serum Mg concentrations and greater mean serum urea than cows in the medium and high BCS groups, which did not differ from each other. During the 6 wk after calving, cows in the low group had lower serum albumin and fructosamine concentrations than cows in the other 2 treatment groups, whereas cows in the low- and medium-BCS groups had proportionately more polymorphonucleated cells in their uterine secretions at 3 and 5 wk postpartum than high-BCS cows. In comparison, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased linearly in early lactation with calving BCS, consistent with a greater negative energy balance in these cows. Many of the parameters measured did not vary with BCS. The results highlight that calving BCS and, therefore, BCS through early

  3. Milestone Age Affects the Role of Health and Emotions in Life Satisfaction: A Preliminary Inquiry

    PubMed Central

    Miron-Shatz, Talya; Bhargave, Rajesh; Doniger, Glen M.

    2015-01-01

    Jill turns 40. Should this change how she evaluates her life, and would a similar change occur when she turns 41? Milestone age (e.g., 30, 40, 50)—a naturally occurring feature in personal timelines—has received much attention is popular culture, but little attention in academic inquiry. This study examines whether milestone birthdays change the way people evaluate their life. We show that life outlook is impacted by this temporal landmark, which appears to punctuate people’s mental maps of their life cycle. At these milestone junctures, people take stock of where they stand and have a more evaluative perspective towards their lives when making life satisfaction judgments. Correspondingly, they place less emphasis on daily emotional experiences. We find that milestone agers (vs. other individuals) place greater weight on health satisfaction and BMI and lesser weight on daily positive emotions in their overall life satisfaction judgments, whereas negative emotions remain influential. PMID:26244348

  4. Milestone Age Affects the Role of Health and Emotions in Life Satisfaction: A Preliminary Inquiry.

    PubMed

    Miron-Shatz, Talya; Bhargave, Rajesh; Doniger, Glen M

    2015-01-01

    Jill turns 40. Should this change how she evaluates her life, and would a similar change occur when she turns 41? Milestone age (e.g., 30, 40, 50)--a naturally occurring feature in personal timelines--has received much attention is popular culture, but little attention in academic inquiry. This study examines whether milestone birthdays change the way people evaluate their life. We show that life outlook is impacted by this temporal landmark, which appears to punctuate people's mental maps of their life cycle. At these milestone junctures, people take stock of where they stand and have a more evaluative perspective towards their lives when making life satisfaction judgments. Correspondingly, they place less emphasis on daily emotional experiences. We find that milestone agers (vs. other individuals) place greater weight on health satisfaction and BMI and lesser weight on daily positive emotions in their overall life satisfaction judgments, whereas negative emotions remain influential.

  5. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  6. Autoimmunity affects health-related quality of life in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Bektas Uysal, Hilal; Ayhan, Mediha

    2016-08-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common endocrine disorder leading to hypothyroidism. HT is characterized by the presence of elevated circulating antibodies, especially anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg). In our study, we aimed to reveal the effects of autoimmunity on health-related quality of life of euthyroid HT patients. Patients who were admitted to the Adnan Menderes University Outpatient Clinic were enrolled. The medical records of the patients were surveyed and their demographical data were collected. By using communication data, the patients were invited to our clinic, to inform them about our study and to fill out the health-related quality of life questionnaire. A total of 84 euthyroid HT patients older than 18 years who completed the short form-36 questionnaire, were enrolled. As all patients were euthyroid, there was a significant negative correlation between each domain score and the antibody levels, individually. Patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores (p < 0.001). There was statistically no significant correlation between the antibody levels and thyroid function tests (p > 0.05). Additionally, all dimension scores were significantly higher both in the anti-Tg and anti-TPO negative groups, indicating a better quality of life than that in the antibody positive groups. Our study revealed that higher thyroid antibody levels were negatively correlated with life quality scores. Thus, patients who had higher anti-TPO and anti-Tg levels had significantly lower quality of life domain scores. We believe that apart from hypothyroidism, a high antibody level was one of the contributing factors for the development of HT-associated symptoms, leading to a lower quality of life. Other probable contributing factors such as selenium deficiency, thyroid hormone fluctuation, and disease awareness should keep in mind. PMID:27523457

  7. Does the company's economic performance affect access to occupational health services?

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Background In Finland like in many other countries, employers are legally obliged to organize occupational health services (OHS) for their employees. Because employers bear the costs of OHS it could be that in spite of the legal requirement OHS expenditure is more determined by economic performance of the company than by law. Therefore, we explored whether economic performance was associated with the companies' expenditure on occupational health services. Methods We used a prospective design to predict expenditure on OHS in 2001 by a company's economic performance in 1999. Data were provided by Statistics Finland and expressed by key indicators for profitability, solidity and liquidity and by the Social Insurance Institution as employers' reimbursement applications for OHS costs. The data could be linked at the company level. Regression analysis was used to study associations adjusted for various confounders. Results Nineteen percent of the companies (N = 6 155) did not apply for reimbursement of OHS costs in 2001. The profitability of the company represented by operating margin in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to the company's probability to apply for reimbursement of the costs in 2001 (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.99 to 1.01). Profitability measured as operating profit in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to costs for curative medical services (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.11) nor to OHS cost of prevention in 2001 (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.00). Conclusion We did not find a relation between the company's economic performance and expenditure on OHS in Finland. We suppose that this is due to legislation obliging employers to provide OHS and the reimbursement system both being strong incentives for employers. PMID:19725952

  8. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=-0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  9. Health benefits of the potato affected by domestic cooking: A review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is an important food crop worldwide and a good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber as well as phytochemicals, which benefits human body as nutrients supplementary and antioxidants. However, cooked potato is also considered as a high-glycemic-index food because of its high content of rapidly digestible starch, long-term consumption of which will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Domestic cooking (boiling, frying, steaming, etc.) are usually adopted before potato consumption. The chemical, physical and enzyme modifications that occur during cooking will alter the potato's antioxidant capacity and digestibility, which subsequently affected on the bioavailability of phytochemicals and the postprandial glycemic response of the human body. We reviewed the recent publications on the effects of domestic cooking on the nutrition, phytochemicals and the glycemic index changes of the cooked potato. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying these changes were discussed, and additional implications and future research goals were suggested. PMID:26920281

  10. Health benefits of the potato affected by domestic cooking: A review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jinhu; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is an important food crop worldwide and a good source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber as well as phytochemicals, which benefits human body as nutrients supplementary and antioxidants. However, cooked potato is also considered as a high-glycemic-index food because of its high content of rapidly digestible starch, long-term consumption of which will increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. Domestic cooking (boiling, frying, steaming, etc.) are usually adopted before potato consumption. The chemical, physical and enzyme modifications that occur during cooking will alter the potato's antioxidant capacity and digestibility, which subsequently affected on the bioavailability of phytochemicals and the postprandial glycemic response of the human body. We reviewed the recent publications on the effects of domestic cooking on the nutrition, phytochemicals and the glycemic index changes of the cooked potato. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms underlying these changes were discussed, and additional implications and future research goals were suggested.

  11. Factors affecting uptake of recommended immunizations among health care workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Tuckerman, Jane L; Collins, Joanne E; Marshall, Helen S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits of vaccination for health care workers (HCWs), uptake of recommended vaccinations is low, particularly for seasonal influenza and pertussis. In addition, there is variation in uptake within hospitals. While all vaccinations recommended for HCWs are important, vaccination against influenza and pertussis are particularly imperative, given HCWs are at risk of occupationally acquired influenza and pertussis, and may be asymptomatic, acting as a reservoir to vulnerable patients in their care. This study aimed to determine predictors of uptake of these vaccinations and explore the reasons for variation in uptake by HCWs working in different hospital wards. HCWs from wards with high and low influenza vaccine uptake in a tertiary pediatric and obstetric hospital completed a questionnaire to assess knowledge of HCW recommended immunizations. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine predictors of influenza and pertussis vaccination uptake. Of 92 HCWs who responded, 9.8% were able to identify correctly the vaccines recommended for HCWs. Overall 80% of respondents reported they had previously received influenza vaccine and 50.5% had received pertussis vaccine. Independent predictors of pertussis vaccination included length of time employed in health sector (P < 0.001), previously receiving hepatitis B/MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine (P < 0.001), and a respondent being aware influenza infections could be severe in infants (p = 0.023). Independent predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination included younger age (P < 0.001), English as first language (P < 0.001), considering it important to be vaccinated to protect themselves (P < 0.001), protect patients (p = 0.012) or awareness influenza could be serious in immunocompromised patients (p = 0.030). Independent predictors for receiving both influenza and pertussis vaccinations included younger age (P < 0.001), time in area of work (P = 0.020), previously receiving hepatitis B vaccine (P = 0

  12. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher concentrations as compared to reference soil. The integrated pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p < 0.001) higher as compared to the reference, while some heavy metals were observed higher but not significant like Zn in pear, persimmon, white mulberry, and date-plum; Cd in pear, fig and white mulberry; and Pb in walnut, fig, and pumpkin. The health risk assessment revealed no potential risk for both adults and children for the majority of heavy metals, except Cd, which showed health risk index (HRI) >1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk.

  13. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict.

  14. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher concentrations as compared to reference soil. The integrated pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p < 0.001) higher as compared to the reference, while some heavy metals were observed higher but not significant like Zn in pear, persimmon, white mulberry, and date-plum; Cd in pear, fig and white mulberry; and Pb in walnut, fig, and pumpkin. The health risk assessment revealed no potential risk for both adults and children for the majority of heavy metals, except Cd, which showed health risk index (HRI) >1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk. PMID:26971962

  15. The impact of social action funds on child health in a conflict affected country: evidence from Angola.

    PubMed

    Djimeu, Eric W

    2014-04-01

    Although recent evidence shows significant and long-lasting detrimental effects of armed conflict on child health, there is lack of studies rigorously assessing the effectiveness of different social and economic development interventions aiming to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. In order to fill this knowledge gap, this study assesses the impact of health projects and water, sanitation, and waste management interventions financed by the Angola Social Action Fund (ASAF) from 1994 to 2001 on child health. I use data from Inquérito aos Agregados Familiares sobre Despesas e Receitas 2000/2001(IDR 2001), a household survey on expenditures and incomes conducted between February 2000 and February 2001 in Angola. IDR 2001 uses a stratified sampling design in which 12 households were surveyed in a random fashion in each aldeia (village) in rural areas and bairro (neighborhood) in urban areas. Using propensity score matching, a fixed effects model, and propensity-based weighted regression, I find that ASAF leads to a statistically significant increase of the height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) by 0.335 standard deviations of children less than 5 years. This finding is robust to different implementations of the propensity score model specification and when conducting the sensitivity analysis of hidden bias. The main result that emerges from an analysis of heterogeneous effects shows that ASAF has no impact on children living in war displaced households. Despite many challenges faced by conflict affected countries, social funds which are one the key instruments of the World Bank used to promote development at the local level can be used to mitigate the impact of armed conflict on child health. For children living in war displaced households, specific interventions should be designed to mitigate the impact of armed conflict. PMID:24530615

  16. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    PubMed

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation.

  17. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    PubMed

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  18. African dust carries microbes across the ocean: are they affecting human and ecosystem health?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric transport of dust from northwest Africa to the western Atlantic Ocean region may be responsible for a number of environmental hazards, including the demise of Caribbean corals; red tides; amphibian diseases; increased occurrence of asthma in humans; and oxygen depletion (eutrophication) in estuaries. Studies of satellite images suggest that hundreds of millions of tons of dust are trans-ported annually at relatively low altitudes across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean Sea and southeastern United States. The dust emanates from the expanding Sahara/Sahel desert region in Africa and carries a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the NASA/Goddard Spaceflight Center, is conducting a study to identify microbes--bacteria, fungi, viruses--transported across the Atlantic in African soil dust. Each year, millions of tons of desert dust blow off the west African coast and ride the trade winds across the ocean, affecting the entire Caribbean basin, as well as the southeastern United States. Of the dust reaching the U.S., Florida receives about 50 percent, while the rest may range as far north as Maine or as far west as Colorado. The dust storms can be tracked by satellite and take about one week to cross the Atlantic.

  19. Common gas phase molecules from fungi affect seed germination and plant health in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important ecophysiological roles in mediating inter-kingdom signaling with arthropods but less is known about their interactions with plants. In this study, Arabidopsis thaliana was used as a model in order to test the physiological effects of 23 common vapor-phase fungal VOCs that included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and other chemical classes. After exposure to a shared atmosphere with the 23 individual VOCs for 72 hrs, seeds were assayed for rate of germination and seedling formation; vegetative plants were assayed for fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration. All but five of the VOCs tested (1-decene, 2-n-heptylfuran, nonanal, geosmin and -limonene) had a significant effect in inhibiting either germination, seedling formation or both. Seedling formation was entirely inhibited by exposure to 1-octen-3-one, 2-ethylhexanal, 3-methylbutanal, and butanal. As assayed by a combination of fresh weight and chlorophyll concentration, 2-ethylhexanal had a negative impact on two-week-old vegetative plants. Three other compounds (1-octen-3-ol, 2-ethylhexanal, and 2-heptylfuran) decreased fresh weight alone. Most of the VOCs tested did not change the fresh weight or chlorophyll concentration of vegetative plants. In summary, when tested as single compounds, fungal VOCs affected A. thaliana in positive, negative or neutral ways. PMID:25045602

  20. Does burnout among doctors affect their involvement in patients' mental health problems? A study of videotaped consultations

    PubMed Central

    Zantinge, Else M; Verhaak, Peter FM; de Bakker, Dinny H; van der Meer, Klaas; Bensing, Jozien M

    2009-01-01

    Background General practitioners' (GPs') feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction may affect their patient care negatively, but it is unknown if these negative feelings also affect their mental health care. GPs' available time, together with specific communication tools, are important conditions for providing mental health care. We investigated if GPs who feel burnt out or dissatisfied with the time available for their patients, are less inclined to encourage their patients to disclose their distress, and have shorter consultations, in order to gain time and energy. This may result in less psychological evaluations of patients' complaints. Methods We used 1890 videotaped consultations from a nationally representative sample of 126 Dutch GPs to analyse GPs' communication and the duration of their consultations. Burnout was subdivided into emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced accomplishment. Multilevel regression analyses were used to investigate which subgroups of GPs differed significantly. Results GPs with feelings of exhaustion or dissatisfaction with the available time have longer consultations compared to GPs without these feelings. Exhausted GPs, and GPs with feelings of depersonalisation, talk more about psychological or social topics in their consultations. GPs with feelings of reduced accomplishment are an exception: they communicate less affectively, are less patient-centred and have less eye contact with their patients compared to GPs without reduced accomplishment. We found no relationship between GPs' feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction with the available time and their psychological evaluations of patients' problems. Conclusion GPs' feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction with the time available for their patients do not obstruct their diagnosis and awareness of patients' psychological problems. On the contrary, GPs with high levels of exhaustion or depersonalisation, and GPs who are dissatisfied with the available time, sometimes

  1. Evaluation of some physical hazards which may affect health in primary schools

    PubMed Central

    Bakır, Bilal; Babayiğit, Mustafa Alparslan; Tekbaş, Ömer Faruk; Oğur, Recai; Kılıç, Abdullah; Ulus, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was performed with the objective to determine the levels of some physical hazards in primary schools. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional field survey. In this study which was conducted in 31 primary schools selected by appropriate sampling from the district of Keçiören of the province of Ankara, measurements related with temperature, light, electromagnetic field (EMF) and noise levels were done at hundreds of points. Approval was obtained from Gülhane Military Medical Faculty Ethics Committee (2007/97). Results: Only 47.1% of the classes had a temperature value within the recommended limits (20–21°C). It was found that the illumination levels in 96.8% of the schools were above the standard values. However, the levels of illumination were found to be statistically significantly decreased towards the door and the back line (p<0.05). It was found that electromagnetic field levels were significantly higher in the schools who had a source of electromagnetic field nearby compared to the schools who did not have such a source nearby (p<0.001). It was found that the electromagnetic field levels in computer classes were statistically significantly higher compared to the other classes (p<0.001). Noise levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in classes which had 35 and more students (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in schools near intensive vehicle traffic in terms of noise levels (62.8±5.0 (n=72), 62.0±6.4 (n=79), respectively, p>0.05). Conclusions: It was found that primary schools in the region of Keçiören had aspects which had to be improved in terms of building age, building location, brightness, electromagnetic field and noise levels. School health programs directed to improve negative enviromental factors should be developed. PMID:26078666

  2. Hearing Impairment Affects Dementia Incidence. An Analysis Based on Longitudinal Health Claims Data in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan; Óvári, Attila; Kilimann, Ingo; Witt, Gabriele; Doblhammer, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed an association between hearing impairment and dementia. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence in a longitudinal study, and whether ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist care, care level, institutionalization, or depression mediates or moderates this pathway. The present study used a longitudinal sample of 154,783 persons aged 65 and older from claims data of the largest German health insurer; containing 14,602 incident dementia diagnoses between 2006 and 2010. Dementia and hearing impairment diagnoses were defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes. We used a Kaplan Meier estimator and performed Cox proportional hazard models to explore the effect of hearing impairment on dementia incidence, controlling for ENT specialist care, care level, institutionalization, and depression. Gender, age, and comorbidities were controlled for as potential confounders. Patients with bilateral (HR = 1.43, p<0.001) and side-unspecified (HR = 1.20, p<0.001) hearing impairment had higher risks of dementia incidence than patients without hearing impairment. We found no significant effect for unilateral hearing impairment and other diseases of the ear. The effect of hearing impairment was only partly mediated through ENT specialist utilization. Significant interaction between hearing impairment and specialist care, care level, and institutionalization, respectively, indicated moderating effects. We discuss possible explanations for these effects. This study underlines the importance of the association between hearing impairment and dementia. Preserving hearing ability may maintain social participation and may reduce the burden associated with dementia. The particular impact of hearing aid use should be the subject of further investigations, as it offers potential intervention on the pathway to dementia. PMID:27391486

  3. Some coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species affect udder health more than others.

    PubMed

    Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; Zadoks, R N; Vaneechoutte, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    A longitudinal study in 3 dairy herds was conducted to profile the distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species causing bovine intramammary infection (IMI) using molecular identification and to gain more insight in the pathogenic potential of CNS as a group and of the most prevalent species causing IMI. Monthly milk samples from 25 cows in each herd as well as samples from clinical mastitis were collected over a 13-mo period. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified to the species level using transfer-RNA intergenic spacer PCR. The distribution of CNS causing IMI was highly herd-dependent, but overall, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus simulans were the most prevalent. No CNS species were found to cause clinical mastitis. The effect of the most prevalent species on the quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) was analyzed using a linear mixed model, showing that Staph. chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus induced an increase in the SCC that is comparable with that of Staphylococcus aureus. Almost all CNS species were able to cause persistent IMI, with Staph. chromogenes causing the most persistent infections. In conclusion, accurate species identification cannot be ignored when studying the effect of CNS on udder health, as the effect on SCC differs between species and species distribution is herd-specific. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus seem to be the more important species and deserve special attention in further studies. Reasons for herd dependency and possible cow- and quarter-level risk factors should be examined in detail for the different species, eventually leading to cost-benefit analyses for management changes and, if needed, treatment recommendations. PMID:21524522

  4. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  5. Using Molecular Epidemiology to Track Toxoplasma gondii from Terrestrial Carnivores to Marine Hosts: Implications for Public Health and Conservation

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Elizabeth; Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Grigg, Michael E.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Carpenter, Tim E.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental transmission of the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which is shed only by felids, poses risks to human and animal health in temperate and tropical ecosystems. Atypical T. gondii genotypes have been linked to severe disease in people and the threatened population of California sea otters. To investigate land-to-sea parasite transmission, we screened 373 carnivores (feral domestic cats, mountain lions, bobcats, foxes, and coyotes) for T. gondii infection and examined the distribution of genotypes in 85 infected animals sampled near the sea otter range. Methodology/Principal Findings Nested PCR-RFLP analyses and direct DNA sequencing at six independent polymorphic genetic loci (B1, SAG1, SAG3, GRA6, L358, and Apico) were used to characterize T. gondii strains in infected animals. Strains consistent with Type X, a novel genotype previously identified in over 70% of infected sea otters and four terrestrial wild carnivores along the California coast, were detected in all sampled species, including domestic cats. However, odds of Type X infection were 14 times higher (95% CI: 1.3–148.6) for wild felids than feral domestic cats. Type X infection was also linked to undeveloped lands (OR = 22, 95% CI: 2.3–250.7). A spatial cluster of terrestrial Type II infection (P = 0.04) was identified in developed lands bordering an area of increased risk for sea otter Type II infection. Two spatial clusters of animals infected with strains consistent with Type X (P≤0.01) were detected in less developed landscapes. Conclusions Differences in T. gondii genotype prevalence among domestic and wild felids, as well as the spatial distribution of genotypes, suggest co-existing domestic and wild T. gondii transmission cycles that likely overlap at the interface of developed and undeveloped lands. Anthropogenic development driving contact between these cycles may increase atypical T. gondii genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of

  6. mRNA decay during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: mutations that affect translation of an mRNA influence the sites at which it is cleaved by the HSV virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Lora A; Read, G Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5' untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5' cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5' proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation.

  7. mRNA Decay during Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Infections: Mutations That Affect Translation of an mRNA Influence the Sites at Which It Is Cleaved by the HSV Virion Host Shutoff (Vhs) Protein

    PubMed Central

    Shiflett, Lora A.

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5′ untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5′ cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5′ proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation. PMID:23077305

  8. Coprophagous behavior of rabbit pups affects implantation of cecal microbiota and health status.

    PubMed

    Combes, S; Gidenne, T; Cauquil, L; Bouchez, O; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2014-02-01

    , Firmicutes phyla, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae families became the dominant taxa (92.0 ± 4.7, 44.0 ± 13.7, 37.9 ± 11.6% at age 80 d, respectively). Impairment of fecal ingestion delayed this ecological succession, with greater and lower relative abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Ruminococcaceae, respectively, than in the other 3 groups at age 35 d (P < 0.10). In conclusion, although excretion of hard fecal pellets by does ranged widely, the coprophagous behavior of their pups affected the implantation of cecal bacterial microbiota. PMID:24398828

  9. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and health-related quality of life in individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Østertun Geirdal, Amy; Øverland, Britt; Heimdal, Ketil; Storhaug, Kari; Asten, Pamela; Akre, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Although the relationship between Quality of Life (QoL) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported in several studies, little is known about this relationship among individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The aim of this study was to examine the associations between obstructive sleep and QoL in TCS patients. Thirty-six individuals with TCS (8-75 years) were invited to participate in expanded medical examinations, including a sleep study, polysomnography, as well as to respond to questionnaires about health related Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Twenty-three (64 %) responded to the invitation, but four were later excluded due to additional diagnoses or unconfirmed TCS, and four were below 12 years and excluded due to different scoring rules for sleep and respiratory disturbances in young children and adults. The remaining group comprised 15 adults and adolescents with TCS, 5 male (33 %) and 10 female (66 %). The participants were between 12 and 75 years of age (mean 38.6, SD 18.5). Obstructive sleep was found in 87 % of the patients and several sleep apnea parameters, among these wake time after sleep, subjective snoring and mean saturation, were associated with poorer HRQoL. OSA appears to account for reduced HRQoL in adolescents and adults with TCS.

  10. Sex-biased avian host use by arbovirus vectors

    PubMed Central

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Bingham, Andrea M.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of arthropod-borne parasites often differs drastically between host sexes. This sex-related disparity may be related to physiological (primarily hormonal) differences that facilitate or suppress replication of the pathogen in host tissues. Alternately, differences in pathogen prevalence between host sexes may be owing to differential exposure to infected vectors. Here, we report on the use of PCR-based assays recognizing bird sex chromosomes to investigate sex-related patterns of avian host use from field-collected female mosquitoes from Florida, USA. Mosquitoes took more bloodmeals from male birds (64.0% of 308 sexed samples) than female birds (36.0%), deviating significantly from a hypothetical 1:1 sex ratio. In addition, male-biased host use was consistent across mosquito species (Culex erraticus (64.4%); Culex nigripalpus (61.0%) and Culiseta melanura (64.9%)). Our findings support the hypothesis that sex-biased exposure to vector-borne pathogens contributes to disparities in parasite/pathogen prevalence between the sexes. While few studies have yet to investigate sex-biased host use by mosquitoes, the methods used here could be applied to a variety of mosquito-borne disease systems, including those that affect health of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Understanding the mechanisms that drive sex-based disparities in host use may lead to novel strategies for interrupting pathogen/parasite transmission. PMID:26064562

  11. Endocrine disrupters and human health: could oestrogenic chemicals in body care cosmetics adversely affect breast cancer incidence in women?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W; Darbre, Philippa

    2004-01-01

    In the decade that has elapsed since the suggestion that exposure of the foetal/developing male to environmental oestrogens could be the cause of subsequent reproductive and developmental effects in men, there has been little definitive research to provide conclusions to the hypothesis. Issues of exposure and low potency of environmental oestrogens may have reduced concerns. However, the hypothesis that chemicals applied in body care cosmetics (including moisturizers, creams, sprays or lotions applied to axilla or chest or breast areas) may be affecting breast cancer incidence in women presents a different case scenario, not least in the consideration of the exposure issues. The specific cosmetic type is not relevant but the chemical ingredients in the formulations and the application to the skin is important. The most common group of body care cosmetic formulation excipients, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters or parabens, have been shown recently to be oestrogenic in vitro and in vivo and now have been detected in human breast tumour tissue, indicating absorption (route and causal associations have yet to be confirmed). The hypothesis for a link between oestrogenic ingredients in underarm and body care cosmetics and breast cancer is forwarded and reviewed here in terms of: data on exposure to body care cosmetics and parabens, including dermal absorption; paraben oestrogenicity; the role of oestrogen in breast cancer; detection of parabens in breast tumours; recent epidemiology studies of underarm cosmetics use and breast cancer; the toxicology database; the current regulatory status of parabens and regulatory toxicology data uncertainties. Notwithstanding the major public health issue of the causes of the rising incidence of breast cancer in women, this call for further research may provide the first evidence that environmental factors may be adversely affecting human health by endocrine disruption, because exposure to oestrogenic chemicals through application

  12. Disease progression and health care resource consumption in patients affected by hepatitis C virus in real practice setting

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Valentina; Sangiorgi, Diego; Buda, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents serious health problems worldwide and is a major contributor to end-stage liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In Italy, ~2% of subjects are infected with HCV. The objective of this study was to describe treatment patterns, disease progression, and resource use in HCV. Methods An observational retrospective cohort analysis based on four Local Health Units administrative and laboratory databases was conducted. HCV-positive patients between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 were included and followed-up for 1 year. To explore which covariates were associated to disease progression (cirrhosis, HCC, death for any cause), Cox proportional hazards models were performed. Results A total of 9,514 patients were analyzed of which 55.6% were male, aged 58.1±16.1, and prevalence 0.4%; 5.8% were positive to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 3.0% to hepatitis B virus (HBV), and 1.6% to HCV+HBV+HIV; 26.1% had cirrhosis and 4.3% HCC. The majority of patients (76%) did not receive an antiviral treatment; the main factors affecting this decision were age, 44.1% of untreated patients being aged >65 years; 31% were affected by cirrhosis, 6.6% had ongoing substance or alcohol abuse, and 5.5% were affected by HCC. Disease progression in the observed timeframe was less frequent among treated patients (incidence rate per 100 patients/year: cirrhosis 2.1±0.7 vs 13.0±1.0, HCC 0.5±0.3 vs 3.6±0.5, death 0.5±0.3 vs 6.4±0.7). The annual expenditure for HCV management (drugs, hospitalizations, outpatient services) was €4,700 per patient. Conclusion This observational, real-life study shows that only a small proportion of patients received antiviral therapy in the territorial services investigated; among patients who were not treated, this is reflected in a disease progression and cost of management higher than treated patients. These results suggest the importance of better

  13. Within-host competitive interactions as a mechanism for the maintenance of parasite diversity.

    PubMed

    Bashey, Farrah

    2015-08-19

    Variation among parasite strains can affect the progression of disease or the effectiveness of treatment. What maintains parasite diversity? Here I argue that competition among parasites within the host is a major cause of variation among parasites. The competitive environment within the host can vary depending on the parasite genotypes present. For example, parasite strategies that target specific competitors, such as bacteriocins, are dependent on the presence and susceptibility of those competitors for success. Accordingly, which parasite traits are favoured by within-host selection can vary from host to host. Given the fluctuating fitness landscape across hosts, genotype by genotype (G×G) interactions among parasites should be prevalent. Moreover, selection should vary in a frequency-dependent manner, as attacking genotypes select for resistance and genotypes producing public goods select for cheaters. I review competitive coexistence theory with regard to parasites and highlight a few key examples where within-host competition promotes diversity. Finally, I discuss how within-host competition affects host health and our ability to successfully treat infectious diseases.

  14. Within-host competitive interactions as a mechanism for the maintenance of parasite diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bashey, Farrah

    2015-01-01

    Variation among parasite strains can affect the progression of disease or the effectiveness of treatment. What maintains parasite diversity? Here I argue that competition among parasites within the host is a major cause of variation among parasites. The competitive environment within the host can vary depending on the parasite genotypes present. For example, parasite strategies that target specific competitors, such as bacteriocins, are dependent on the presence and susceptibility of those competitors for success. Accordingly, which parasite traits are favoured by within-host selection can vary from host to host. Given the fluctuating fitness landscape across hosts, genotype by genotype (G×G) interactions among parasites should be prevalent. Moreover, selection should vary in a frequency-dependent manner, as attacking genotypes select for resistance and genotypes producing public goods select for cheaters. I review competitive coexistence theory with regard to parasites and highlight a few key examples where within-host competition promotes diversity. Finally, I discuss how within-host competition affects host health and our ability to successfully treat infectious diseases. PMID:26150667

  15. Philometra floridensis (Nematoda: Philometridae) damages ovarian tissue without reducing host (Sciaenops ocellatus) fecundity.

    PubMed

    Bakenhaster, Micah D; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan; Kiryu, Yasunari; Walters, Sarah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-04-01

    The parasitic nematode Philometra floridensis infects the ovary of its only host, the economically important fish species Sciaenops ocellatus, but the factors influencing host susceptibility and potential pathogenic effects are unknown. Here we report new information on these topics from evaluations of infected and uninfected hosts collected from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Fish length and age were evaluated vis-à-vis nematode prevalence to check for ontogenetic