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Sample records for affect individual fitness

  1. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Brigitte M; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males' subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  2. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  3. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  4. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw and Caswell, 1996).

  5. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla ) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw & Caswell, 1996).

  6. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  7. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, David A. H.; Suski, Cory D.; Philipp, David P.; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H.; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J.; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait “vulnerability to angling” positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear. PMID:23213220

  8. Evaluating Latent Growth Curve Models Using Individual Fit Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Donna L.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2006-01-01

    The usefulness of assessing individual fit in latent growth curve models was examined. The study used simulated data based on an unconditional and a conditional latent growth curve model with a linear component and a small quadratic component and a linear model was fit to the data. Then the overall fit of linear and quadratic models to these data…

  9. Fitness for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired or Deafblind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of daily physical activity and examples of how individuals who are visually impaired or deaf-blind can access fitness. It describes techniques for running, bicycling, swimming, exercise training in a health club, aerobics, and fitness at home (jumping rope, yoga, and basketball). (Contains references.) (CR)

  10. [Occupational fitness examination of individuals directly connected with train operation].

    PubMed

    Chernov, O E; Pfaf, V F

    2015-01-01

    The article covers psychophysiologic aspects of work conditions and work safety in train operator occupations of railway transport. The authors consider problems of medical examination, occupational fitness analysis in these individuals if in various diseases or functional disorders. PMID:25826876

  11. Fitness consequences of centrality in mutualistic individual-based networks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José M.; Perfectti, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The relationships among the members of a population can be visualized using individual networks, where each individual is a node connected to each other by means of links describing the interactions. The centrality of a given node captures its importance within the network. We hypothesize that in mutualistic networks, the centrality of a node should benefit its fitness. We test this idea studying eight individual-based networks originated from the interaction between Erysimum mediohispanicum and its flower visitors. In these networks, each plant was considered a node and was connected to conspecifics sharing flower visitors. Centrality indicates how well connected is a given E. mediohispanicum individual with the rest of the co-occurring conspecifics because of sharing flower visitors. The centrality was estimated by three network metrics: betweenness, closeness and degree. The complex relationship between centrality, phenotype and fitness was explored by structural equation modelling. We found that the centrality of a plant was related to its fitness, with plants occupying central positions having higher fitness than those occupying peripheral positions. The structural equation models (SEMs) indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was not merely an effect of the abundance of visits and the species richness of visitors. Centrality has an effect even when simultaneously accounting for these predictors. The SEMs also indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was because of the specific phenotype of each plant, with attractive plants occupying central positions in networks, in relation to the distribution of conspecific phenotypes. This finding suggests that centrality, owing to its dependence on social interactions, may be an appropriate surrogate for the interacting phenotype of individuals. PMID:22158957

  12. Individual difference variables, affective differentiation, and the structures of affect.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T

    2003-10-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N=600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  13. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  14. Does Male Care, Provided to Immature Individuals, Influence Immature Fitness in Rhesus Macaques?

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Widdig, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Among many mammals, maternal care strongly impacts infant survival; however, less is known about whether adult males also affect infant fitness. Paternal care is expected when providing care enhances offspring survival and reproduction, which likewise increases fathers’ fitness. Males might also care for unrelated immature individuals to increase their mating probability with the immature individuals’ mothers. Studies in multimale primate groups showed that sires enhance food access for offspring and provide protection in conflicts. Furthermore, fathers’ presence during infancy has been suggested to accelerate offspring sexual maturation. However, no study has yet directly linked the degree of father-offspring bonds to offspring fitness in primates. We previously reported father-offspring affiliation in rhesus macaques, pronounced during early infancy and independent of mothers’ presence. The present study aims at investigating whether affiliation with fathers or other males affects proxies of immature fitness (body mass gain, body fat and testis size). First, we combined behavioral, genetic and morphometric data from 55 subjects of one group. Second, using demographic and genetic data, we investigated for 92 individuals of the population whether mother- and father-offspring co-residence during immaturity influenced offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS). Our results show that focal rank and higher amounts of affiliation with high-ranking males during infancy tend to positively impact body mass gain of female, but not male focal animals. In contrast, body mass gain of male focal individuals, but not females’, appeared to be higher when affiliation of male immature individuals was evenly distributed across their adult male partners. Moreover, we found mothers’, but not fathers’, presence during immaturity to predict offspring LRS. Our results suggest that male-immature affiliation, but not father-offspring co-residence, potentially impacts

  15. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity. PMID:27250037

  16. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

  17. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

  18. Cyanobacteria Affect Fitness and Genetic Structure of Experimental Daphnia Populations.

    PubMed

    Drugă, Bogdan; Turko, Patrick; Spaak, Piet; Pomati, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Zooplankton communities can be strongly affected by cyanobacterial blooms, especially species of genus Daphnia, which are key-species in lake ecosystems. Here, we explored the effect of microcystin/nonmicrocystin (MC/non-MC) producing cyanobacteria in the diet of experimental Daphnia galeata populations composed of eight genotypes. We used D. galeata clones hatched from ephippia 10 to 60 years old, which were first tested in monocultures, and then exposed for 10 weeks as mixed populations to three food treatments consisting of green algae combined with cyanobacteria able/unable of producing MC. We measured the expression of nine genes potentially involved in Daphnia acclimation to cyanobacteria: six protease genes, one ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene, and two rRNA genes, and then we tracked the dynamics of the genotypes in mixed populations. The expression pattern of one protease and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme genes was positively correlated with the increased fitness of competing clones in the presence of cyanobacteria, suggesting physiological plasticity. The genotype dynamics in mixed populations was only partially related to the growth rates of clones in monocultures and varied strongly with the food. Our results revealed strong intraspecific differences in the tolerance of D. galeata clones to MC/non-MC-producing cyanobacteria in their diet, suggesting microevolutionary effects. PMID:26943751

  19. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

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  20. Neutral theory for life histories and individual variability in fitness components.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich Karl; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2012-03-20

    Individuals within populations can differ substantially in their life span and their lifetime reproductive success but such realized individual variation in fitness components need not reflect underlying heritable fitness differences visible to natural selection. Even so, biologists commonly argue that large differences in fitness components are likely adaptive, resulting from and driving evolution by natural selection. To examine this argument we use unique formulas to compute exactly the variance in life span and in lifetime reproductive success among individuals with identical (genotypic) vital rates (assuming a common genotype for all individuals). Such individuals have identical fitness but vary substantially in their realized individual fitness components. We show by example that our computed variances and corresponding simulated distribution of fitness components match those observed in real populations. Of course, (genotypic) vital rates in real populations are expected to differ by small but evolutionarily important amounts among genotypes, but we show that such differences only modestly increase variances in fitness components. We conclude that observed differences in fitness components may likely be evolutionarily neutral, at least to the extent that they are indistinguishable from distributions generated by neutral processes. Important consequences of large neutral variation are the following: Heritabilities for fitness components are likely to be small (which is in fact the case), small selective differences in life histories will be hard to measure, and the effects of random drift will be amplified in natural populations by the large variances among individuals. PMID:22392997

  1. Autonomic Function is Associated with Fitness Level in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Morgan H; Hetzler, Ronald K; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Kimura, Iris F; Stickley, Cris D; Lindsey, Rachel A; Nakamoto, Beau K; Chow, Dominic C

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular fitness can improve autonomic function (AF) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Methods Cross-sectional study investigating relationship between AF and cardiovascular fitness in HIV+ individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Participants’ (n=29) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX) were assessed by graded exercise test and scaled allometrically, then divided into tertiles by fitness level (Unfit, Low-fit, and Moderately-fit). Heart rate variability (HRV) and the Autonomic Reflex Screen were used to assess AF. Results Median VO2MAX were 104.9, 130.5, and 150.2 mL•kg−.67•min−1 for Unfit (n=10), Low-fit (n=10), and Moderately-fit (n= 9) groups respectively (p<0.05). Positive correlations were found between VO2MAX and HRV (Spearman’s rho range 0.383 to 0.553) were found. Quantitative Sudomotor Axon Reflex Test (QSART) Distal Leg volumes was lower in Unfit compared to Low-fit (p=0.007) and Moderately-fit groups (p=0.018). Unfit QSART total volumes was lower than Moderately-fit (p=0.014). Conclusion A positive relationship existed between AF and fitness levels. HIV+ individuals could benefit from improved fitness. PMID:26213714

  2. Florivory affects pollinator visitation and female fitness in Nemophila menziesii.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C

    2008-04-01

    While herbivory has traditionally been studied as damage to leaves, florivory - herbivory to flowers prior to seed set - can also have large effects on plant fitness. Florivory can decrease fitness directly, either through the destruction of gametes or through alterations to plant physiology during fruit set, and can also change the appearance of a flower, deterring pollinators and reducing seed set. In order to distinguish between these hypotheses, it is necessary to both damage flowers and add pollen in excess to study the effects of damage on pollen limitation. Very few studies have used this technique over the lifetime of a plant. Here I describe a series of experiments showing the effects of natural and artificial damage on reproductive success in the annual plant Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae, sensu lato). I show that natural and artificial petal damage decreased radial symmetry relative to controls and that both types of damage deterred pollinator activity. Both naturally damaged flowers and artificially damaged flowers in the field set fewer fruit or seed relative to undamaged control flowers. Finally, in an experiment crossing artificial petal damage with pollen addition, petal damage alone over the lifetime of this plant decreased female fitness, but only after a threshold of damage was reached. The fitness effect appeared to be direct because there was no detectable effect of pollen addition on the relationship between florivory and fitness. This result implies that both damaged and undamaged plants show similar amounts of pollen limitation and suggests that pollinator-mediated effects contributed little to the negative effects of florivory on female fitness. Florivores may thus be an under-appreciated agent of selection in certain plants, although more experimental manipulation of florivory is needed to determine if it is important over a range of taxa. PMID:18188605

  3. Plasticity and epistasis strongly affect bacterial fitness after losing multiple metabolic genes.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Glen; Waschina, Silvio; Kaleta, Christoph; Kost, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Many bacterial lineages lack seemingly essential metabolic genes. Previous work suggested selective benefits could drive the loss of biosynthetic functions from bacterial genomes when the corresponding metabolites are sufficiently available in the environment. However, the factors that govern this "genome streamlining" remain poorly understood. Here we determine the effect of plasticity and epistasis on the fitness of Escherichia coli genotypes from whose genome biosynthetic genes for one, two, or three different amino acids have been deleted. Competitive fitness experiments between auxotrophic mutants and prototrophic wild-type cells in one of two carbon environments revealed that plasticity and epistasis strongly affected the mutants' fitness individually and interactively. Positive and negative epistatic interactions were prevalent, yet on average cancelled each other out. Moreover, epistasis correlated negatively with the expected effects of combined auxotrophy-causing mutations, thus producing a pattern of diminishing returns. Moreover, computationally analyzing 1,432 eubacterial metabolic networks revealed that most pairs of auxotrophies co-occurred significantly more often than expected by chance, suggesting epistatic interactions and/or environmental factors favored these combinations. Our results demonstrate that both the genetic background and environmental conditions determine the adaptive value of a loss-of-biochemical-function mutation and that fitness gains decelerate, as more biochemical functions are lost. PMID:25765095

  4. Population size and relatedness affect fitness of a self-incompatible invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Elam, Diane R; Ridley, Caroline E; Goodell, Karen; Ellstrand, Norman C

    2007-01-01

    One of the lingering paradoxes in invasion biology is how founder populations of an introduced species are able to overcome the limitations of small size and, in a "reversal of fortune," proliferate in a new habitat. The transition from colonist to invader is especially enigmatic for self-incompatible species, which must find a mate to reproduce. In small populations, the inability to find a mate can result in the Allee effect, a positive relationship between individual fitness and population size or density. Theoretically, the Allee effect should be common in founder populations of self-incompatible colonizing species and may account for the high rate of failed introductions, but little supporting evidence exists. We created a field experiment to test whether the Allee effect affects the maternal fitness of a self-incompatible invasive species, wild radish (Raphanus sativus). We created populations of varying size and relatedness. We measured maternal fitness in terms of both fruit set per flower and seed number per fruit. We found that both population size and the level of genetic relatedness among individuals influence maternal reproductive success. Our results explicitly define an ecological genetic obstacle faced by populations of an exotic species on its way to becoming invasive. Such a mechanistic understanding of the invasions of species that require a mate can and should be exploited for both controlling current outbreaks and reducing their frequency in the future. PMID:17197422

  5. Improving Physical Fitness of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disability through a Virtual Reality Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with IDD. A research group (N = 30; mean age = 52.3 plus or minus 5.8 years; moderate IDD…

  6. Emphasis on Cardiovascular Fitness as a Barrier toward Mobilizing the Sedentary Individual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Emphasizing cardiovascular fitness may be a barrier to mobilizing the sedentary individual. Instead, encouraging low-level physical activity may be an effective first step. Beliefs held toward cardiovascular fitness are presented, and ways in which these beliefs may present barriers to adoption of any level of physical activity are discussed. (IAH)

  7. Individual Differences and Fitting Methods for the Two-Choice Diffusion Model of Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Childers, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Methods of fitting the diffusion model were examined with a focus on what the model can tell us about individual differences. Diffusion model parameters were obtained from the fits to data from two experiments and consistency of parameter values, individual differences, and practice effects were examined using different numbers of observations from each subject. Two issues were examined, first, what sizes of differences between groups can be obtained to distinguish between groups and second, what sizes of differences would be needed to find individual subjects that had a deficit relative to a control group. The parameter values from the experiments provided ranges that were used in a simulation study to examine recovery of individual differences. This study used several diffusion model fitting programs, fitting methods, and published packages. In a second simulation study, 64 sets of simulated data from each of 48 sets of parameter values (spanning the range of typical values obtained from fits to data) were fit with the different methods and biases and standard deviations in recovered model parameters were compared across methods. Finally, in a third simulation study, a comparison between a standard chi-square method and a hierarchical Bayesian method was performed. The results from these studies can be used as a starting point for selecting fitting methods and as a basis for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of using diffusion model analyses to examine individual differences in clinical, neuropsychological, and educational testing. PMID:26236754

  8. Emotional Fitness and the Movement of Affective Science From Lab to Field

    PubMed Central

    Algoe, Sara B.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    Emotions provide a ubiquitous and consequential backdrop to daily life, influencing everything from physiology to interpersonal relationships in the blink of an eye. Instances of emotional experience accumulate and compound to impact overall mental and physical health. Under optimal conditions, emotions are adaptive for the successful navigation of daily life. However, situational features of military life likely amplify everyday emotions and their impact, creating the need for soldiers to have a well-oiled emotional resilience system in place from the start, to be maintained throughout their careers. Basic research in affective science has identified the active ingredients that would be required in order for such a system of skills and abilities to have maximum impact on overall emotional fitness. Results of this emotional resilience training may provide compounding benefits for the individual as well as have spreading impact for the benefit of the military unit and other social connections. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness initiative highlights important new frontiers in affective science and presents a challenge to our field that requires taking a second look at the theory-testing process. PMID:21219046

  9. Six Steps for Planning a Fitness Circuit for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Kate

    2011-01-01

    When teaching individuals with autism it is important to pay particular attention to fitness and movement as these individuals are less likely than typical children to achieve the recommended level physical activity. Common characteristics of autism spectrum disorder can include deficits in communication and social behavior, which may limit…

  10. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-07-01

    To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:17638471

  11. Ratings of Perceived Exertion of ACSM Exercise Guidelines in Individuals Varying in Aerobic Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Christopher; Berg, Kris; Noble, John; Thomas, James

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of high (HF) and low fit (LF) individuals at given perceived exercise intensities were compared to ranges provided by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Participants were 7 LF and 8 HF men between the ages of 22 and 26 years. All participants performed a maximum oxygen uptake and lactate threshold test and…

  12. Multigenerational effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on the individual fitness and population growth of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae-Yong; Yuk, Min-Su; Jeon, Junho; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the multigenerational effect of PFOS to individual fitness (e.g., body weight, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase) and population growth (e.g., offspring number and time to first brood) of Daphnia magna during continuous and discontinuous exposures. The intrinsic rate of population growth was also calculated. In the continuous exposure, population growth-related adverse effects were detected during all test periods, and the adverse effect tended to be weaker in later generations. On the other hand, individual fitness-related adverse effects were observed from F1 not in F0 and deteriorated as the generation number increased. These results imply that individual fitness worsens although the population growth is restored in later generations. Upon discontinuous exposure, a few but significant adverse effects were observed during the non-exposure period and highest effects were detected during the re-exposure period. This encourages the study of different exposure scenarios, which may result in unexpected and higher PFOS toxicity. Consequently, this study confirms adverse effects of PFOS to Daphnia magna in multigenerational period and supports reasons for studies linking individual fitness changes to population dynamics and covering diverse exposure scenarios to evaluate the risk of PFOS in a water environment. PMID:27396314

  13. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  14. Attitudes toward Overweight Individuals among Fitness Center Employees: An Examination of Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, James A.; Hallett, Bree E.; Grove, J. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Our study assessed implicit and explicit evaluations of overweight individuals among a sample of fitness center employees (N = 70). Participants completed a general demographics questionnaire and an explicit, self-report Antifat Attitudes Test (AFAT). Participants also completed two Implicit Association Tests (IATs) to measure implicit attitudes…

  15. Aerobic Fitness and Intra-Individual Variability of Neurocognition in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert Davis; Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral and neuroelectric intra-individual variability (IIV) in preadolescent children during a task requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. The current study further examined whether IIV was moderated by aerobic fitness level. Participants performed a modified flanker task, comprised of congruent and incongruent…

  16. Individual fitness versus whole-crop photosynthesis: solar tracking tradeoffs in alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural selection in crops and their wild ancestors, mostly prior to modern plant breeding, is unlikely to have missed simple genetic improvements that would consistently have enhanced individual fitness. There may therefore be few if any tradeoff-free opportunities for further improvement of crop ...

  17. Affect intensity and individual differences in informational style.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R J; Billings, D W; Cutler, S E

    1996-03-01

    Although individuals differ widely in the typical intensity of their affective experience, the mechanisms that create or maintain these differences are unclear. Larsen, Diener, and Cropanzano (1987) examined the hypothesis that individual differences in affect intensity (AI) are related to how people interpret emotional stimuli. They found that high AI individuals engaged in more personalizing and generalizing cognitions while construing emotional stimuli than low AI individuals. The present study extends these findings by examining cognitive activity during a different task-the generation of information to communicate about life events. Participants provided free-response descriptions of 16 life events. These descriptions were content coded for five informational style variables. It was found that the descriptive information generated by high AI participants contained significantly more references to emotional arousal, more focus on feelings, and more generalization compared to participants low in AI. These results are consistent with the notion that specific cognitive activity may lead to, or at least be associated with, dispositional affect intensity. In addition, the informational style variables identified in this study were stable over time and consistent across situations. Although men and women differ in AI, this difference becomes insignificant after controlling for informational style variation. Overall results are discussed in terms of a model of various psychological mechanisms that may potentially create or maintain individual differences in affect intensity. PMID:8656315

  18. Individual fitness and phenotypic selection in age-structured populations with constant growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    Powerful multiple regression-based approaches are commonly used to measure the strength of phenotypic selection, which is the statistical association between individual fitness and trait values. Age structure and overlapping generations complicate determinations of individual fitness, contributing to the popularity of alternative methods for measuring natural selection that do not depend upon such measures. The application of regression-based techniques for measuring selection in these situations requires a demographically appropriate, conceptually sound, and observable measure of individual fitness. It has been suggested that Fisher’s reproductive value applied to an individual at its birth is such a definition. Here I offer support for this assertion by showing that multiple regression applied to this measure and vital rates (age-specific survival and fertility rates) yields the same selection gradients for vital rates as those inferred from Hamilton’s classical results. I discuss how multiple regressions, applied to individual reproductive value at birth, can be used efficiently to estimate measures of phenotypic selection that are problematic for sensitivity analyses. These include nonlinear selection, components of the opportunity for selection, and multi-level selection. PMID:24933826

  19. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552

  20. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552

  1. Individual plastic responses by males to rivals reveal mismatches between behaviour and fitness outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bretman, Amanda; Westmancoat, James D.; Gage, Matthew J. G.; Chapman, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Plasticity in behaviour is of fundamental significance when environments are variable. Such plasticity is particularly important in the context of rapid changes in the socio-sexual environment. Males can exhibit adaptive plastic responses to variation in the overall level of reproductive competition. However, the extent of behavioural flexibility within individuals, and the degree to which rapidly changing plastic responses map onto fitness are unknown. We addressed this by determining the behaviour and fitness profiles of individual Drosophila melanogaster males subjected to up to three episodes of exposure to rivals or no rivals, in all combinations. Behaviour (mating duration) was remarkably sensitive to the level of competition and fully reversible, suggesting that substantial costs arise from the incorrect expression of even highly flexible behaviour. However, changes in mating duration matched fitness outcomes (offspring number) only in scenarios in which males experienced zero then high competition. Following the removal of competition, mating duration, but not offspring production, decreased to below control levels. This indicates that the benefit of increasing reproductive investment when encountering rivals may exceed that of decreasing investment when rivals disappear. Such asymmetric fitness benefits and mismatches with behavioural responses are expected to exert strong selection on the evolution of plasticity. PMID:22438501

  2. Recent social conditions affect boldness repeatability in individual sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Jolle Wolter; Aaron Taylor, Benjamin; Manica, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Animal personalities are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom and have been shown both to influence individual behaviour in the social context and to be affected by it. However, little attention has been paid to possible carryover effects of social conditions on personality expression, especially when individuals are alone. Here we investigated how the recent social context affected the boldness and repeatability of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, during individual assays. We housed fish either solitarily, solitarily part of the time or socially in groups of four, and subjected them twice to a risk-taking task. The social conditions had a large effect on boldness repeatability, with fish housed solitarily before the trials showing much higher behavioural repeatability than fish housed socially, for which repeatability was not significant. Social conditions also had a temporal effect on the boldness of the fish, with only fish housed solitarily taking more risks during the first than the second trial. These results show that recent social conditions can thus affect the short-term repeatability of behaviour and obfuscate the expression of personality even in later contexts when individuals are alone. This finding highlights the need to consider social housing conditions when designing personality studies and emphasizes the important link between animal personality and the social context by showing the potential role of social carryover effects. PMID:26949265

  3. The pain persists: how social exclusion affects individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perry, Yael; Henry, Julie D; Sethi, Nisha; Grisham, Jessica R

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Evidence suggests that ostracism exerts an immediate and painful threat to an individual's primary needs for belonging, meaningful existence, control, and self-esteem. Individuals with schizophrenia are particularly likely to experience the effects of ostracism, being amongst the most stigmatized of all the mental illnesses. The aims of the present study were therefore to assess the immediate and delayed effects of ostracism in these individuals, and to explore associations between any observed effects and indices of negative affect and clinical symptoms. METHODS. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and non-clinical controls engaged in a virtual ball-toss game with two fictitious others. All participants played the game on two separate occasions, participating in both an inclusion and an ostracism condition. Measures of primary needs were obtained after each game. RESULTS. Findings suggest that the negative impact of social exclusion lasts longer in individuals with schizophrenia, compared with non-clinical controls. Further, clinical participants who reported lower primary needs after a delay were more likely to exhibit higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. CONCLUSIONS. Future studies should examine the use of regulatory strategies and personal responses to stigma as potential mediators in the maintenance of the negative effects of social exclusion. These lines of research may offer insight into interventions that may assist individuals to better cope with this experience. PMID:22003945

  4. Flexible control in processing affective and non-affective material predicts individual differences in trait resilience.

    PubMed

    Genet, Jessica J; Siemer, Matthias

    2011-02-01

    Trait resilience is a stable personality characteristic that involves the self-reported ability to flexibly adapt to emotional events and situations. The present study examined cognitive processes that may explain individual differences in trait resilience. Participants completed self-report measures of trait resilience, cognitive flexibility and working memory capacity tasks, and a novel affective task-switching paradigm that assesses the ability to flexibly switch between processing the affective versus non-affective qualities of affective stimuli (i.e., flexible affective processing). As hypothesised, cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were unique predictors of trait resilience. Working memory capacity was not predictive of trait resilience, indicating that trait resilience is tied to specific cognitive processes rather than overall better cognitive functioning. Cognitive flexibility and flexible affective processing were not associated with other trait measures, suggesting that these flexibility processes are unique to trait resilience. This study was among the first to investigate the cognitive abilities underlying trait resilience. PMID:21432680

  5. Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  6. Implicit processing of visual emotions is affected by sound-induced affective states and individual affective traits.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  7. Force-velocity property of leg muscles in individuals of different level of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Cuk, Ivan; Mirkov, Dragan; Nedeljkovic, Aleksandar; Kukolj, Milos; Ugarkovic, Dusan; Jaric, Slobodan

    2016-06-01

    The present study explored the method of testing muscle mechanical properties through the linear force-velocity (F-V) relationships obtained from loaded vertical jumps. Specifically, we hypothesised that the F-V relationship parameters depicting the force, power, and velocity of the tested muscles will differ among individuals of different physical fitness. Strength trained, physically active, and sedentary male participants (N = 10 + 10 + 10; age 20-29 years) were tested on maximum countermovement and squat jumps where manipulation of external loads provided a range of F and V data. The observed F-V relationships of the tested leg muscles were approximately linear and mainly strong (median correlation coefficients ranged from 0.77 to 0.92; all p < 0.05), independently of either the tested group or the jump type. The maximum power revealed higher values in the strength trained than in the physically active and sedentary participants. This difference originated from the differences in F-intercepts, rather than from the V-intercepts. We conclude that the observed parameters could be sensitive enough to detect the differences among both the individuals of different physical fitness and various jump types. The present findings support using loaded vertical jumps and, possibly, other maximum performance multi-joint movements for the assessment of mechanical properties of active muscles. PMID:27111493

  8. Differential baroreflex control of heart rate in sedentary and aerobically fit individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Fadel, P. J.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Shi, X.; Raven, P. B.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared arterial, aortic, and carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in eight average fit (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max = 42.2+/-1.9 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and eight high fit (VO2max = 61.9+/-2.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) healthy young adults. METHODS: Arterial and aortic (ABR) baroreflex functions were assessed utilizing hypo- and hyper-tensive challenges induced by graded bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside (SN) and phenylephrine (PE), respectively. Carotid baroreflex (CBR) sensitivity was determined using ramped 5-s pulses of both pressure and suction delivered to the carotid sinus via a neck chamber collar, independent of drug administration. RESULTS: During vasoactive drug injection, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was similarly altered in average fit (AF) and high fit (HF) groups. However, the heart rate (HR) response range of the arterial baroreflex was significantly attenuated (P < 0.05) in HF (31+/-4 beats x min(-1)) compared with AF individuals (46+/-4 beats x min(-1)). When sustained neck suction and pressure were applied to counteract altered carotid sinus pressure during SN and PE administration, isolating the ABR response, the response range remained diminished (P < 0.05) in the HF population (24+/-3 beats x min(-1)) compared with the AF group (41+/-4 beats x min(-1)). During CBR perturbation, the HF (14+/-1 beats-min(-1)) and AF (16+/-1 beats-min(-1)) response ranges were similar. The arterial baroreflex response range was significantly less than the simple sum of the CBR and ABR (HF, 38+/-3 beats x min(-1) and AF, 57+/-4 beats x min(-1)) in both fitness groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that reductions in arterial-cardiac reflex sensitivity are mediated by diminished ABR function. More importantly, these data suggest that the integrative relationship between the ABR and CBR contributing to arterial baroreflex control of HR is inhibitory in nature and not altered by exercise training.

  9. Aerobic fitness and body mass index in individuals with schizophrenia: Implications for neurocognition and daily functioning.

    PubMed

    Kimhy, David; Vakhrusheva, Julia; Bartels, Matthew N; Armstrong, Hilary F; Ballon, Jacob S; Khan, Samira; Chang, Rachel W; Hansen, Marie C; Ayanruoh, Lindsey; Smith, Edward E; Sloan, Richard P

    2014-12-30

    Previous reports indicate that among healthy individuals low aerobic fitness (AF) and high body-mass index (BMI) predict poor neurocognition and daily-functioning. It is unknown whether these associations extend to disorders characterized by poor neurocognition, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, we compared AF and BMI in individuals with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls, and then within the schizophrenia group we examined the links between AF, BMI, neurocognition and daily-functioning. Thirty-two individuals with schizophrenia and 64 gender- and age-matched controls completed assessments of AF (indexed by VO2max) and BMI. The former also completed measures of neurocognition, daily-functioning and physical activity. The schizophrenia group displayed significantly lower AF and higher BMI. In the schizophrenia group, AF was significantly correlated with overall neurocognition (r=0.57), along with executive functioning, working memory, social cognition, and processing speed. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that AF accounted for 22% of the neurocognition variance. Furthermore, AF was significantly correlated with overall daily-functioning (r=0.46). In contrast, BMI displayed significant inverse correlations with neurocognition, but no associations to daily-functioning. AF was significantly correlated physical activity. The authors discuss the potential use of AF-enhancing interventions to improve neurocognitive and daily-functioning in schizophrenia, along with putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying these links, including Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. PMID:25219618

  10. Virtual Reality as Means to Improve Physical Fitness of Individuals at a Severe Level of Intellectual and Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotan, Meir; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Weiss, Patrice L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are in need of effective and motivating physical fitness training programs. The aim was to test the effectiveness of a virtual reality (VR)-based exercise program in improving the physical fitness of adults with severe IDD when implemented by on-site caregivers. A research group (N…

  11. Epigallocatechin gallate affects glucose metabolism and increases fitness and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anika E.; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Rabe, Doerte; Baenas, Nieves; Schloesser, Anke; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Stocker, Achim; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested whether a standardized epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) rich green tea extract (comprising > 90% EGCG) affects fitness and lifespan as well as parameters of glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Following the application of the green tea extract a significant increase in the mean lifespan (+ 3.3 days) and the 50% survival (+ 4.3 days) as well as improved fitness was detected. These effects went along an increased expression of Spargel, the homolog of mammalian PGC1α, which has been reported to affect lifespan in flies. Intriguingly, in flies, treatment with the green tea extract decreased glucose concentrations, which were accompanied by an inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Computational docking analysis proved the potential of EGCG to dock into the substrate binding pocket of α-amylase and to a greater extent into α-glucosidase. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EGCG downregulates insulin-like peptide 5 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, major regulators of glucose metabolism, as well as the Drosophila homolog of leptin, unpaired 2. We propose that a decrease in glucose metabolism in connection with an upregulated expression of Spargel contribute to the better fitness and the extended lifespan in EGCG-treated flies. PMID:26375250

  12. Improving melody recognition in cochlear implant recipients through individualized frequency map fitting.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, Walter; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Giannantonio, Sara; Cianfrone, Francesca; Paludetti, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that music perception remains very difficult for most cochlear implant (CI) users, who generally report being unsatisfied with the quality of music listening through the CI. In particular, the appreciation of the spectral features of music, which include pitch, melody and timbre, is widely known to be poorer than its rhythmic patterns. One of the possible causes for this may be the misalignment between the conventional frequency band allocation to the electrodes of the array (frequency-place function) and the distribution of pitch percepts generated by electrode stimulation along the array (electrode-pitch function). In this paper the authors investigate whether mismatch correction through individualized fitting of the processor's frequency maps can improve music understanding in ten Nucleus™ cochlear implant users, by comparing scores obtained with experimental and old map; both maps were tested before, immediately after and 1 month after the fitting through a music test battery designed for the purpose of the study. PMID:20635091

  13. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  14. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  15. Diminished forearm vasomotor response to central hypervolemic loading in aerobically fit individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Gallagher, K. M.; SMith, S. A.; Bryant, K. H.; Raven, P. B.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) during central hypervolemic loading was less sensitive in exercise trained high fit individuals (HF) compared to untrained average fit individuals (AF). Eight AF (age: 24 +/- 1 yr and weight: 78.9 +/- 1.7 kg) and eight HF (22 +/- 1 yr 79.5 +/- 2.4 kg) voluntarily participated in the investigation. Maximal aerobic power (determined on a treadmill), plasma volume and blood volume (Evans blue dilution method) were significantly greater in the HF than AF (60.8 +/- 0.7 vs. 41.2 +/- 1.9 ml.kg-1.min-1, 3.96 +/- 0.17 vs 3.36 +/- 0.08 1, and 6.33 +/- 0.23 vs 5.28 +/- 0.13 1). Baseline heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by an intraradial catheter or a Finapres finger cuff), forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography), and FVR, calculated from the ratio (MAP-CVP)/FBF, were not different between the HF and the AF. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP, -5, -10, -15, and -20 torr) and passive leg elevation (LE, 50 cm) combined with lower body positive pressure (LBPP, +5, +10, and +20 torr) were utilized to elicit central hypovolemia and hypervolemia, respectively. Range of CVP (from LBNP to LE+LBPP) was similar in the AF (from -3.9 to +1.9 mm Hg) and HF (from -4.0 to +2.2 mm Hg). However, FVR/CVP was significantly less in the HF (-1.8 +/- 0.1 unit.mm Hg-1) than AF (-34 +/- 0.1 unit.mm Hg-1). The FVR decrease in response to increase in CVP was significantly diminished in the HF (-1.46 +/- 0.45 unit.mm Hg-1) compared to the AF (-4.40 +/- 0.97 unit.mm Hg-1), and during LBNP induced unloading the FVR/CVP of the HF (-2.01 +/- 0.49 unit.mm Hg-1) was less (P < 0.08) than the AF (-3.28 +/- 0.69 unit.mm Hg-1). We concluded that the cardiopulmonary baroreceptor mediated FVR reflex response was significantly less sensitive to changes in CVP in individuals who practice exercise training.

  16. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-07-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  17. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  18. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  19. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  20. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  1. THE HUNT FOR GREEN EVERY APRIL: FACTORS AFFECTING FITNESS IN SWITCHGRASS

    SciTech Connect

    Sarath, Gautam

    2014-12-10

    This grant funded work was undertaken to develop fundamental biological knowledge of the factors affecting the complex plant trait “fitness” in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a plant being developed as a biomass crop. Using a diverse range of latitudinally-adapted switchgrass plants, genomic, molecular and physiological studies were performed to track a number of different aspects of plant genetics and physiology over the course of the growing season. Work was performed on both genetically unrelated and genetically related plants. Plants were established in the field from seedlings raised in a greenhouse, or from clones present in other field nurseries. Field grown plants were used as the source of all tissues. The three objectives of this proposal were:(1) Transcript Profiling, Metabolomics, and C and N Partitioning and Recycling in Crowns and Rhizomes of Switchgrass over two growing seasons; (2) Gene Profiling During Regreening and Dormancy of Bulked Segregants; (3) Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Populations for Adaptation and Fitness Traits Being Developed for Central and Northern USA, that Show Significant Heterosis. Objective 1 results: Plants were labeled using 13CO2 (a stable isotope) using an acrylic chamber constructed specifically for this purpose. Plants became labeled with 13C and label decayed in aerial tissues over the course of the growing season. Varying amounts of 13C were recovered in the rhizomes. These data are being analyzed. Plants were also labeled with 15N-urea. Plants absorbed significant amounts of label that was remobilized to the growing shoots. N-dynamics would suggest that a portion of the 15N absorbed into the crowns and rhizomes is sequestered below ground. Variable amounts of 15N were translocated from the shoots to the roots over the course of the growing season. Polar metabolites extracted from a diverse array of rhizomes were analyzed using GCMS. Data indicated that there was a significant shift in metabolite pools

  2. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  3. Genetic diversity at neutral and adaptive loci determines individual fitness in a long-lived territorial bird.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Rosa; Carrete, Martina; Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Hiraldo, Fernando; Donázar, José Antonio

    2012-08-22

    There is compelling evidence about the manifest effects of inbreeding depression on individual fitness and populations' risk of extinction. The majority of studies addressing inbreeding depression on wild populations are generally based on indirect measures of inbreeding using neutral markers. However, the study of functional loci, such as genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is highly recommended. MHC genes constitute an essential component of the immune system of individuals, which is directly related to individual fitness and survival. In this study, we analyse heterozygosity fitness correlations of neutral and adaptive genetic variation (22 microsatellite loci and two loci of the MHC class II, respectively) with the age of recruitment and breeding success of a decimated and geographically isolated population of a long-lived territorial vulture. Our results indicate a negative correlation between neutral genetic diversity and age of recruitment, suggesting that inbreeding may be delaying reproduction. We also found a positive correlation between functional (MHC) genetic diversity and breeding success, together with a specific positive effect of the most frequent pair of cosegregating MHC alleles in the population. Globally, our findings demonstrate that genetic depauperation in small populations has a negative impact on the individual fitness, thus increasing the populations' extinction risk. PMID:22553093

  4. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  5. Factors affecting the identification of individual mountain bongo antelope

    PubMed Central

    Bindemann, Markus; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of individuals forms the basis of many endangered species monitoring protocols. This process typically relies on manual recognition techniques. This study aimed to calculate a measure of the error rates inherent within the manual technique and also sought to identify visual traits that aid identification, using the critically endangered mountain bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, as a model system. Identification accuracy was assessed with a matching task that required same/different decisions to side-by-side pairings of individual bongos. Error rates were lowest when only the flanks of bongos were shown, suggesting that the inclusion of other visual traits confounded accuracy. Accuracy was also higher for photographs of captive animals than camera-trap images, and in observers experienced in working with mountain bongos, than those unfamiliar with the sub-species. These results suggest that the removal of non-essential morphological traits from photographs of bongos, the use of high-quality images, and relevant expertise all help increase identification accuracy. Finally, given the rise in automated identification and the use of citizen science, something our results would suggest is applicable within the context of the mountain bongo, this study provides a framework for assessing their accuracy in individual as well as species identification. PMID:26587336

  6. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Çağlar; Campbell, S. Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or ‘personality’ in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009–2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait ‘communicativeness’ and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of ‘under-signalling’. PMID:24307671

  7. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  8. Anthropometry and physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Padaki, Samata; Vijayakrishna, K.; Dambal, Amrut; Ankad, Roopa; Manjula, R.; Surekharani, Chinagudi; Herur, Anita; Patil, Shailaja

    2011-01-01

    Context: The risk of becoming a diabetic for an individual with a positive family history of diabetes increases by two- to fourfold. Aim: To record the anthropometric indices and the physical fitness in individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and compare these results with those of controls. Settings and Design: This is a comparative study done in the department of physiology. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two apparently healthy medical students with family history of type-2 Diabetes Mellitus were chosen for the study and matched with equal number of controls. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, thigh circumference, upper segment and lower segment) were recorded. Body mass index (BMI), waist–hip ratio (WHR), waist–thigh ratio (WTR), and upper to lower segment ratio (US/LS ratio) were calculated. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured. Physical fitness was evaluated using Queen's College step test protocol. Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI) were calculated before and after exercise. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: BMI, WHR, US/LS ratio, and RPP at rest were significantly higher (P < 0.05), whereas WTR, PFI, and RPP after exercise lower (P > 0.05) in cases as compared to controls. Conclusions: It can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals with family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus have higher anthropometric values and lower physical fitness than the controls. PMID:22029005

  9. Eurofit Special: European Fitness Battery Score Variation among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronski, Waldemar; Horvat, Michael; Nocera, Joe; Roswal, Glenn; Croce, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Eurofit Special Test is a battery of motor fitness tests resulting from a 10-year project of the Committee of Experts for Sports Research and is comprised of strength, speed, flexibility, and balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Eurofit Special was able to distinguish variations in functioning among individuals…

  10. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii. PMID:26245228

  11. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-11-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15-25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  12. Host-specific thermal profiles affect fitness of a widespread pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Lisa A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Alford, Ross A; Pike, David A

    2014-01-01

    Host behavior can interact with environmental context to influence outcomes of pathogen exposure and the impact of disease on species and populations. Determining whether the thermal behaviors of individual species influence susceptibility to disease can help enhance our ability to explain and predict how and when disease outbreaks are likely to occur. The widespread disease chytridiomycosis (caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) often has species-specific impacts on amphibian communities; some host species are asymptomatic, whereas others experience mass mortalities and population extirpation. We determined whether the average natural thermal regimes experienced by sympatric frog species in nature, in and of themselves, can account for differences in vulnerability to disease. We did this by growing Bd under temperatures mimicking those experienced by frogs in the wild. At low and high elevations, the rainforest frogs Litoria nannotis, L. rheocola, and L. serrata maintained mean thermal regimes within the optimal range for pathogen growth (15–25°C). Thermal regimes for L. serrata, which has recovered from Bd-related declines, resulted in slower pathogen growth than the cooler and less variable thermal regimes for the other two species, which have experienced more long-lasting declines. For L. rheocola and L. serrata, pathogen growth was faster in thermal regimes corresponding to high elevations than in those corresponding to low elevations, where temperatures were warmer. For L. nannotis, which prefers moist and thermally stable microenvironments, pathogen growth was fastest for low-elevation thermal regimes. All of the thermal regimes we tested resulted in pathogen growth rates equivalent to, or significantly faster than, rates expected from constant-temperature experiments. The effects of host body temperature on Bd can explain many of the broad ecological patterns of population declines in our focal species, via direct effects on

  13. The Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Microparticles on Individual Fitness in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ogonowski, Martin; Schür, Christoph; Jarsén, Åsa; Gorokhova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Concerns are being raised that microplastic pollution can have detrimental effects on the feeding of aquatic invertebrates, including zooplankton. Both small plastic fragments (microplastics, MPs) produced by degradation of larger plastic waste (secondary MPs; SMPs) and microscopic plastic spheres used in cosmetic products and industry (primary MPs; PMPs) are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, despite the fact that most environmental MPs consist of weathered plastic debris with irregular shape and broad size distribution, experimental studies of organism responses to MP exposure have largely used uniformly sized spherical PMPs. Therefore, effects observed for PMPs in such experiments may not be representative for MP-effects in situ. Moreover, invertebrate filter-feeders are generally well adapted to the presence of refractory material in seston, which questions the potential of MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations to measurably affect digestion in these organisms. Here, we compared responses to MPs (PMPs and SMPs) and naturally occurring particles (kaolin clay) using the cladoceran Daphnia magna as a model organism. We manipulated food levels (0.4 and 9 μg C mL-1) and MP or kaolin contribution to the feeding suspension (<1 to 74%) and evaluated effects of MPs and kaolin on food uptake, growth, reproductive capacity of the daphnids, and maternal effects on offspring survival and feeding. Exposure to SMPs caused elevated mortality, increased inter-brood period and decreased reproduction albeit only at high MP levels in the feeding suspension (74% by particle count). No such effects were observed in either PMP or kaolin treatments. In daphnids exposed to any particle type at the low algal concentration, individual growth decreased by ~15%. By contrast, positive growth response to all particle types was observed at the high algal concentration with 17%, 54% and 40% increase for kaolin, PMP and SMP, respectively. When test particles comprised

  14. The Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Microparticles on Individual Fitness in Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Schür, Christoph; Jarsén, Åsa; Gorokhova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Concerns are being raised that microplastic pollution can have detrimental effects on the feeding of aquatic invertebrates, including zooplankton. Both small plastic fragments (microplastics, MPs) produced by degradation of larger plastic waste (secondary MPs; SMPs) and microscopic plastic spheres used in cosmetic products and industry (primary MPs; PMPs) are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, despite the fact that most environmental MPs consist of weathered plastic debris with irregular shape and broad size distribution, experimental studies of organism responses to MP exposure have largely used uniformly sized spherical PMPs. Therefore, effects observed for PMPs in such experiments may not be representative for MP-effects in situ. Moreover, invertebrate filter-feeders are generally well adapted to the presence of refractory material in seston, which questions the potential of MPs at environmentally relevant concentrations to measurably affect digestion in these organisms. Here, we compared responses to MPs (PMPs and SMPs) and naturally occurring particles (kaolin clay) using the cladoceran Daphnia magna as a model organism. We manipulated food levels (0.4 and 9 μg C mL-1) and MP or kaolin contribution to the feeding suspension (<1 to 74%) and evaluated effects of MPs and kaolin on food uptake, growth, reproductive capacity of the daphnids, and maternal effects on offspring survival and feeding. Exposure to SMPs caused elevated mortality, increased inter-brood period and decreased reproduction albeit only at high MP levels in the feeding suspension (74% by particle count). No such effects were observed in either PMP or kaolin treatments. In daphnids exposed to any particle type at the low algal concentration, individual growth decreased by ~15%. By contrast, positive growth response to all particle types was observed at the high algal concentration with 17%, 54% and 40% increase for kaolin, PMP and SMP, respectively. When test particles comprised

  15. The BestFIT trial: A SMART approach to developing individualized weight loss treatments.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Nancy E; Butryn, Meghan L; Forman, Evan M; Almirall, Daniel; Seburg, Elisabeth M; Lauren Crain, A; Kunin-Batson, Alicia S; Hayes, Marcia G; Levy, Rona L; Jeffery, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral weight loss programs help people achieve clinically meaningful weight losses (8-10% of starting body weight). Despite data showing that only half of participants achieve this goal, a "one size fits all" approach is normative. This weight loss intervention science gap calls for adaptive interventions that provide the "right treatment at the right time for the right person." Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials (SMART), use experimental design principles to answer questions for building adaptive interventions including whether, how, or when to alter treatment intensity, type, or delivery. This paper describes the rationale and design of the BestFIT study, a SMART designed to evaluate the optimal timing for intervening with sub-optimal responders to weight loss treatment and relative efficacy of two treatments that address self-regulation challenges which impede weight loss: 1) augmenting treatment with portion-controlled meals (PCM) which decrease the need for self-regulation; and 2) switching to acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABT) which boosts capacity for self-regulation. The primary aim is to evaluate the benefit of changing treatment with PCM versus ABT. The secondary aim is to evaluate the best time to intervene with sub-optimal responders. BestFIT results will lead to the empirically-supported construction of an adaptive intervention that will optimize weight loss outcomes and associated health benefits. PMID:26825020

  16. Hormonal correlates of individual quality in a long-lived bird: a test of the 'corticosterone-fitness hypothesis'.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C; Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier

    2010-12-23

    Measuring individual quality in vertebrates is difficult. Focusing on allostasis mechanisms may be useful because they are functionally involved in the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its environment. Thus, a rise in stress hormones levels (corticosterone) occurs when an organism has to cope with challenging environmental conditions. This has recently led to the proposal of the 'cort-fitness hypothesis', which suggests that elevated baseline corticosterone levels should be found in individuals of poor quality that have difficulty coping with their environment. We tested this hypothesis by comparing an integrative measure of individual quality to baseline corticosterone in black-browed albatrosses (Thalassarche melanophrys). We found that individual baseline corticosterone levels were related to individual quality and highly repeatable from one breeding season to the next. Importantly, this relationship was found in males, but not in females. Therefore, we suggest that the relationship between quality and baseline corticosterone levels may depend on the environmental and energetic constraints that individuals have to cope with. PMID:20573614

  17. Technology Counts 2011: K-12 Seeks Custom Fit--Schools Test Individualized Digital Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of educators around the country are turning to technology and different teaching and learning approaches to give students personalized learning experiences that mirror the customized experiences they take for granted outside of school. To meet students' individual needs, they are putting in place 1-to-1 computing programs and…

  18. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Cláudio F.; Neto, Gabriel R.; Araújo, Adenilson T.; Sousa, Maria S. C.; Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Batista, Gilmário R.; Reis, Victor M. M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents. PMID:25713652

  19. Laboratory study to assess causative factors affecting temporal changes in filtering facepiece respirator fit: part I - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Benson, Stacey; Lynch, Stephanie; Palmiero, Andy; Roberge, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is conducting a first-of-its-kind study that will assess respirator fit and facial dimension changes as a function of time and improve the scientific basis for decisions on the periodicity of fit testing. A representative sample of 220 subjects wearing filtering-facepiece respirators (FFR) will be evaluated to investigate factors that affect changes in respirator fit over time. The objective of this pilot study (n = 10) was to investigate the variation in fit test data collected in accordance with the study protocol. Inward leakage (IL) and filter penetration were measured for each donned respirator, permitting the calculation of face seal leakage (FSL) and fit factor (FF). The study included only subjects who (a) passed one of the first three fit tests (FF ≥ 100), and (b) demonstrated through a series of nine donnings that they achieved adequate fit (90th percentile FSL was ≤ 0.05). Following the respirator fit tests, 3-D scans of subjects were captured, and height, weight, and 13 traditional anthropometric facial dimensions were measured. The same data were collected 2 and 4 weeks after baseline. The mean change in FSL for the 10 subjects was 0.044% between Visits 1 and 2, and was 0.229% between Visits 1 and 3. Technicians achieved at least moderate reliability for all manual measurements except nose protrusion. Filter penetration was generally less than 0.03%. Geometric mean fit factors were not statistically different among the three visits. The large variability was observed with different respirator samples for the same model, between subjects (inter), and within each subject (intra). Although variability was observed, adequate fit was maintained for all 10 subjects. Pilot scans collected show subject faces remained the same over the 4 weeks. The consistent results during the pilot study indicate that the methods and procedures are appropriate for the 3-year main study. In addition, this baseline

  20. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (P<0.05) and was maintained in EX; however, significant individual variability was observed (CON: -22%, range: -39% to -.5%; EX: -1.8%, range: -16% to 12.6%). The overlap in ranges between groups included 3 CON who experienced smaller reduction in VO2pk (<16%) than the worst responding EX subjects. Individual variability was maintained when VO2pk was normalized to lean mass (range, CON: -33.7% to -5.7%; EX: -15.8% to 11%), and the overlap included 5 CON with smaller reductions in VO2pk than the worst responding EX subjects. High responders to disuse also lost the most lean mass; however, this relationship was not maintained in EX (i.e. the largest gains/losses in lean mass were observed in both high and low

  1. Impact of physical activity and fitness in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baillot, A; Audet, M; Baillargeon, J P; Dionne, I J; Valiquette, L; Rosa-Fortin, M M; Abou Chakra, C N; Comeau, E; Langlois, M F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to appraise current knowledge on the impact of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on the health of class II and III obese subjects and bariatric surgery (BS) patients. All original studies were searched using four databases (Medline®, Scopus®, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected studies assessing the impact of PA or PF on specific health outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PF, wellness) in adults with a body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) or in BS patients. Conclusions were drawn based on a rating system of evidence. From 3,170 papers identified, 40 papers met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were recently carried out with a predominance of women. Less than one-third of these studies were experimental and only three of them were of high quality. Each study reported at least one beneficial effect of PA or PF. However, a lack of high-quality studies and heterogeneity in designs prevented us from finding high levels of evidence. In conclusion, although results support the importance of PA and PF to improve the health of this population, higher-quality trials are required to strengthen evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24712685

  2. Interindividual anatomical variations affect the plate-to-bone fit during osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hara, Tatsuya; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Michiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that interindividual variations in the teardrop, which represents the volar projection of the lunate facet of the distal radius, cause unsatisfactory fitting of the volar locking plate to the bone. This can cause flexor tendon ruptures. Herein, we conducted a cross-sectional study and measured the ratio of teardrop height and the teardrop inclination angle as parameters of teardrop configuration for 200 standardized lateral radiographs (average age of the patients, 51 years). We also quantified the influence of the teardrop morphology by analyzing the fit of three locking plates to three radii with differing teardrop inclination angles using a three-dimensional computer-aided design system. The average ratios of the teardrop height and teardrop inclination angle were 0.42° (0.30-0.56°) and 28.8° (9.9-44.9°), respectively. The teardrop inclination angle was moderately correlated with age in men but not in women. In the plate-to-bone fit analyses, the fit of all the plates was significantly different between bones, with the configuration of the radius with the lowest teardrop inclination angle being the closest approximation to that of each plate. We demonstrated the interindividual variation in the shape of the teardrop and its influence on the fit of the volar plate, highlighting the importance of careful plate selection for achieving osteosynthesis of bones with a high teardrop inclination angle. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:953-960, 2016. PMID:26648456

  3. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy. PMID:16574302

  4. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. PMID:27460272

  5. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    PubMed

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L; Osborne, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for accommodations were not supported by objective evidence from students' history, diagnosis, test data, and current functioning. Furthermore, clinicians often recommended accommodations that were not specific to the student's diagnosis or area of disability. Our findings highlight the need for individually selected accommodations matched to students' needs and academic contexts. PMID:25395372

  6. Comparison between two clones of Daphnia magna: effects of multigenerational cadmium exposure on toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2006-03-10

    We investigated the effects of genotype (two different clones) and multigenerational Cd-exposure history on Cd toxicity, individual fitness, and biokinetics in populations of a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna. The adults of the tolerant (T) clone had longer mean-survival-time than the sensitive (S) clone in both control groups (without Cd-exposure) and continuous Cd-exposure groups, but the two clones showed comparable resistances to acute Cd stress in the recovery groups. The body concentration of metallothionein (MT) played a critical role in handling Cd stress, which mainly accounted for the significant difference between the two clones in terms of survival distribution. High comparability of these two clones in individual fitness parameters and biokinetics suggested that these parameters are unlikely driven by genetic variation. For each specific clone, continuous Cd-exposure inhibited the animal growth, elevated the MT induction, and increased the Cd uptake rate (ingestion rate, assimilation efficiency from dietary phase, and uptake rate from dissolved phase), all of which enhanced the weight-specific Cd accumulation in daphnids' bodies. The strong dependence of biokinetic parameters on environmental factors (e.g., food concentrations, pH, dissolved or dietary metal concentration, and metal exposure histories) rather than on genotypes implied the great potential of using biokinetics in inter-lab comparisons and environmental risk assessments. PMID:16289344

  7. Tailoring Release Protocols to Individual Species and Sites: One Size Does Not Fit All

    PubMed Central

    Moseby, Katherine E.; Hill, Brydie M.; Lavery, Tyrone H.

    2014-01-01

    Reintroduction programs for threatened species often include elaborate release strategies designed to improve success, but their advantages are rarely tested scientifically. We used a set of four experiments to demonstrate that the influence of release strategies on short-term reintroduction outcomes is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We compared different reintroduction strategies for three mammal species in an arid environment where exotic mammalian predators were removed. Wild greater stick-nest rats selected vegetation shelter sites with greater structural density than captive-bred rats, travelled further from the release site and experienced lower rates of mortality. In comparison, there was no difference in mortality or movement between wild and captive-bred greater bilbies. Burrowing bettongs and greater bilbies were also subjected to immediate and delayed release strategies and whilst no difference was detected in bilbies, bettongs that were subjected to delayed releases lost less weight and took less time to establish burrows than those that were immediately released. Interspecific differences in treatment response were attributed to predation risk, the nature of the release site, and behavioural traits such as shelter investment and sociality. Our varied results highlight the inadequacies of review articles focusing on optimum release protocols due to their attempt to generalise across species and release sites. We provide an example of a predictive model to guide future release strategy experimentation that recognises the range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing reintroduction outcomes. We encourage researchers to treat programs experimentally, identify individual site and species characters that may influence release strategies and record data on movements, mortality, weight dynamics, and settling times and distances. The inherent issues of small sample size and low statistical power that plague most reintroduction

  8. Tailoring release protocols to individual species and sites: one size does not fit all.

    PubMed

    Moseby, Katherine E; Hill, Brydie M; Lavery, Tyrone H

    2014-01-01

    Reintroduction programs for threatened species often include elaborate release strategies designed to improve success, but their advantages are rarely tested scientifically. We used a set of four experiments to demonstrate that the influence of release strategies on short-term reintroduction outcomes is related to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We compared different reintroduction strategies for three mammal species in an arid environment where exotic mammalian predators were removed. Wild greater stick-nest rats selected vegetation shelter sites with greater structural density than captive-bred rats, travelled further from the release site and experienced lower rates of mortality. In comparison, there was no difference in mortality or movement between wild and captive-bred greater bilbies. Burrowing bettongs and greater bilbies were also subjected to immediate and delayed release strategies and whilst no difference was detected in bilbies, bettongs that were subjected to delayed releases lost less weight and took less time to establish burrows than those that were immediately released. Interspecific differences in treatment response were attributed to predation risk, the nature of the release site, and behavioural traits such as shelter investment and sociality. Our varied results highlight the inadequacies of review articles focusing on optimum release protocols due to their attempt to generalise across species and release sites. We provide an example of a predictive model to guide future release strategy experimentation that recognises the range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing reintroduction outcomes. We encourage researchers to treat programs experimentally, identify individual site and species characters that may influence release strategies and record data on movements, mortality, weight dynamics, and settling times and distances. The inherent issues of small sample size and low statistical power that plague most reintroduction

  9. INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN VERTEBRAL KINEMATICS AFFECTS PREDICTIONS OF NECK MUSCULOSKELETAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Nevins, Derek D.; Zheng, Liying; Vasavada, Anita N.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have found significant variation in cervical intervertebral kinematics (IVK) among healthy subjects, but the effect of this variation on biomechanical properties, such as neck strength, has not been explored. The goal of this study was to quantify variation in model predictions of extension strength, flexion strength and gravitational demand (the ratio of gravitational load from the weight of the head to neck muscle extension strength), due to inter-subject variation in IVK. IVK were measured from sagittal radiographs of twenty-four subjects (14F, 10M) in five postures: maximal extension, mid-extension, neutral, mid-flexion, and maximal flexion. IVK were defined by the position (anterior-posterior and superior-inferior) of each cervical vertebra with respect to T1 and its angle with respect to horizontal, and fit with a cubic polynomial over the range of motion. The IVK of each subject were scaled and incorporated into musculoskeletal models to create models that were identical in muscle force- and moment-generating properties but had subject-specific kinematics. The effect of inter-subject variation in IVK was quantified using the coefficient of variation (COV), the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. COV of extension strength ranged from 8 – 15% over the range of motion, but COV of flexion strength were 20 – 80%. Moreover, the COV of gravitational demand was 80 – 90%, because the gravitational demand is affected by head position as well as neck strength. These results indicate that including inter-individual variation in models is important for evaluating neck musculoskeletal biomechanical properties. PMID:25234351

  10. Parental Ploidy Strongly Affects Offspring Fitness in Heteroploid Crosses among Three Cytotypes of Autopolyploid Jacobaea carniolica (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sonnleitner, Michaela; Weis, Birgit; Flatscher, Ruth; García, Pedro Escobar; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Winkler, Manuela; Schönswetter, Peter; Hülber, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive interactions among cytotypes in their contact zones determine whether these cytotypes can co-exist and form stable contact zones or not. In autopolyploids, heteroploid cross-compatibilities might depend on parental ploidy, but tests of this hypothesis in autopolyploid systems with more than two ploidies are lacking. Here, we study Jacobaea carniolica, which comprises diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid individuals regularly forming contact zones. Seeds obtained from in situ cross-pollinations within and among cytotypes were subjected to DNA flow cytometry and greenhouse germination experiments. Hybrid fitness and parental effects on hybrid fitness were tested with regression models comparing fitness parameters of early life stages. Irrespective of the direction of crosses, seed viability and seedling survival in diploid-polyploid crosses were substantially lower than in tetraploid-hexaploid crosses. In contrast, seedling growth traits indicated neither transgressive character expression nor any selection against hybrid offspring. Congruent with a model of genome dosage effects, these traits differed between reciprocal crosses, especially of diploids and tetraploids, where trait values resembled those of the maternal parent. The strong effect of parental ploidy on offspring fitness in heteroploid crosses may cause contact zones involving exclusively polyploid cytotypes to be less stable over longer terms than those involving diploids and polyploids. PMID:24265735

  11. Parental instrumental feeding, negative affect, and binge eating among overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B

    2015-04-01

    Parental instrumental feeding (i.e., rewarding children with food for perceived correct behaviors and punishing by taking away food for perceived incorrect behaviors) and negative affect are independently associated with binge eating in adulthood. However, less is known about interactions between these variables and binge eating. This study examined the relationship of retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and negative affect to binge eating. Participants were 165 overweight and obese undergraduate students at a large Mid-Atlantic University. High parental instrumental feeding strengthened the relationship between negative affect and binge eating. Also, individuals who reported low parental feeding practices reported similar binge eating regardless of negative affect. These findings suggest that overweight and obese individuals whose parents used more instrumental feeding practices are most likely to engage in binge eating in response to negative affect. PMID:25682364

  12. Leaf damage and gender but not flower damage affect female fitness in Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C

    2007-03-01

    Researchers can answer questions about the evolution or maintenance of separate sexes using dioecious plant systems. Because females in these species typically put more resources into reproductive effort than male plants, researchers have hypothesized that females may be less tolerant of the stresses found in marginal habitats. Herbivory can act as a biotic stressor that reduces resources in plants much like a marginal habitat can. Females may be limited by resources, and may thus be less tolerant to herbivory than males. Here, I explore the relationships between florivory, leaf herbivory, and gender in a gynodioecious, annual plant, Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae, senso lato). I performed a crossed design experiment examining the main effects and interactions of plant gender, artificial leaf damage, and artificial flower damage on components of female plant fitness. Leaf damage decreased fruit set and females made significantly more fruit than hermaphrodites. However, contrary to theory, I found little evidence for a gender by damage interaction for either type of artificial herbivory. Based on these results, I propose more work exploring the effects of both source and sink damage in dioecious species to help elucidate where and when different sexual morphs are favored by natural selection. PMID:21636414

  13. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  14. Elevated Preattentive Affective Processing in Individuals with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Hooley, Jill M.; Dahlgren, Mary K.; Gönenc, Atilla; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Gruber, Staci A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotion dysregulation is central to the clinical conceptualization of borderline personality disorder (BPD), with individuals often displaying instability in mood and intense feelings of negative affect. Although existing data suggest important neural and behavioral differences in the emotion processing of individuals with BPD, studies thus far have only explored reactions to overt emotional information. Therefore, it is unclear if BPD-related emotional hypersensitivity extends to stimuli presented below the level of conscious awareness (preattentively). Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure neural responses to happy, angry, fearful, and neutral faces presented preattentively, using a backward masked affect paradigm. Given their tendency toward emotional hyperreactivity and altered amygdala and frontal activation, we hypothesized that individuals with BPD would demonstrate a distinct pattern of fMRI responses relative to those without BPD during the viewing of masked affective versus neutral faces in specific regions of interests (ROIs). Results: Results indicated that individuals with BPD demonstrated increases in frontal, cingulate, and amygdalar activation represented by number of voxels activated and demonstrated a different pattern of activity within the ROIs relative to those without BPD while viewing masked affective versus neutral faces. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in addition to the previously documented heightened responses to overt displays of emotion, individuals with BPD also demonstrate differential responses to positive and negative emotions, early in the processing stream, even before conscious awareness. PMID:26696932

  15. Exercise training of late-pregnant and nonpregnant dairy cows affects physical fitness and acid-base homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J A; Beede, D K

    2009-02-01

    The objective was to determine if exercise training improves physical fitness of nonlactating, late-pregnant and nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows and alters acid-base homeostasis during an exercise test on a treadmill. Twenty-six pairs (each pair having 1 late-pregnant and 1 nonpregnant) of cows were assigned to treatments of exercise training or no exercise. Exercise training was walking (1.25 to 1.5 h at 3.25 km/h) every other day in an outdoor mechanical walker for 70 d. Cows completed treadmill exercise tests on d 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment or about d 70, 40, and 10 before expected parturition of the pregnant cow of each pair. On d 0, physical fitness was similar among all cows based on durations of treadmill tests, heart rates, and acid-base measurements at given workloads (21.1 +/- 0.6 min; 144 +/- 2.2 beats per min; plasma lactate 3.1 +/- 1.9 mmol/L; and venous blood pH 7.44 +/- 0.0035, respectively). After 60 d of training, exercised cows walked longer during treadmill exercise tests compared with nonexercised cows (23.7 vs. 18.3 +/- 0.85 min, respectively), indicating greater physical fitness (pooled across pregnancy status). Heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations at given workloads were less (144 vs. 156 +/- 2.7 beats per min; and 1.4 vs. 3.2 +/- 0.24 mmol/L for exercised compared with nonexercised cows, respectively). Additionally, exercised cows more effectively maintained acid-base homeostasis during treadmill tests compared with nonexercised cows. Metabolic, endocrine, and nutritional demands associated with late pregnancy did not affect responses differently to exercise training for late-pregnant compared with nonpregnant cows. Overall, exercise training of late-pregnant and nonpregnant cows for 60 d improved physical fitness. PMID:19164665

  16. High-Precision Fitting Measurements of the Kinetics of Size Changes during Germination of Individual Bacillus Spores

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jintao; Zhang, Pengfei; Setlow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High-precision measurements of size changes of individual bacterial spores based on ellipse fitting to bright-field images recorded with a digital camera were employed to monitor the germination of Bacillus spores with a precision of ∼5 nm. To characterize the germination of individual spores, we recorded bright-field and phase-contrast images and found that the timing of changes in their normalized intensities coincided, so the bright-field images can be used to characterize spore size and refractility changes during germination. The major conclusions from this work were as follows. (i) The sizes of germinating B. cereus spores were nearly unchanged until Trelease, the time of the completion of CaDPA (a 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid [DPA]) release after addition of nutrient germinants. (ii) The minor axis of germinating B. cereus spores rapidly increased by ∼50 nm in a few seconds right after Trelease, while the major axis was slightly decreased or unchanged. Both the minor and major axes remained unchanged for a further 30 to 45 s and then increased by 100 to 200 nm by Tlys, the time of completion of cortex lysis. (iii) Individual spores in a population showed significant heterogeneity in the timing of germination events, such as Trelease and Tlys, but also variation in size changes during germination. (iv) Bacillus subtilis wild-type spores, B. subtilis spores lacking the cortex-lytic enzyme CwlJ, and wild-type Bacillus megaterium spores showed similar kinetics of size changes during nutrient germination. The size increases in germinating spores probably result from uptake of water and cortex lysis after completion of CaDPA release. PMID:24837375

  17. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  18. The phytoestrogen prunetin affects body composition and improves fitness and lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Piegholdt, Stefanie; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-01

    Dietary isoflavones, a group of secondary plant compounds that exhibit phytoestrogenic properties, are primarily found in soy. Prunetin, a representative isoflavone, was recently found to affect cell signaling in cultured cells; however, in vivo effects remain elusive. In this study, the model organism Drosophila melanogaster was used to investigate the effects of prunetin in vivo with respect to lifespan, locomotion, body composition, metabolism, and gut health. Adult flies were chronically administered a prunetin-supplemented diet. Prunetin improved median survival by 3 d, and climbing activity increased by 54% in males. In comparison with the females, male flies exhibited lower climbing activity, which was reversed by prunetin intake. Furthermore, prunetin-fed males exhibited increased expression of the longevity gene Sirtuin 1 (Sir2) (22%), as well as elevated AMPK activation (51%) and triglyceride levels (29%), whereas glucose levels decreased (36%). As females are long-lived compared with their male counterparts and exhibit higher triglyceride levels, prunetin apparently "feminizes" male flies via its estrogenicity. We conclude that the lifespan-prolonging effects of prunetin in the male fruit fly depend on changes in AMPK-regulated energy homeostasis via male "feminization." Collectively, we identified prunetin as a plant bioactive compound capable of improving health status and survival in male D. melanogaster. PMID:26538555

  19. Sex Differences in Affective Expression Among Individuals with Psychometrically Defined Schizotypy: Diagnostic Implications.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan C; Ragsdale, Katie A; Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Beidel, Deborah C; Cassisi, Jeffrey E

    2015-09-01

    The present investigation uses facial electromyography (fEMG) to measure patterns of affective expression in individuals with psychometrically defined schizotypy during presentation of neutral and negative visual images. Twenty-eight individuals with elevated schizotypal features and 20 healthy controls observed a series of images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) and provided self-report ratings of affective valence and arousal while their physiological responses were recorded. The groups were evenly divided by sex. A three-way interaction in fEMG measurement revealed that while males with psychometrically defined schizotypy demonstrated the expected pattern of blunted/constricted facial affective expression relative to male controls in the context of negative images, females displayed the opposite pattern. That is, females with psychometrically defined schizotypy demonstrated significant elevations in negative facial affective expression relative to female controls while viewing negative images. We argue that these findings corroborate previously reported impressions of sex differences in affective expression in schizotypy. We discuss implications for assessment and diagnostic procedures among individuals with disorders along the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:25931249

  20. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life. PMID:26738981

  1. Emotional Intelligence: A Theoretical Framework for Individual Differences in Affective Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally-evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed. PMID:22251053

  2. Individual differences in vagal regulation moderate associations between daily affect and daily couple interactions.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M; Hicks, Angela M; Otter-Henderson, Kimberly D

    2011-06-01

    Previous research suggests that cardiac vagal regulation (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia, or RSA) provides a physiological substrate for affect regulation, which presumably underlies adaptive interpersonal functioning.The authors tested these associations in the context of daily interactions between 68 cohabiting couples. Participants underwent a laboratory assessment of RSA during rest and also during a series of psychological stressors. Subsequently, they kept daily measures of affect and interaction quality for 21 days. Individual differences in baseline and stress levels of RSA moderated within-person associations between daily affect and the quality of couple interactions. The pattern of results differed for women versus men. Men with lower vagal tone or higher vagal reactivity had stronger associations between daily negative affect and daily negative interactions, and men with higher vagal tone had more positive daily interactions overall. Women with higher vagal tone had stronger associations between daily positive affect and daily positive interactions. PMID:21393615

  3. Individual and Technological Factors Affecting Undergraduates' Use of Mobile Technology in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olufunmilola Ogulande, Oyeronke; Oladimeji Olafare, Festus; Ayuba Sakaba, Dabo

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation and utilization of handheld mobile technology among undergraduates for mobile learning cannot be underestimated. This study was geared towards investigating individual and technological factors affecting the perceived usefulness of mobile technology by undergraduates in university of Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive…

  4. Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarpkaya, Ruhi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

  5. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  6. Correlates of lifetime suicide attempts among individuals with affective disorders in a Chinese rural community.

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Xiang, Meng-Ze; Li, Jie; Huang, Jian; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Conwell, Yeates

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with affective disorders who had attempted suicide at some time in their lives and those who had not made a suicide attempt. In a Chinese rural community, individuals with suicide attempt (N = 30) and those without suicide attempt (N = 166) were assessed with Present State Examination (PSE). Attempters had a significantly higher level of family economic status, higher rate of lifetime depressed mood and hopelessness, and delusions than nonattempters. The logistic regression models also indicated that depressed mood and hopelessness were the most important predictors of suicide attempts. No significant difference in treatment condition was found between attempters and non-attempters. Early identification and interventions focusing on reducing depressed mood, hopelessness, and controlling psychotic symptoms may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide attempts among individuals with affective disorders residing in the community. PMID:17178647

  7. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  8. The protection of individuals affected with Specific Learning Disorders in the Italian Legislation.

    PubMed

    Feola, A; Marino, V; Masullo, A; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) affect specific abilities in individuals with an otherwise normal academic development. Among Italian School population, their reported prevalence is between 2.5% and 3.5%. Dysfunctions at the base of these disorders interfere with the normal acquisition process of reading, writing and/or mathematical abilities, leading to various degrees of adjustment difficulties in the affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the support that Italian Government offers to its citizens affected with SLDs, with a particular focus on assistance during the school-age years, particularly through the introduction of the Law 170/2010 and successive guidelines, supplementing the existing regulations to offer more efficient means and legal instruments aimed at achieving earlier diagnoses. PMID:26152629

  9. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  10. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  11. Aminoglycoside resistance 16S rRNA methyltransferases block endogenous methylation, affect translation efficiency and fitness of the host

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Goussard, Sylvie; Guerineau, Vincent; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Courvalin, Patrice; Galimand, Marc; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferases ArmA and NpmA confer high-level resistance to all clinically useful aminoglycosides by modifying, respectively, G1405 and A1408 in the A-site. These enzymes must coexist with several endogenous methyltransferases that are essential for fine-tuning of the decoding center, such as RsmH and RsmI in Escherichia coli, which methylate C1402 and RsmF C1407. The resistance methyltransferases have a contrasting distribution—ArmA has spread worldwide, whereas a single clinical isolate producing NpmA has been reported. The rate of dissemination of resistance depends on the fitness cost associated with its expression. We have compared ArmA and NpmA in isogenic Escherichia coli harboring the corresponding structural genes and their inactive point mutants cloned under the control of their native constitutive promoter in the stable plasmid pGB2. Growth rate determination and competition experiments showed that ArmA had a fitness cost due to methylation of G1405, whereas NpmA conferred only a slight disadvantage to the host due to production of the enzyme. MALDI MS indicated that ArmA impeded one of the methylations at C1402 by RsmI, and not at C1407 as previously proposed, whereas NpmA blocked the activity of RsmF at C1407. A dual luciferase assay showed that methylation at G1405 and A1408 and lack of methylation at C1407 affect translation accuracy. These results indicate that resistance methyltransferases impair endogenous methylation with different consequences on cell fitness. PMID:24398977

  12. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  13. Phenotypic and Evolutionary Consequences of Social Behaviours: Interactions among Individuals Affect Direct Genetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Trubenová, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

    2012-01-01

    Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation. PMID:23226195

  14. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  15. Inclusive fitness in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kiers, E Toby; Denison, R Ford

    2014-05-19

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  16. Positive Affect Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Individuals without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martín-María, Natalia; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Haro, Josep Maria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have analyzed the relation between well-being and mortality but none of them have attempted to disentangle the differential influence that positive affect, negative affect, and evaluative well-being might have on mortality using a longitudinal design in the general population and measuring independently and accurately each component of well-being. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of these well-being components with mortality after adjusting for health and other lifestyle factors and to analyze whether this association is different in people with and without depression. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 4753 people from Spain was followed up after 3 years. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models among the total sample and separately in people with and without depression. Results: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality. However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73–1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68–0.99]. Conclusion: Positive affect is inversely associated with mortality in individuals without depression. Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect. PMID:27462289

  17. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  18. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  19. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  20. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  1. You can't drink a word: lexical and individual emotionality affect subjective familiarity judgments.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris

    2014-10-01

    For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity. PMID:24061785

  2. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  3. Patterns and Predictors of Changes in Substance Use in Individuals with Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Melanie E.; Brown, Clayton H.; Peer, Jason; Li, Lan; Bellack, Alan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined patterns and predictors of changes in substance use over one year in individuals with schizophrenia and affective disorders. We examined patterns of cocaine use over time, baseline predictors of continued cocaine use over one year, and predictors of transitions into and out of drug use and treatment. Methods We recruited 240 individuals with schizophrenia and affective disorders who met DSM-IV criteria for current cocaine dependence or cocaine dependence in early full or sustained full remission, and assessed them five times over twelve months. Results There was no change over time in either the proportion of the sample with at least one day of cocaine use in the past month or in the average number of days of cocaine use among those who reported any use. Baseline variables tapping actual substance use were found to predict a decreased likelihood of cocaine use. Several variables tapping actual substance use – including self- reported use of cocaine, positive urinalysis for marijuana, and positive urinalysis for cocaine – were predictive of transitions into and out of outpatient substance abuse treatment. Readiness to change variables such as self-efficacy and temptation to use drugs showed different predictive patterns for the schizophrenia and affective disorder groups. Conclusions These findings illustrate how drug use may show a cyclical pattern for those with serious mental illness, in which more severe use - characterized by greater frequency of use and associated problems - is followed by decreased use over time. PMID:22518096

  4. Workplace support, discrimination, and person-organization fit: tests of the theory of work adjustment with LGB individuals.

    PubMed

    Velez, Brandon L; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-07-01

    The present study explored the links of 2 workplace contextual variables--perceptions of workplace heterosexist discrimination and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)-supportive climates--with job satisfaction and turnover intentions in a sample of LGB employees. An extension of the theory of work adjustment (TWA) was used as the conceptual framework for the study; as such, perceived person-organization (P-O) fit was tested as a mediator of the relations between the workplace contextual variables and job outcomes. Data were analyzed from 326 LGB employees. Zero-order correlations indicated that perceptions of workplace heterosexist discrimination and LGB-supportive climates were correlated in expected directions with P-O fit, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare multiple alternative measurement models evaluating the discriminant validity of the 2 workplace contextual variables relative to one another, and the 3 TWA job variables relative to one another; SEM was also used to test the hypothesized mediation model. Comparisons of multiple alternative measurement models supported the construct distinctiveness of the variables of interest. The test of the hypothesized structural model revealed that only LGB-supportive climates (and not workplace heterosexist discrimination) had a unique direct positive link with P-O fit and, through the mediating role of P-O fit, had significant indirect positive and negative relations with job satisfaction and turnover intentions, respectively. Moreover, P-O fit had a significant indirect negative link with turnover intentions through job satisfaction. PMID:22642266

  5. CACNA1C risk variant affects reward responsiveness in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T M; Heerey, E A; Mantripragada, K; Linden, D E J

    2014-01-01

    The variant at rs1006737 in the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (alpha 1c subunit) CACNA1C gene is reliably associated with both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. We investigated whether this risk variant affects reward responsiveness because reward processing is one of the central cognitive-motivational domains implicated in both disorders. In a sample of 164 young, healthy individuals, we show a dose-dependent response, where the rs1006737 risk genotype was associated with blunted reward responsiveness, whereas discriminability did not significantly differ between genotype groups. This finding suggests that the CACNA1C risk locus may have a role in neural pathways that facilitate value representation for rewarding stimuli. Impaired reward processing may be a transdiagnostic phenotype of variation in CACNA1C that could contribute to anhedonia and other clinical features common to both affective and psychotic disorders. PMID:25290268

  6. Hamilton's rule, inclusive fitness maximization, and the goal of individual behaviour in symmetric two-player games.

    PubMed

    Okasha, S; Martens, J

    2016-03-01

    Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off parameters. This article examines whether one of the key components of Hamilton's original theory can be preserved when the rule is generalized to the nonadditive case in this way, namely that evolved organisms will behave as if trying to maximize their inclusive fitness in social encounters. PMID:26679493

  7. Biases for affective versus sexual content in multidimensional scaling analysis: an individual difference perspective.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Moholy, Maxwell; Staley, Cameron

    2014-04-01

    Visual sexual stimuli can motivate sexual behaviors that can risk or enhance health. How one allocates attention to a sexually motivating stimulus may be important for predicting its effect on sexual feelings, sexual risk behaviors, and sexual problems. A large sample (N = 157) of men and women rated the similarity of all possible pairs of photographs of women, which had been pretested to vary in their sexual and affective content. Multidimensional scaling was used to extract two dimensions of sex and affect, including the extent to which each person relied on each dimension in making their similarity judgments. These individual weights were then used to predict sexual variables of interest. Participants who relied more on the affect information judging photograph similarity were more likely to be female, viewed erotica less frequently, reported fewer sexual partners, reported less sexual desire, and more sexual problems. Those who relied more on the erotic content in making their similarity judgments were more likely to be male, viewed more erotica weekly, experienced higher sexual desire, and were more likely to have taken an HIV test. The "double edge sword" of attention weight to affect in sexual cues is discussed for its potential to both enhance and harm sexual health. PMID:23835845

  8. Effect of Improved Fitness beyond Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes in the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Brancati, Frederick L.; Chen, Haiying; Coday, Mace; Jakicic, John M.; Lewis, Cora; Stewart, Kerry J.; Clark, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because lifestyle-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors vary substantially across individuals with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the extent to which increases in fitness explain cardiovascular risk factor improvements independent of weight loss in a lifestyle intervention. Methods We studied 1-year changes in Look AHEAD, a randomized trial comparing an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) to a diabetes support and education control group (DSE) in adults with type 2 diabetes. Assessments included weight, fitness, blood pressure (BP), glucose, HbA1c, and lipids. We evaluated the effects of changes in weight and fitness on changes in cardiovascular risk factors by study arm, using R2 from multiple linear regression. Results Analyses included participants with fitness data at baseline and 1-year (n=4,408; 41% male, 36% non-White, mean age 58.7± 6.8 years). Weight change alone improved R2 for explaining changes in risk factors up to 8.2% in ILI and 1.7% in DSE. Fitness change alone improved R2 up to 3.9% in ILI and 0.8% in DSE. After adjusting for weight change, fitness was independently associated (p<0.05) with improvements in R2 for glucose (+0.7%), HbA1c (+1.1 %), HDL cholesterol (+0.4%) and triglycerides (+0.2%) in ILI and DBP (+0.3%), glucose (+0.3%), HbA1c (+0.4%), and triglycerides (+0.1%) in DSE. Taken together, weight and fitness changes explained from 0.1–9.3% of the variability in cardiovascular risk factor changes. Conclusion Increased fitness explained statistically significant but small improvements in several cardiovascular risk factors beyond weight loss. Further research identifying other factors that explain cardiovascular risk factor change is needed. PMID:23012688

  9. Performance level affects the dietary supplement intake of both individual and team sports athletes.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Noutsos, Kostantinos; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Bayios, Ioannis; Nassis, George P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement (DS) intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62) between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775) and team sports (n = 2008). To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44%) compared to team sport athletes (35%) (p < 0.001). Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations. Key points37% of Mediterranean athletes of various sports and levels have reported taking dietary supplements.The performance level of the athletes affects the dietary supplementation intake.Athletes in individual sports appear to have a higher DS intake compared to team sport athletes.Male athletes appear to take more dietary supplements compared to female athletes. PMID:24149744

  10. Genomic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease in five families with multiple affected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stittrich, Anna B; Ashworth, Justin; Shi, Mude; Robinson, Max; Mauldin, Denise; Brunkow, Mary E; Biswas, Shameek; Kim, Jin-Man; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Jung, Jae U; Galas, David; Serikawa, Kyle; Duerr, Richard H; Guthery, Stephen L; Peschon, Jacques; Hood, Leroy; Roach, Jared C; Glusman, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the best clinical predictor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is family history. Over 163 sequence variants have been associated with IBD in genome-wide association studies, but they have weak effects and explain only a fraction of the observed heritability. It is expected that additional variants contribute to the genomic architecture of IBD, possibly including rare variants with effect sizes larger than the identified common variants. Here we applied a family study design and sequenced 38 individuals from five families, under the hypothesis that families with multiple IBD-affected individuals harbor one or more risk variants that (i) are shared among affected family members, (ii) are rare and (iii) have substantial effect on disease development. Our analysis revealed not only novel candidate risk variants but also high polygenic risk scores for common known risk variants in four out of the five families. Functional analysis of our top novel variant in the remaining family, a rare missense mutation in the ubiquitin ligase TRIM11, suggests that it leads to increased nuclear factor of kappa light chain enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling. We conclude that an accumulation of common weak-effect variants accounts for the high incidence of IBD in most, but not all families we analyzed and that a family study design can identify novel rare variants conferring risk for IBD with potentially large effect size, such as the TRIM11 p.H414Y mutation. PMID:27081563

  11. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  12. Considerations on assisted resilience and individualized therapy in bipolar affective disorder, with a clinical case exemplification

    PubMed Central

    BOLOS, ALEXANDRA

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and economic consequences of bipolar affective disorder are very important to be evaluated because many of the costs entailed by this psychiatric disorder come from indirect costs due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment and from the characteristics of the affective symptoms itself. Psychotherapy focuses on diagnosis and the newest pharmacotherapy determines a decreasing of the morbidity of the disorder and also of its social and economic burden. However, more studies are necessary, with more heterogeneous patients, to find more predictors regarding the psychosocial consequences and to find more information about the prognosis of the bipolar disorder. In this context, in this paper we discuss the role of assisted resilience and the individualization of the therapy of bipolar affective disorder, especially that the resilience must be seen as a continuum and can be used anytime and in any situation, according to the theory of Geanellos. This idea is reflected in a case presentation of a patient with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. PMID:26733744

  13. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    PubMed

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  14. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  15. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  16. Exome Sequencing of 75 Individuals from Multiply Affected Coeliac Families and Large Scale Resequencing Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Vanisha; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Levine, Adam P.; Mirza, Muddassar M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Ciclitira, Paul J.; Hummerich, Holger; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Simpson, Michael A.; Plagnol, Vincent; van Heel, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CeD) is a highly heritable common autoimmune disease involving chronic small intestinal inflammation in response to dietary wheat. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and 40 newer regions identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and dense fine mapping, account for ∼40% of the disease heritability. We hypothesized that in pedigrees with multiple individuals with CeD rare [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%] mutations of larger effect size (odds ratios of ∼ 2–5) might exist. We sequenced the exomes of 75 coeliac individuals of European ancestry from 55 multiply affected families. We selected interesting variants and genes for further follow up using a combination of: an assessment of shared variants between related subjects, a model-free linkage test, and gene burden tests for multiple, potentially causal, variants. We next performed highly multiplexed amplicon resequencing of all RefSeq exons from 24 candidate genes selected on the basis of the exome sequencing data in 2,248 unrelated coeliac cases and 2,230 controls. 1,335 variants with a 99.9% genotyping call rate were observed in 4,478 samples, of which 939 were present in coding regions of 24 genes (Ti/Tv 2.99). 91.7% of coding variants were rare (MAF <0.5%) and 60% were novel. Gene burden tests performed on rare functional variants identified no significant associations (p<1×10−3) in the resequenced candidate genes. Our strategy of sequencing multiply affected families with deep follow up of candidate genes has not identified any new CeD risk mutations. PMID:25635822

  17. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  18. Effects of the therapist's nonverbal behavior on participation and affect of individuals with Alzheimer's disease during group music therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21275336

  19. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  20. Does the Shoe Fit? Ethical, Legal, and Policy Considerations of Global Positioning System Shoes for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Tony; Kels, Charles G

    2016-08-01

    As the overall incidence of Alzheimer's disease rises, the burden on caregivers and law enforcement institutions will increase to find individuals who wander. As such, technological innovations that could reduce this burden will become increasingly important. One such innovation is the GPS Shoe. As with any innovation involving the transfer of personal data to third parties, potential pitfalls with respect to loss of privacy and inadequate consent counterbalance the substantial promise of GPS shoes. To some extent, advance planning can mitigate these concerns, wherein individuals willingly elect to be monitored before their impairments progress to a stage that makes such authorization impractical. Nonetheless, tension may arise between the peace of mind of caregivers and family members and other important considerations at the intersection of autonomy, privacy, dignity, and consent. Ultimately, confronting ethical, legal, and policy considerations at the front end of product development and deployment will help ensure that new technologies are used wisely and that their lifesaving potential is realized. PMID:27394035

  1. Quantum Derivative Fitting and Biomolecular Force Fields: Functional Form, Coupling Terms, Charge Flux, Nonbond Anharmonicity, and Individual Dihedral Potentials.

    PubMed

    Hagler, A T

    2015-12-01

    Computer simulations are increasingly prevalent, complementing experimental studies in all fields of biophysics, chemistry, and materials. Their utility, however, is critically dependent on the validity of the underlying force fields employed. In this Perspective we review the ability of quantum mechanics, and in particular analytical ab initio derivatives, to inform on the nature of intra- and intermolecular interactions. The power inherent in the exploitation of forces and second derivatives (Hessians) to derive force fields for a variety of compound types, including inorganic, organic, and biomolecules, is explored. We discuss the use of these quantities along with QM energies and geometries to determine force constants, including nonbond and electrostatic parameters, and to assess the functional form of the energy surface. The latter includes the optimal form of out-of-plane interactions and the necessity for anharmonicity, and terms to account for coupling between internals, to adequately represent the energy of intramolecular deformations. In addition, individual second derivatives of the energy with respect to selected interaction coordinates, such as interatomic distances or individual dihedral angles, have been shown to select out for the corresponding interactions, annihilating other interactions in the potential expression. Exploitation of these quantities allows one to probe the individual interaction and explore phenomena such as, for example, anisotropy of atom-atom nonbonded interactions, charge flux, or the functional form of isolated dihedral angles, e.g., a single dihedral X-C-C-Y about a tetrahedral C-C bond. PMID:26642978

  2. Motivations for Self-Injury, Affect, and Impulsivity: A Comparison of Individuals with Current Self-Injury to Individuals with a History of Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julia; Peterson, Claire M.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) are characterized by the tendency to act rashly while experiencing distress (negative urgency), the tendency to act without thinking, and endorsement of both social and affect regulation motives for the behavior. However, very little research has identified characteristics that distinguish…

  3. Individual Differences in School Mathematics Performance and Feelings of Difficulty: The Effects of Cognitive Ability, Affect, Age, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia; Papadaki, Maria; Papantoniou, Georgia; Kiosseoglou, Gregoris

    1999-01-01

    Explores possible individual differences effects on school mathematics performance and feelings of difficulty (FOD) of 243 subjects, ages 13 to 15 years. Considers cognitive ability, affect, age, and gender. Finds that ability directly influenced performance whereas both ability and affect influenced FOD. Discusses the results. (CMK)

  4. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend et al. (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  5. Affective associations and cognitive beliefs relate to individuals' decisions to perform testicular or breast self-exams.

    PubMed

    Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2015-08-01

    Affective associations with behavioral practices play an important role in individuals' uptake of a variety of health behaviors. Most work has looked at individual behavioral practices with a direct impact on health; because screening behaviors are conceptually distinct from such behaviors, it is important to examine the interplay of affect and cognition in screening decision making. The current research explored affective and cognitive predictors of testicular and breast self-examination behavior. Young adult participants (N = 184) reported cognitive beliefs and affective associations with testicular self-exam behavior (male participants) and breast self-exam behavior (female participants) and reported their own current screening behavior. In univariable models, affective associations were related to screening behavior for both testicular self-exams and breast self-exams. When examining affective associations and cognitive beliefs as simultaneous predictors, affective associations (but not cognitive beliefs) predicted testicular self-exams, and neither affective associations nor cognitive beliefs were uniquely related to breast self-exams. Moreover, for testicular self-exams, affective associations mediated the relation between cognitive beliefs and screening behavior; no mediation was present for breast self-exam behavior. These findings suggest three potential outcomes: first, that greater consideration of affective associations in testicular self-exam screening decisions may be warranted; second, that breast and testicular self-exams may have different antecedents; and third, that incorporation of affective factors in intervention design might have merit for increasing engagement in some cancer screening behaviors. PMID:25851610

  6. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents[1]. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries) or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK). In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD) age: 61.5(4.4) years, 9 male) were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p < 0.001) compared to when participants were sober (156 ± 16 ms). Biceps femoris response times were significantly delayed from BACs of 0.035% onwards and were strongly associated with increasing levels of BAC (r = 0.6; p < 0.001). These delays had important behavioural consequences. Chances of hitting the obstacle were doubled with increased BACs. Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle

  7. Memory Load Affects Object Individuation in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Accurate representation of a changing environment requires individuation--the ability to determine how many numerically distinct objects are present in a scene. Much research has characterized early individuation abilities by identifying which object features infants can use to individuate throughout development. However, despite the fact that…

  8. Therapeutic electric stimulation does not affect immune status in healthy individuals – a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electric stimulation is widely used for muscle strengthening in clinical practice and for preventative purposes. However, there are few reports on the effects of electric stimulation on the immune response of the organism, and even those mainly describe the changes observed immediately after the electrotherapeutic procedures. The objective of our study was to examine the possible immunological consequences of moderate low-frequency transcutaneous neuromuscular electric stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening in healthy individuals. Methods The study included 10 healthy volunteers (5 males, 5 females, mean age 37.5 years). At the beginning and after a two-week electric stimulation program, muscle strength was measured and peripheral blood was collected to analyse white blood cells by flow cytometry for the expression of cell surface antigens (CD3, CD19, CD4, CD8, CD4/8, DR/3, NK, Th reg, CD25 + CD3+, CD25 + CD4+, CD25 + CD8+, CD69 + CD3+, CD69 + CD4+, CD69 + CD8+) and phagocytosis/oxidative killing function. Results Muscle strength slightly increased after the program on the dominant and the nondominant side. No statistically or clinically significant difference was found in any of the measured blood and immune cells parameters as well as phagocytosis and oxidative burst function of neutrophil granulocytes and monocytes one day after the program. Conclusions The program of transcutaneous low-frequency electric stimulation slightly strengthened the quadriceps femoris muscle while producing no changes in measured immunological parameters. Hence, therapeutic low-frequency electric stimulation appears not to be affecting the immune response of healthy persons. PMID:22839574

  9. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  10. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success. PMID:23163395

  11. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p < .001) and hip (p < .01) circumference,, trunk and leg fat mass (FM; p < .01) and an increase in trunk and leg fat free mass (FFM; p < .01) and cardiovascular fitness (VO2max in ml/kg/min; p < .001) with exercise. However, no significant differences were observed between groups. There was no significant change in RMR, RER, nonexercise PA levels, fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals. PMID:26479856

  13. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant.

    PubMed

    Sedinger, James S; Schamber, Jason L; Ward, David H; Nicolai, Christopher A; Conant, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California-Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)-and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997-1998 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997-1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding. PMID:22030737

  14. Carryover effects associated with winter location affect fitness, social status, and population dynamics in a long-distance migrant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Schamber, Jason L.; Ward, David H.; Nicolai, Christopher A.; Conant, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We used observations of individually marked female black brant geese (Branta bernicla nigricans; brant) at three wintering lagoons on the Pacific coast of Baja California—Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and Bahía San Quintín (BSQ)—and the Tutakoke River breeding colony in Alaska to assess hypotheses about carryover effects on breeding and distribution of individuals among wintering areas. We estimated transition probabilities from wintering locations to breeding and nonbreeding by using multistratum robust-design capture-mark-recapture models. We also examined the effect of breeding on migration to wintering areas to assess the hypothesis that individuals in family groups occupied higher-quality wintering locations. We used 4,538 unique female brant in our analysis of the relationship between winter location and breeding probability. All competitive models of breeding probability contained additive effects of wintering location and the 1997–1998 El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event on probability of breeding. Probability of breeding in non-ENSO years was 0.98 ± 0.02, 0.68 ± 0.04, and 0.91 ± 0.11 for females wintering at BSQ, LOL, and LSI, respectively. After the 1997–1998 ENSO event, breeding probability was between 2% (BSQ) and 38% (LOL) lower than in other years. Individuals that bred had the highest probability of migrating the next fall to the wintering area producing the highest probability of breeding.

  15. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  16. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  17. Evolution of social versus individual learning in a subdivided population revisited: comparative analysis of three coexistence mechanisms using the inclusive-fitness method.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-03-01

    Learning abilities are categorized into social (learning from others) and individual learning (learning on one's own). Despite the typically higher cost of individual learning, there are mechanisms that allow stable coexistence of both learning modes in a single population. In this paper, we investigate by means of mathematical modeling how the effect of spatial structure on evolutionary outcomes of pure social and individual learning strategies depends on the mechanisms for coexistence. We model a spatially structured population based on the infinite-island framework and consider three scenarios that differ in coexistence mechanisms. Using the inclusive-fitness method, we derive the equilibrium frequency of social learners and the genetic load of social learning (defined as average fecundity reduction caused by the presence of social learning) in terms of some summary statistics, such as relatedness, for each of the three scenarios and compare the results. This comparative analysis not only reconciles previous models that made contradictory predictions as to the effect of spatial structure on the equilibrium frequency of social learners but also derives a simple mathematical rule that determines the sign of the genetic load (i.e. whether or not social learning contributes to the mean fecundity of the population). PMID:24374238

  18. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  19. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  20. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  1. How the spatial position of individuals affects their influence on swarms: a numerical comparison of two popular swarm dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Kolpas, Allison; Busch, Michael; Li, Hong; Couzin, Iain D; Petzold, Linda; Moehlis, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Schools of fish and flocks of birds are examples of self-organized animal groups that arise through social interactions among individuals. We numerically study two individual-based models, which recent empirical studies have suggested to explain self-organized group animal behavior: (i) a zone-based model where the group communication topology is determined by finite interacting zones of repulsion, attraction, and orientation among individuals; and (ii) a model where the communication topology is described by Delaunay triangulation, which is defined by each individual's Voronoi neighbors. The models include a tunable parameter that controls an individual's relative weighting of attraction and alignment. We perform computational experiments to investigate how effectively simulated groups transfer information in the form of velocity when an individual is perturbed. A cross-correlation function is used to measure the sensitivity of groups to sudden perturbations in the heading of individual members. The results show how relative weighting of attraction and alignment, location of the perturbed individual, population size, and the communication topology affect group structure and response to perturbation. We find that in the Delaunay-based model an individual who is perturbed is capable of triggering a cascade of responses, ultimately leading to the group changing direction. This phenomenon has been seen in self-organized animal groups in both experiments and nature. PMID:23555585

  2. Estimating Annual Individual Doses for Evacuees Returning Home to Areas Affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Osamu; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Takada, Masashi; Omori, Yasutaka; Akahane, Keiichi; Kim, Eunjoo; Torikoshi, Masami; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    To contribute to the reconstruction and revitalization of Fukushima Prefecture following the 2011 nuclear power disaster, annual individual doses were estimated for evacuees who will return home to Tamura City, Kawauchi Village, and Iitate Village in Fukushima. Ambient external dose rates and individual doses obtained with personal dosimeters were measured at many residential and occupational sites throughout the study areas to obtain fundamental data needed for the estimation. The measurement results indicated that the ratio of individual dose based on a personal dosimeter to the ambient external dose measurement was 0.7 with 10% uncertainty. Multiplying the ambient external dose by 0.7 may be an appropriate measure of the effective dose to an individual in the investigated area. Annual individual doses were estimated for representative lifestyles and occupations based on the ambient external dose rates at the measurement sites, taking into account the relationship between the ambient external dose and individual dose. The results were as follows: 0.6-2.3 mSv y in Tamura, 1.1-5.5 mSv y in Kawauchi, and 3.8-17 mSv y in Iitate. For all areas investigated, the estimated dose to outdoor workers was higher than that to indoor workers. Identifying ways to reduce the amount of time that an outdoor worker spends outdoors would provide an effective measure to reduce dose. PMID:26107433

  3. Individual species affect plant traits structure in their surroundings: evidence of functional mechanisms of assembly.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Labella, Julia; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Pescador, David S; Escudero, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating community assembly through the use of functional traits is a promising tool for testing predictions arising from Niche and Coexistence theories. Although interactions among neighboring species and their inter-specific differences are known drivers of coexistence with a strong spatial signal, assessing the role of individual species on the functional structure of the community at different spatial scales remains a challenge. Here, we ask whether individual species exert a measurable effect on the spatial organization of different functional traits in local assemblages. We first propose and compute two functions that describe different aspects of functional trait organization around individual species at multiple scales: individual weighted mean area relationship and individual functional diversity area relationship. Secondly, we develop a conceptual model on the relationship and simultaneous variation of these two metrics, providing five alternative scenarios in response to the ability of some target species to modify its neighbor environment and the possible assembly mechanisms involved. Our results show that some species influence the spatial structure of specific functional traits, but their effects were always restricted to the finest spatial scales. In the basis of our conceptual model, the observed patterns point to two main mechanisms driving the functional structure of the community at the fine scale, "biotic" filtering meditated by individual species and resource partitioning driven by indirect facilitation rather than by competitive mechanisms. PMID:26820565

  4. Using heterozygosity-fitness correlations to study inbreeding depression in an isolated population of white-tailed deer founded by few individuals.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Jon E; Kekkonen, Jaana; Wikström, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    A heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) may reflect inbreeding depression, but the extent to which they do so is debated. HFCs are particularly likely to occur after demographic disturbances such as population bottleneck or admixture. We here study HFC in an introduced and isolated ungulate population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in Finland founded in 1934 by four individuals. A total of 422 ≥ 1-year-old white-tailed deer were collected in the 2012 hunting season in southern Finland and genotyped for 14 microsatellite loci. We find significant identity disequilibrium as estimated by g 2. Heterozygosity was positively associated with size- and age-corrected body mass, but not with jaw size or (in males) antler score. Because of the relatively high identity disequilibrium, heterozygosity of the marker panel explained 51% of variation in inbreeding. Inbreeding explained approximately 4% of the variation in body mass and is thus a minor, although significant source of variation in body mass in this population. The study of HFC is attractive for game- and conservation-oriented wildlife management because it presents an affordable and readily used approach for genetic monitoring that allowing identification of fitness costs associated with genetic substructuring in what may seem like a homogeneous population. PMID:25691963

  5. Using heterozygosity–fitness correlations to study inbreeding depression in an isolated population of white-tailed deer founded by few individuals

    PubMed Central

    Brommer, Jon E; Kekkonen, Jaana; Wikström, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    A heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) may reflect inbreeding depression, but the extent to which they do so is debated. HFCs are particularly likely to occur after demographic disturbances such as population bottleneck or admixture. We here study HFC in an introduced and isolated ungulate population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in Finland founded in 1934 by four individuals. A total of 422 ≥ 1-year-old white-tailed deer were collected in the 2012 hunting season in southern Finland and genotyped for 14 microsatellite loci. We find significant identity disequilibrium as estimated by g2. Heterozygosity was positively associated with size- and age-corrected body mass, but not with jaw size or (in males) antler score. Because of the relatively high identity disequilibrium, heterozygosity of the marker panel explained 51% of variation in inbreeding. Inbreeding explained approximately 4% of the variation in body mass and is thus a minor, although significant source of variation in body mass in this population. The study of HFC is attractive for game- and conservation-oriented wildlife management because it presents an affordable and readily used approach for genetic monitoring that allowing identification of fitness costs associated with genetic substructuring in what may seem like a homogeneous population. PMID:25691963

  6. A genetic polymorphism in the sex-linked ATP5A1 gene is associated with individual fitness in Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla)

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Judith D; Eggert, Lori S; Arendt, Wayne J; Faaborg, John

    2012-01-01

    While testing genetic sexing techniques in Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), we found a genetic polymorphism in the ATP5A1 gene in 38% of individuals. The Z′ allele included changes in both intronic and exonic portions of the sequenced region, but there was no evidence that this changed the resulting ATP synthase product. Males that had one or more copies of this allele had higher relative body mass (mass corrected for size) than other genotypes. This allele was unrelated to stable isotope signatures, and so was not a useful predictor of latitude within the eastern portion of the Ovenbird breeding range. Future studies are needed to determine whether this polymorphism may be a useful geographic marker. This study is the first to link polymorphisms in the sex-linked ATP5A1 gene with fitness effects. PMID:22833803

  7. Individual and community factors affecting psychological sense of community, attraction, and neighboring in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Derek

    2008-08-01

    One thousand nine hundred ninety-five individuals in 20 rural Canadian communities were measured on perceived social cohesion by the three Buckner scale subdimensions: psychological sense of community (PSOC), attraction, and neighboring. Number of household children, income over $20,000, age, birthplace in, and years lived in the community significantly positively influenced PSOC and Attraction. Number of household children (positive for income over $20,000; otherwise negative), income over $40,000, birthplace, and years in the community significantly influenced neighboring. Increased interaction generally increases individuals' social cohesion. As the only significant community variable was being on an island province, individual-oriented policies are recommended to increase cohesion. PMID:19579352

  8. Lay theories about social class buffer lower-class individuals against poor self-rated health and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. PMID:25634909

  9. Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms are associated with reduced heart rate variability in individuals with dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Benvenuti, Simone Messerotti; Buodo, Giulia; Mennella, Rocco; Palomba, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms of depression have been associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), and with poor prognosis in cardiovascular patients. However, factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases may confound the relationship between somatic symptoms of depression and reduced HRV. Therefore, this study examined whether reduced HRV was differentially associated with cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms of depression in medically healthy individuals with and without dysphoria. Methods: Self-reported cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms as measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II questionnaire and time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were collected in 62 medically healthy individuals, of whom 25 with and 37 without dysphoria. Results: Somatic, but not cognitive–affective, symptoms of depression were inversely associated with SD of NN intervals (β = -0.476, p < 0.05), number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms (NN50; β = -0.498, p < 0.03), and HRV total power (β = -0.494, p < 0.04) in the group with dysphoria, after controlling for sex, anxiety, and lifestyle factors. Cognitive–affective and somatic symptoms were not related to any of the HRV parameters in the group without dysphoria (all ps > 0.24). Conclusion: By showing that the relationship between somatic depressive symptoms and reduced HRV extends to medically healthy individuals with dysphoria, the present findings suggest that this association is independent of factors concomitant with cardiovascular diseases. The present study also suggests that individuals with somatic rather than cognitive–affective subsets of depressive symptoms may be at greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25999905

  10. Modes of Discipline: Affective Individualism and Pedagogical Reform in New England, 1820-1850.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, David

    1990-01-01

    Examines the development of the "New England pedagogy." Finds that it began in response to the materialism and ambition of Jacksonian America. It sought to cultivate the capacity for individual self-government and to counter the commercialization of the classroom. (DM)

  11. Goal conceptualization and symmetry of arm movements affect bimanual coordination in individuals after stroke.

    PubMed

    Kantak, Shailesh; McGrath, Robert; Zahedi, Nazaneen

    2016-07-28

    Coordination during goal-directed movements emerges from an interaction of task and individual constraints. It is not known how individuals with unilateral stroke and age-matched controls coordinate their arms when performing symmetric and asymmetric movements to accomplish common task goals compared to independent task goals. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke and ten age-matched controls executed a bimanual task under virtual conditions that allowed systematic manipulation of symmetry and goal conditions. Spatial and temporal bimanual coordination was characterized using the cross-correlation coefficients and time lag between the tangential velocities between the two hands. While task conditions had little effect on coordination of control participants, individuals with stroke were less coordinated in space and time during common-goal bimanual actions employing asymmetric arm movements. Further, patients demonstrated lesser contribution of their paretic arm compared to their non-paretic arm during common-goal conditions. These findings indicate that conceptualization of task goals (common vs. independent) and symmetry of arm movements influence coordination and contribution of the two hands during bimanual tasks in patients with stroke. PMID:27180035

  12. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  13. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  14. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  15. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  16. Individual and School Factors Affecting Students' Participation and Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students' achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students'…

  17. The Pedagogy of the Body: Affect and Collective Individuation in the Classroom and on the Dancefloor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in the study of popular culture has emphasized the extent to which it is not only a site of signifying practices, myths, meanings and identifications, but also an arena of intensities, of affective flows and corporeal state-changes. From this perspective, many areas of popular culture (from calisthenics to social dance to video…

  18. Exploring Factors Affecting Students' Continued Wiki Use for Individual and Collaborative Learning: An Extended UTAUT Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Huang, Jo-Yi; Chang, Chueh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors affect students' adaptation and continued use of a Wiki system for collaborative writing tasks through an extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). This study was conducted in a general education course in a university in northern Taiwan. Data were…

  19. Modes of competition and the fitness of evolved populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tim; McKane, Alan J.

    2015-09-01

    Competition between individuals drives the evolution of whole species. Although the fittest individuals survive the longest and produce the most offspring, in some circumstances the resulting species may not be optimally fit. Here, using theoretical analysis and stochastic simulations of a simple model ecology, we show how the mode of competition can profoundly affect the fitness of evolved species. When individuals compete directly with one another, the adaptive dynamics framework provides accurate predictions for the number and distribution of species, which occupy positions of maximal fitness. By contrast, if competition is mediated by the consumption of a common resource, then demographic noise leads to the stabilization of species with near minimal fitness.

  20. Genetic fitness and selection intensity in a population affected with high-incidence spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

    PubMed

    Platonov, Fedor A; Tyryshkin, Kathrin; Tikhonov, Dmitriy G; Neustroyeva, Tatyana S; Sivtseva, Tatyana M; Yakovleva, Natalya V; Nikolaev, Valerian P; Sidorova, Oksana G; Kononova, Sardana K; Goldfarb, Lev G; Renwick, Neil M

    2016-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is the major and likely the only type of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia in the Sakha (Yakut) people of Eastern Siberia. The prevalence rate of SCA1 has doubled over the past 21 years peaking at 46 cases per 100,000 rural population. The age at death correlates closely with the number of CAG triplet repeats in the mutant ATXN1 gene (r = -0.81); most patients with low-medium (39-55) repeat numbers survived until the end of reproductive age. The number of CAG repeats expands in meiosis, particularly in paternal transmissions; the average total increase in intergenerational transmissions in our cohort was estimated at 1.6 CAG repeats. The fertility rates of heterozygous carriers of 39-55 CAG repeats in women were no different from those of the general Sakha population. Overall, the survival of mutation carriers through reproductive age, unaltered fertility rates, low childhood mortality in SCA1-affected families, and intergenerational transmission of increasing numbers of CAG repeats in the ATXN1 gene indicate that SCA1 in the Sakha population will be maintained at high prevalence levels. The low (0.19) Crow's index of total selection intensity in our SCA1 cohort implies that this mutation is unlikely to be eliminated through natural selection alone. PMID:27106293

  1. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  2. Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Gary M; Green, David B; Shaffer, H Bradley; Kats, Lee B

    2016-05-25

    Behaviours that influence habitat selection strongly determine species movement patterns. One component of animal behaviour that largely influences movement patterns and habitat choice is site fidelity. California newts (family Salamandridae) demonstrate remarkable site fidelity, typically homing to the same pool of a stream each breeding season. Individuals often occupy a specific pool throughout the breeding season, but some males shift among breeding pools, altering their set of potential mates, competitors, and predators. In this study, we measured dermal concentrations of the chemical defence compound tetrodotoxin (TTX) in recaptured male California newts (Taricha torosa) over five breeding seasons to evaluate whether relative TTX concentrations are associated with breeding site fidelity in the field. Our five years of field sampling indicates that TTX concentrations of individuals and group means fluctuate tremendously, implying that TTX is not a stable phenotypic trait. Despite such fluctuations, we found that an individual's relative TTX concentration explains fidelity to a breeding pool and suggests that newts may be able to assess both their own concentrations of TTX and that of conspecifics to make decisions about remaining in or abandoning a breeding pool. These results provide us a novel dimension to chemical defence phenotypes in nature and their ecological consequences, potentially requiring a re-evaluation of the coevolutionary dynamics of predation pressure on toxin-laden organisms. PMID:27194704

  3. New brittle bone disorder: report of a family with six affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, G; Haga, N; Aoki, K; Hamazaki, M; Taniguchi, K; Iwaya, T

    1999-06-01

    We report on a family in which four females and two males in three generations had a previously undescribed brittle bone disorder that was dominantly transmitted through a maternal line. The cardinal manifestations of the disorder comprised dolichocephaly with frontal bossing, hypoplasia of the midface, postpubertal prognathism, micromelic short stature, coarse trabeculae of the entire skeleton, and bone fragility of variable degrees. Mild spondylar modification and iliac hypoplasia were other hallmarks that were recognized in childhood. The proband, a 19-year-old male, was most severely affected with multiple wormian bones in the calvaria, repetitive fractures, intractable bowing of the legs and forearms, and pseudofractures of the long bones with metaphyseal narrowing. His male cousin was next severely affected with angular deformity restricted to the forearm. The four females were much less affected without angular deformity. The mode of inheritance was thus consistent with either an autosomal dominant trait with sex-influence or an X-linked semidominant trait. Histological bone examination in the proband showed atrophy and fibrous degeneration of the lamellar trabeculae and disorganized chondro-osseous junction, which implied that the disorder involved both intramembranous and enchondral ossifications. PMID:10340645

  4. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations. PMID:27192958

  5. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  6. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    WILLIAMSON, JOHN; ISAKI, EMI

    2015-01-01

    The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR) training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years) traumatic brain injury (TBI). The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills. Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play. Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication. Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.

  7. Organizational and individual factors affecting consumer outcomes of care in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Morris, Anne; Bloom, Joan R; Kang, Soo

    2007-05-01

    The impact of organizational and individual factors on outcomes of care were assessed for 424 adult consumers with chronic mental illness who were receiving services from one of 14 Community Mental Health Organizations (CMHOs) in Colorado over a 30-month period, as part of a larger statewide evaluation of the impact of Medicaid capitation on mental health services. Data on organizational culture and climate were aggregated from surveys of staff and administrators conducted within CMHOs over a two-year period corresponding to the collection of consumer outcome and service utilization data. Growth curve analyses were conducted on consumer perceptions of physical and mental health, and on quality of life (QOL). Analyses indicated a significant cross-level effect of organizational culture and climate on improvements in consumer perceptions of physical and mental health, but not on a "quasi-objective" index of QOL. Individual characteristics, such as age, diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity, were significant predictors of outcomes. Being older, female, an ethnic minority, and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia all predicted poorer outcomes among consumers. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for policy and future research. PMID:17096194

  8. COMT Val108/158 Met Genotype Affects Neural but not Cognitive Processing in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Need, Anna C.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Cirulli, Elizabeth T.; Kragel, James; Goldstein, David B.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between cognition and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methlytransferase (COMT) gene, val108/158met, is one of debate in the literature. Furthermore, based on the dopaminergic differences associated with the COMT val108/158met genotype, neural differences during cognition may be present, regardless of genotypic differences in cognitive performance. To investigate these issues the current study aimed to 1) examine the effects of COMT genotype using a large sample of healthy individuals (n = 496–1218) and multiple cognitive measures, and using a subset of the sample (n = 22), 2) examine whether COMT genotype effects medial temporal lobe (MTL) and frontal activity during successful relational memory processing, and 3) investigate group differences in functional connectivity associated with successful relational memory processing. Results revealed no significant group difference in cognitive performance between COMT genotypes in any of the 19 cognitive measures. However, in the subset sample, COMT val homozygotes exhibited significantly decreased MTL and increased prefrontal activity during both successful relational encoding and retrieval, and reduced connectivity between these regions compared with met homozygotes. Taken together, the results suggest that although the COMT val108/158met genotype has no effect on cognitive behavioral measures in healthy individuals, it is associated with differences in neural process underlying cognitive output. PMID:19641018

  9. Misperceiving facial affect: effects of laterality and individual differences in susceptibility to visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Coy, Abbie L; Hutton, Samuel B

    2012-04-30

    It has been suggested that certain types of auditory hallucinations may be the by-product of a perceptual system that has evolved to be oversensitive to threat-related stimuli. People with schizophrenia and high schizotypes experience visual as well as auditory hallucinations, and have deficits in processing facial emotions. We sought to determine the relationship between visual hallucination proneness and the tendency to misattribute threat and non-threat related emotions to neutral faces. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing visual hallucination proneness (the Revised Visual Hallucination Scale - RVHS). High scoring individuals (N=64) were compared to low scoring individuals (N=72) on a novel emotion detection task. The high RVHS group made more false positive errors (ascribing emotions to neutral faces) than the low RVHS group, particularly when detecting threat-related emotions. All participants made more false positives when neutral faces were presented to the right visual field than to the left visual field. Our results support continuum models of visual hallucinatory experience in which tolerance for false positives is highest for potentially threatening emotional stimuli and suggest that lateral asymmetries in face processing extend to the misperception of facial emotion. PMID:22382049

  10. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  11. Factors affecting treatment efficacy in social phobia: the use of video feedback and individual vs. group formats.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed two potential moderators of treatment efficacy in social phobia: video feedback, and treatment format (i.e., individual vs. group). Eighteen recent (2000-2006) trials including a total of 511 participants were sampled. Effect sizes (Cohen's d's) were calculated for each trial while correcting for measurement error. The Q statistic was used to test (a) heterogeneity across trials and (b) potential moderators. Results indicated that use of video feedback was not a moderator of treatment efficacy and did not significantly affect effect sizes. In contrast, treatment format was a moderator of treatment efficacy such that individual treatments reported larger effect sizes and lower attrition rates compared with group treatments. The results suggest that individual treatments in social phobia may be superior to group treatments irrespective of treatment type. PMID:18599263

  12. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  13. Cross-modal influences of affect across social and non-social domains in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Vines, Bradley W; Hill, Kiley J; Yam, Anna; Grichanik, Mark; Mills, Debra; Reiss, Allan L; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    The Williams syndrome (WS) cognitive profile is characterized by relative strengths in face processing, an attentional bias towards social stimuli, and an increased affinity and emotional reactivity to music. An audio-visual integration study examined the effects of auditory emotion on visual (social/non-social) affect identification in individuals with WS and typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) controls. The social bias in WS was hypothesized to manifest as an increased ability to process social than non-social affect, and a reduced auditory influence in social contexts. The control groups were hypothesized to perform similarly across conditions. The results showed that while participants with WS exhibited indistinguishable performance to TD controls in identifying facial affect, DD controls performed significantly more poorly. The TD group outperformed the WS and DD groups in identifying non-social affect. The results suggest that emotionally evocative music facilitated the ability of participants with WS to process emotional facial expressions. These surprisingly strong facial-processing skills in individuals with WS may have been due to the effects of combining social and music stimuli and to a reduction in anxiety due to the music in particular. Several directions for future research are suggested. PMID:19822162

  14. Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437 PMID:17915035

  15. Does use of tangible rewards with individual children affect peer observers?

    PubMed

    Christy, P R

    1975-01-01

    The common assumption that employing tangible rewards with individual children will have adverse effects upon peer observers was studied in the preschool setting. Multiple-subject, multiple-baseline procedures were applied to two classes of children, aged 3.5 to 6 yr. In each group, three consecutive children with low base rates of in-seat behavior received a verbal contingency and food rewards for sitting, while peers (with either low or high rates of in-seat behavior) received neither food nor teacher attention for sitting. Peer reactions measured were in-seat behavior, aggression, nonaggressive disruptive behavior, and complaints. The procedures neither decreased the in-seat behavior of peer observers, nor increased their aggressive or disruptive behavior. On the contrary, peers with low base rates of sitting initially displayed an abrupt, but temporary, increase in sitting. Moreover, although no compensatory attention was delivered, all children exhibited improved sitting by the end of the study. Complaints, which consisted mainly of requests for rewards, decreased in frequency with successive program phases, and within each phase. It is suggested that the class improvement in sitting behavior and the absence of negative effects on observers may be partially due to the high frequency of attention the teacher maintained for other desired behavior and the lack of attention to children's complaints. PMID:16795493

  16. Factors Affecting the Retention of Individuals as Important People for Ex-Offenders in Early Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Stone, Ariel; Stevens, Ed; Light, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few studies consider the retention of the individuals (alters) comprising the social networks of people in recovery. We conducted a longitudinal study exploring several possible factors predicting whether alters were retained six months after participants completed treatment. Method The Important Person Inventory was given to 270 ex-offenders (224 men, 46 women) transitioning from treatment to Oxford House residences, Safe Haven therapeutic communities, or to usual aftercare. A 6-month follow-up was completed by 176 participants (137 men, 39 women). Results We found that alters who were related to the participant, did not use drugs, were embedded in smaller networks, and had more frequent contact with the participant were significantly more likely to be retained as important people over 6 months, but found no effects based on alters’ drinking or criminal history. Conclusions Certain characteristics of important people are related to their retention in a social network. Understanding these relationships is essential for creating effective social interventions for addictions. PMID:24521088

  17. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents. PMID:24974663

  18. Individual characteristics and relocation factors affecting adjustment among relocated American and Egyptian older adults.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide, the population of elders is increasing significantly. Relocation can be a positive or a negative experience, depending on many factors, including culture. The purpose of this study is to compare individual characteristics (age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health status, activities of daily living), relocation factors (movement preparation, time passed since relocation, closeness of prior home to the present, and whether relocation was from home or another facility), and adjustment in relocated American and Egyptian elders. This secondary analysis study merged data from two cross-sectional descriptive studies of a 104 elders relocated to retirement communities in Northeast Ohio and 94 elders relocated to retirement communities in Alexandria, Egypt. Our findings indicated that American elders have greater independence in daily activities (t (161.23) = -3.03, p = .003); better perceived health (χ(2)[3, N = 198] = 53.21, p < .001), better education (χ(2)[1, N = 198] = 47.28, p < .001), better preparation before the move (χ(2)[1, N = 198] = 40.58, p < .001), and better relocation adjustment (t (196) = 9.42, p < .001) than relocated Egyptian elders. Our results indicate that culture should be taken into account when caring for older adults who relocate to retirement communities. Additionally, interventions, such as counseling, and preparation before relocation are needed to help elders adjust to relocation. PMID:24502465

  19. Is long-term structural priming affected by patterns of experience with individual verbs?

    PubMed Central

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these long-term priming effects are modulated by the participants’ patterns of experience with particular verbs within the double object and prepositional object constructions. The results of three experiments show that patterns of experience with particular verbs using the double object or prepositional object constructions do not have much effect on the shape of the longterm structural priming effects reported elsewhere in the literature. These findings lend support to the claim that structural priming is the result of adaptations to the language production system that occur on an abstract, structural level of representation that is separate from representations regarding the behavior of particular lexical items in particular constructions [e.g., Chang, F., Dell, G. S., & Bock, K. (2006). Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113, 234–272]. 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:26500391

  20. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Does a single neurostimulation session really affect mood in healthy individuals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Remue, Jonathan; Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-05-01

    Non-invasive neurostimulation or neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were welcomed as promising tools for investigating cognitive and mood processes in healthy participants as well as in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions. Due to their rather easy application, both modalities have been used to experimentally examine prefrontal cognitive and emotional control. However, it remains unclear whether a single session of such stimulation may affect the mood of participants in a healthy state. We provide a systematic review of studies reporting the effects of a single session of rTMS or tDCS (…-2014) on self-reported mood in healthy participants. Although early studies reported significant effects on self-reported mood in healthy participants, more recent work investigating mood effects after a single rTMS/tDCS session has failed to find any significant changes in self-reported mood. Therefore it appears that a single session of rTMS/tDCS has no impact on mood in the healthy state. PMID:26988115

  2. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Affects Floral Visitors but Not the Structure of Individual-Based Palm-Pollinator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  3. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  4. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  5. How stock of origin affects performance of individuals across a meta-ecosystem: an example from sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans. PMID:23505539

  6. Sex-specific determinants of fitness in a social mammal.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Allainé, Dominique; Bonenfant, Christophe; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Sociality should evolve when the fitness benefits of group living outweigh the costs. Theoretical models predict an optimal group size maximizing individual fitness. However, beyond the number of individuals present in a group, the characteristics of these individuals, like their sex, are likely to affect the fitness payoffs of group living. Using 20 years of individually based data on a social mammal, the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota), we tested for the occurrence of an optimal group size and composition, and for sex-specific effects of group characteristics on fitness. Based on lifetime data of 52 males and 39 females, our findings support the existence of an optimal group size maximizing male fitness and an optimal group composition maximizing fitness of males and females. Additionally, although group characteristics (i.e., size, composition and instability) affecting male and female fitness differed, fitness depended strongly on the number of same-sex subordinates within the social group in the two sexes. By comparing multiple measures of social group characteristics and of fitness in both sexes, we highlighted the sex-specific determinants of fitness in the two sexes and revealed the crucial role of intrasexual competition in shaping social group composition. PMID:27070014

  7. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  8. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  9. Evaluation of dose from external irradiation for individuals living in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Ishii, Hideki

    2015-02-01

    In order to effectively and appropriately manage external radiation doses in the affected areas of Fukushima, it is important to identify when, where and how much exposure occurred. It is also necessary to quantitatively measure external exposure and air dose rates for different activity patterns in individuals living and working in Japanese-style buildings. The authors used a new personal dosemeter (D-shuttle) along with a global positioning system and geographical information system to relate personal dose rate with activity patterns and air dose rate. Hourly individual doses obtained by D-shuttle can provide an effective communication tool for those who want to identify when and how much exposure occurs. Personal monitoring of 26 volunteers showed that personal doses obtained from D-shuttle were ∼30% of cumulative air dose estimated by data from the airborne monitoring survey. This analysis showed that, for most study volunteers, the exposure from staying at home represented about half of the total cumulative dose. This suggests that even though the peak exposure doses may be observed outside of working hours, to develop appropriate countermeasures for external dose reduction, it is thus important to identify the contributions of individuals' time-activities. This study provides a valuable basis for developing a realistic and pragmatic method to estimate external doses of individuals in Fukushima. PMID:24982262

  10. Association between Individual Differences in Self-Reported Emotional Resilience and the Affective Perception of Neutral Faces

    PubMed Central

    Arce, Estibaliz; Simmons, Alan N.; Stein, Murray B.; Winkielman, Piotr; Hitchcock, Carla; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Resilience, i.e., the ability to cope with stress and adversity, relies heavily on judging adaptively complex situations. Judging facial emotions is a complex process of daily living that is important for evaluating the affective context of uncertain situations, which could be related to the individual's level of resilience. We used a novel experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that highly resilient individuals show a judgment bias towards positive emotions. Methods 65 non-treatment seeking subjects completed a forced emotional choice task when presented with neutral faces and faces morphed to display a range of emotional intensities across sadness, fear, and happiness. Results Overall, neutral faces were judged more often to be sad or fearful than happy. Furthermore, high compared to low resilient individuals showed a bias towards happiness, particularly when judging neutral faces. Limitations This is a cross-sectional study with a non-clinical sample. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that resilient individuals show a bias towards positive emotions when faced with uncertain emotional expressions. This capacity may contribute to their ability to better cope with certain types of difficult situations, perhaps especially those that are interpersonal in nature. PMID:18957273

  11. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  12. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  13. Intranasal Oxytocin Affects Amygdala Functional Connectivity after Trauma Script-Driven Imagery in Distressed Recently Trauma-Exposed Individuals.

    PubMed

    Frijling, Jessie L; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Koch, Saskia B J; Nawijn, Laura; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neural emotion regulation may be etiologically involved in PTSD development. Oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising avenue for PTSD prevention, as intranasal oxytocin has previously been found to affect emotion regulation networks in healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study, we assessed the effects of a single intranasal oxytocin administration (40 IU) on seed-based amygdala resting-state FC with emotion regulation areas (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)), and salience processing areas (insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)) in 37 individuals within 11 days post trauma. Two resting-state scans were acquired; one after neutral- and one after trauma-script-driven imagery. We found that oxytocin administration reduced amygdala-left vlPFC FC after trauma script-driven imagery, compared with neutral script-driven imagery, whereas in PL-treated participants enhanced amygdala-left vlPFC FC was observed following trauma script-driven imagery. Irrespective of script condition, oxytocin increased amygdala-insula FC and decreased amygdala-vmPFC FC. These neural effects were accompanied by lower levels of sleepiness and higher flashback intensity in the oxytocin group after the trauma script. Together, our findings show that oxytocin administration may impede emotion regulation network functioning in response to trauma reminders in recently trauma-exposed individuals. Therefore, caution may be warranted in administering oxytocin to prevent PTSD in distressed, recently trauma-exposed individuals. PMID:26346640

  14. The neural substrates of affective face recognition in patients with Hwa-Byung and healthy individuals in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong-Taek; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Chung, Sun-Yong; Kwon, Ho-In; Khang, Hyun-Soo; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Kwon, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Woo; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2009-01-01

    Hwa-Byung (HB) is a Korean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome caused by the suppression of anger. HB patients have various psychological and somatic symptoms, such as chest discomfort, a sensation of heat, and the sensation of having an epigastric mass. In this study, we measured brain activity in HB patients and healthy individuals in response to affective facial stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study measured neural responses to neutral, sad, and angry facial stimuli in 12 healthy individuals and 12 patients with HB. In response to all types of facial stimuli, HB patients showed increased activations in the lingual gyrus and fusiform gyrus compared with healthy persons, but they showed relatively lower activation in the thalamus. We also found that patients with HB showed lower activity in response to the neutral condition in the right ACC than healthy controls. The current study indicates that the suppression of affect results in aberrant function of the brain regions of the visual pathway, and functional impairment in the ACC may contribute to the pathophysiology of HB. PMID:18609429

  15. Combination Training in Aging Individuals Modifies Functional Connectivity and Cognition, and Is Potentially Affected by Dopamine-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Sensi, Francesca; Cilli, Franco; Mantini, Dante; Mattei, Peter A.; Frazzini, Valerio; Ciavardelli, Domenico; Gatta, Valentina; Ferretti, Antonio; Romani, Gian Luca; Sensi, Stefano L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aging is a major co-risk factor in many neurodegenerative diseases. Cognitive enrichment positively affects the structural plasticity of the aging brain. In this study, we evaluated effects of a set of structured multimodal activities (Combination Training; CT) on cognitive performances, functional connectivity, and cortical thickness of a group of healthy elderly individuals. CT lasted six months. Methodology Neuropsychological and occupational performances were evaluated before and at the end of the training period. fMRI was used to assess effects of training on resting state network (RSN) functional connectivity using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Effects on cortical thickness were also studied. Finally, we evaluated whether specific dopamine-related genes can affect the response to training. Principal Findings Results of the study indicate that CT improves cognitive/occupational performances and reorganizes functional connectivity. Intriguingly, individuals responding to CT showed specific dopamine-related genotypes. Indeed, analysis of dopamine-related genes revealed that carriers of DRD3 ser9gly and COMT Val158Met polymorphisms had the greatest benefits from exposure to CT. Conclusions and Significance Overall, our findings support the idea that exposure to a set of structured multimodal activities can be an effective strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline and also indicate that significant capability of functional and structural changes are maintained in the elderly. PMID:22937122

  16. Mother-infant dyadic reparation and individual differences in vagal tone affect 4-month-old infants' social stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Casini, Erica; de Simone, Paola; Reni, Gianluigi; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Infants' social stress regulation (i.e., reactivity and recovery) might be affected by mother-infant dyadic functioning and infants' vagal tone (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA). This study investigated the role of a specific dyadic functioning feature (i.e., dyadic reparation) and individual differences in vagal tone regulation (i.e., RSA suppression vs. non-suppression) in relation to social stress regulation in 4-month-old infants. A total of 65 mother-infant dyads participated in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Social stress reactivity and recovery were measured as negative emotionality during Still-Face and Reunion episodes, respectively. RSA was measured during Play, Still-Face, and Reunion episodes. Suppressors had higher dyadic reparation during Play and higher recovery from social stress compared with non-suppressors. Higher reparation during Play was associated with lower reactivity and higher recovery only for suppressors. Findings suggest a joint role of infants' RSA individual differences and dyadic reparation in affecting infants' social stress regulation at 4 months of age. PMID:26247809

  17. Malassezia sympodialis stimulation differently affects gene expression in dendritic cells from atopic dermatitis patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Susanne; Buentke, Eva; Liedén, Agne; Schmidt, Margit; D'Amato, Mauro; Tengvall-Linder, Maria; Scheynius, Annika

    2004-01-01

    It is known that 28-84% of patients with atopic dermatitis exhibit IgE and/or T-cell reactivity to the opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis, which can be taken up by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), resulting in MDDC maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MDDCs from patients with atopic dermatitis respond differently to M. sympodialis compared to MDDCs from healthy individuals. Immature MDDCs were stimulated with M. sympodialis and the gene expression profiles were analysed with cDNA arrays containing 406 genes. Our results show that M. sympodialis differently affected MDDCs from patients with atopic dermatitis, and more so in severely ill patients, compared with healthy individuals. Six genes were more than fivefold up-regulated in MDDCs from more than one patient with atopic dermatitis, coding for CD54, CD83, IL-8, monocyte-derived chemokine (MDC), BTG1 and IL-1R antagonist. In healthy individuals this was true only for BTG1. Up-regulations of IL-8 and MDC were confirmed at the protein level. Our findings might reflect an increased trafficking and stimulatory capacity in MDDCs from the patients, which is likely to result in a stronger inflammatory response to M. sympodialis. PMID:15370698

  18. Intra and Inter-Rater Reliability and Convergent Validity of FIT-HaNSA in Individuals with Grade П Whiplash Associated Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pierrynowski, Michael; McPhee, Colleen; P. Mehta, Saurabh; C. MacDermid, Joy; Gross, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD) are common following a motor vehicle accident. The Functional Impairment Test - Hand, and Neck/Shoulder/Arm (FIT-HaNSA) assesses upper extremity physical performance. It has been validated in patients with shoulder pathology but not in those with WAD. Objectives: Establish the Intra and inter-rater reliability and the known-group and construct validity of the FIT-HaNSA in patients with Grade II WAD (WAD2). Methods: Twenty-five patients with WAD2 and 41 healthy controls were recruited. Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), cervical range of motion (CROM), and FIT-HaNSA were completed at two sessions conducted 2 to 7 days apart by two raters. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to describe Intra and inter-rater reliability. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to quantify the associations between scores of the FIT-HaNSA and other measures in the WAD2 group (convergent construct validity). Results: The Intra and inter-ICCs for the FIT-HaNSA scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.89 in the control group and 0.78 to 0.85 in the WAD2 group. Statistically significant differences in FIT-HaNSA performance between the two groups suggested known group construct validity (P < 0.001). The correlations between the NPRS, NDI, DASH, CROM and FIT-HaNSA were generally poor (ρ < 0.4). Conclusion: The study results indicate that the total FIT-HaNSA score has good Intra and inter-rater reliability and the construct validity in WAD2 and healthy controls. PMID:27350797

  19. The MILE study: a motivational, individual and locally anchored exercise intervention among 30–49 year-olds with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomised controlled study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with high risk of non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality. Physical activity level is the primary determinant of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. However, knowledge on how to motivate people to engage in physical activity and maintain an active lifestyle is lacking. This study aims to investigate whether a motivational, individual, and locally anchored exercise intervention, in primary care, can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in 30 to 49 year olds with a low or very low cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/Design Two-armed randomised controlled trial with 6 and 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness estimated via a maximal incremental exercise test. Secondary outcomes include physical activity level and sedentary behavior (objectively measured), self-reported physical activity, biochemical parameters (HbA1C, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride), anthropometric parameters and health-related quality of life. A total of 236 participants with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness classified at a local health check programme will be randomised. The intervention consists of four motivational interviews, a six months membership to a sport club, and a global positioning watch to upload training activity to Endomondo.com. The comparison group will receive standard care: a one hour motivational interview followed by another interview if requested. Effects will be estimated by evaluating the differences in mean changes in cardiorespiratory fitness between the two groups. Discussion In new and innovative ways the focus of this study will be to improve cardiorespiratory fitness among a 30–49 year-old at-risk group using social media, Global Positioning System-technology, on-going personal support and individually tailored physical activity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (no.NCT01801956). PMID:24365174

  20. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  1. Does Insight Affect the Efficacy of Antipsychotics in Acute Mania?: An Individual Patient Data Regression Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Welten, Carlijn C M; Koeter, Maarten W J; Wohlfarth, Tamar D; Storosum, Jitschak G; van den Brink, Wim; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Denys, Damiaan A J P

    2016-02-01

    Patients having an acute manic episode of bipolar disorder often lack insight into their condition. Because little is known about the possible effect of insight on treatment efficacy, we examined whether insight at the start of treatment affects the efficacy of antipsychotic treatment in patients with acute mania. We used individual patient data from 7 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled registration studies of 4 antipsychotics in patients with acute mania (N = 1904). Insight was measured with item 11 of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at baseline and study endpoint 3 weeks later. Treatment outcome was defined by (a) mean change score, (b) response defined as 50% or more improvement on YMRS, and (c) remission defined as YMRS score less than 8 at study endpoint. We used multilevel mixed effect linear (or logistic) regression analyses of individual patient data to assess the interaction between baseline insight and treatment outcomes. At treatment initiation, 1207 (63.5%) patients had impaired or no insight into their condition. Level of insight significantly modified the efficacy of treatment by mean change score (P = 0.039), response rate (P = 0.033), and remission rate (P = 0.043), with greater improvement in patients with more impaired insight. We therefore recommend that patients experiencing acute mania should be treated immediately and not be delayed until patients regain insight. PMID:26647231

  2. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  3. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  4. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  5. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  6. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  7. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. PMID:25904723

  8. Does Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Prefrontal Cortex Affect Mood and Emotional Memory Retrieval in Healthy Individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Helen M.; Davis, Nick J.; Bracewell, R. Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants’ prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account. PMID:24651375

  9. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  10. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Buka, Stephen L.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. PMID:25904723

  11. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large "generalist" apex predator.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Nifong, James C; Heithaus, Michael R; Mazzotti, Frank J; Cherkiss, Michael S; Jeffery, Brian M; Elsey, Ruth M; Decker, Rachel A; Silliman, Brian R; Guillette, Louis J; Lowers, Russell H; Larson, Justin C

    2015-05-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability. PMID:25645268

  12. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT. PMID:27499744

  13. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  14. Yolk testosterone affects growth and promotes individual-level consistency in behavioral lateralization of yellow-legged gull chicks.

    PubMed

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Spiezio, Caterina; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral lateralization is common in animals and may be expressed at the individual- and at the population-level. The ontogenetic processes that control lateralization, however, are largely unknown. Well-established sex-dependence in androgen physiology and sex-dependent variation in lateralization have led to the hypothesis that testosterone (T) has organizational effects on lateralization. The effects of T exposure in early life on lateralization can be efficiently investigated by manipulating T levels in the cleidoic eggs of birds, because the embryo is isolated from maternal and sibling physiological interference, but this approach has been adopted very rarely. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) we increased yolk T concentration within the physiological limits and tested the effects on the direction of lateralization in two functionally fundamental behaviors (begging for parental care and escape to cover) of molecularly sexed hatchlings. We also speculated that T may intervene in regulating consistency, rather than direction of lateralization, and therefore tested if T affected the 'repeatability' of lateral preference in consecutive behavioral trials. T treatment had no effect on the direction of lateralization, but enhanced the consistency of lateral preference in escape responses. Sex did not predict lateralization. Neither behavior was lateralized at the population-level. We therefore showed for the first time in any species an effect of egg T on consistency in lateralization. The implications of the effect of T for the evolution of trade-offs in maternal allocation of egg hormones, and the evolutionary interpretations of findings from our studies on lateralization among unmanipulated birds are discussed. PMID:26836770

  15. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  16. "I Just Don't Fit Anywhere": Support Experiences and Future Support Needs of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome in Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Nash, Susie; Hastings, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of individuals in middle adulthood with Asperger syndrome have been the subject of little previous research, especially in terms of their experience of support services. In the present research, 11 adults with Asperger syndrome were interviewed. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to interpret the interviews.…

  17. A novel fitness evaluation method for evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-feng; Tang, Ke-zong

    2013-03-01

    Fitness evaluation is a crucial task in evolutionary algorithms because it can affect the convergence speed and also the quality of the final solution. But these algorithms may require huge computation power for solving nonlinear programming problems. This paper proposes a novel fitness evaluation approach which employs similarity-base learning embedded in a classical differential evolution (SDE) to evaluate all new individuals. Each individual consists of three elements: parameter vector (v), a fitness value (f), and a reliability value(r). The f is calculated using NFEA, and only when the r is below a threshold is the f calculated using true fitness function. Moreover, applying error compensation system to the proposed algorithm further enhances the performance of the algorithm to make r much closer to true fitness value for each new child. Simulation results over a comprehensive set of benchmark functions show that the convergence rate of the proposed algorithm is much faster than much that of the compared algorithms.

  18. A standard ballroom and Latin dance program to improve fitness and adherence to physical activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes and in obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a dance program to improve fitness and adherence to physical activity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Research Design and Methods Following a motivational interviewing session, 100 subjects with diabetes and/or obesity were enrolled either in a dance program (DP, n = 42) or in a self-selected physical activity program (SSP, n = 58), according to their preferences. Outcome measures were reduced BMI/waist circumference, improved metabolic control in type 2 diabetes (−0.3% reduction of HbA1c) and improved fitness (activity expenditure >10 MET-hour/week; 10% increase in 6-min walk test (6MWT)). Target achievement was tested at 3 and 6 months, after adjustment for baseline data (propensity score). Results Attrition was lower in DP. Both programs significantly decreased body weight (on average, −2.6 kg; P < 0.001) and waist circumference (DP, −3.2 cm; SSP, −2.2; P < 0.01) at 3 months, and the results were maintained at 6 months. In DP, the activity-related energy expenditure averaged 13.5 ± 1.8 MET-hour/week in the first three months and 14.1 ± 3.0 in the second three-month period. In SSP, activity energy expenditure was higher but highly variable in the first three-month period (16.5 ± 13.9 MET-hour/week), and decreased in the following three months (14.2 ± 12.3; P vs. first period < 0.001). At three months, no differences in target achievement were observed between groups. After six months the odds to attain the MET, 6MWT and A1c targets were all significantly associated with DP. Conclusion Dance may be an effective strategy to implement physical activity in motivated subjects with type 2 diabetes or obesity (Clinical trial reg. no.NCT02021890, clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25045404

  19. Fitness on Facebook: Advertisements Generated in Response to Profile Content

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide

  20. Fitness on facebook: advertisements generated in response to profile content.

    PubMed

    Villiard, Hope; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a challenging problem affecting almost half of college students. To solve this complex health problem, innovative approaches must be utilized. Over 94 percent of college students maintain a Facebook profile, providing them a venue to publicly disclose current fitness behaviors. Displayed advertisements on Facebook are tailored to profile content and may influence college students' fitness efforts. Facebook may be an innovative venue for improving college students' fitness behaviors. The purpose of this project was to determine (a) how and to what extent college students are discussing fitness on Facebook, and (b) how user-generated fitness information is linked to advertisements for fitness products and advice. First, public Facebook profiles of individual college students were evaluated for displayed fitness references based on 10 fitness behavior categories. Inter-rator reliability between two coders was 91.18 percent. Second, 10 fitness status updates were generated and posted by a researcher on a Facebook profile; the first 40 linked advertisements to these statements were examined. Advertisements were categorized and then examined for relevance to the college population. A total of 57 individual profiles were examined; owners had an average age of 18.3 years (SD=0.51), and 36.8 percent were women. About 71.9 percent of profiles referenced one or more fitness behavior; 97.6 percent referenced exercise, 4.9 percent dieting, and 4.9 percent unhealthy eating. Among the first 40 ads linked to generated status updates, 40.3 percent were fitness related. Most advertisements were for charity runs (30.4 percent), fitness apparel (24.2 percent), or fad diets (9.9 percent). Students referred both healthy and unhealthy fitness behaviors on their Facebook profiles, and these trigger the display of fitness-related advertisements of which few appear applicable. A community- or university-based intervention could be designed and implemented to provide relevant and

  1. How do Individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Experience Contact to Other Affected Persons?

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, K.; Fliegner, M.; Brunner, F.; Brucker, S.; Rall, K.; Richter-Appelt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with different sex characteristics may suffer from a feeling of being “different” or “not normal”. In this study, persons with one of 3 diagnoses (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [CAIS]; Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome [MRKHS], polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) were asked whether they had contact to other affected persons and how they assessed this contact. The correlation between contact and psychological distress was evaluated. Material and Methods: Information on contacts to other affected individuals was obtained using a written questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured using the German version of the BSI (Brief Symptom Inventory). Results: Data from 11 individuals with CAIS, 49 women with MRKHS and 55 women with PCOS was analysed. The frequency of contacts to other affected individuals differed between the different diagnostic groups (with the highest frequency reported for the group with CAIS, and the lowest for the group with PCOS). Overall, the majority of individuals considered such contacts beneficial (CAIS 81.8 %; MRKHS 90 %; PCOS 83.3 %). The frequency of contacts and their assessment were not found to be correlated with psychological distress. The three diagnostic groups differed in the proportion of people who indicated a wish for contact with other affected persons. The desire to have contact with other affected persons was most commonly expressed by women with PCOS and high levels of psychological distress (60.9 %). Conclusion: Persons with different sex characteristics can benefit from contact to other affected individuals. Particularly women with PCOS and increased levels of psychological distress may benefit if the issue of support groups is addressed during treatment. PMID:25258457

  2. Fitness Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... that gets your heart pumping, such as dancing, running, or swimming laps. How hard you exercise matters, too. You can learn how to measure your workout to see if it is light, medium, or intense. Fitness for all Do you have an illness or ...

  3. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  4. Limitations of inclusive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847

  5. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  6. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  7. Aortic coarctation and carotid artery aneurysm in a patient with Hardikar syndrome: Cardiovascular implications for affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kaitlin M; Ellis, Alexander R; Raafat, Reem; Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Li, Dong; Schrier Vergano, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    Hardikar syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome first characterized in 1992 by Hardikar et al. to describe two individuals with cholestasis, cleft lip/palate, retinal pigmentation, intestinal abnormalities, and genitourinary anomalies. Between 1992 and 2002, four individuals with Hardikar syndrome were reported in the literature. The fourth individual [Maluf et al. (2002), Transplantation 74:1058-1061; Poley and Proud (2008) Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2473-2479], who had progressive cholestatic liver disease ultimately requiring liver transplantation, has continued to be followed at our institution. Recently, at the age of 14 years, during an evaluation for refractory hypertension, she was found to have developed coarctation of the aorta that was treated with aortic angioplasty and stenting, dramatically improving her hypertension. Further vascular investigation also revealed a small aneurysm of her carotid artery requiring neurosurgical evaluation and anticoagulant therapy. To our knowledge, these vascular anomalies have not been reported in Hardikar syndrome and the high association of congenital heart disease in the individuals with Hardikar syndrome has not been further addressed. Herein, we discuss this additional clinical information, speculate briefly on possible molecular etiologies, and discuss potential cardiac surveillance recommendations. We hope that broadening the known phenotype of this very rare disorder will further aid clinicians in their management and surveillance for these individuals. PMID:26471230

  8. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes partial answers to the following questions: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers. PMID:23112804

  9. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Individuals Whose Lives Have Been Affected by Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…

  10. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  11. Individual differences in effects of child care quality: The role of child affective self-regulation and gender.

    PubMed

    Broekhuizen, Martine L; Aken, Marcel A G van; Dubas, Judith S; Mulder, Hanna; Leseman, Paul P M

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated whether the relation between child care quality and children's socio-emotional behavior depended on children's affective self-regulation skills and gender. Participants were 545 children (Mage=27 months) from 60 center-based child care centers in the Netherlands. Multi-level analyses showed that children with low affective self-regulation skills or who were male demonstrated less teacher-rated social competence when exposed to relatively low quality child care. In addition, children with low affective self-regulation skills also showed more social competence in the case of relatively high quality child care, suggesting mechanisms of differential susceptibility. No main effects of child care quality or interactions were found for teacher- and parent-rated externalizing behavior. These findings emphasize the importance of considering children's affective self-regulation skills and gender in understanding the effects of child care quality. High quality child care can be a means to strengthen children's social development. PMID:26210737

  12. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  13. Individual experience and evolutionary history of predation affect expression of heritable variation in fish personality and morphology

    PubMed Central

    Dingemanse, Niels J.; Van der Plas, Fons; Wright, Jonathan; Réale, Denis; Schrama, Maarten; Roff, Derek A.; Van der Zee, Els; Barber, Iain

    2009-01-01

    Predation plays a central role in evolutionary processes, but little is known about how predators affect the expression of heritable variation, restricting our ability to predict evolutionary effects of predation. We reared families of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus from two populations—one with a history of fish predation (predator sympatric) and one without (predator naive)—and experimentally manipulated experience of predators during ontogeny. For a suite of ecologically relevant behavioural (‘personality’) and morphological traits, we then estimated two key variance components, additive genetic variance (VA) and residual variance (VR), that jointly shape narrow-sense heritability (h2= VA/(VA + VR)). Both population and treatment differentially affected VA versus VR, hence h2, but only for certain traits. The predator-naive population generally had lower VA and h2 values than the predator-sympatric population for personality behaviours, but not morphological traits. Values of VR and h2 were increased for some, but decreased for other personality traits in the predator-exposed treatment. For some personality traits, VA and h2 values were affected by treatment in the predator-naive population, but not in the predator-sympatric population, implying that the latter harboured less genetic variation for behavioural plasticity. Replication and experimental manipulation of predation regime are now needed to confirm that these population differences were related to variation in predator-induced selection. Cross-environment genetic correlations (rA) were tight for most traits, suggesting that predator-induced selection can affect the evolution of the same trait expressed in the absence of predators. The treatment effects on variance components imply that predators can affect evolution, not only by acting directly as selective agents, but also by influencing the expression of heritable variation. PMID:19129142

  14. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. PMID:21905039

  15. Inclusive fitness affects both prosocial and antisocial behavior: target gender and insult domain moderate the link between genetic relatedness and aggression.

    PubMed

    Gesselman, Amanda N; Webster, Gregory D

    2012-01-01

    Although prior research has examined the relationship between genetic relatedness and helping behavior (Burnstein, Crandall, and Kitayama, 1994), less is known about its role in aggressive responses to insults (Fitzgerald and Ketterer, 2011). Drawing on inclusive fitness theory (Hamilton, 1964) and the Kinship, Acceptance, and Rejection Model of Altruism and Aggression (KARMAA; Webster, 2008; Webster et al., 2012), we designed a 2 (participant gender) × 2 (target gender) × 2 (insult: status vs. reproductive) × 3 (relatedness: stranger vs. cousin vs. sibling) between-person experiment in which 489 participants (a) read vignettes in which a stranger, cousin, or sibling was insulted and (b) reported their emotional reaction and retaliation likelihood (six-item α = .91) in response to the insult. Consistent with theory and prior research, men were significantly more aggressive than women, and people were significantly more aggressive responding to insults against kin than non-kin. These findings support theoretically-derived, dynamic, and domain-specific links among insults, gender, relatedness, and aggression. PMID:23182969

  16. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Murto, C.; Kaplan, C.; Ariza, L.; Schwarz, K.; Alencar, C. H.; da Costa, L. M. M.; Heukelbach, J.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil's Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5%) were birth migrants, 105 (26.6%) were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9%) were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1) alcohol consumption, (2) separation from family/friends, and (3) difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships. PMID:24194769

  17. Stressful Life Events and Daily Stressors Affect Awakening Cortisol Level in Midlife Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jen D.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers (M=51.4 years old, SD=8.4) of individuals (M=22.1 years old, SD=7.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) under stressful conditions that are not specific to the son or daughter's ASD symptoms. Methods In addition to completing a set of questionnaires and in-home interviews, 82 mothers from the Adolescents and Adults with Autism Study (AAA) participated in a Daily Diary Study. Results Findings from the multilevel models indicated that mothers who previously were exposed to no negative life events in the previous period had an increased awakening cortisol level on days following a greater number and more severe stressors, a normative stress response. In contrast, we observed a flatter cortisol level of daily stressors in mothers who experienced a greater number of negative life events in the previous period. Conclusion These findings highlight the sustained toll that global and everyday stressors have on awakening cortisol level of midlife and aging mothers of individuals with ASD. PMID:22640177

  18. Design and rationale for the PREVAIL study: effect of e-Health individually tailored encouragements to physical exercise on aerobic fitness among adolescents with congenital heart disease--a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Klausen, Susanne Hwiid; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hirth, Asle; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Søndergaard, Lars; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2012-04-01

    Intensive exercise may be an important part of rehabilitation in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, performing regular physical exercise is challenging for many adolescent patients. Consequently, effective exercise encouragements may be needed. Little is known on the effect of e-Health encouragements on physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life in adolescents. This trial is a nationwide interactive e-Health rehabilitation study lasting 1 year, centered on interactive use of mobile phone and Internet technology. We hypothesize that e-Health encouragements and interactive monitoring of intensive exercise for 1 year can improve physical fitness, physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Two hundred sixteen adolescents (age, 13-16 years) with surgically corrected complex CHD but without significant hemodynamic residual defects and no restrictions to participate in physical activity are in the process of being enrolled by invitation after informed consent. Physical fitness is measured as the maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)) at baseline and after 12 months by an assessor blinded to the randomization group. After baseline testing, the patients are 1:1 randomized to an intervention group or a control group. Individually fully automated tailored e-Health encouragements--SMS, Internet, and mobile applications--aimed at increasing physical activity are delivered to the participants in the intervention group once a week. The Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory inspires the behavioral theoretical background. The e-Health intervention and the Godfrey cycle ergometer protocol have been feasibility tested and seem applicable to adolescents with CHD. The trial is expected to contribute with new knowledge regarding how physical activity in adolescents with CHD can be increased and, possibly, comorbidity be reduced. PMID:22520519

  19. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  20. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  1. Unemotional on all counts: Evidence of reduced affective responses in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits across emotion systems and valences.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lombardo, Michael V; Kyranides, Melina Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify atypical neurophysiological activity associated with deficient affective processing in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits (CU). Fifty-six participants (M age = 20.52; 46% male) divided in two groups, differentiated on levels of CU traits, were invited to participate in the experimental phase of the study. Medial prefrontal cortex activity, measured with functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and facial electro-myography activity were recorded during videos depicting violent, comedy and neutral scenes. Individuals high on CU traits showed similar medial prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) activity to positive and negative films, while the pre-frontal cortical responses of low CU individuals were more pronounced to positive than negative materials. High CU participants also showed reduced facial electromyography at the corrugator muscle in response to violent films, which was not differentiated from their responses to comedy films. These findings suggest that individuals high on CU traits show reduced but not absent (i.e., flat) affect to emotional material. Deficits in processing positive and negative valent material, measured with different neuro-physiological modalities, might be essential to understand CU traits. PMID:25807203

  2. Population rules can apply to individual plants and affect their architecture: an evaluation on the cushion plant Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Puntieri, Javier G.; Damascos, María A.; Llancaqueo, Yanina; Svriz, Maya

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Plants are regarded as populations of modules such as axes and growth units (GUs, i.e. seasonally produced axis segments). Due to their dense arrays of GUs, cushion plants may resemble crowded plant populations in the way the number of components (GUs in plants, individuals in populations) relates to their individual sizes. Methodology The morphological differentiation of GUs and its relationship with biomass accumulation and plant size were studied for the cushion subshrub Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), a widespread species in dry areas of Patagonia. In 2009, GUs were sampled from one-quarter of each of 24 adult plants. Within- and between-plant variations in GU length, diameter, number of nodes and biomass were analysed and related to whole-plant size. Principal results Each year, an M. spinosum cushion develops flowering GUs and vegetative GUs. Flowering GUs are larger, twice as numerous and contain two to four times more dry mass (excluding reproductive structures) than vegetative GUs. The hemispherical area of the cushions was positively correlated with the biomass of last-year GUs. The biomass of flowering GUs was negatively correlated with the density of GUs. Mulinum spinosum plants exhibited a notable differentiation between flowering and vegetative GUs, but their axes, i.e. the sequences of GUs, were not differentiated throughout the plants. Flowering GUs comprised a major proportion of each plant's photosynthetic tissues. Conclusions A decrease in the size of flowering GUs and in their number relative to the total number of GUs per plant, parallel to an increase in GU density, is predicted as M. spinosum plants age over years. The assimilative role of vegetative GUs is expected to increase in summer because of their less exposed position in the cushion. These GUs would therefore gain more from warm and dry conditions than flowering GUs. PMID:22476077

  3. Naturally segregating loci exhibit epistasis for fitness

    PubMed Central

    Monnahan, Patrick J.; Kelly, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which gene interaction or epistasis contributes to fitness variation within populations remains poorly understood, despite its importance to a myriad of evolutionary questions. Here, we report a multi-year field study estimating fitness of Mimulus guttatus genetic lines in which pairs of naturally segregating loci exist in an otherwise uniform background. An allele at QTL x5b—a locus originally mapped for its effect on flower size—positively affects survival if combined with one genotype at quantitative trait locus x10a (aa) but has negative effects when combined with the other genotypes (Aa and AA). The viability differences between genotypes parallel phenotypic differences for the time and node at which a plant flowers. Viability is negatively correlated with fecundity across genotypes, indicating antagonistic pleiotropy for fitness components. This trade-off reduces the genetic variance for total fitness relative to the individual fitness components and thus may serve to maintain variation. Additionally, we find that the effects of each locus and their interaction often vary with the environment. PMID:26246336

  4. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  5. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  6. Infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) development in pigs from affected farms in Spain and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, Charlotte S; Enøe, Claes; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Hjulsager, Charlotte K; Sibila, Marina; Jorsal, Sven E; Fraile, Lorenzo; Baekbo, Poul; Vigre, Hakan; Segalés, Joaquim; Larsen, Lars E

    2012-12-01

    Two prospective longitudinal studies in 13 postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected farms from Spain (n=3) and Denmark (n=10) were performed. Blood samples from pigs were longitudinally collected from 1st week until the occurrence of the PMWS outbreak. Wasted and healthy age-matched pigs were euthanized, necropsied and histopathologically characterised. PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by means of lymphoid lesions and detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in these tissues by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. Serological analyses were performed in longitudinally collected serum samples to detect antibodies against, PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), swine influenza virus (SIV) and Lawsonia intracellularis (law), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and Salmonella spp. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of seroconversion and maternal immunity against the studied pathogens. Results showed that high levels of maternal immunity against PCV2 had a protecting effect in farms from both countries. Moreover, for the Danish dataset, seroconversion against law had an overall protecting effect, but for animals with very low levels of maternal antibody levels against this pathogen, the effect appeared neutral or aggravating. Otherwise, for the Spanish dataset, maternal immunity against PPV and PRRSV gave protective and aggravating effects, respectively. In conclusion, the present study reflects the complex interaction among different pathogens and their effects in order to trigger PMWS in PCV2 infected pigs. PMID:22884005

  7. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Chen, Chenyi; Harenski, Carla; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, PCL-R ≥ 30), intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21 and 29), and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20) psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula (aINS), anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical

  8. "Fitness Freaks": A Healthier Lifestyle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balding, John

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which the lifestyles of young people are affected by health and fitness considerations. An analysis of data from 3253 Health Related Behavior Questionnaires, completed by fourth-year secondary school pupils is presented. (IAH)

  9. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    PubMed

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks. PMID:19475647

  10. Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Schiepers, Olga J G; de Groot, Renate H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; de Jong, Ariënne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-07-01

    Recent animal and human studies have shown that plant sterols and stanols, which are used as functional food ingredients to lower increased LDL cholesterol concentrations, pass the blood-brain barrier. Whether this affects neurocognitive functioning and mental well-being in humans has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol consumption on neurocognitive functioning and mood in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial. To this end, hypercholesterolemic individuals, aged 43-69 y, receiving stable statin treatment were randomly assigned to an 85-wk supplementation with margarines enriched with plant sterol esters (2.5 g/d), plant stanol esters (2.5 g/d), or placebo. At baseline and at the end of the intervention period, all participants underwent a cognitive assessment. In addition, subjective cognitive functioning and mood were assessed by means of questionnaires (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90, respectively). Long-term supplementation with plant sterol or stanol esters did not affect cognitive performance (memory, simple information processing speed, complex information processing speed, Letter-Digit Substitution test performance), subjective cognitive functioning, or mood. In conclusion, the present results indicate that long-term use of plant sterols or stanols at recommended intakes of 2.5 g/d does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals receiving statin treatment. PMID:19458031

  11. Individuals with Primary Osteoarthritis Have Different Phenotypes Depending on the Affected Joint - A Case Control Study from Southern Sweden Including 514 Participants

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Karlsson, Caroline; Magnusson, Håkan; Cöster, Maria; von Schewelov, Tord; Nilsson, Jan Åke; Brudin, Lars; Rosengren, Björn E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether primary osteoarthritis (OA), independent of affected joint, is associated with a phenotype that is different from the phenotype in a normative cohort. Material and Methods: We included 274 patients with primary OA, 30 women and 32 men (mean age 66 years, range 42-84) with primary hip OA, 38 women and 74 men (mean age 61 years; range 34-85) with primary knee OA, 42 women and 19 men (men age 64 years, range 42-87) with primary ankle or foot OA and 20 women and 19 men (mean age 66 years, range 47-88) with primary hand or finger OA. Of all patients included with OA, 23% had hip OA, 41% knee OA, 22% ankle or foot OA and 14% hand or finger OA. Serving as references were 122 women and 118 men of the same ages who were population-based, included as a control cohort. We measured total body BMD (g/cm2) and proportion of fat and lean mass (%) with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight and BMI (kg/m2) were also assessed. We then calculated Z-scores (number of standard deviations difference from the mean value of the control cohort) in the OA patients and compared these between the groups. Results: Individuals with hand OA and controls had similar phenotype. Individuals with lower extremity OA, irrespective of the affected joint, had similar weight, BMI and BMD, but higher than in individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.05). Individuals with lower extremity OA had higher fat and lower lean mass than individuals with hand OA and controls (all p<0.001). Conclusion: Individuals with primary OA in the lower extremity have a phenotype with higher BMD, higher BMI, proportionally higher fat content and lower lean body mass content. The different skeletal phenotypes in our patients with OA in the lower extremity and patients with hand OA indicate that separate pathophysiologic pathways may be responsible for primary OA in different joints PMID:25614774

  12. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  13. Caffeine affects CD8+ lymphocyte apoptosis and migration differently in naïve and familiar individuals following moderate intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Navalta, James W; Fedor, Elizabeth A; Schafer, Mark A; Lyons, T Scott; Tibana, Ramires A; Pereira, Guilherme B; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the lymphocyte subset response to 30 min of moderate treadmill exercise during caffeine supplemented (6.0 mg.kg(-1)) and placebo conditions in caffeine-naïve and -familiar individuals. Seventeen individuals participated (caffeine-familiar = 8, caffeine-naïve = 9) completing two exercise bouts (caffeine supplemented and placebo control) 48 h apart in a counterbalanced and double-blinded fashion. Individuals were classified as follows: caffeine-naive <50 mg.d(-1) and caffeine-familiar >200 mg.d(-1) Whole blood samples were obtained at rest, 30 min after caffeine or placebo ingestion, immediately following exercise, and 1 h post exercise. Blood was used to analyze apoptosis (annexin V) and cellular migration (CX3CR1) responses in lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, CD19+). Absolute changes from rest values were calculated and differences between conditions were determined through Chi-squared analysis with significance accepted at P <0.05. With regard to CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes, the interaction of caffeine and exercise did not affect naïve individuals to a greater extent immediately post exercise when compared to familiar, as similar apoptotic and migratory responses were observed (P >0.05). However, CD8+ lymphocyte cell death and migration responses were observed to be significantly greater at each sampling point in caffeine-familiar individuals (P <0.05). It is possible that chronic caffeine supplementation may prime CD8+ cell receptors for responsiveness to apoptosis and migration and the consequence of this form of immunosuppression in the post-exercise period should be determined. PMID:26684634

  14. A new twist to a traditional approach to environmental monitoring: differentiation of oil sands process-affected waters and natural systems by comparison of individual organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlett, A.; Lengger, S.; West, C.; Rowland, S.

    2013-12-01

    Review panels of both the Canadian Federal and Alberta Provincial governments have recommended a complete overhaul of existing monitoring programs of the Athabasca oil sands industry and have called for a greater understanding of the potential impacts of mining activities to allow for future sustainable development. Due to the no release policy, it is critical that leakages of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) from tailings ponds can be differentiated from natural waters flowing through the McMurray formation into the Athabasca river system. Environmental monitoring of oil contamination usually entails profiling of known compounds, e.g. the US EPA list of priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, but until now a similar approach has not been possible for OSPW due to its extreme complexity. It has been estimated that the number of carboxylic acids, historically referred to as ';naphthenic acids' (NA) in OSPW, to be in excess of 10000 compounds. Until recently, individual structures of these NA were unknown but analyses by tandem gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) have now begun to reveal the individual structures of alicyclic, aromatic and sulphur-containing acids within OSPWs stored in tailings ponds. Now that some individual structures present in OSPW are known and standards are available, a methodological approach similar to traditional oil monitoring can be developed using individual diamondoid NA and recently discovered diacids and applied to tailings pond OSPW and environmental waters. One obstacle to understanding whether the NA present in environmental groundwater samples are associated with particular tailings ponds is the lack of knowledge of the variability of OSPW within and between ponds. In the current study, GCxGC-MS analyses have been applied to statistically compare OSPWs of two industries, both temporally and spatially, using specific, known compounds as well as associated isomers. Although variation within individual ponds was

  15. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  16. Effect of workplace incivility on end-of-work negative affect: examining individual and organizational moderators in a daily diary study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiqing E; Yan, Yu; Che, Xin Xuan; Meier, Laurenz L

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies have linked workplace incivility with various negative outcomes, they mainly focused on the long-term effects of chronic exposure to workplace incivility, whereas targets' short-term reactions to incivility episodes have been largely neglected. Using a daily diary design, the current study examined effects of daily workplace incivility on end-of-work negative affect and explored potential individual and organizational moderators. Data collected from 76 full-time employees across 10 consecutive working days revealed that daily workplace incivility positively predicted end-of-work negative affect while controlling for before-work negative affect. Further, the relationship was stronger for people with low emotional stability, high hostile attribution bias, external locus of control, and people experiencing low chronic workload and more chronic organizational constraints, as compared with people with high emotional stability, low hostile attribution bias, internal locus of control, and people experiencing high chronic workload and fewer chronic organizational constraints, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347686

  17. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  18. An Overlooked Consequence of Dietary Mixing: A Varied Diet Reduces Interindividual Variance in Fitness.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-11-01

    The determinants of diet breadth are of interest to nutritionists, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists. A recent synthesis addressing this issue found conflicting evidence for the relationship between diet breadth and mean individual fitness. Specifically, it found that while, on average, a mixed diet does increase mean fitness, in some instances, a single food provides equal (or higher) fitness than a mixed diet. Critical to ecological and evolutionary considerations of diet, however, is not only mean fitness but also variance in fitness. We combine contemporary meta-analytic methods with models of nutritional geometry to evaluate how diet affects between-individual variance in fitness within generalist consumers from a range of trophic levels. As predicted by nutritional geometry, we found that between-individual variance in fitness-related traits is higher on single-food than mixed diets. The effect was strong for longevity traits (57% higher) and reproductive traits (37%) and present but weaker for size-related traits (10%). Further, the effect became stronger as the number of available foods increased. The availability of multiple foods likely allows individuals with differing nutritional optima to customize intake, each maximizing their own fitness. Importantly, these findings may suggest that selection on traits correlated with nutritional requirements is weak in heterogeneous nutritional environments. PMID:26655777

  19. FliZ is a global regulatory protein affecting the expression of flagellar and virulence genes in individual Xenorhabdus nematophila bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Jubelin, Grégory; Lanois, Anne; Severac, Dany; Rialle, Stéphanie; Longin, Cyrille; Gaudriault, Sophie; Givaudan, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression of various bacterial genes has been shown to result in the presence of individuals with different phenotypes within clonal bacterial populations. The genes specifying motility and flagellar functions are coordinately regulated and form a complex regulon, the flagellar regulon. Complex interplay has recently been demonstrated in the regulation of flagellar and virulence gene expression in many bacterial pathogens. We show here that FliZ, a DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila, affecting not only hemolysin production and virulence in insects, but efficient swimming motility. RNA-Seq analysis identified FliZ as a global regulatory protein controlling the expression of 278 Xenorhabdus genes either directly or indirectly. FliZ is required for the efficient expression of all flagellar genes, probably through its positive feedback loop, which controls expression of the flhDC operon, the master regulator of the flagellar circuit. FliZ also up- or downregulates the expression of numerous genes encoding non-flagellar proteins potentially involved in key steps of the Xenorhabdus lifecycle. Single-cell analysis revealed the bimodal expression of six identified markers of the FliZ regulon during exponential growth of the bacterial population. In addition, a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RT-qPCR quantification showed that this bimodality generated a mixed population of cells either expressing ("ON state") or not expressing ("OFF state") FliZ-dependent genes. Moreover, studies of a bacterial population exposed to a graded series of FliZ concentrations showed that FliZ functioned as a rheostat, controlling the rate of transition between the "OFF" and "ON" states in individuals. FliZ thus plays a key role in cell fate decisions, by transiently creating individuals with different potentials for motility and host interactions. PMID:24204316

  20. Percolation on fitness landscapes: effects of correlation, phenotype, and incompatibilities

    PubMed Central

    Gravner, Janko; Pitman, Damien; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    We study how correlations in the random fitness assignment may affect the structure of fitness landscapes, in three classes of fitness models. The first is a phenotype space in which individuals are characterized by a large number n of continuously varying traits. In a simple model of random fitness assignment, viable phenotypes are likely to form a giant connected cluster percolating throughout the phenotype space provided the viability probability is larger than 1/2n. The second model explicitly describes genotype-to-phenotype and phenotype-to-fitness maps, allows for neutrality at both phenotype and fitness levels, and results in a fitness landscape with tunable correlation length. Here, phenotypic neutrality and correlation between fitnesses can reduce the percolation threshold, and correlations at the point of phase transition between local and global are most conducive to the formation of the giant cluster. In the third class of models, particular combinations of alleles or values of phenotypic characters are “incompatible” in the sense that the resulting genotypes or phenotypes have zero fitness. This setting can be viewed as a generalization of the canonical Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model of speciation and is related to K- SAT problems, prominent in computer science. We analyze the conditions for the existence of viable genotypes, their number, as well as the structure and the number of connected clusters of viable genotypes. We show that analysis based on expected values can easily lead to wrong conclusions, especially when fitness correlations are strong. We focus on pairwise incompatibilities between diallelic loci, but we also address multiple alleles, complex incompatibilities, and continuous phenotype spaces. In the case of diallelic loci, the number of clusters is stochastically bounded and each cluster contains a very large sub-cube. Finally, we demonstrate that the discrete NK model shares some signature properties of models with high

  1. Epistasis between adults and larvae underlies caste fate and fitness in a clonal ant.

    PubMed

    Teseo, Serafino; Châline, Nicolas; Jaisson, Pierre; Kronauer, Daniel J C

    2014-01-01

    In social species, the phenotype and fitness of an individual depend in part on the genotype of its social partners. However, how these indirect genetic effects affect genotype fitness in competitive situations is poorly understood in animal societies. We therefore studied phenotypic plasticity and fitness of two clones of the ant Cerapachys biroi in monoclonal and chimeric colonies. Here we show that, while clone B has lower fitness in isolation, surprisingly, it consistently outcompetes clone A in chimeras. The reason is that, in chimeras, clone B produces more individuals specializing in reproduction rather than cooperative tasks, behaving like a facultative social parasite. A cross-fostering experiment shows that the proportion of these individuals depends on intergenomic epistasis between larvae and nursing adults, explaining the flexible allocation strategy of clone B. Our results suggest that intergenomic epistasis can be the proximate mechanism for social parasitism in ants, revealing striking analogies between social insects and social microbes. PMID:24561920

  2. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model. PMID:25735013

  3. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  4. Effect of maize lines on larval fitness costs of Cry1F resistance in the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L; Abel, Craig A; Coates, Brad S; Spencer, Terrence A; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2014-04-01

    Crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted and enable management of key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. However, the evolution of Bt resistance could diminish these benefits. Fitness costs of Bt resistance occur in the absence of Bt toxin when individuals with resistance alleles show a reduction in fitness relative to susceptible individuals, and they can delay the evolution of resistance. Ecological factors including host-plant variety can affect the magnitude of fitness costs, and consequently, the degree to which fitness costs delay resistance. In this study, we measured fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1F in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) using Cry1F-resistant and Cry1F-susceptible strains sharing a similar genetic background. Fitness costs were tested on three lines of maize, Zea mays L., by measuring larval survival and development in two greenhouse experiments with plants in either the vegetative or reproductive stage. Both experiments showed that maize line significantly affected larval survival and developmental rate. However, larval survival, mass, and developmental rate did not differ between the Cry1F-resistant and susceptible strains, indicating a lack of fitness costs of resistance to Cry1F for the larval fitness components measured in this experiment. Future experiments should test for fitness costs of Cry1F resistance affecting survival to adulthood and adult life-history parameters. PMID:24772559

  5. Partnerships for the Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    The YMCA has helped train and employ fitness leaders while educating the public on physical fitness. Colleges and universities can help develop careers in fitness while maintaining their traditional role of developing teachers and coaches. (DF)

  6. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services.

    PubMed

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-06-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV-serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  7. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV–serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  8. Noise and Epigenetic Inheritance of Single-Cell Division Times Influence Population Fitness.

    PubMed

    Cerulus, Bram; New, Aaron M; Pougach, Ksenia; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-05-01

    The fitness effect of biological noise remains unclear. For example, even within clonal microbial populations, individual cells grow at different speeds. Although it is known that the individuals' mean growth speed can affect population-level fitness, it is unclear how or whether growth speed heterogeneity itself is subject to natural selection. Here, we show that noisy single-cell division times can significantly affect population-level growth rate. Using time-lapse microscopy to measure the division times of thousands of individual S. cerevisiae cells across different genetic and environmental backgrounds, we find that the length of individual cells' division times can vary substantially between clonal individuals and that sublineages often show epigenetic inheritance of division times. By combining these experimental measurements with mathematical modeling, we find that, for a given mean division time, increasing heterogeneity and epigenetic inheritance of division times increases the population growth rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the heterogeneity and epigenetic inheritance of single-cell division times can be linked with variation in the expression of catabolic genes. Taken together, our results reveal how a change in noisy single-cell behaviors can directly influence fitness through dynamics that operate independently of effects caused by changes to the mean. These results not only allow a better understanding of microbial fitness but also help to more accurately predict fitness in other clonal populations, such as tumors. PMID:27068419

  9. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Critical issues affecting the future of dairy industry: individual contributions in the scope of a global approach.

    PubMed

    Malcata, F X

    1999-08-01

    Several constraints that have been affecting the dairy industry are identified in a critical fashion, and directions are given with an emphasis on food processing implemented at the postproduction level. The rationale for modifications aimed at enhancing the appeal of condensed dairy products should be consubstantiated in strengthening of organoleptic characteristics, improvement of nutraceutical impact, and reduction of polluting power. This enumeration follows an order of increasing time scale required for consumer perception and increasing size scale associated with expected impact. Pursuance of such streamlines should lead to manufacture of dairy products that resemble nature more closely in terms of milk coagulation, milk fat modification, milk fermentation, whey fermentation, and starter culture addition. Directions for research and development anticipated as useful and effective in this endeavor, and which have been previously and consistently adopted in the development of an individual research program, are characterization and development of alternative rennets from plant sources, development of starter and nonstarter cultures from adventitious microflora, utilization of probiotic strains as starter cultures, upgrading of whey via physical or fermentation routes, and modification of milk fat via lipase-mediated interesterification reactions. PMID:10480086

  10. Characteristics of insertional mutants of Pseudomonas syringae with reduced epiphytic fitness

    SciTech Connect

    Lindown, S.E.; Andersen, G.; Beattie, G.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Bacteria are common inhabitants of leaf surfaces, and they can affect the plants on which they live (eg., inciting disease or ice formation, altering plant growth). This report describes randomly generated insertional mutants of Pseudomonas syringae that exhibited decreased abilities to grow or survive on leaves, and the characteristics of these epiphytic fitness mutants. Direct screening for altered epiphytic fitness was facilitated by estimating population size of mutants on leaves on the basis of measurements of ice nuclei, and allowed identification of many individual genes in P. syringae contributing to its epiphytic fitness. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  12. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  13. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of REC(FAT). The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CY(CURD)=14.97±1.86, %CY(SOLIDS)=7.18±0.92, %CY(WATER)=7.77±1.27, dCY(CURD)=3.63±1.17, dCY(SOLIDS)=1.74±0.57, dCY(WATER)=1.88±0.63, REC(FAT)=89.79±3.55, REC(PROTEIN)=78.08±2.43, REC(SOLIDS)=51.88±3.52, and REC(ENERGY)=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CY(CURD) and dCY(CURD) depended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CY(SOLIDS). All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level. PMID:24094531

  14. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood—reversible state effects. We define these as ‘reversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness’, highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. PMID:26336173

  15. [Aerobic fitness in police officers].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, E M; Imbriani, M; Criffò, A; Tronconi, E

    1996-01-01

    According to act n. 626, individual assessment of fitness and absence of contraindications for carrying on a job is fundamental. We considered a group of 44 Urban Police officers (36 males, 8 females), age 39.7 +/- 9.1, whose principal job requirement is a good energetic and motor availability, for a fitness evaluation through a submaximal treadmill test, with subsequent steps of 6 minutes. During the test, physiological variables (VO2, VE, QR through a metabograph, Hr trough an Ec-monitor and Pa through a manual sphygmomanometer) and subjective evaluations of fatigue and dyspnea were monitored. Studying the individual variables trend it was possible to identify the critical metabolic level that was easily tolerated by each individual. This level, an average of 6.8 MET corresponding to a heavy activity, is an endurance predictor and can be utilized in subsequent controls. PMID:9312450

  16. Fitness Cost of Resistance to Bt Cotton Linked with Increased Gossypol Content in Pink Bollworm Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer L.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orth, Robert G.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Head, Graham; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins. PMID:21738799

  17. UVMULTIFIT: A versatile tool for fitting astronomical radio interferometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Muller, S.; Casey, S.

    2014-03-01

    Context. The analysis of astronomical interferometric data is often performed on the images obtained after deconvolving the interferometer's point spread function. This strategy can be understood (especially for cases of sparse arrays) as fitting models to models, since the deconvolved images are already non-unique model representations of the actual data (i.e., the visibilities). Indeed, the interferometric images may be affected by visibility gridding, weighting schemes (e.g., natural vs. uniform), and the particulars of the (non-linear) deconvolution algorithms. Fitting models to the direct interferometric observables (i.e., the visibilities) is preferable in the cases of simple (analytical) sky intensity distributions. Aims: We present UVMULTIFIT, a versatile library for fitting visibility data, implemented in a Python-based framework. Our software is currently based on the CASA package, but can be easily adapted to other analysis packages, provided they have a Python API. Methods: The user can simultaneously fit an indefinite number of source components to the data, each of which depend on any algebraic combination of fitting parameters. Fits to individual spectral-line channels or simultaneous fits to all frequency channels are allowed. Results: We have tested the software with synthetic data and with real observations. In some cases (e.g., sources with sizes smaller than the diffraction limit of the interferometer), the results from the fit to the visibilities (e.g., spectra of close by sources) are far superior to the output obtained from the mere analysis of the deconvolved images. Conclusions: UVMULTIFIT is a powerful improvement of existing tasks to extract the maximum amount of information from visibility data, especially in cases close to the sensitivity/resolution limits of interferometric observations.

  18. The Goodness of Simultaneous Fits in ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühnel, Matthias; Falkner, Sebastian; Grossberger, Christoph; Ballhausen, Ralf; Dauser, Thomas; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ferrigno, Carlo; Rothschild, Richard E.; Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Torrejón, José Miguel; Fürst, Felix; Klochkov, Dmitry; Staubert, Rüdiger; Kretschmar, Peter; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-02-01

    In a previous work, we introduced a tool for analyzing multiple datasets simultaneously, which has been implemented into ISIS. This tool was used to fit many spectra of X-ray binaries. However, the large number of degrees of freedom and individual datasets raise an issue about a good measure for a simultaneous fit quality. We present three ways to check the goodness of these fits: we investigate the goodness of each fit in all datasets, we define a combined goodness exploiting the logical structure of a simultaneous fit, and we stack the fit residuals of all datasets to detect weak features. These tools are applied to all RXTE-spectra from GRO 1008-57, revealing calibration features that are not detected significantly in any single spectrum. Stacking the residuals from the best-fit model for the Vela X-1 and XTE J1859+083 data evidences fluorescent emission lines that would have gone undetected otherwise.

  19. Physical Fitness: A Way of Life. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getchell, Bud

    The basics of physical fitness and information for developing a systematic program of exercise and physical activity for the individual are outlined. This book is divided into three major areas. Part one contains chapters dealing with basic physical fitness, understanding the human body and its needs, and methods of appraising individual fitness.…

  20. United States Ski Team Fitness Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.

    Presented is a fitness profile designed to identify the individual athlete's strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, the areas of fitness examined are a) muscular strength; b) cardiovascular respiratory function; c) body composition; and d) motor abilities, agility, and speed. The procedures in the testing program involve the following: a) the…

  1. Physical Fitness and the Stress Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensel, Walter M.; Lin, Nan

    2004-01-01

    In the current paper we focus on the role of physical fitness in the life stress process for both psychological and physical well-being. The major research question posed in the current study is: Does physical fitness deter distress in a model containing the major components of the life stress process? That is, do individuals who exercise show…

  2. Health and Fitness Through Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    A synthesis of research findings in exercise and physical fitness is presented to provide the general public with insights into establishing an individualized exercise program. The material is divided into seven subtopics: (1) a general overview of the need for exercise and fitness and how it is an integral part of preventive medicine programs;…

  3. Spatial pattern formation of microbes at the soil microscale affect soil C and N turnover in an individual-based microbial community model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Evans, Sarah; Dieckmann, Ulf; Widder, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    At the μm-scale, soil is a highly structured and complex environment, both in physical as well as in biological terms, characterized by non-linear interactions between microbes, substrates and minerals. As known from mathematics and theoretical ecology, spatial structure significantly affects the system's behaviour by enabling synergistic dynamics, facilitating diversity, and leading to emergent phenomena such as self-organisation and self-regulation. Such phenomena, however, are rarely considered when investigating mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover. Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial reservoir for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and plays a pivotal role in global biogeochemical cycles. Still, the underlying mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter buildup and turnover remain elusive. We explored mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover using an individual-based, stoichiometrically and spatially explicit computer model, which simulates the microbial de-composer system at the soil microscale (i.e. on a grid of 100 x 100 soil microsites). Soil organic matter dynamics in our model emerge as the result of interactions among individual microbes with certain functional traits (f.e. enzyme production rates, growth rates, cell stoichiometry) at the microscale. By degrading complex substrates, and releasing labile substances microbes in our model continusly shape their environment, which in turn feeds back to spatiotemporal dynamics of the microbial community. In order to test the effect of microbial functional traits and organic matter input rate on soil organic matter turnover and C and N storage, we ran the model into steady state using continuous inputs of fresh organic material. Surprisingly, certain parameter settings that induce resource limitation of microbes lead to regular spatial pattern formation (f.e. moving spiral waves) of microbes and substrate at the μm-scale at steady-state. The occurrence of these

  4. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Sports Medicine Basics Fact Sheets Sports Medicine & Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Fit ...

  5. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch ... should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping ...

  6. Fitness Shoes and Clothes

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Fitness Shoes and Clothes Choosing the right clothing and ... be a great motivator! Download the Tip Sheet Fitness Shoes and Clothes (PDF, 436.87 KB) You ...

  7. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  8. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Public Information Newsletters ACSM Blog ACSM Blog Search By ... Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Home Public Information Newsletters Fit Society Page ACSM Fit Society ® ...

  9. Exercise frequency and bone mineral density development in exercising postmenopausal osteopenic women. Is there a critical dose of exercise for affecting bone? Results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Due to older people's low sports participation rates, exercise frequency may be the most critical component for designing exercise protocols that address bone. The aims of the present article were to determine the independent effect of exercise frequency (ExFreq) and its corresponding changes on bone mineral density (BMD) and to identify the minimum effective dose that just relevantly affects bone. Based on the 16-year follow-up of the intense, consistently supervised Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention-Study, ExFreq was retrospectively determined in the exercise-group of 55 initially early-postmenopausal females with osteopenia. Linear mixed-effect regression analysis was conducted to determine the independent effect of ExFreq on BMD changes at lumbar spine and total hip. Minimum effective dose of ExFreq based on BMD changes less than the 90% quantile of the sedentary control-group (n=43). Cut-offs were determined after 4, 8, 12 and 16years using bootstrap with 5000 replications. After 16years, average ExFreq ranged between 1.02 and 2.96sessions/week (2.28±0.40sessions/week). ExFreq has an independent effect on LS-BMD (p<.001) and hip-BMD (p=.005) changes. Bootstrap analysis detected a minimum effective dose at about 2sessions/week/16years (cut-off LS-BMD: 2.11, 95% CI: 2.06-2.12; total hip-BMD: 2.22, 95% CI: 2.00-2.78sessions/week/16years). In summary, the minimum effective dose of exercise frequency that relevantly addresses BMD is quite high, at least compared with the low sport participation rate of older adults. This result might not be generalizable across all exercise types, protocols and cohorts, but it does indicate at least that even when applying high impact/high intensity programs, exercise frequency and its maintenance play a key role in bone adaptation. PMID:27108341

  10. Sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost but does not constrain the acquisition of environmental information in fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Teseo, Serafino; Veerus, Liisa; Moreno, Céline; Mery, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Across animals, sexual harassment induces fitness costs for females and males. However, little is known about the cognitive costs involved, i.e. whether it constrains learning processes, which could ultimately affect an individual's fitness. Here we evaluate the acquisition of environmental information in groups of fruit flies challenged with various levels of male sexual harassment. We show that, although high sexual harassment induces a temporary fitness cost for females, all fly groups of both sexes exhibit similar levels of learning. This suggests that, in fruit flies, the fitness benefits of acquiring environmental information are not affected by the fitness costs of sexual harassment, and that selection may favour cognition even in unfavourable social contexts. Our study provides novel insights into the relationship between sexual conflicts and cognition and the evolution of female counterstrategies against male sexual harassment. PMID:26763219

  11. Reaching Your Fitness Goals

    MedlinePlus

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Reaching Your Fitness Goals You’ll begin to see results in ... longer, and more easily. As you increase your fitness level, you also might find that you need ...

  12. Study on peak shape fitting method in radon progeny measurement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Abdumomin, Kadir; Tang, Yushi; Guo, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    Alpha spectrum measurement is one of the most important methods to measure radon progeny concentration in environment. However, the accuracy of this method is affected by the peak tailing due to the energy losses of alpha particles. This article presents a peak shape fitting method that can overcome the peak tailing problem in most situations. On a typical measured alpha spectrum curve, consecutive peaks overlap even their energies are not close to each other, and it is difficult to calculate the exact count of each peak. The peak shape fitting method uses combination of Gaussian and exponential functions, which can depict features of those peaks, to fit the measured curve. It can provide net counts of each peak explicitly, which was used in the Kerr method of calculation procedure for radon progeny concentration measurement. The results show that the fitting curve fits well with the measured curve, and the influence of the peak tailing is reduced. The method was further validated by the agreement between radon equilibrium equivalent concentration based on this method and the measured values of some commercial radon monitors, such as EQF3220 and WLx. In addition, this method improves the accuracy of individual radon progeny concentration measurement. Especially for the (218)Po peak, after eliminating the peak tailing influence, the calculated result of (218)Po concentration has been reduced by 21 %. PMID:25920795

  13. The clinical significance of marginal fit.

    PubMed

    Larson, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of restoration acceptability includes marginal adaptation, restoration and preservation of anatomic form, color match, cavosurface discoloration, and presence of marginal caries. This paper will review what is known about marginal fit of all materials relative to their acceptable fit. Some explanation will be given of how material properties affect marginal fit, what the expected longevity of different materials is relative to marginal fit, and how marginal fit affects development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit is assumed to affect restoration longevity by either encouraging or discouraging microleakage and development of secondary or marginal caries. Marginal fit and its effect on the health of the gingival tissues have been reviewed in an earlier paper on polishing and will not be reviewed here. Is there some correlation between marginal fit of the various materials used in restorative dentistry and this assumption? This paper will review the literature found on Medline and present the science behind the clinical significance of marginal fit utilizing in vitro studies where necessary and in vivo studies whenever possible. Numerous authors replicating these studies are used to improve reliability and replicability. PMID:22439529

  14. Fitness for Those with Disabilities and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Healthy New Year Fitness for Those with Disabilities and Older Adults Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents Fitness for Those with Disabilities Physical activity is great for individuals of all ...

  15. Fitness in fluctuating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase Nicola, Sorin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2011-03-01

    Often environments change faster than the time needed to evolve optimal phenotypes through cycles of mutation and selection. We focus on this case, but assume that environmental oscillations are slower than an individual's lifetime. This is relevant, for example, for bacterial populations confronted with daily environmental changes. We analyze a resource-limited competition between a mutant phenotype and the ancestor. Environmental dynamics is represented by periodically varying, off-phase parameters of the corresponding Lotka-Volterra model. For the very slow dynamics (but still faster than the fixation time scale) the strength and the sign of selection are functions of the birth/death rates averaged over all of the environmental states and independent of the period of the fluctuations. For faster fluctuations, selection depends on the particular sequence of the successive environmental states. In particular, a time reversal of the environmental dynamics can change the sign of the selection. We conclude that the fittest phenotype in a changing environment can be very different from both the optimal phenotype in the average environment, and the phenotype with the largest average fitness.

  16. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    PubMed

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. PMID:24530825

  17. Results of a Required Fitness Program.

    PubMed

    Emes, C; Davies, C; Evans, J; Kerr, B; Kinnear, G; Maxwell, T

    1981-12-01

    In brief: Based on the belief that physical education majors should have above-average fitness levels, 128 students were instructed to design and execute their own fitness development project to improve strength, endurance, and flexibility. Most relied on jogging, stair running, swimming, and cycling; others performed weight training, calisthenics, racket sports, and aerobic dancing. Generally, both men and women showed statistically significant increases in all the fitness tests. The authors believe that success was encouraged by the students' daily contact with instructors, the fact that their fitness improvement affected their grades, and the knowledge they gained from the course. PMID:27452707

  18. A Car Goes in the Garage Like a Can of Peas Goes in the Refrigerator: Do Deficits in Real-World Knowledge Affect the Assessment of Intelligence in Individuals with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Edelson Meredyth

    2005-01-01

    The Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3rd Edition (TONI-3) and the Analogic Reasoning (AR) subscale of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) were administered to 35 individuals with autism to determine whether real-world-knowledge deficits affected intelligence scores. The 2 tests are similar in format; however, the TONI-3 includes only…

  19. The effect of drought stress on heterozygosity–fitness correlations in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    PubMed Central

    Vranckx, Guy; Jacquemyn, Hans; Mergeay, Joachim; Cox, Karen; Janssens, Pieter; Gielen, Bie An Sofie; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The interaction between forest fragmentation and predicted climate change may pose a serious threat to tree populations. In small and spatially isolated forest fragments, increased homozygosity may directly affect individual tree fitness through the expression of deleterious alleles. Climate change-induced drought stress may exacerbate these detrimental genetic consequences of forest fragmentation, as the fitness response to low levels of individual heterozygosity is generally thought to be stronger under environmental stress than under optimal conditions. Methods To test this hypothesis, a greenhouse experiment was performed in which various transpiration and growth traits of 6-month-old seedlings of Quercus robur differing in multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) were recorded for 3 months under a well-watered and a drought stress treatment. Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFC) were examined by correlating the recorded traits of individual seedlings to their MLH and by studying their response to drought stress. Key Results Weak, but significant, effects of MLH on several fitness traits were obtained, which were stronger for transpiration variables than for the recorded growth traits. High atmospheric stress (measured as vapour pressure deficit) influenced the strength of the HFCs of the transpiration variables, whereas only a limited effect of the irrigation treatment on the HFCs was observed. Conclusions Under ongoing climate change, increased atmospheric stress in the future may strengthen the negative fitness responses of trees to low MLH. This indicates the necessity to maximize individual multilocus heterozygosity in forest tree breeding programmes. PMID:24638819

  20. How within-group behavioural variation and task efficiency enhance fitness in a social group

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Jonathan N.; Riechert, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    How task specialization, individual task performance and within-group behavioural variation affects fitness is a longstanding and unresolved problem in our understanding of animal societies. In the temperate social spider, Anelosimus studiosus, colony members exhibit a behavioural polymorphism; females either exhibit an aggressive ‘asocial’ or docile ‘social’ phenotype. We assessed individual prey-capture success for both phenotypes, and the role of phenotypic composition on group-level prey-capture success for three prey size classes. We then estimated the effect of group phenotypic composition on fitness in a common garden, as inferred from individual egg-case masses. On average, asocial females were more successful than social females at capturing large prey, and colony-level prey-capture success was positively associated with the frequency of the asocial phenotype. Asocial colony members were also more likely to engage in prey-capture behaviour in group-foraging situations. Interestingly, our fitness estimates indicate females of both phenotypes experience increased fitness when occupying colonies containing unlike individuals. These results imply a reciprocal fitness benefit of within-colony behavioural variation, and perhaps division of labour in a spider society. PMID:20943687

  1. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  2. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  3. Classroom Discussion and Individual Problem-Solving in the Teaching of History: Do Different Instructional Approaches Affect Interest in Different Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Laura; Boscolo, Pietro; Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 100 Italian eighth graders were divided into two groups to compare the effects of two instructional interventions--the first based on problem-solving through discussion, the second on individual problem-solving--on students' learning of two historical topics (World War I and the economic boom), interest and self-perception of…

  4. Nonlinear fitness landscape of a molecular pathway.

    PubMed

    Perfeito, Lilia; Ghozzi, Stéphane; Berg, Johannes; Schnetz, Karin; Lässig, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Genes are regulated because their expression involves a fitness cost to the organism. The production of proteins by transcription and translation is a well-known cost factor, but the enzymatic activity of the proteins produced can also reduce fitness, depending on the internal state and the environment of the cell. Here, we map the fitness costs of a key metabolic network, the lactose utilization pathway in Escherichia coli. We measure the growth of several regulatory lac operon mutants in different environments inducing expression of the lac genes. We find a strikingly nonlinear fitness landscape, which depends on the production rate and on the activity rate of the lac proteins. A simple fitness model of the lac pathway, based on elementary biophysical processes, predicts the growth rate of all observed strains. The nonlinearity of fitness is explained by a feedback loop: production and activity of the lac proteins reduce growth, but growth also affects the density of these molecules. This nonlinearity has important consequences for molecular function and evolution. It generates a cliff in the fitness landscape, beyond which populations cannot maintain growth. In viable populations, there is an expression barrier of the lac genes, which cannot be exceeded in any stationary growth process. Furthermore, the nonlinearity determines how the fitness of operon mutants depends on the inducer environment. We argue that fitness nonlinearities, expression barriers, and gene-environment interactions are generic features of fitness landscapes for metabolic pathways, and we discuss their implications for the evolution of regulation. PMID:21814515

  5. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations. PMID:20309747

  6. High School Students' Attitudes toward Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Kevin; Silverman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of high school students toward fitness testing. An instrument containing 18 items and four factors measuring student's attitudes toward fitness testing: cognitive, affect-enjoyment, affect-feelings, and affect-teacher was completed by 524 boys and 675 girls (N = 1199). MANOVA…

  7. Fun Fitness Runs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantling, Ed; Strand, Brad

    1997-01-01

    Fitness runs are planned activities that make running more interesting. The paper outlines five types of fitness runs, all of which can be modified to conform to different facilities, age groups, or available time. The activities have students playing detective, playing cards, deciphering words, learning about calories, and playing wolf. (SM)

  8. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  9. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  10. Fit 2-B FATHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiorano, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Fit 2-B FATHERS is a parenting-skills education program for incarcerated adult males. The goals of this program are for participants to have reduced recidivism rates and a reduced risk of their children acquiring criminal records. These goals are accomplished by helping participants become physically, practically, and socially fit for the demands…

  11. Latent Differential Equation Modeling of Self-Regulatory and Coregulatory Affective Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joel S.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    We examine emotion self-regulation and coregulation in romantic couples using daily self-reports of positive and negative affect. We fit these data using a damped linear oscillator model specified as a latent differential equation to investigate affect dynamics at the individual level and coupled influences for the 2 partners in each couple.…

  12. Fitness costs of worker specialization for ant societies.

    PubMed

    Jongepier, Evelien; Foitzik, Susanne

    2016-01-13

    Division of labour is of fundamental importance for the success of societies, yet little is known about how individual specialization affects the fitness of the group as a whole. While specialized workers may be more efficient in the tasks they perform than generalists, they may also lack the flexibility to respond to rapid shifts in task needs. Such rigidity could impose fitness costs when societies face dynamic and unpredictable events, such as an attack by socially parasitic slavemakers. Here, we experimentally assess the colony-level fitness consequences of behavioural specialization in Temnothorax longispinosus ants that are attacked by the slavemaker ant T. americanus. We manipulated the social organization of 102 T. longispinosus colonies, based on the behavioural responses of all 3842 workers. We find that strict specialization is disadvantageous for a colony's annual reproduction and growth during slave raids. These fitness costs may favour generalist strategies in dynamic environments, as we also demonstrate that societies exposed to slavemakers in the field show a lower degree of specialization than those originating from slavemaker-free populations. Our findings provide an explanation for the ubiquity of generalists and highlight their importance for the flexibility and functional robustness of entire societies. PMID:26763706

  13. Effect of leak location on measured respirator fit.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, C D; Park, D L

    1997-06-01

    A significant difference in leak detection as a function of leak location was observed during a study assessing how well current models of quantitative fit-test systems detect leakage. Known sources of leakage (matched hypodermic needles) were introduced at three fixed locations into factory-probed half-mask and full-face respirators mounted on a headform-breathing machine system. The leak locations were the bridge of the nose, the cheek, and the chin. Baseline leakage into each respirator was determined by conducting a fit-test with all fixed leak sources capped. Fit tests were repeated with each individual source uncapped. Study objectives included determining (1) how well each system measured the leakage, and (2) whether leak location had any effect on leak measurement. An ambient aerosol fit-test system (Portacount Plus) and a controlled negative pressure (CNP) fit-test system (FitTester 3000) were used. The ambient aerosol system detected an overall average of 37.2% of the known leakage, with a coefficient of variation of 44.7%. An analysis of variance showed significant differences in aerosol system measurements of leakage as a function of leak location and mask type (p < 0.001). A different pattern of aerosol leak detection as a function of leak location was observed between half-mask and full-face respirators, which appears to be related to differences in in-mask airflow dynamics. The CNP system detected an overall average of 97.9% of the known leakage through the same hypodermic needles, with a coefficient of variation of 4.3%. CNP system results were not affected by leak location (p > 0.43) or mask type (p > 0.32). PMID:9183835

  14. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  15. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.E.; Rose, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Flared tube attachment fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkire, I. D.; King, J. P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tubes can be flared first, then attached to valves and other flow line components, with new fitting that can be disassembled and reused. Installed fitting can be disassembled so parts can be inspected. It can be salvaged and reused without damaging flared tube; tube can be coated, tempered, or otherwise treated after it has been flared, rather than before, as was previously required. Fitting consists of threaded male portion with conical seating surface, hexagonal nut with hole larger than other diameter of flared end of tube, and split ferrule.

  17. Fitness of resprouters versus seeders in relation to nutrient availability in two Plantago species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latzel, Vít; Klimešová, Jitka

    2009-07-01

    Two contrasting strategies of plants from disturbed areas are reported to depend on nutrient availability. Resprouters, investing into storage and capable of vegetative regeneration after disturbance, are predicted to be enhanced in nutrient poor environments. This contrasts to seeders, which invest preferentially into seed production and regenerating only from seeds, and are thought to prevail in nutrient rich environments. To test such predicted dichotomy, we set up an experiment with two facultative resprouters with contrasting nutrient demands and assessed the fitness of individuals regenerated from seeds and root fragments in differently productive environments. We hypothesized that 1) plants with higher nutrient demands have a higher fitness as seeders irrespectable of nutrient availability and/or 2) both species will have a higher fitness as resprouters under lower nutrient availability and as seeders when nutrient availability is higher. Nutrient availability was also manipulated prior to and after disturbance to evaluate the impact of changing nutrient availability on the strategy of resprouting. The results of our pot experiment with Plantago lanceolata and Plantago media supported the first but not the second hypothesis. Moreover, high nutrient availability prior to disturbance negatively affected resprouting success, but the growth and fitness of successfully regenerated individuals were enhanced under higher nutrient availability. We concluded that resprouting from roots after disturbance is affected by nutrient availability, but this effect considerably differs between individual life-history stages.

  18. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  19. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  20. WOLF: FITS file processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Lior

    2012-12-01

    WOLF processes FITS files and generates photometry files, annotated JPGs, opacity maps, background, transient detection and luminance changes detection. This software was used to process data for the Night Sky Live project.

  1. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Strengthen your bones and muscles Improve your mental health and mood Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you're an older adult Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise ...

  2. Does a short-term increase in testosterone affect the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression? - An approach using an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study hormonal effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we describe an approach based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study short-term effects of hormones on behavior. The control of territorial aggression has been traditionally linked to testosterone. Males of some vertebrate species show an increase in testosterone during territorial interactions and implantation studies suggest that such an increase in testosterone enhances the intensity and persistence of aggression. Here, we tested whether a short-term maximum release of testosterone - based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope - affects the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression in male black redstarts, a bird species in which testosterone does not increase during territorial encounters. An injection with gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) induced a physiological peak in plasma testosterone that was specific for each individual (=individual reactive scope). However, such short-term surges in an individual's testosterone concentration did not affect the intensity or persistence of aggression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated (1) that a species that naturally does not increase testosterone during male-male encounters would not benefit from such an increase in terms of being more aggressive, (2) that behavioral studies using GnRH-injections represent a promising approach to study species differences in androgen responsiveness, and (3) that injections of releasing or tropic hormones in general may be a suitable approach to study short-term influences of hormones on behavior. These injections effectively mimic the potential short-term changes in hormones that can occur in the real life of individuals and enable us to study the effects of hormonal changes on behavior or other traits within an ecological and evolutionary framework. PMID:26122036

  3. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles. PMID:26736588

  4. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  5. The Manitoba Schools' Physical Fitness Survey (1976-77).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    An abundance of research relative to physical fitness and, more generally, physical education of school children, has surfaced during the past few years. Negative aspects of health and physical fitness are increasing year by year, and further evidence suggests that academic performance is negatively affected by low levels of fitness. A survey was…

  6. The Age Pattern of Increases in Mortality Affected by HIV: Bayesian Fit of the Heligman-Pollard Model to Data from the Agincourt HDSS Field Site in Rural Northeast South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sharrow, David J.; Clark, Samuel J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigate the sex-age-specific changes in the mortality of a prospectively monitored rural population in South Africa. We quantify changes in the age pattern of mortality in a parsimonious way by estimating the eight parameters of the Heligman-Pollard (HP) model of age-specific mortality. In its traditional form this model is difficult to fit and does not account for uncertainty. Objective 1. To quantify changes in the sex-age pattern of mortality experienced by a population with endemic HIV. 2. To develop and demonstrate a robust Bayesian estimation method for the HP model that accounts for uncertainty. Methods Bayesian estimation methods are adapted to work with the HP model. Temporal changes in parameter values are related to changes in HIV prevalence. Results Over the period when the HIV epidemic in South Africa was growing, mortality in the population described by our data increased profoundly with losses of life expectancy of ~15 years for both males and females. The temporal changes in the HP parameters reflect in a parsimonious way the changes in the age pattern of mortality. We develop a robust Bayesian method to estimate the eight parameters of the HP model and thoroughly demonstrate it. Conclusions Changes in mortality in South Africa over the past fifteen years have been profound. The HP model can be fit well using Bayesian methods, and the results can be useful in developing a parsimonious description of changes in the age pattern of mortality. Comments The motivating aim of this work is to develop new methods that can be useful in applying the HP eight-parameter model of age-specific mortality. We have done this and chosen an interesting application to demonstrate the new methods. PMID:24453696

  7. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Money Buys Happiness When Spending Fits Our Personality.

    PubMed

    Matz, Sandra C; Gladstone, Joe J; Stillwell, David

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to decades of research reporting surprisingly weak relationships between consumption and happiness, recent findings suggest that money can indeed increase happiness if it is spent the "right way" (e.g., on experiences or on other people). Drawing on the concept of psychological fit, we extend this research by arguing that individual differences play a central role in determining the "right" type of spending to increase well-being. In a field study using more than 76,000 bank-transaction records, we found that individuals spend more on products that match their personality, and that people whose purchases better match their personality report higher levels of life satisfaction. This effect of psychological fit on happiness was stronger than the effect of individuals' total income or the effect of their total spending. A follow-up study showed a causal effect: Personality-matched spending increased positive affect. In summary, when spending matches the buyer's personality, it appears that money can indeed buy happiness. PMID:27056977

  9. Differential expression profiles of microRNA in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with white nose syndrome affected and unaffected individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, D.D.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Hitt, N.P.; King, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    First documented in New York State in 2006, white nose syndrome (WNS) quickly became the leading cause of mortality in hibernating bat species in the United States. WNS is caused by a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. Clinical signs of this pathogen are expressed as a dusty white fungus predominately around the nose and on the wings of affected bats. Relatively new biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are being targeted as markers to predict the syndrome prior to the clinical manifestation. The primary objective of this study was to identify miRNAs that could serve as biomarkers and proxies of little brown bat health. Bats were collected from hibernacula that had tested positive and negative for WNS. Genetic sequencing was completed using the Ion Torrent platform. A number of miRNAs were identified from the liver as putative biomarkers of WNS. However, given the small sample size for each treatment, this data set has only coarsely identified miRNAs indicative of WNS, and further validation is required.

  10. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. PMID:22478201

  11. Sensitivity of Fit Indices to Misspecification in Growth Curve Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification in within-individual covariance structure, between-individual covariance structure, and marginal mean structure in growth curve models. Five commonly used fit indices were examined, including the likelihood ratio test statistic, root mean square error of…

  12. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Affecting Factors among Individuals Aged 30 and over in Balçova District of İzmir

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Ahmet; Şimşek, Hatice; Doğanay, Sinem; Günay, Türkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to an increase twice as much in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and four times as much in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence since the second half of the 20th century. Aims: This study aims to determine and discuss the prevalence of the MetS and co- factors among individuals at the age of 30 and over in Balcova district of İzmir province according to the American National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and InternationalDiabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data obtained from the Balcova Heart Project in İzmir were used in the study. The dependent variable of the study is MetS existence. The independent variables were socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, and marital status), self-perceived economic status, physical activity, smoking status, healthy nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of MetS was 36.9% according to the diagnostic criteria of IDF, while it was 27.4% according to ATP III criteria. According to the both criteria, increasing age, low education, poor economic status perception, physical inactivity, and obesity increase the risk of MetS. Apart from the IDF criteria, being female and a current smoker increase the risk of the MetS in the NCEP-ATP III. Conclusion: Compared to educational studies of MetS as of today, which are community and health-oriented studies, it is challenging that the prevalence of MetS was found to be high for both criteria in our study. Therefore, in particular, primary health care doctors must be prompted to protect the public against DM and CVD in particular. PMID:27308078

  13. T1R2 and T1R3 subunits are individually unnecessary for normal affective licking responses to Polycose: implications for saccharide taste receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Treesukosol, Yada; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2009-04-01

    The T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are expressed in taste receptor cells and form a heterodimer binding with compounds described as sweet by humans. We examined whether Polycose taste might be mediated through this heterodimer by testing T1R2 knockout (KO) and T1R3 KO mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls in a series of brief-access taste tests (25-min sessions with 5-s trials). Sucrose, Na-saccharin, and Polycose were each tested for three consecutive sessions with order of presentation varied among subgroups in a Latin-Square manner. Both KO groups displayed blunted licking responses and initiated significantly fewer trials of sucrose and Na-saccharin across a range of concentrations. KO mice tested after Polycose exposure demonstrated some degree of concentration-dependent licking of sucrose, likely attributable to learning related to prior postingestive experience. These results are consistent with prior findings in the literature, implicating the T1R2+3 heterodimer as the principal taste receptor for sweet-tasting ligands, and also provide support for the potential of postingestive experience to influence responding in the KO mice. In contrast, T1R2 KO and T1R3 KO mice displayed concentration-dependent licking responses to Polycose that tracked those of their WT controls and in some cases licked midrange concentrations more; the number of Polycose trials initiated overall did not differ between KO and WT mice. Thus, the T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are individually unnecessary for normal concentration-dependent licking of Polycose to be expressed in a brief-access test. Whether at least one of these T1R protein subunits is necessary for normal Polycose responsiveness remains untested. Alternatively, there may be a novel taste receptor(s) that mediates polysaccharide taste. PMID:19158407

  14. No consistent difference in gray matter volume between individuals with fibromyalgia and age-matched healthy subjects when controlling for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Michael C; Harris, Richard E; Sundgren, Pia C; Welsh, Robert C; Fernandes, Carlo R; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, David A

    2009-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for the presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p< or =.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={-28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=-.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  15. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  16. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  17. Personality and reproductive fitness.

    PubMed

    Eaves, L J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Hewitt, J K; Neale, M C

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between reproductive success (number of biological children) and personality was explored in 1101 postmenopausal females from the Australian twin registry. The quadratic response surface relating fitness to extraversion (E) and neuroticism (N) showed a saddle point at intermediate levels of E and N. Selection was shown to be stabilizing, i.e., having an intermediate optimum, along the axis low E, low N-high E, high N and more mildly disruptive, having greater fitness in the extremes, along the axis low N, high E-high N, low E. Neither dimension of personality considered by itself showed a significant linear or quadratic relationship to reproductive success. Sections through the fitness surface, however, show selection tends to favor high neuroticism levels in introverts and low neuroticism levels in extroverts. PMID:2288546

  18. Maternal investment mediates offspring life history variation with context-dependent fitness consequences.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael P; Landberg, Tobias; Whiteman, Howard H

    2015-09-01

    Maternal effects, such as per capita maternal investment, often interact with environmental conditions to strongly affect traits expressed early in ontogeny. However, their impact on adult life history traits and fitness components is relatively unknown. Theory predicts that lower per capita maternal investment will have strong fitness costs when the offspring develop in unfavorable conditions, yet few studies have experimentally manipulated per capita maternal investment and followed offspring through adulthood. We used a surgical embryonic yolk removal technique to investigate how per capita maternal investment interacted with an important ecological factor, larval density, to mediate offspring life history traits through reproductive maturity in an amphibian, Ambystoma talpoideum. We predicted that increased larval density would reinforce the life history variation induced by differences in per capita investment (i.e., Controls vs. Reduced Yolk), with Reduced larvae ultimately expressing traits associated with lower fitness than Controls when raised at high densities. We found that Reduced individuals were initially smaller and more developed, caught up in size to Controls within the first month of the larval stage, but were smaller at the end of the larval stage in low densities. Reduced individuals also were more likely to undergo metamorphosis at high densities and mature 'females invested in more eggs for their body sizes than Controls. Together, our results do not support our hypothesis, but instead indicate that Reduced individuals express traits associated with higher fitness when they develop in high-density environments, but lower fitness in low-density environments. The observed life history and fitness patterns are consistent with the "maternal match" hypothesis, which predicts that when the maternal environment (e.g., high density) results in phenotypic variation that is transmitted to the offspring (e.g., reduced per capita yolk investment), and

  19. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  20. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  1. Fitting the cervical cap.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, A K; Baker, N N; Haney, S L

    1988-07-01

    The cervical cap is now available for general use by American women. Several steps are necessary to select women who are good candidates for cap usage and to successfully fit the cap. Many women are not good candidates for the cap. The cap is generally not suitable for women who have recently become sexually active or who are first-time contraceptors. Many users are women who cannot use more widely available contraceptives. Successful cap use requires a highly motivated, persistent woman who will correctly insert and remove her cap. The size, shape, length, position and location of the cervix must be assessed by the clinician prior to fitting the cap. The cervix should be visually inspected for lesions or cervicitis and a Pap smear should be taken. After an initial cap is selected, the stability of the cap, gaps between the cap and cervix, areas of uncovered cervix and the adequacy of the suction seal should be assessed. The woman should be taught how to insert and remove the cap. Additionally, she should be instructed to use a backup method of contraception until she is sure that the cap will remain in place during sexual intercourse. Successful cap fitting requires a careful, methodical approach by the clinician and a carefully selected, highly motivated client. This article presents the steps of cervical cap fitting. PMID:3405494

  2. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  3. Measuring Your Fitness Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... you’re becoming more fit, such as increased energy, greater ability to perform daily tasks, or even an improved outlook on life. VISIT www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life l Read more about increasing your activity level. l Print useful tools. l Order a free exercise guide or DVD. l Share your exercise ...

  4. Making the Fitness Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Sheri J.; Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine

    2005-01-01

    Children's fitness levels are decreasing at an alarming rate. The Centers for Disease Control has determined that approximately 33% of children do not regularly engage in vigorous physical activity (CDC, 2002). As a result, childhood obesity has increased 100% since 1980 in the United States due to physical inactivity (CDC, 2004). A well-planned…

  5. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  6. Finding What Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  7. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  8. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  9. More Cooperative and Fitness Activities on Scooters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes both individual and team cooperative and fitness activities that can be played with scooters. The activities include but are not limited to: (1) Traffic Jam; (2) Chariot; (3) Crab Walk; (4) Pom Pom Pull Away; (5) Clothespin Hustle; (6) Four Corners; (7) Spider; (8) Carousel; (9) Amoeba; (10) Caterpillar; (11) Centipede; (12)…

  10. Psychological distress leads to reduced physical activity and fitness in children: the Australian longitudinal LOOK study.

    PubMed

    Olive, L S; Telford, R M; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P; Telford, R D

    2016-08-01

    Stress and depression can affect an individual's level of physical activity and fitness, which may place them at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the longitudinal effects of stress and depression on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among youth. Six hundred and seventy-six children, initially aged 8 years, from the LOOK study completed a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory, the Children's Stress Questionnaire, and objective physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessments on three occasions, every 4 years. Depressive symptoms had a direct effect (longitudinal) on the cardiorespiratory fitness of girls, with a similar trend for boys. In cross-sectional analyses, a child who identified with more symptoms of depression and stress was likely to be less fit and less physically active, which in girls extended to less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Our findings, that both physical activity and fitness are impacted by depression and stress may contribute to strategies directed towards achieving enhanced physical activity and reductions in obesity. PMID:26894482

  11. Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei.

    PubMed

    Lind, Martin I; Zwoinska, Martyna K; Meurling, Sara; Carlsson, Hanne; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase. PMID:26472877

  12. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.; Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  13. Design of the EXercise Intervention after Stem cell Transplantation (EXIST) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individualized high intensity physical exercise program on fitness and fatigue in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-) Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of high-dose chemotherapy combined with autologous stem cell transplantation has improved the outcome of hematologic malignancies. Nevertheless, this treatment can cause persistent fatigue and a reduced global quality of life, role and physical function. Physical exercise interventions may be beneficial for physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life. However, the trials conducted so far to test the effects of physical exercise interventions in this group of patients were of poor to moderate methodological quality and economic evaluations are lacking. Hence there is need for a rigorous, appropriately controlled assessment of the effectiveness of exercise programs in these patients. The aims of the present study are (1) to determine the effectiveness of an individualized high intensity strength and interval training program with respect to physiological and psychological health status in patients with multiple myeloma or (non-)Hodgkin's lymphoma who have recently undergone high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation; and (2) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this program. Methods A multicenter, prospective, single blind randomized controlled trial will be performed. We aim to recruit 120 patients within an inclusion period of 2 years at 7 hospitals in the Netherlands. The patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) intervention plus usual care; or (2) usual care. The intervention consists of an 18-week individualized supervised high-intensity exercise program and counselling. The primary outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength and fatigue) and secondary outcomes are assessed at baseline, at completion of the intervention and at 12 months follow-up. Discussion The strengths of this study include the solid trial design with clearly defined research groups and standardized outcome measures, the inclusion of an economic evaluation and the inclusion of both resistance and endurance

  14. Sex recombination, and reproductive fitness: an experimental study using Paramecium

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, D.

    1982-08-01

    The effect of sex and recombination on reproductive fitness are measured using five wild stocks of Paramecium primaurelia. Among the wild stocks there were highly significant differences in growth rates. No hybrid had as low a fitness as the least fit parental stock. Recombination produced genotypes of higher fitness than those of either parent only in the cross between the two stocks of lowest fitness. The increase in variance of fitness as a result of recombination was almost exclusively attributable to the generation lines with low fitness. The fitness consequences of sexuality and mate choice were stock specific; some individuals leaving the most descendants by inbreeding, others by outcrossing. For most crosses the short-term advantage of sex, if any, accrue from the fusion of different gametes (hybrid vigor) and not from recombination. Since the homozygous genotype with the highest fitnes left the most progeny by inbreeding (no recombination), the persistence of conjugation in P. primaurelia is paradoxical. (JMT)

  15. Whole-pattern fitting technique in serial femtosecond nanocrystallography

    PubMed Central

    Dilanian, Ruben A.; Williams, Sophie R.; Martin, Andrew V.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Quiney, Harry M.

    2016-01-01

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) has created new opportunities in the field of structural analysis of protein nanocrystals. The intensity and timescale characteristics of the X-ray free-electron laser sources used in SFX experiments necessitate the analysis of a large collection of individual crystals of variable shape and quality to ultimately solve a single, average crystal structure. Ensembles of crystals are commonly encountered in powder diffraction, but serial crystallography is different because each crystal is measured individually and can be oriented via indexing and merged into a three-dimensional data set, as is done for conventional crystallography data. In this way, serial femtosecond crystallography data lie in between conventional crystallography data and powder diffraction data, sharing features of both. The extremely small sizes of nanocrystals, as well as the possible imperfections of their crystallite structure, significantly affect the diffraction pattern and raise the question of how best to extract accurate structure-factor moduli from serial crystallography data. Here it is demonstrated that whole-pattern fitting techniques established for one-dimensional powder diffraction analysis can be feasibly extended to higher dimensions for the analysis of merged SFX diffraction data. It is shown that for very small crystals, whole-pattern fitting methods are more accurate than Monte Carlo integration methods that are currently used. PMID:27006776

  16. Chandra FITS Dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelman, S. L.; Rots, A. H.; Michaud, K.; Blecksmith, S. E.

    2004-07-01

    Well-defined data and metadata specifications are fundamental for the operation of large observing facilities. We have collected the complete body of FITS keywords, as used in Chandra data products, into a dictionary database that provides easy access to their use and meaning. We present an account of the functionality of the dictionary, as well as a description of the database design and details of the tools which display the dictionary.

  17. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... who later transitioned into this syndrome. References & Resources Epilepsy Information http://www.epilepsy.com Thiele EA, Weiner HL (2010) Epilepsy in TSC, In, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Genes, Clinical ...

  18. Effects of inbreeding on fitness-related traits in a small isolated moose population

    PubMed Central

    Haanes, Hallvard; Markussen, Stine S; Herfindal, Ivar; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Heim, Morten; Midthjell, Liv; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding can affect fitness-related traits at different life history stages and may interact with environmental variation to induce even larger effects. We used genetic parentage assignment based on 22 microsatellite loci to determine a 25 year long pedigree for a newly established island population of moose with 20–40 reproducing individuals annually. We used the pedigree to calculate individual inbreeding coefficients and examined for effects of individual inbreeding (f) and heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We found negative effects of f on birth date, calf body mass and twinning rate. The relationship between f and calf body mass and twinning rate were found to be separate but weaker after accounting for birth date. We found no support for an inbreeding effect on the age-specific lifetime reproductive success of females. The influence of f on birth date was related to climatic conditions during the spring prior to birth, indicating that calves with a low f were born earlier after a cold spring than calves with high f. In years with a warm spring, calf f did not affect birth date. The results suggest that severe inbreeding in moose has both indirect effects on fitness through delayed birth and lower juvenile body mass, as well as separate direct effects, as there still was a significant relationship between f and twinning rate after accounting for birth date and body mass as calf. Consequently, severe inbreeding as found in the study population may have consequences for population growth and extinction risk. PMID:24324873

  19. Fitting the phenomenological MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Allanach, Benjamin C.; Quevedo, Fernando; Feroz, Farhan; Hobson, Mike

    2010-05-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using 'nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the {mu} parameter, the amount of fine-tuning, dark matter properties, and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior-independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  20. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  1. Reducing respirator fit test errors: a multi-donning approach.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L; Coffey, C C; Jensen, P A; Zhuang, Z

    2005-08-01

    As a continuation of recent studies to assess the accuracy of existing fit test methods, a multi-donning approach to fit testing is presented. As an example of that approach, a multi-donning quantitative fit test for filtering-facepiece respirators is presented and analyzed by comparing its error rates with those of the single-donning approach of current fit test methods. That analysis indicates the multi-donning fit test has the potential to reduce both the alpha error and the beta error to half that of single-donning fit tests. The alpha error is the error of failing a respirator that should pass; the beta error is the error of passing a respirator that should fail. Lowering fit test error rates for filtering-facepiece respirators is important because fit testing is an essential means of helping assure that an individual has selected an adequately fitting respirator. To reduce the alpha and beta error inherent in current fit test methods, the proposed fit test for filtering-facepiece respirators incorporates five donnings of the facepiece, unlike the single donning of existing fit test methods. The analysis presented here indicates that the multiple-donning approach reduces the element of chance in the fit test result and thereby increases the consistency and accuracy of the fit tests. The time to conduct the multi-donning test can approximate the time for current, single-donning tests by shortening the time the respirator is worn after each donning to about 10 sec. And, unlike current fit tests for filtering-facepieces that measure only faceseal leakage, the example multiple-donning fit test considered here is based on a measurement of total leakage (faceseal plus filter). Utilizing total respirator leakage can result in simpler quantitative fit test instrumentation and a fit test that is more relevant to the workplace. Further trials with human subjects are recommended in order to validate the proposed multi-donning approach. PMID:16080261

  2. Smartphone Applications for Patients' Health and Fitness.

    PubMed

    Higgins, John P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare providers are often looking for ways to objectively monitor and improve their patients' health and fitness, especially in between patient visits. Some insurance companies are using applications data as incentives to improve health and lower premiums. As more and more people start to use smartphones, they may provide a tool to help improve a patient's health and fitness. Specifically, fitness applications or "apps" on smartphones are programs that use data collected from a smartphone's inbuilt tools, such as the Global Positioning System, accelerometer, microphone, speaker, and camera, to measure health and fitness parameters. The apps then analyze these data and summarize them, as well as devise individualized plans based on users' goals, provide frequent feedback, personalized coaching, and additional motivation by allowing milestones to be shared on social media. This article introduces evidence that apps can better help patients reach their health and fitness goals. It then discusses what features to look for in an app, followed by an overview of popular health and fitness apps. Last, patient scenarios with app recommendations, limitations of apps, and future research are discussed. PMID:26091764

  3. Pressure losses across multiple fittings in ventilation ducts.

    PubMed

    Ai, Z T; Mak, C M

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of pressure losses across in-duct fittings is of significance in relation to the accurate sizing and good energy efficiency of air-delivery systems. Current design guides provide design methods and data for the prediction of pressure losses only for a single and isolated fitting. This study presents an investigation of pressure losses across multiple interactive in-duct fittings in a ventilation duct. A laboratory measurement of pressure losses across one fitting and multiple fittings in a ventilation duct is carried out. The pressure loss across multiple interactive fittings is lower than that across multiple similar individual fittings, while the percentage decrease is dependent on the configuration and combination of the fittings. This implies that the pressure loss across multiple closely mounted fittings calculated by summing the pressure losses across individual fittings, as provided in the ASHRAE handbook and the CIBSE guide, is overpredicted. The numerical prediction of the pressure losses across multiple fittings using the large-eddy simulation (LES) model shows good agreement with the measured data, suggesting that this model is a useful tool in ductwork design and can help to save experimental resources and improve experimental accuracy and reliability. PMID:24385871

  4. Pressure Losses across Multiple Fittings in Ventilation Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Z. T.; Mak, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of pressure losses across in-duct fittings is of significance in relation to the accurate sizing and good energy efficiency of air-delivery systems. Current design guides provide design methods and data for the prediction of pressure losses only for a single and isolated fitting. This study presents an investigation of pressure losses across multiple interactive in-duct fittings in a ventilation duct. A laboratory measurement of pressure losses across one fitting and multiple fittings in a ventilation duct is carried out. The pressure loss across multiple interactive fittings is lower than that across multiple similar individual fittings, while the percentage decrease is dependent on the configuration and combination of the fittings. This implies that the pressure loss across multiple closely mounted fittings calculated by summing the pressure losses across individual fittings, as provided in the ASHRAE handbook and the CIBSE guide, is overpredicted. The numerical prediction of the pressure losses across multiple fittings using the large-eddy simulation (LES) model shows good agreement with the measured data, suggesting that this model is a useful tool in ductwork design and can help to save experimental resources and improve experimental accuracy and reliability. PMID:24385871

  5. Making Media Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Fritz; Patrick, James

    1977-01-01

    An abbreviated description of design and construction of an individualized program for automotive shop courses presented as an example of what can be done with limited resources to improve program quality. (HD)

  6. Cardiorespiratory responses of Hi Fit and Low Fit subjects to mental challenge during exercise.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, E O; Webb, H E; Weldy, M L; Fabianke, E C; Orndorff, G R; Starks, M A

    2006-12-01

    The influence of psychological states on physiological responses during exercise is of considerable importance to individuals for which the efficiency of energy production is critical to occupational performance. Numerous studies have shown that aerobic fitness is associated with enhanced cardiovascular efficiency at rest and that responses to mental stress demonstrate evidence of increased sensitivity (relative increase in HR response) and enhanced efficiency (a decrease in absolute HR). However, the effect of aerobic fitness and its impact on cardiorespiratory (CR) responses to psychological stress during exercise has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was three-fold; (1) to examine during exercise, anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses to a mental challenge, (2) to examine anxiety and heart rate (HR) responses from rest to exercise with mental challenge between below average fitness (Low Fit) and well-above average fitness (Hi Fit) individuals (exercising at similar relative intensities), and (3) to examine anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses of Low Fit and Hi Fit individuals to a mental challenge during exercise at a similar relative intensity. Twelve Low Fit and eleven Hi Fit subjects participated in two, 32-minute cycle ergometer rides at 65 % of VO2max. In the mental challenge condition (MCC), subjects rode while participating in mentally challenging tasks (Stroop Color-Word task and mental arithmetic) from min 6 to min 14 of the protocol. In the no mental challenge condition (NMCC), subjects exercised at the same intensity and duration without a stressor. Subjects were counter-balanced between fitness levels and condition. HR, VE, VE/VO2, RR, VO2, RER, effort sense (RPE), and state anxiety (SAI) were assessed at 5, 14, 24, and 30 min. SAI was also assessed at - 5 min before exercise and after 15 min of recovery. In addition, the NASA task load index (NTLX) was used to assess perceived overall workload. SAI increased

  7. A Comprehensive Approach for Assessing Person Fit with Test-Retest Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.

    2014-01-01

    Item response theory (IRT) models allow model-data fit to be assessed at the individual level by using person-fit indices. This assessment is also feasible when IRT is used to model test-retest data. However, person-fit developments for this type of modeling are virtually nonexistent. This article proposes a general person-fit approach for…

  8. Distribution of Fitness in Populations of Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Md Abu; Lott, William B.; Aaskov, John

    2014-01-01

    Genetically diverse RNA viruses like dengue viruses (DENVs) segregate into multiple, genetically distinct, lineages that temporally arise and disappear on a regular basis. Lineage turnover may occur through multiple processes such as, stochastic or due to variations in fitness. To determine the variation of fitness, we measured the distribution of fitness within DENV populations and correlated it with lineage extinction and replacement. The fitness of most members within a population proved lower than the aggregate fitness of populations from which they were drawn, but lineage replacement events were not associated with changes in the distribution of fitness. These data provide insights into variations in fitness of DENV populations, extending our understanding of the complexity between members of individual populations. PMID:25222471

  9. The joys and perils of flexible fitting.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Niels

    2014-01-01

    While performing their functions, biological macromolecules often form large, dynamically changing macromolecular assemblies. Only a relatively small number of such assemblies have been accessible to the atomic-resolution techniques X-ray crystallography and NMR. Electron microscopy in conjunction with image reconstruction has become the preferred alternative for revealing the structures of such macromolecular complexes. However, for most assemblies the achievable resolution is too low to allow accurate atomic modeling directly from the data. Yet, useful models often can be obtained by fitting atomic models of individual components into a low-resolution reconstruction of the entire assembly. Several algorithms for achieving optimal fits in this context were developed recently, many allowing considerable degrees of flexibility to account for binding-induced conformational changes of the assembly components. This chapter describes the advantages and potential pitfalls of these methods and puts them into perspective with alternative approaches such as iterative modular fitting of rigid-body domains. PMID:24446360

  10. Anti-aging therapy through fitness enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Garzón, Manuel J; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Gutiérrez, Ángel

    2006-01-01

    Physical exercise is proposed as a highly effective means of treating and preventing the main causes of morbidity and mortality – most of which are associated with aging – in industrialized countries. Low physical fitness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and all-causes morbidity and mortality; indeed, it is even a predictor of these problems. When properly measured, the assessment of physical fitness can be a highly valuable indicator of health and life expectancy and, therefore, should be performed routinely in the clinical setting. Individually adapted training programs could be prescribed based on fitness assessment results and an adequate knowledge of patient lifestyle and daily physical activity. Such training programs would allow people to develop their maximum physical potential, improve their physical and mental health, and attenuate the negative consequences of aging. PMID:18046873

  11. Fitting Neuron Models to Spike Trains

    PubMed Central

    Rossant, Cyrille; Goodman, Dan F. M.; Fontaine, Bertrand; Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Magnusson, Anna K.; Brette, Romain

    2011-01-01

    Computational modeling is increasingly used to understand the function of neural circuits in systems neuroscience. These studies require models of individual neurons with realistic input–output properties. Recently, it was found that spiking models can accurately predict the precisely timed spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response to somatically injected currents, if properly fitted. This requires fitting techniques that are efficient and flexible enough to easily test different candidate models. We present a generic solution, based on the Brian simulator (a neural network simulator in Python), which allows the user to define and fit arbitrary neuron models to electrophysiological recordings. It relies on vectorization and parallel computing techniques to achieve efficiency. We demonstrate its use on neural recordings in the barrel cortex and in the auditory brainstem, and confirm that simple adaptive spiking models can accurately predict the response of cortical neurons. Finally, we show how a complex multicompartmental model can be reduced to a simple effective spiking model. PMID:21415925

  12. The Informative Analysis of Individual Trend Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Additive and non-additive models for an individual trend curve are examined, and five methods for fitting these to a set of individuals are described. It is suggested that classical fitting methods are more informative than latent curve methods, and commonly preferable. A limited study of the effect of time-structure is reported, and results on…

  13. The Personalized System of Instruction in Fitness Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla

    2011-01-01

    Fitness education is an important component in the promotion of health-enhancing behaviors that lead to physically active lifestyles. However, using a teacher-centered approach to teach fitness may be boring and may limit the application of the content to the individual student. The personalized system of instruction (PSI) is an instructional…

  14. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ... vigorous program for people of all ability and fitness levels. Dance video games and DVDs are also ...

  15. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance Your Way to Fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  16. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  17. Beyond model fitting SEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ignacio

    2012-08-01

    Extracting star formation histories from spectra is a process plagued by numerous degeneracies among the parameters that contribute to the definition of the underlying stellar populations. Traditional approaches to overcome such degeneracies involve carefully defined line strength or spectral fitting procedures. However, all these methods rely on comparisons with population synthesis models. This paper illustrates alternative approaches based on the statistical properties of the information that can be extracted from uniformly selected samples of observed spectra, without any prior reference to modelling. Such methods are more useful with large datasets, such as surveys, where the information from thousands of spectra can be exploited to classify galaxies. An illustrative example is presented on the classification of early-type galaxies with optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  18. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Todd M.; Doak, Daniel F.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Kiers, E. Toby; Young, Truman P.; Goheen, Jacob R.; Pringle, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding cooperation is a central challenge in biology, because natural selection should favor “free-loaders” that reap benefits without reciprocating. For interspecific cooperation (mutualism), most approaches to this paradox focus on costs and benefits of individual partners and the strategies mutualists use to associate with beneficial partners. However, natural selection acts on lifetime fitness, and most mutualists, particularly longer-lived species interacting with shorter-lived partners (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, tropical trees and mycorrhizae) interact with multiple partner species throughout ontogeny. Determining how multiple partnerships might interactively affect lifetime fitness is a crucial unexplored link in understanding the evolution and maintenance of cooperation. The tropical tree Acacia drepanolobium associates with four symbiotic ant species whose short-term individual effects range from mutualistic to parasitic. Using a long-term dataset, we show that tree fitness is enhanced by partnering sequentially with sets of different ant symbionts over the ontogeny of a tree. These sets include a “sterilization parasite” that prevents reproduction and another that reduces tree survivorship. Trees associating with partner sets that include these “parasites” enhance lifetime fitness by trading off survivorship and fecundity at different life stages. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating mutualism within a community context and suggest that lifespan inequalities among mutualists may help cooperation persist in the face of exploitation. PMID:20855614

  19. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Todd M; Doak, Daniel F; Stanton, Maureen L; Bronstein, Judith L; Kiers, E Toby; Young, Truman P; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2010-10-01

    Understanding cooperation is a central challenge in biology, because natural selection should favor "free-loaders" that reap benefits without reciprocating. For interspecific cooperation (mutualism), most approaches to this paradox focus on costs and benefits of individual partners and the strategies mutualists use to associate with beneficial partners. However, natural selection acts on lifetime fitness, and most mutualists, particularly longer-lived species interacting with shorter-lived partners (e.g., corals and zooxanthellae, tropical trees and mycorrhizae) interact with multiple partner species throughout ontogeny. Determining how multiple partnerships might interactively affect lifetime fitness is a crucial unexplored link in understanding the evolution and maintenance of cooperation. The tropical tree Acacia drepanolobium associates with four symbiotic ant species whose short-term individual effects range from mutualistic to parasitic. Using a long-term dataset, we show that tree fitness is enhanced by partnering sequentially with sets of different ant symbionts over the ontogeny of a tree. These sets include a "sterilization parasite" that prevents reproduction and another that reduces tree survivorship. Trees associating with partner sets that include these "parasites" enhance lifetime fitness by trading off survivorship and fecundity at different life stages. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating mutualism within a community context and suggest that lifespan inequalities among mutualists may help cooperation persist in the face of exploitation. PMID:20855614

  20. Fitness. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and to provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The five sections in this book provide…

  1. Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; Humphries, Murray M; Boutin, Stan; McAdam, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components than would be expected from mutation–selection balance. Here, we used a long-term study of an individually marked population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) to look for evidence of (1) additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success and (2) fitness trade-offs between fitness components, such as male and female fitness or fitness in high- and low-resource environments. “Animal model” analyses of a multigenerational pedigree revealed modest maternal effects on fitness, but very low levels of additive genetic variance in lifetime reproductive success overall as well as fitness measures within each sex and environment. It therefore appears that there are very low levels of direct genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in red squirrels to facilitate contemporary adaptation in this population. PMID:24963372

  2. Searching the Clinical Fitness Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Eppstein, Margaret J.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Buzas, Jeffrey S.; Kauffman, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread unexplained variations in clinical practices and patient outcomes suggest major opportunities for improving the quality and safety of medical care. However, there is little consensus regarding how to best identify and disseminate healthcare improvements and a dearth of theory to guide the debate. Many consider multicenter randomized controlled trials to be the gold standard of evidence-based medicine, although results are often inconclusive or may not be generally applicable due to differences in the contexts within which care is provided. Increasingly, others advocate the use “quality improvement collaboratives”, in which multi-institutional teams share information to identify potentially better practices that are subsequently evaluated in the local contexts of specific institutions, but there is concern that such collaborative learning approaches lack the statistical rigor of randomized trials. Using an agent-based model, we show how and why a collaborative learning approach almost invariably leads to greater improvements in expected patient outcomes than more traditional approaches in searching simulated clinical fitness landscapes. This is due to a combination of greater statistical power and more context-dependent evaluation of treatments, especially in complex terrains where some combinations of practices may interact in affecting outcomes. The results of our simulations are consistent with observed limitations of randomized controlled trials and provide important insights into probable reasons for effectiveness of quality improvement collaboratives in the complex socio-technical environments of healthcare institutions. Our approach illustrates how modeling the evolution of medical practice as search on a clinical fitness landscape can aid in identifying and understanding strategies for improving the quality and safety of medical care. PMID:23166791

  3. Fitness for All: Conceptual Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Barbara D.

    1994-01-01

    Article proposes concepts that could be the basis for fitness attitudes and practices for all people regardless of skill, age, or expertise. An intrinsic definition of fitness highlights the importance of exercise and relaxation to fitness, integration of the whole self, and acceptance of self based on inherent worth. (SM)

  4. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  5. Fit Indices Versus Test Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2005-01-01

    Model evaluation is one of the most important aspects of structural equation modeling (SEM). Many model fit indices have been developed. It is not an exaggeration to say that nearly every publication using the SEM methodology has reported at least one fit index. Most fit indices are defined through test statistics. Studies and interpretation of…

  6. Fitness Testing of Students with Disabilities: Comparing and Modifying Fitness Tests to Provide Quality Assessments for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Sims, Sandra K.; Phillips, John

    2007-01-01

    Fitness testing is an important assessment tool used by physical educators for many purposes. Some states require fitness testing to monitor individual student progress throughout the school year. Some physical educators use it to monitor the effects of the physical education curriculum and to teach concepts such as goal setting and personal…

  7. Fit for Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Tom

    2010-01-01

    School design has become increasingly complex for the owner, educator, architect and designer. Decisions can affect a student's performance, a teacher's ability to educate, a facility's impact on the environment, a staff's ability to maintain that facility, and a community's desire to be prudent. But the first consideration should be the students.…

  8. Understanding Host-Switching by Ecological Fitting.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Sabrina B L; Braga, Mariana Pires; Brooks, Daniel R; Agosta, Salvatore J; Hoberg, Eric P; von Hartenthal, Francisco W; Boeger, Walter A

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that parasites are highly specialized with respect to their hosts, empirical evidence demonstrates that host switching rather than co-speciation is the dominant factor influencing the diversification of host-parasite associations. Ecological fitting in sloppy fitness space has been proposed as a mechanism allowing ecological specialists to host-switch readily. That proposal is tested herein using an individual-based model of host switching. The model considers a parasite species exposed to multiple host resources. Through time host range expansion can occur readily without the prior evolution of novel genetic capacities. It also produces non-linear variation in the size of the fitness space. The capacity for host colonization is strongly influenced by propagule pressure early in the process and by the size of the fitness space later. The simulations suggest that co-adaptation may be initiated by the temporary loss of less fit phenotypes. Further, parasites can persist for extended periods in sub-optimal hosts, and thus may colonize distantly related hosts by a "stepping-stone" process. PMID:26431199

  9. Temporal Resolution with a Prescriptive Fitting Formula

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Marc A.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Souza, Pamela E.; Stecker, G. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous work using laboratory-based paradigms documented that WDRC may improve gap detection compared to linear amplification. The purpose of this study was to measure temporal resolution using WDRC fit with compression ratios set for each listener’s hearing loss. Method Nineteen adults with mild-to-moderate hearing loss fitted with WDRC or linear amplification set to a prescriptive fitting method participated in this study. Subjects detected amplitude modulations and gaps. Two noise carriers were used: narrowband (1995–2005 Hz) or broadband (100–8000 Hz). Results Small differences between WDRC and linear amplification were observed in the measures of temporal resolution. Modulation detection thresholds decreased by a mean of 0.7 dB with WDRC compared to linear amplification. This reduction was observed for both carrier types. Gap detection thresholds did not differ between the two amplification conditions. Conclusions WDRC set using a prescriptive fitting method with individualized compression ratios had a small, but statistically significant effect on measures of modulation thresholds. Differences were not observed between the two amplification conditions for the measures of gap detection. These findings contrast with previous work using fixed compression ratios, suggesting that the effect of the fitting method on the compression ratio should be considered when attempting to generalize the effect of WDRC on temporal resolution to the clinic. PMID:23824436

  10. Understanding Host-Switching by Ecological Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Sabrina B. L.; Braga, Mariana Pires; Brooks, Daniel R.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Hoberg, Eric P.; von Hartenthal, Francisco W.; Boeger, Walter A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that parasites are highly specialized with respect to their hosts, empirical evidence demonstrates that host switching rather than co-speciation is the dominant factor influencing the diversification of host-parasite associations. Ecological fitting in sloppy fitness space has been proposed as a mechanism allowing ecological specialists to host-switch readily. That proposal is tested herein using an individual-based model of host switching. The model considers a parasite species exposed to multiple host resources. Through time host range expansion can occur readily without the prior evolution of novel genetic capacities. It also produces non-linear variation in the size of the fitness space. The capacity for host colonization is strongly influenced by propagule pressure early in the process and by the size of the fitness space later. The simulations suggest that co-adaptation may be initiated by the temporary loss of less fit phenotypes. Further, parasites can persist for extended periods in sub-optimal hosts, and thus may colonize distantly related hosts by a "stepping-stone" process. PMID:26431199

  11. Could sport specialization influence fitness and health of adults with mental retardation?

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Baldari, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Although several studies showed the positive effects of exercise and physical activity on health and well-being for individuals with ID, there is a lack of information about the influence of sport specialization on fitness and health components. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess: (a) physical fitness of athletes with intellectual disability (ID) compared with individuals included in recreational and leisure activity programs (non-athletic people); (b) contribution of sport specialization on athletes' fitness; and c) correlation of each fitness variable with subjects' ID levels. Twenty-two track and field, 19 basketball, and 23 non-athletic adults were recruited. Before and after a 9-month period, all participants performed fitness tests assessing body composition, flexibility (SR), arm muscular strength (HG), lower and upper-body muscular strength and endurance (SUP and PUP), explosive leg power (SLJ), cardiovascular endurance (ST), balance ability (FT), motor coordination (TUGT). The results showed that participants' weight, BMI and FT were significantly affected by time; SLJ by activity; ST, HG, PUP, SUP, and TUGT by both time and activity. Only track and field athletes increased significantly ST. All athletes improved significantly HG, PUP and SUP, instead non-athletic people decreased significantly SUP (p<0.01). TUGT improved significantly in track and field athletes (p<0.05), and decreased significantly in non-athletic people. ID level was positively correlated to TUGT. Findings of this study showed that physical activity improved fitness in adult athletes with ID, decreasing health risks. Athletes with lower ID obtained higher performance scores in motor coordination test. PMID:20434307

  12. How to measure inclusive fitness.

    PubMed

    Creel, S

    1990-09-22

    Although inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964) is regarded as the basic currency of natural selection, difficulty in applying inclusive fitness theory to field studies persists, a quarter-century after its introduction (Grafen 1982, 1984; Brown 1987). For instance, strict application of the original (and currently accepted) definition of inclusive fitness predicts that no one should ever attempt to breed among obligately cooperative breeders. Much of this confusion may have arisen because Hamilton's (1964) original verbal definition of inclusive fitness was not in complete accord with his justifying model. By re-examining Hamilton's original model, a modified verbal definition of inclusive fitness can be justified. PMID:1979447

  13. Fitness for Those with Disabilities and Older Adults | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feature: Healthy New Year Fitness for Those with Disabilities and Older Adults Past Issues / Winter 2016 Table of Contents Fitness for Those with Disabilities Physical activity is great for individuals of all ...

  14. The Right Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Students in primary and secondary school can expect to be at school an average of seven hours a day; students attending college are encouraged to dedicate at least 35 hours a week to studying--in addition to time spent in the classroom. The time and energy devoted to learning does not affect just the mind; it also can take a toll on a person's…

  15. Effect of test exercises and mask donning on measured respirator fit.

    PubMed

    Crutchfield, C D; Fairbank, E O; Greenstein, S L

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative respirator fit test protocols are typically defined by a series of fit test exercises. A rationale for the protocols that have been developed is generally not available. There also is little information available that describes the effect or effectiveness of the fit test exercises currently specified in respiratory protection standards. This study was designed to assess the relative impact of fit test exercises and mask donning on respirator fit as measured by a controlled negative pressure and an ambient aerosol fit test system. Multiple donnings of two different sizes of identical respirator models by each of 14 test subjects showed that donning affects respirator fit to a greater degree than fit test exercises. Currently specified fit test protocols emphasize test exercises, and the determination of fit is based on a single mask donning. A rationale for a modified fit test protocol based on fewer, more targeted test exercises and multiple mask donnings is presented. The modified protocol identified inadequately fitting respirators as effectively as the currently specified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) quantitative fit test protocol. The controlled negative pressure system measured significantly (p < 0.0001) more respirator leakage than the ambient aerosol fit test system. The bend over fit test exercise was found to be predictive of poor respirator fit by both fit test systems. For the better fitting respirators, only the talking exercise generated aerosol fit factors that were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than corresponding donning fit factors. PMID:10633954

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function in Midlife: Neuroprotection or Neuroselection?

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Israel, Salomon; Blumenthal, James A.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if better cognitive functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals reflects “neuroprotection,” in which fitness protects against age-related cognitive decline, or “neuroselection,” in which children with higher cognitive functioning select into more active lifestyles. Methods Children in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1,037) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Trail-Making, Rey-Delayed-Recall, and Grooved-Pegboard tasks as children and again at midlife (age-38). Adult cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a submaximal exercise test to estimate maximum-oxygen-consumption-adjusted-for-body-weight in milliliters/minute/kilogram (VO2max). We tested if more-fit individuals had better cognitive functioning than their less-fit counterparts (which could be consistent with neuroprotection), and if better childhood cognitive functioning predisposed to better adult cardiorespiratory fitness (neuroselection). Finally, we examined possible mechanisms of neuroselection. Results Participants with better cardiorespiratory fitness had higher cognitive test scores at midlife. However, fitness-associated advantages in cognitive functioning were present already in childhood. After accounting for childhood-baseline performance on the same cognitive tests, there was no association between cardiorespiratory fitness and midlife cognitive functioning. Socioeconomic and health advantages in childhood, and healthier lifestyles during young adulthood explained most of the association between childhood cognitive functioning and adult cardiorespiratory fitness. Interpretation We found no evidence for a neuroprotective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness as of midlife. Instead, children with better cognitive functioning are selecting into healthier lives. Fitness interventions may enhance cognitive functioning. But, observational and experimental studies testing neuroprotective effects of physical fitness should consider

  17. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion.

  18. Hierarchy, leadership, and construal fit.

    PubMed

    Berson, Yair; Halevy, Nir

    2014-09-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis, derived from construal-level theory, that hierarchical distance between leaders and followers moderates the effectiveness of leader behaviors such that abstract behaviors produce more positive outcomes when enacted across large hierarchical distances, whereas concrete behaviors produce more positive outcomes when enacted across small hierarchical distances. In Study 1 (N = 2,206 employees of a telecommunication organization), job satisfaction was higher when direct supervisors provided employees with concrete feedback and hierarchically distant leaders shared with them their abstract vision rather than vice versa. Study 2 orthogonally crossed hierarchical distances with communication type, operationalized as articulating abstract values versus sharing a detailed story exemplifying the same values; construal misfit mediated the interactive effects of hierarchical distance and communication type on organizational commitment and social bonding. Study 3 similarly manipulated hierarchical distances and communication type, operationalized as concrete versus abstract calls for action in the context of a severe professional crisis. Group commitment and participation in collective action were higher when a hierarchically proximate leader communicated a concrete call for action and a hierarchically distant leader communicated an abstract call for action rather than vice versa. These findings highlight construal fit's positive consequences for individuals and organizations. PMID:24820150

  19. Frequency-dependent fitness in gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, L Ruth; Case, Andrea L; Caruso, Christina M

    2015-05-01

    Selection is frequency dependent when an individual's fitness depends on the frequency of its phenotype. Frequency-dependent selection should be common in gynodioecious plants, where individuals are female or hermaphroditic; if the fitness of females is limited by the availability of pollen to fertilize their ovules, then they should have higher fitness when rare than when common. To test whether the fitness of females is frequency dependent, we manipulated the sex ratio in arrays of gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica. To test whether fitness was frequency dependent because of variation in pollen availability, we compared open-pollinated and supplemental hand-pollinated plants. Open-pollinated females produced more seeds when they were rare than when they were common, as expected if fitness is negatively frequency dependent. However, hand-pollinated females also produced more seeds when they were rare, indicating that variation in pollen availability was not the cause of frequency-dependent fitness. Instead, fitness was frequency dependent because both hand- and open-pollinated females opened more flowers when they were rare than when they were common. This plasticity in the rate of anthesis could cause fitness to be frequency dependent even when reproduction is not pollen limited, and thus expand the conditions under which frequency-dependent selection operates in gynodioecious species. PMID:25824809

  20. TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

  1. NuFit: nutrition and fitness CBPR program evaluation.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chelsea; Bishop, Virginia; Cabrera, Kathy; Medina, Roxane; Takawira, Desire; Donate, Nilmari; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guevara, Beti

    2014-01-01

    The present study combines community-based participatory research (CBPR) and peer education to create NuFit, a nutrition and fitness curriculum, adapted by community and student peer leaders for Latino and African-American high-school students in Chicago. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the NuFit curriculum to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nutrition and fitness for minority and adolescent student populations. The NuFit curriculum improved students' short-term self-reported behaviors and attitudes around nutrition and fitness. The NuFit curriculum shows promise as one mechanism to help prevent and combat childhood obesity by fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors during the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Involvement of and collaboration between community stakeholders and youth appeared to increase the likelihood of NuFit's cultural relevance and sustainability. More work is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of NuFit. PMID:24702662

  2. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    The Mark III planetary technology demonstrator space suit can be tailored to an individual by swapping the modular components of the suit, such as the arms, legs, and gloves, as well as adding or removing sizing inserts in key areas. A method was sought to identify the transition from an ideal suit fit to a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using a metric of mobility-based human performance data. To this end, the degradation of the range of motion of the elbow and wrist of the suit as a function of suit sizing modifications was investigated to attempt to improve suit fit. The sizing range tested spanned optimal and poor fit and was adjusted incrementally in order to compare each joint angle across five different sizing configurations. Suited range of motion data were collected using a motion capture system for nine isolated and functional tasks utilizing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm by itself. Findings indicated that no single joint drives the performance of the arm as a function of suit size; instead it is based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb. To determine a size adjustment range where an individual can operate the suit at an acceptable level, a performance detriment limit was set. This user-selected limit reveals the task-dependent tolerance of the suit fit around optimal size. For example, the isolated joint motion indicated that the suit can deviate from optimal by as little as -0.6 in to -2.6 in before experiencing a 10% performance drop in the wrist or elbow joint. The study identified a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and developed a new way to gauge tolerances around optimal size.

  3. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  4. Enforced Clonality Confers a Fitness Advantage

    PubMed Central

    Martínková, Jana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In largely clonal plants, splitting of a maternal plant into potentially independent plants (ramets) is usually spontaneous; however, such fragmentation also occurs in otherwise non-clonal species due to application of external force. This process might play an important yet largely overlooked role for otherwise non-clonal plants by providing a mechanism to regenerate after disturbance. Here, in a 5-year garden experiment on two short-lived, otherwise non-clonal species, Barbarea vulgaris and Barbarea stricta, we compared the fitness of plants fragmented by simulated disturbance (“enforced ramets”) both with plants that contemporaneously originate in seed and with individuals unscathed by the disturbance event. Because the ability to regrow from fragments is related to plant age and stored reserves, we compared the effects of disturbance applied during three different ontogenetic stages of the plants. In B. vulgaris, enforced ramet fitness was higher than the measured fitness values of both uninjured plants and plants established from seed after the disturbance. This advantage decreased with increasing plant age at the time of fragmentation. In B. stricta, enforced ramet fitness was lower than or similar to fitness of uninjured plants and plants grown from seed. Our results likely reflect the habitat preferences of the study species, as B. vulgaris occurs in anthropogenic, disturbed habitats where body fragmentation is more probable and enforced clonality thus more advantageous than in the more natural habitats preferred by B. stricta. Generalizing from our results, we see that increased fitness yielded by enforced clonality would confer an evolutionary advantage in the face of disturbance, especially in habitats where a seed bank has not been formed, e.g., during invasion or colonization. Our results thus imply that enforced clonality should be taken into account when studying population dynamics and life strategies of otherwise non-clonal species in disturbed

  5. Evaluating Suit Fit Using Performance Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2011-01-01

    The Mark III suit has multiple sizes of suit components (arm, leg, and gloves) as well as sizing inserts to tailor the fit of the suit to an individual. This study sought to determine a way to identify the point an ideal suit fit transforms into a bad fit and how to quantify this breakdown using mobility-based physical performance data. This study examined the changes in human physical performance via degradation of the elbow and wrist range of motion of the planetary suit prototype (Mark III) with respect to changes in sizing and as well as how to apply that knowledge to suit sizing options and improvements in suit fit. The methods implemented in this study focused on changes in elbow and wrist mobility due to incremental suit sizing modifications. This incremental sizing was within a range that included both optimum and poor fit. Suited range of motion data was collected using a motion analysis system for nine isolated and functional tasks encompassing the elbow and wrist joints. A total of four subjects were tested with motions involving both arms simultaneously as well as the right arm only. The results were then compared across sizing configurations. The results of this study indicate that range of motion may be used as a viable parameter to quantify at what stage suit sizing causes a detriment in performance; however the human performance decrement appeared to be based on the interaction of multiple joints along a limb, not a single joint angle. The study was able to identify a preliminary method to quantify the impact of size on performance and to develop a means to gauge tolerances around optimal size. More work is needed to improve the assessment of optimal fit and to compensate for multiple joint interactions.

  6. Maneb-induced dopaminergic neuronal death is not affected by loss of mitochondrial complex I activity: Results from primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons cultured from individual Ndufs4+/+ and Ndufs4-/- mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Xia, Zhengui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cultures from embryonic mouse ventral mesencephalon are widely used for investigating the mechanisms of dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease models. Specifically, single mouse or embryo cultures from littermates can be very useful for comparative studies involving transgenic mice when the neuron cultures are to be prepared before genotyping. However, preparing single mouse embryo culture is technically challenging because of the small number of cells present in the mesencephalon of each embryo (150,000-300,000), of which only 0.5-5% are tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive, dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we optimized the procedure for preparing primary mesencephalic neuron cultures from individual mouse embryos. Mesencephalic neurons that are dissociated delicately, plated on Aclar film coverslips, and incubated in DMEM supplemented with FBS for 5 days and then N2 supplement for 1 day resulted in the best survival of dopaminergic neurons from each embryo. Using this optimized method, we prepared mesencephalic neuron cultures from single Ndufs4+/+ or Ndufs4-/- embryos, and investigated the role of mitochondrial complex I in maneb-induced dopamine neuron death. Our results suggest that maneb toxicity to dopamine neurons is not affected by loss of mitochondrial complex I activity in Ndufs4-/- cultures. PMID:25275677

  7. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  8. Consequences of clonality for sexual fitness: Clonal expansion enhances fitness under spatially restricted dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Van Drunen, Wendy E.; van Kleunen, Mark; Dorken, Marcel E.

    2015-01-01

    Clonality is a pervasive feature of sessile organisms, but this form of asexual reproduction is thought to interfere with sexual fitness via the movement of gametes among the modules that comprise the clone. This within-clone movement of gametes is expected to reduce sexual fitness via mate limitation of male reproductive success and, in some cases, via the production of highly inbred (i.e., self-fertilized) offspring. However, clonality also results in the spatial expansion of the genetic individual (i.e., genet), and this should decrease distances gametes and sexually produced offspring must travel to avoid competing with other gametes and offspring from the same clone. The extent to which any negative effects of clonality on mating success might be offset by the positive effects of spatial expansion is poorly understood. Here, we develop spatially explicit models in which fitness was determined by the success of genets through their male and female sex functions. Our results indicate that clonality serves to increase sexual fitness when it is associated with the outward expansion of the genet. Our models further reveal that the main fitness benefit of clonal expansion might occur through the dispersal of offspring over a wider area compared with nonclonal phenotypes. We conclude that, instead of interfering with sexual reproduction, clonal expansion should often serve to enhance sexual fitness. PMID:26195748

  9. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs.

    PubMed

    Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world. PMID:26308059

  10. Fpack and Funpack Utilities for FITS Image Compression and Uncompression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pence, W.

    2008-01-01

    Fpack is a utility program for optimally compressing images in the FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) data format (see http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov). The associated funpack program restores the compressed image file back to its original state (as long as a lossless compression algorithm is used). These programs may be run from the host operating system command line and are analogous to the gzip and gunzip utility programs except that they are optimized for FITS format images and offer a wider choice of compression algorithms. Fpack stores the compressed image using the FITS tiled image compression convention (see http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/fits_registry.html). Under this convention, the image is first divided into a user-configurable grid of rectangular tiles, and then each tile is individually compressed and stored in a variable-length array column in a FITS binary table. By default, fpack usually adopts a row-by-row tiling pattern. The FITS image header keywords remain uncompressed for fast access by FITS reading and writing software. The tiled image compression convention can in principle support any number of different compression algorithms. The fpack and funpack utilities call on routines in the CFITSIO library (http://hesarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/fitsio) to perform the actual compression and uncompression of the FITS images, which currently supports the GZIP, Rice, H-compress, and PLIO IRAF pixel list compression algorithms.

  11. VPFIT: Voigt profile fitting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carswell, R. F.; Webb, J. K.

    2014-08-01

    The VPFIT program fits multiple Voigt profiles (convolved with the instrument profiles) to spectroscopic data that is in FITS or an ASCII file. It requires CFITSIO (ascl:1010.001) and PGPLOT (ascl:1103.002); the tarball includes RDGEN (ascl:1408.017), which can be used with VPFIT to set up the fits, fit the profiles, and examine the result in interactive mode for setting up initial guesses; vpguess (ascl:1408.016) can also be used to set up an initial file.

  12. [Fitness, disability and mobbing].

    PubMed

    Magnavita, N; Bosco, M G; Ranalletta, D; Salerno, S

    2006-01-01

    Workers with handicap or psychological impairment are frequently submitted to mobbing. If causative factors of psychological disorders are not recognized, the physician charged of medical surveillance of workers may himself become a prosecutor and enhance the mobbing actions to the extent that the mobbed worker is discharged. In order to avoid this undue effect, the physician should strictly adhere to the body of legislation and to good occupational medicine practices. Health surveillance for occupationally exposed groups of workers is required under specific health and safety legislation. Workers unexposed to hazard in the workplace cannot be included in health surveillance programme, and declaring these workers unfit for their job is a patent violation of Workers' Statute Law. Psychological disorders should be carefully evaluated in order to clarify their relationship with work. The case of a worker affected with schizophrenia, already reported in the literature, is here re-analysed in order to emphasize these concepts. PMID:17380945

  13. A Self-Fitting Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Keidser, Gitte; Dillon, Harvey; Hartley, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The need for reliable access to hearing health care services is growing globally, particularly in developing countries and in remotely located, underserved regions in many parts of the developed world. Individuals with hearing loss in these areas are at a significant disadvantage due to the scarcity of local hearing health care professionals and the high cost of hearing aids. Current approaches to making hearing rehabilitation services more readily available to underserved populations include teleaudiology and the provision of amplification devices outside of the traditional provider-client relationship. Both strategies require access to such resources as dedicated equipment and/or specially trained staff. Another possible strategy is a self-fitting hearing aid, a personal amplification device that is equipped with an onboard tone generator to enable user-controlled, automated, in situ audiometry; an onboard prescription to determine the initial hearing aid settings; and a trainable algorithm to enable user-controlled fine-tuning. The device is thus assembled, fitted, and managed by the user without the need for audiological or computer support. This article details the self-fitting concept and its potential application in both developing and developed countries. Potential advantages and disadvantages of such a device are discussed, and considerations for further investigations into the concept are presented. Overall, the concept is considered technologically viable with the main challenges anticipated to be development of clear, simple user instructions and a delivery model that ensures reliable supplies of instant-fit ear tips and batteries. PMID:22143873

  14. Massively Parallel Interrogation of the Effects of Gene Expression Levels on Fitness.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; Hausser, Jean; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Vainberg Slutskin, Ilya; Alisar, Hadas; Kaminski, Sivan; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2016-08-25

    Data of gene expression levels across individuals, cell types, and disease states is expanding, yet our understanding of how expression levels impact phenotype is limited. Here, we present a massively parallel system for assaying the effect of gene expression levels on fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by systematically altering the expression level of ∼100 genes at ∼100 distinct levels spanning a 500-fold range at high resolution. We show that the relationship between expression levels and growth is gene and environment specific and provides information on the function, stoichiometry, and interactions of genes. Wild-type expression levels in some conditions are not optimal for growth, and genes whose fitness is greatly affected by small changes in expression level tend to exhibit lower cell-to-cell variability in expression. Our study addresses a fundamental gap in understanding the functional significance of gene expression regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the phenotypic effects of expression variation. PMID:27545349

  15. Population Genetic Diversity and Fitness in Multiple Environments(BMCEB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a large number of alleles are lost from a population, increases in individual homozygosity may reduce individual fitness through inbreeding depression. Modest losses of allelic diversity may also negatively impact long-term population viability by reducing the capacity of p...

  16. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  17. Effects of different peak fitting strategies for XRF-spectra and their implications for paleoenvironmental studies: an example from powdered loess-paleosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profe, Jörn; Neumann, Lena; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Frechen, Manfred; Barta, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning is influenced by numerous sample-specific effects such as water content, sediment matrix and grain size. All these parameters affect the characteristics of fluorescent X-rays recorded by the detector. Subsequently, the recorded spectra are translated into element-specific counts by mathematical peak fitting strategies allowing for qualitative element tracking along a sediment profile. Down-core changes of these element counts or ratios often serve as a basis for paleoenvironmental interpretation. However, for such studies detailed information about peak fitting procedures is rarely provided. Therefore, we investigate the influence of different peak fitting strategies on elemental count rates derived from XRF (Mo-tube) scanning of powdered samples from the Süttő loess-paleosol sequence, Hungary - a sequence chosen due to its pronounced lithological changes between loess and paleosol sections. In contrast to sediment cores, for dried and powdered samples the effects related to grain size and water content are minimized whereas those related to sediment matrix and lithology are emphasized. Using the ITRAX XRF core-scanner (Cox analytical systems) peak fitting is accomplished by the processing software Q-Spec (version 8.60). In this software, the mean square error (MSE) indicates the goodness-of-fit of the mathematical model to the actually measured energies. To consider all different lithologies occurring within a sediment profile, a sum-spectrum of all individual sample spectra is calculated. Despite optimizing the fit for the sum-spectrum, first results indicate that drastic changes between loess and paleosols can cause the MSE to increase (reduce the goodness-of-fit) and thus alter the modelled element counts within paleosols. Therefore, succeeding samples with a poor fit are collected in a subset based on a user-defined MSE threshold. Subsequently, a new sum-spectrum is calculated and fitted for this subset separately

  18. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a "user/resource model" tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much "mind extension" than "mind invasion": affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a "hack" of employees' subjectivity. PMID:26941705

  19. Mind Invasion: Situated Affectivity and the Corporate Life Hack

    PubMed Central

    Slaby, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In view of the philosophical problems that vex the debate on situated affectivity, it can seem wise to focus on simple cases. Accordingly, theorists often single out scenarios in which an individual employs a device in order to enhance their emotional experience, or to achieve new kinds of experience altogether, such as playing an instrument, going to the movies, or sporting a fancy handbag. I argue that this narrow focus on cases that fit a “user/resource model” tends to channel attention away from more complex and also more problematic instances of situated affectivity. Among these are scenarios in which a social domain draws individuals into certain modes of affective interaction, often by way of attunement and habituation to affective styles and interaction patterns that are normative in the domain in question. This can lead to a phenomenon that is not so much “mind extension” than “mind invasion”: affectivity is dynamically framed and modulated from without, often contrary to the prior orientations of the individuals in question. As an example, I discuss affective patterns prevalent in today's corporate workplace. I claim that workplace affect sometimes contributes to what is effectively a “hack” of employees' subjectivity. PMID:26941705

  20. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  1. On the Trail to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The University of Hartford planned fitness trail will allow students to develop their bodies by providing a jogging route to improve cardiovascular fitness and exercise stations designed to provide warm-up exercises and improve strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance. (Author/MLF)

  2. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  3. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  4. Psychological testing, IQ, and evolutionary fitness.

    PubMed

    Harrington, G M

    1997-01-01

    Individual group, and ethnic differences in behavior have been an object of long, continuing, and contentious interest, both in the sciences and in popular culture. For well over 2,000 years, psychological traits, particularly those described as 'intelligence', have generally been considered the major factors in fitness in humans. After reviewing contemporary scientific thinking on intelligence, the psychometric methods used for the construction of psychological tests are presented and examined in the context of natural selection and metric characters. There are essential differences between the disciplines of genetics and of psychology such that the concepts of the two are more divergent than might superficially appear to be the case. The analysis leads to the conclusion that standard psychometric methodology cannot yield tests appropriate for measurement of evolutionary fitness characters. PMID:9463067

  5. LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Portmann, Greg; /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-06-18

    LOCO has been a powerful beam-based diagnostics and optics control method for storage rings and synchrotrons worldwide ever since it was established at NSLS by J. Safranek. This method measures the orbit response matrix and optionally the dispersion function of the machine. The data are then fitted to a lattice model by adjusting parameters such as quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths in the model, BPM gains and rolls, corrector gains and rolls of the measurement system. Any abnormality of the machine that affects the machine optics can then be identified. The resulting lattice model is equivalent to the real machine lattice as seen by the BPMs. Since there are usually two or more BPMs per betatron period in modern circular accelerators, the model is often a very accurate representation of the real machine. According to the fitting result, one can correct the machine lattice to the design lattice by changing the quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths. LOCO is so important that it is routinely performed at many electron storage rings to guarantee machine performance, especially after the Matlab-based LOCO code became available. However, for some machines, LOCO is not easy to carry out. In some cases, LOCO fitting converges to an unrealistic solution with large changes to the quadrupole strengths {Delta}K. The quadrupole gradient changes can be so large that the resulting lattice model fails to find a closed orbit and subsequent iterations become impossible. In cases when LOCO converges, the solution can have {Delta}K that is larger than realistic and often along with a spurious zigzag pattern between adjacent quadrupoles. This degeneracy behavior of LOCO is due to the correlation between the fitting parameters - usually between neighboring quadrupoles. The fitting scheme is therefore less restrictive over certain patterns of changes to these quadrupoles with which the correlated quadrupoles fight each other and the net effect is very inefficient {chi}{sup 2

  6. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sprey, Jan W.C.; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V.; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B.; Santili, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. Purpose: To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire administered to CrossFit athletes from various specialized fitness centers in Brazil. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2015 through an electronic questionnaire that included demographic data, level of sedentary lifestyle at work, sports training history prior to starting CrossFit, current sports activities, professional monitoring, and whether the participants experienced any injuries while practicing CrossFit. Results: A total of 622 questionnaires were received, including 566 (243 women [42.9%] and 323 men [57.1%]) that were completely filled out and met the inclusion criteria and 9% that were incompletely filled out. Overall, 176 individuals (31.0%) mentioned having experienced some type of injury while practicing CrossFit. We found no significant difference in injury incidence rates regarding demographic data. There was no significant difference regarding previous sports activities because individuals who did not practice prior physical activity showed very similar injury rates to those who practiced at any level. Conclusion: CrossFit injury rates are comparable to those of other recreational or competitive sports, and the injuries show a profile similar to weight lifting, power lifting, weight training, Olympic gymnastics, and running, which have an injury incidence rate nearly half that of soccer.

  7. The stepwise acquisition of fluconazole resistance mutations causes a gradual loss of fitness in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Christoph; Dunkel, Nico; Schäfer, Tina; Schneider, Sabrina; Dierolf, Franziska; Ohlsen, Knut; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance is often caused by gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factors Mrr1, Tac1 and Upc2, which result in constitutive overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps and ergosterol biosynthesis genes respectively. It is not known how the permanently changed gene expression program in resistant strains affects their fitness in the absence of drug selection pressure. We have systematically investigated the effects of activating mutations in Mrr1, Tac1 and Upc2, individually and in all possible combinations, on the degree of fluconazole resistance and on the fitness of C. albicans in an isogenic strain background. All combinations of different resistance mechanisms resulted in a stepwise increase in drug resistance, culminating in 500-fold increased fluconazole resistance in strains possessing mutations in the three transcription factors and an additional resistance mutation in the drug target enzyme Erg11. The acquisition of resistance mutations was associated with reduced fitness under non-selective conditions in vitro as well as in vivo during colonization of a mammalian host. Therefore, without compensatory mutations, the inability to appropriately regulate gene expression results in a loss of competitive fitness of drug-resistant C. albicans strains. PMID:22924823

  8. Estimate of the genomic mutation rate deleterious to overall fitness in E. coll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibota, Travis T.; Lynch, Michael

    1996-06-01

    MUTATIONS are a double-edged sword: they are the ultimate source of genetic variation upon which evolution depends, yet most mutations affecting fitness (viability and reproductive success) appear to be harmful1. Deleterious mutations of small effect can escape natural selection, and should accumulate in small populations2-4. Reduced fitness from deleterious-mutation accumulation may be important in the evolution of sex5-7, mate choice8,9, and diploid life-cycles10, and in the extinction of small populations11,12. Few empirical data exist, however. Minimum estimates of the genomic deleterious-mutation rate for viability in Drosophila melanogaster are surprisingly high1,13,14, leading to the conjecture that the rate for total fitness could exceed 1.0 mutation per individual per generation5,6. Here we use Escherichia coli to provide an estimate of the genomic deleterious-mutation rate for total fitness in a microbe. We estimate that the per-microbe rate of deleterious mutations is in excess of 0.0002.

  9. Leadership perceptions as a function of race-occupation fit: the case of Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Sy, Thomas; Shore, Lynn M; Strauss, Judy; Shore, Ted H; Tram, Susanna; Whiteley, Paul; Ikeda-Muromachi, Kristine

    2010-09-01

    On the basis of the connectionist model of leadership, we examined perceptions of leadership as a function of the contextual factors of race (Asian American, Caucasian American) and occupation (engineering, sales) in 3 experiments (1 student sample and 2 industry samples). Race and occupation exhibited differential effects for within- and between-race comparisons. With regard to within-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were higher when race-occupation was a good fit (engineer position) than when race-occupation was a poor fit (sales position) for the two industry samples. With regard to between-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were low relative to those of Caucasian Americans. Additionally, when race-occupation was a good fit for Asian Americans, such individuals were evaluated higher on perceptions of technical competence than were Caucasian Americans, whereas they were evaluated lower when race-occupation was a poor fit. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that race affects leadership perceptions through the activation of prototypic leadership attributes (i.e., implicit leadership theories). Implications for the findings are discussed in terms of the connectionist model of leadership and leadership opportunities for Asian Americans. PMID:20718523

  10. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  11. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  12. Predicting the outcome of competition when fitness inequality is variable

    PubMed Central

    Pedruski, Michael T.; Fussmann, Gregor F.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Traditional niche theory predicts that when species compete for one limiting resource in simple ecological settings the more fit competitor should exclude the less fit competitor. Since the advent of neutral theory ecologists have increasingly become interested both in how the magnitude of fitness inequality between competitors and stochasticity may affect this prediction. We used numerical simulations to investigate the outcome of two-species resource competition along gradients of fitness inequality (inequality in R*) and initial population size in the presence of demographic stochasticity. We found that the deterministic prediction of more fit competitors excluding less fit competitors was often unobserved when fitness inequalities were low or stochasticity was strong, and unexpected outcomes such as dominance by the less fit competitor, long-term co-persistence of both competitors or the extinction of both competitors could be common. By examining the interaction between fitness inequality and stochasticity our results mark the range of parameter space in which the predictions of niche theory break down most severely, and suggest that questions about whether competitive dynamics are driven by neutral or niche processes may be locally contingent. PMID:26361557

  13. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  14. Fitting curves to cyclic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, W.B.

    1955-01-01

    A common problem in hydrology is to fit a smooth curve to cyclic or periodic data, either to define the most probable values of the data or to test some principle that one wishes to demonstrate.  This study treats of those problems where the length or period of the cycle is know beforehand - as a day, year, or meander length for example.  Curve-fitting can be made by free-hand drawing, and where the data are closely aligned this method offers the simplest and most direct course.  However, there are many problems where the best fit is far from obvious, and analytical methods may be necessary.

  15. Correlates of male fitness in captive zebra finches - a comparison of methods to disentangle genetic and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Backgound It is a common observation in evolutionary studies that larger, more ornamented or earlier breeding individuals have higher fitness, but that body size, ornamentation or breeding time does not change despite of sometimes substantial heritability for these traits. A possible explanation for this is that these traits do not causally affect fitness, but rather happen to be indirectly correlated with fitness via unmeasured non-heritable aspects of condition (e.g. undernourished offspring grow small and have low fitness as adults due to poor health). Whether this explanation applies to a specific case can be examined by decomposing the covariance between trait and fitness into its genetic and environmental components using pedigree-based animal models. We here examine different methods of doing this for a captive zebra finch population where male fitness was measured in communal aviaries in relation to three phenotypic traits (tarsus length, beak colour and song rate). Results Our case study illustrates how methods that regress fitness over breeding values for phenotypic traits yield biased estimates as well as anti-conservative standard errors. Hence, it is necessary to estimate the genetic and environmental covariances between trait and fitness directly from a bivariate model. This method, however, is very demanding in terms of sample sizes. In our study parameter estimates of selection gradients for tarsus were consistent with the hypothesis of environmentally induced bias (βA = 0.035 ± 0.25 (SE), βE = 0.57 ± 0.28 (SE)), yet this differences between genetic and environmental selection gradients falls short of statistical significance. Conclusions To examine the generality of the idea that phenotypic selection gradients for certain traits (like size) are consistently upwardly biased by environmental covariance a meta-analysis across study systems will be needed. PMID:22067225

  16. The ethical beliefs and behaviours of Victorian fitness professionals.

    PubMed

    Dawson, A; Andersen, M B; Hemphill, D

    2001-09-01

    A survey based on those employed by Petitpas, Brewer, Rivera, and Van Raalte (1994), Pope, Tabachnick, and Keith-Spiegel (1987), Pope and Vetter (1992), and Tabachnick, Keith-Spiegel, and Pope (1991) was used to investigate the ethical beliefs and behaviours of Victorian fitness professionals. Although there is evidence that Victorian fitness professionals are knowledgeable about some general ethical principles, the results of this study suggest that there is some lack of consensus among Victorian fitness professionals about the ethical appropriateness of a number of complex issues relating to business practices, confidentiality, dual relationships, and personal and professional boundaries. The findings suggest there is a need to improve the professional and ethical education of fitness professionals and to develop comprehensive ethical principles and a code of conduct that is relevant to the individuals working in the Australian fitness profession. PMID:11702914

  17. Fit factors for quarter masks and facial size categories.

    PubMed

    Han, D H

    2000-05-01

    Respirator fit testing is necessary before entering hazardous working environments to ensure that the respirator, when worn, satisfies a minimum fit and that the wearer knows when the respirator fits properly. In the many countries that do not have fit testing or total inward leakage regulations (including Korea), however, many workers wearing respirators may be potentially exposed to hazardous environments. It is necessary to suggest a useful tool to provide an alternative for fit testing in these countries. This study was conducted to evaluate fitting performance for quarter-mask respirators, and fit factors in facial size categories based on face lengths and lip lengths of the wearers. A total of 778 subjects (408 males, 370 females) were fit tested for three quarter masks: Sejin Co. SK-6 (Ulsan, Korea), Yongsung Co. YS-2010 S (Seoul, Korea), and 3 M Co. Series 7500 Medium (MN, USA) masks with a PortaCount 8020 (TSI Co., USA). A facial dimension survey of the subjects was conducted to develop facial size categories, on the basis of face length and lip length. Geometric mean fit factors (GMFFs) of Series 7500 Medium were found to be the highest of the three respirators. All of the respirators were more suitable for males than females in fitting performance. The Series 7500 Medium fitted a large number of the males tested, since the GMFFs for males were above 100 for every box of facial size categories, and high pass proportion rates were shown at an individual fit factor level of 100. The YS-2010 S provides an adequate fit for males in a limited range of facial dimensions. The Series 7500 Medium is more limited in providing adequate fit for females at specific facial dimensions than for males. For adequate fitting performance, the SK-6 is not preferentially recommended for Korean male and female workers due to low GMFFs and pass proportions. The result of this study indicates that after more accurate studies are performed, facial size categories, on the basis of

  18. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. 1046... INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.11 Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. (a... personnel any individual who fails to meet the applicable medical and physical fitness...

  19. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. 1046... INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.11 Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. (a... personnel any individual who fails to meet the applicable medical and physical fitness...

  20. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. 1046... INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.11 Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. (a... personnel any individual who fails to meet the applicable medical and physical fitness...

  1. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. 1046... INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.11 Medical and physical fitness qualification standards. (a... personnel any individual who fails to meet the applicable medical and physical fitness...

  2. Intrinsic Mathematics Motivation as a Mediator between Regulatory Fit and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Slooten, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory Fit Theory research has indicated that the presence of a regulatory fit between an individuals chronic regulatory focus orientation and induced regulatory state can increase motivation, performance, and achievement. The research in support of regulatory fit theory is immense; however, there has been little research that focuses on…

  3. Effect of crop plants on fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in cabbage loopers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins critically impact the development of resistance in insect populations. In this study, the fitness costs in Trichoplusia ni strains associated with two genetically independent resistance mechanisms to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, individually and in combination, on four crop plants (cabbage, cotton, tobacco and tomato) were analyzed, in comparison with their near-isogenic susceptible strain. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the T. ni strains, regardless of their resistance traits, were strongly affected by the host plants. The ABCC2 gene-linked mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance was associated with relatively low fitness costs, while the Cry2Ab resistance mechanism was associated with higher fitness costs. The fitness costs in the presence of both resistance mechanisms in T. ni appeared to be non-additive. The relative fitness of Bt-resistant T. ni depended on the specific resistance mechanisms as well as host plants. In addition to difference in survivorship and fecundity, an asynchrony of adult emergence was observed among T. ni with different resistance mechanisms and on different host plants. Therefore, mechanisms of resistance and host plants available in the field are both important factors affecting development of Bt resistance in insects. PMID:26868936

  4. When the model fits the frame: the impact of regulatory fit on efficacy appraisal and persuasion in health communication.

    PubMed

    Bosone, Lucia; Martinez, Frédéric; Kalampalikis, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    In health-promotional campaigns, positive and negative role models can be deployed to illustrate the benefits or costs of certain behaviors. The main purpose of this article is to investigate why, how, and when exposure to role models strengthens the persuasiveness of a message, according to regulatory fit theory. We argue that exposure to a positive versus a negative model activates individuals' goals toward promotion rather than prevention. By means of two experiments, we demonstrate that high levels of persuasion occur when a message advertising healthy dietary habits offers a regulatory fit between its framing and the described role model. Our data also establish that the effects of such internal regulatory fit by vicarious experience depend on individuals' perceptions of response-efficacy and self-efficacy. Our findings constitute a significant theoretical complement to previous research on regulatory fit and contain valuable practical implications for health-promotional campaigns. PMID:25680684

  5. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Mattione

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  6. Best Practices for FITS Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    We present recommendations and an example of best practices for FITS headers to improve documentation and usability of solar physics data distributed as FITS files. We built on existing norms and standards, including 'Proposed Keywords for SOHO' and the FITS World Coordinate System (WCS) conventions, and include recommendations on the use of FITS features and extensions to help make data stored and distributed in FITS better suited for both present-day usage and long-term archiving. Our goals include: 1. Allow both solar physicists and non-discipline scientists to easily understand what's in a file from an instrument they've never dealt with before. 2. Allow scientists to quickly determine if the file contains data that is useful for their purposes. 3. Allow scientists to find where to get additional information on how to properly use the data. 4. Reduce the likelihood of keywords or data being misunderstood. 5. Ensure the data is accessible, understandable and usable over the long-term. 6. Reduce barriers to acknowledgement and citation of data. 7. Provide for reliable identification of files and observations that maybe be stored in multiple locations or forms. 8. Provide a framework to denote mission- or instrument-specific keywords. 9. Give data providers a template to work from when designing FITS headers for new missions.

  7. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested,more » and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.« less

  8. Fitness of the US workforce.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2015-03-18

    Fitness matters for the prevention of premature death, chronic diseases, productivity loss, excess medical care costs, loss of income or family earnings, and other social and economic concerns. The workforce may be viewed as a corporate strategic asset, yet its fitness level appears to be relatively low and declining. Over the past half-century, obesity rates have doubled, physical activity levels are below par, and cardiorespiratory fitness often does not meet minimum acceptable job standards. During this time, daily occupational energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories. Employers should consider best practices and design workplace wellness programs accordingly. Particular attention should be paid to human-centered cultures. Research should address ongoing surveillance needs regarding fitness of the US workforce and close gaps in the evidence base for fitness and business-relevant outcomes. Policy priorities should consider the impact of both state and federal regulations, adherence to current regulations that protect and promote worker health, and the introduction of incentives that allow employers to optimize the fitness of their workforce through supportive legislation and organizational policies. PMID:25785887

  9. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  10. AXAF FITS standard for ray trace interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.

    1993-07-01

    A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.

  11. Development of the Canadian Home Fitness Test

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.; Bailey, Donald A.; Mirwald, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    The Canadian Home Fitness Test is a self-administered procedure in which the participant steps at an age- and sex-specific rhythm controlled by recorded music, then palpates the pulse immediately following activity. Validation of the test has shown a correlation of 0.72 with the results of a standard submaximum bicycle ergometer test, while the directly measured maximum oxygen intake is correlated even more closely (r = 0.88) with the attained stepping rate, body weight and recovery heart rate. Given modest training, subjects could measure their immediate postexercise heart rate (correlation with electro-cardiographic data, r = 0.94), although 10-second counts underestimated the true rate by an average of 7 beats/min. The safety of the test will be established ultimately by experience in its use in a large population; nevertheless, both theoretical considerations and results of trials in over 14 000 adults suggest the procedure can be self-administered without serious consequences. It is also well accepted by the general public and arouses considerable interest in most homes. The test can thus be recommended as providing an approximate measure of an individual's physical fitness in order to stimulate an increase in personal physical activity. It also has potential as a simple screening procedure that would allow paramedical personnel to record fitness levels and standardized exercise electrocardiograms in large segments of the population. PMID:56979

  12. AXAF FITS standard for ray trace interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, Paul F.

    1993-01-01

    A standard data format for the archival and transport of x-ray events generated by ray trace models is described. Upon review and acceptance by the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Software Systems Working Group (SSWG), this standard shall become the official AXAF data format for ray trace events. The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is well suited for the purposes of the standard and was selected to be the basis of the standard. FITS is both flexible and efficient and is also widely used within the astronomical community for storage and transfer of data. In addition, software to read and write FITS format files are widely available. In selecting quantities to be included within the ray trace standard, the AXAF Mission Support team, Science Instruments team, and the other contractor teams were surveyed. From the results of this survey, the following requirements were established: (1) for the scientific needs, each photon should have associated with it: position, direction, energy, and statistical weight; the standard must also accommodate path length (relative phase), and polarization. (2) a unique photon identifier is necessary for bookkeeping purposes; (3) a log of individuals, organizations, and software packages that have modified the data must be maintained in order to create an audit trail; (4) a mechanism for extensions to the basic kernel should be provided; and (5) the ray trace standard should integrate with future AXAF data product standards.

  13. What shapes fitness costs of reproduction in long-lived iteroparous species? A case study on the Alpine ibex.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Alexandre; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gauthier, Dominique; Besnard, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    The fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by individual differences, and may only become apparent during adverse environmental conditions. Individual differences, however, are usually assessed by reproductive success, so how fitness costs are influenced by the interplay between the environmental context and overall individual differences requires further investigation. Here, we evaluated fitness costs of reproduction based on 15 yr of monitoring of individual Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) during a period when the population was affected by a severe disease outbreak (pneumonia). We quantified fitness costs using a novel multi-event capture-mark-recapture (CMR) modeling approach that accounted for uncertainty in reproductive status to estimate the survival and reproductive success of female ibex while also accounting for overall individual heterogeneity using mixture models. Our results show that the ability of females to reproduce was highly heterogeneous. In particular, one group including 76% of females had a much higher probability of giving birth annually (between 0.66 and 0.77, depending on the previous reproductive status) than females of the second group (24% of females, between 0 and 0.05 probability of giving birth annually). Low reproductive costs in terms of future reproduction occurred and were independent of the pneumonia outbreak. There was no survival cost of reproduction either before or after the epizootic, but the cost was high during the epizootic. Our findings indicate that adverse environmental conditions, such as disease outbreaks, may lead to survival costs of reproduction in long-lived species and select against females that have a high reproductive effort. Thereby, the occurrence of adverse conditions increases the diversity of reproductive tactics within a population. PMID:27008789

  14. Comments on Different techniques for finding best-fit parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Triplett, Laurie A.

    2014-07-01

    A common data analysis problem is to find best-fit parameters through chi-square minimization. Levenberg-Marquardt is an often used system that depends on gradients and converges when successive iterations do not change chi-square more than a specified amount. We point out in cases where the sought-after parameter weakly affects the fit and cases where the overall scale factor is a parameter, that a Golden Search technique can often do better. The Golden Search converges when the best-fit point is within a specified range and that range can be made arbitrarily small. It does not depend on the value of chi-square.

  15. Personality, Foraging and Fitness Consequences in a Long Lived Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Samantha C.; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    While personality differences in animals are defined as consistent behavioural variation between individuals, the widely studied field of foraging specialisation in marine vertebrates has rarely been addressed within this framework. However there is much overlap between the two fields, both aiming to measure the causes and consequences of consistent individual behaviour. Here for the first time we use both a classic measure of personality, the response to a novel object, and an estimate of foraging strategy, derived from GPS data, to examine individual personality differences in black browed albatross and their consequences for fitness. First, we examine the repeatability of personality scores and link these to variation in foraging habitat. Bolder individuals forage nearer the colony, in shallower regions, whereas shyer birds travel further from the colony, and fed in deeper oceanic waters. Interestingly, neither personality score predicted a bird’s overlap with fisheries. Second, we show that both personality scores are correlated with fitness consequences, dependent on sex and year quality. Our data suggest that shyer males and bolder females have higher fitness, but the strength of this relationship depends on year quality. Females who forage further from the colony have higher breeding success in poor quality years, whereas males foraging close to the colony always have higher fitness. Together these results highlight the potential importance of personality variation in seabirds and that the fitness consequences of boldness and foraging strategy may be highly sex dependent. PMID:24504180

  16. Assessing fitness-for-duty and predicting performance with cognitive neurophysiological measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Progress is described in developing a novel test of neurocognitive status for fitness-for-duty testing. The Sustained Attention & Memory (SAM) test combines neurophysiologic (EEG) measures of brain activation with performance measures during a psychometric test of sustained attention and working memory, and then gauges changes in neurocognitive status relative to an individual"s normative baseline. In studies of the effects of common psychoactive substances that can affect job performance, including sedating antihistamines, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription medications, test sensitivity was greater for the combined neurophysiological and performance measures than for task performance measures by themselves. The neurocognitive effects of overnight sleep deprivation were quite evident, and such effects predicted subsequent performance impairment on a flight simulator task. Sensitivity to diurnal circadian variations was also demonstrated. With further refinement and independent validation, the SAM Test may prove useful for assessing readiness-to-perform in high-asset personnel working in demanding, high risk situations.

  17. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  18. Deviance statistics in model fit and selection in ROC studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tianhu; Bae, K. Ty

    2013-03-01

    A general non-linear regression model-based Bayesian inference approach is used in our ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) study. In the sampling of posterior distribution, two prior models - continuous Gaussian and discrete categorical - are used for the scale parameter. How to judge Goodness-of-Fit (GOF) of each model and how to criticize these two models, Deviance statistics and Deviance information criterion (DIC) are adopted to address these problems. Model fit and model selection focus on the adequacy of models. Judging model adequacy is essentially measuring agreement of model and observations. Deviance statistics and DIC provide overall measures on model fit and selection. In order to investigate model fit at each category of observations, we find that the cumulative, exponential contributions from individual observations to Deviance statistics are good estimates of FPF (false positive fraction) and TPF (true positive fraction) on which the ROC curve is based. This finding further leads to a new measure for model fit, called FPF-TPF distance, which is an Euclidean distance defined on FPF-TPF space. It combines both local and global fitting. Deviance statistics and FPFTPF distance are shown to be consistent and in good agreement. Theoretical derivation and numerical simulations for this new method for model fit and model selection of ROC data analysis are included. Keywords: General non-linear regression model, Bayesian Inference, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, Goodness-of-Fit (GOF), Model selection, Deviance statistics, Deviance information criterion (DIC), Continuous conjugate prior, Discrete categorical prior. ∗

  19. Educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among Finns

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high educated live longer and healthier lives when compared to the low educated. Physical fitness as a health indicator reflects the level of physical activity along with other health-influencing factors such as obesity, smoking, chronic diseases and individual training effects. Studies support that self-rated physical fitness correlates with objectively measured physical fitness well. However, the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness are not known. Methods Our aim was to study educational differences in self-rated physical fitness in Finnish population. The data were collected in 2007 for a cross-sectional population based National FINRISK Study. The analyzed data included 2722 men and 3108 women aged 25 to 74 years. Statistical method was ordinal logistic regression. Results Longer educational career was associated with better self-rated physical fitness. The educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were largely explained by health behavior. Leisure-time physical activity explained fully and body mass index partly the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among men. The combination of body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking explained the differences fully among men and partly among women. Leisure-time, occupational and commuting physical activities, body mass index, history of chronic diseases and smoking together explained all educational differences in self-rated physical fitness among both genders. Conclusions Although educational differences in self-rated physical fitness were found, they were explained by health behavior related factors. Leisure-time physical activity offered the strongest single explanation for the educational differences in self-rated physical fitness. Thus, possibilities for leisure-time physical activity should be increased especially among the low educated. PMID:23433081

  20. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    PubMed Central

    Mikalsen, Åse Kristine Rognmo; Yoccoz, Nigel Gilles; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear. PMID:24765588

  1. Physical fitness, aging, and sexuality.

    PubMed Central

    Bortz, W M; Wallace, D H

    1999-01-01

    Sexuality is a major quality-of-life issue, even into advanced age. Although relatively few studies have addressed sexuality, most studies have emphasized the decline in both sexual performance and satisfaction with aging. In an effort to assess possible positive modifiers of the decline, we included questions concerning sexuality in a multipurpose 90-item questionnaire submitted to members of the Fifty Plus Fitness Association based in Stanford, California. This group is unique in its commitment to a very active lifestyle and has served as a cohort for many prior studies related to fitness and medical outcomes. Sixty-seven percent of the membership returned the mail questionnaire, and 59% of these respondents replied to the sexually relevant items. The results indicated a high level of sexual activity and satisfaction in both older men and women of the Fifty Plus Fitness Association members. Further, sexual satisfaction seemed to correlate with the degree of fitness. We conclude that physical fitness and high levels of sexual activity are mutually supportive elements of successful aging. PMID:10214104

  2. Fitting and interpreting occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Alan H; Lindenmayer, David B; Donnelly, Christine F

    2013-01-01

    We show that occupancy models are more difficult to fit than is generally appreciated because the estimating equations often have multiple solutions, including boundary estimates which produce fitted probabilities of zero or one. The estimates are unstable when the data are sparse, making them difficult to interpret, and, even in ideal situations, highly variable. As a consequence, making accurate inference is difficult. When abundance varies over sites (which is the general rule in ecology because we expect spatial variance in abundance) and detection depends on abundance, the standard analysis suffers bias (attenuation in detection, biased estimates of occupancy and potentially finding misleading relationships between occupancy and other covariates), asymmetric sampling distributions, and slow convergence of the sampling distributions to normality. The key result of this paper is that the biases are of similar magnitude to those obtained when we ignore non-detection entirely. The fact that abundance is subject to detection error and hence is not directly observable, means that we cannot tell when bias is present (or, equivalently, how large it is) and we cannot adjust for it. This implies that we cannot tell which fit is better: the fit from the occupancy model or the fit ignoring the possibility of detection error. Therefore trying to adjust occupancy models for non-detection can be as misleading as ignoring non-detection completely. Ignoring non-detection can actually be better than trying to adjust for it. PMID:23326323

  3. Respiratory protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: quantitative fit test outcomes for five type N95 filtering-facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiyoung; Slavcev, Andrea; Nicas, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In preparing to fit test a large workforce, a respirator program manager needs to initially choose respirators that will fit the greatest proportion of employees and achieve the best fits. This article discusses our strategy in selecting respirators from an initial array of seven NIOSH-certified Type N95 filtering-facepiece devices for a respiratory protection program against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) aerosol. The seven respirators were screened based on manufacturer-provided fit test data, comfort, and cost. From these 7 devices, 5 were chosen for quantitative fit testing on 40 subjects who were a convenience sample from a cohort of approximately 30,000 workers scheduled to undergo fit testing. Across the five brands, medium/regular-size respirators fit from 8% to 95% of the subjects; providing another size of the same brand improved the pass rates slightly. Gender was not found to significantly affect fit test pass rates for any respirator brand. Among test panel members, an Aearo Corporation respirator (TC 84A-2630) and a 3M Company respirator (TC 84A-0006) provided the highest overall pass rates of 98% and 90%, respectively. We selected these two brands for fit testing in the larger worker cohort. To date, these two respirators have provided overall pass rates of 98% (1793/1830) and 88% (50/57), respectively, which are similar to the test panel results. Among 1850 individuals who have been fit tested, 1843 (99.6%) have been successfully fitted with one or the other brand. In a separate analysis, we used the test panel pass rates to estimate the reduction in M. tb infection risk afforded by the medium/regular-size of five filtering-facepiece respirators. We posed a low-exposure versus a high-exposure scenario for health care workers and assumed that respirators could be assigned without conducting fit testing, as proposed by many hospital infection control practitioners. Among those who would pass versus fail the fit test, we assumed an average

  4. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  5. Test fittings for dimensionally critical tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagler, R.

    1980-01-01

    Method using lightweight fitting protects tubes and tube stubs during testing and through to final welding. Fitting does not interfere with final welding or brazing like temporary test fittings, and is not heavy like machined-on integral fittings with face-seal 0-rings. Fitting approach is adaptable to many types of components, including valves, transducers, and filters.

  6. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  7. Systems Approach to Studying Animal Sociality: Individual Position versus Group Organization in Dynamic Social Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2010-01-01

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness. PMID:21203425

  8. The phenomenology of fit: linking the person and environment to the subjective experience of person-environment fit.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M; Williamson, Ian O; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Shipp, Abbie J

    2006-07-01

    The authors distinguished 3 approaches to the study of perceived person-environment fit (P-E fit): (a) atomistic, which examines perceptions of the person and environment as separate entities; (b) molecular, which concerns the perceived comparison between the person and environment; and (c) molar, which focuses on the perceived similarity, match, or fit between the person and environment. Distinctions among these approaches have fundamental implications for theory, measurement, and the subjective experience of P-E fit, yet research has treated these approaches as interchangeable. This study investigated the meaning and relationships among the atomistic, molecular, and molar approaches to fit and examined factors that influence the strength of these relationships. Results showed that the relationships among the approaches deviate markedly from the theoretical logic that links them together. Supplemental analyses indicated that molar fit overlaps with affect and molecular fit gives different weight to atomistic person and environment information depending on how the comparison is framed. These findings challenge fundamental assumptions underlying P-E fit theories and have important implications for future research. PMID:16834507

  9. Self-Sealing Cryogenic Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin Xiang; Chow, Wen Lung; Moslemian, Davood; Lin, Gary; Melton, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Self-sealing fitting for cryogenic tubes remains free of leakage from room temperature to liquid-helium temperature even at internal pressure as high as 2.7 MPa. Fitting comprises parts made of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion to prevent leakage gaps from forming as temperature decreases. Consists of coupling nut, two flared tube ends, and flared O-ring spacer. Spacer contracts more than tube ends do as temperature decreases. This greater contraction seals tube ends more tightly, preventing leakage.

  10. Cotyledon damage affects seed number through final plant size in the annual grassland species Medicago lupulina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiting; Zhao, Chuan; Lamb, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of cotyledon damage on seedling growth and survival are relatively well established, but little is known about the effects on aspects of plant fitness such as seed number and size. Here the direct and indirect mechanisms linking cotyledon damage and plant fitness in the annual species Medicago lupulina are examined. Methods Growth and reproductive traits, including mature plant size, time to first flowering, flower number, seed number and individual seed mass were monitored in M. lupulina plants when zero, one or two cotyledons were removed at 7 d old. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the mechanisms linking cotyledon damage to seed number and seed mass. Key Results Cotyledon damage reduced seed number but not individual seed mass. The primary mechanism was a reduction in plant biomass with cotyledon damage that in turn reduced seed number primarily through a reduction in flower numbers. Although cotyledon damage delayed flower initiation, it had little effect on seed number. Individual seed mass was not affected by cotyledon removal, but there was a trade-off between seed number and seed mass. Conclusions It is shown how a network of indirect mechanisms link damage to cotyledons and fitness in M. lupulina. Cotyledon damage had strong direct effects on both plant size and flowering phenology, but an analysis of the causal relationships among plant traits and fitness components showed that a reduction in plant size associated with cotyledon damage was an important mechanism influencing fitness. PMID:21196450

  11. Fitness Change Effects on Midlife Metabolic Outcomes: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Lisa; Eberly, Lynn E.; Austin, Erin; Carnethon, Mercedes; Bouchard, Claude; Sternfeld, Barbara; Zhu, Na; Sidney, Steve; Schreiner, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Fitness decline, high BMI, and insulin resistance (IR) are associated with worsening cardiometabolic risk factors prospectively; modification of the fitness change effect by BMI and IR remains unknown. Methods Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study without diabetes at Year 0 (Y0) [n=2048, 43.4% men, mean age 25] had fitness quantified by treadmill at Y0 and Y20. Y0 BMI was normal (nBMI<25 kg/m2) or high (hBMI≥25 kg/m2). Y0 insulin resistance status was insulin sensitive [IS: HOMA-IR <1.84 (75%tile)] or insulin resistant [IR: HOMA-IR≥1.84]. 4 groups were established: nBMI/IS, hBMI/IS, nBMI/IR, hBMI/IR. Y0 fitness was low (<33%tile for sex) or average-high (≥33%tile for sex). Fitness change (Treadmill time: Y20-Y0) was maintained [increase or decline ≤20%tile for sex] or decreased [decline >20%tile for sex]. The outcomes were incident diabetes and percent change over 25 years in weight, waist girth, blood pressure, and lipid profile. Analysis was by multiple linear regression and proportional hazards regression with adjustment for individual characteristics. Results Maintained fitness after 20 years was associated with greater increase in HDL-C and less increase in weight, waist girth, blood pressure, and triglycerides than decreased fitness, similarly for the groups defined by BMI and IR. Maintained fitness reduced the rate of incident diabetes in IS but not IR participants. Conclusions Maintained fitness after 20 years was associated with more favorable middle age cardiometabolic risk factors than decreased fitness; this benefit might be blunted by baseline IR. PMID:25160846

  12. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture-mark-recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  13. Heterozygosity–fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

    PubMed Central

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L

    2014-01-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity–fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U.K. population of European badgers (Meles meles), using a multimodel capture–mark–recapture framework and 35 microsatellite loci. We detected interannual variation in first-year, but not adult, survival probability. Adult females had higher annual survival probabilities than adult males. Cubs with more heterozygous fathers had higher first-year survival, but only in wetter summers; there was no relationship with individual or maternal heterozygosity. Moist soil conditions enhance badger food supply (earthworms), improving survival. In dryer years, higher indiscriminate mortality rates appear to mask differential heterozygosity-related survival effects. This paternal interaction was significant in the most supported model; however, the model-averaged estimate had a relative importance of 0.50 and overlapped zero slightly. First-year survival probabilities were not correlated with the inbreeding coefficient (f); however, small sample sizes limited the power to detect inbreeding depression. Correlations between individual heterozygosity and inbreeding were weak, in line with published meta-analyses showing that HFCs tend to be weak. We found support for general rather than local heterozygosity effects on first-year survival probability, and g2 indicated that our markers had power to detect inbreeding. We emphasize the importance of assessing how environmental stressors can influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs and of considering how parental genetic diversity can affect fitness-related traits, which could play an important role in the evolution of mate choice. PMID:25360289

  14. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  15. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  16. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  17. Coaches as Fitness Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Zillifro, Traci D.; Nichols, Ronald; Hull, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of physical activity, low fitness levels, and elevated obesity rates as high as 32% of today's youth are well documented. Many strategies and grants have been developed at the national, regional, and local levels to help counteract these current trends. Strategies have been developed and implemented for schools, households (parents), and…

  18. Sports Fitness School for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacha, Karolyn K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Sports Fitness Program developed at Kansas State University offers children a way to develop or improve skills and learn physical education concepts. This summer program is an alternative to traditional sports programs since activities are not competitive and are less structured. Details of program organization are discussed. (DF)

  19. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  20. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/