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Sample records for affect individual susceptibility

  1. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-07-01

    To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Misperceiving facial affect: effects of laterality and individual differences in susceptibility to visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Coy, Abbie L; Hutton, Samuel B

    2012-04-30

    It has been suggested that certain types of auditory hallucinations may be the by-product of a perceptual system that has evolved to be oversensitive to threat-related stimuli. People with schizophrenia and high schizotypes experience visual as well as auditory hallucinations, and have deficits in processing facial emotions. We sought to determine the relationship between visual hallucination proneness and the tendency to misattribute threat and non-threat related emotions to neutral faces. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing visual hallucination proneness (the Revised Visual Hallucination Scale - RVHS). High scoring individuals (N=64) were compared to low scoring individuals (N=72) on a novel emotion detection task. The high RVHS group made more false positive errors (ascribing emotions to neutral faces) than the low RVHS group, particularly when detecting threat-related emotions. All participants made more false positives when neutral faces were presented to the right visual field than to the left visual field. Our results support continuum models of visual hallucinatory experience in which tolerance for false positives is highest for potentially threatening emotional stimuli and suggest that lateral asymmetries in face processing extend to the misperception of facial emotion.

  3. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  4. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  5. Individual differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, Janelle K; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2011-05-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by variability in working memory capacity, modulate susceptibility to inattentional blindness. Participants watched a classic inattentional blindness video (Simons & Chabris, 1999) and were instructed to count passes among basketball players, wherein 58% noticed the unexpected: a person wearing a gorilla suit. When participants were accurate with their pass counts, individuals with higher working memory capacity were more likely to report seeing the gorilla (67%) than those with lesser working memory capacity (36%). These results suggest that variability in attentional control is a potential mechanism underlying the apparent modulation of inattentional blindness across individuals.

  6. Individual susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Apte, Minoti V; Pirola, Romano C; Wilson, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    The observation that only a minority of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis has prompted an intensive search for a trigger factor/cofactor/susceptibility factor that may precipitate a clinical attack. Putative susceptibility factors examined so far include diet, smoking, amount and type of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking and lipid intolerance. In addition, a range of inherited factors have been assessed including blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigen serotypes, alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes and several genotypes. The latter group comprises mutations/polymorphisms in genes related to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, pancreatic digestive enzymes, pancreatic enzyme inhibitors, cystic fibrosis and cytokines. Disappointingly, despite this concerted research effort, no clear association has been established between the above factors and alcoholic pancreatitis. Experimentally, the secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) has been investigated as a candidate 'trigger' for alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the clinical relevance of CCK as a trigger factor has to be questioned, as it is difficult to envisage a situation in humans where abnormally high levels of CCK would be released into the circulation to trigger pancreatitis in alcoholics. In contrast, bacterial endotoxemia is a candidate cofactor that does have relevance to the clinical situation. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) levels are significantly higher in drinkers (either after chronic alcohol intake or a single binge) compared to non-drinkers. We have recently shown that alcohol-fed animals challenged with otherwise innocuous doses of LPS exhibit significant pancreatic injury. Moreover, repeated LPS exposure in alcohol-fed rats leads to progressive injury to the gland characterized by significant pancreatic fibrosis. These studies support the concept that endotoxin may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of alcoholic pancreatitis. Scope remains for

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  8. Individual Susceptibility to Hypobaric Environments: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Watkins, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts are at risk for developing decompression sickness (DCS) while exposed to the hypobaric environment of the extravehicular suit in space, in terrestrial hypobaric chambers, and during ascent from neutral buoyancy training dives. There is increasing recognition that DCS risk is different between diving and altitude exposures, with many individual parameters and environmental factors implicated as risk factors for development of DCS in divers but are not recognized as risk factors in altitude exposures. Much of the literature to date has focused on patent foramen ovale (PFO), which has long been considered a major risk factor for DCS in diving exposures, but its link to serious DCS in altitude exposures remains unclear. Knowledge of those risk factors specific to hypobaric DCS may help identify susceptible individuals and aid in astronaut selection, crew assignment, and mission planning. This paper reviews the current literature pertaining to these risk factors, including PFO, anthropometric parameters, gender, menstrual cycle, lifetime diving experience, physical fitness, biochemical levels, complement activation, cigarette smoking, fluid balance, and ambient temperature. Further research to evaluate pertinent risk factors for DCS in altitude exposures is recommended.

  9. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  10. Water Temperature Affects Susceptibility to Ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Brand, Mabre D; Hill, Rachel D; Brenes, Roberto; Chaney, Jordan C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Grayfer, Leon; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife populations is increasing, and changes in environmental conditions have been hypothesized as a potential driver. For example, warmer ambient temperatures might favor pathogens by providing more ideal conditions for propagation or by stressing hosts. Our objective was to determine if water temperature played a role in the pathogenicity of an emerging pathogen (ranavirus) that infects ectothermic vertebrate species. We exposed larvae of four amphibian species to a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus at two temperatures (10 and 25°C). We found that FV3 copies in tissues and mortality due to ranaviral disease were greater at 25°C than at 10°C for all species. In a second experiment with wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we found that a 2°C change (10 vs. 12°C) affected ranaviral disease outcomes, with greater infection and mortality at 12°C. There was evidence that 10°C stressed Cope's gray tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, which is a species that breeds during summer-all individuals died at this temperature, but only 10% tested positive for FV3 infection. The greater pathogenicity of FV3 at 25°C might be related to faster viral replication, which in vitro studies have reported previously. Colder temperatures also may decrease systemic infection by reducing blood circulation and the proportion of phagocytes, which are known to disseminate FV3 through the body. Collectively, our results indicate that water temperature during larval development may play a role in the emergence of ranaviruses.

  11. Water Temperature Affects Susceptibility to Ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Brand, Mabre D; Hill, Rachel D; Brenes, Roberto; Chaney, Jordan C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Grayfer, Leon; Miller, Debra L; Gray, Matthew J

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife populations is increasing, and changes in environmental conditions have been hypothesized as a potential driver. For example, warmer ambient temperatures might favor pathogens by providing more ideal conditions for propagation or by stressing hosts. Our objective was to determine if water temperature played a role in the pathogenicity of an emerging pathogen (ranavirus) that infects ectothermic vertebrate species. We exposed larvae of four amphibian species to a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus at two temperatures (10 and 25°C). We found that FV3 copies in tissues and mortality due to ranaviral disease were greater at 25°C than at 10°C for all species. In a second experiment with wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we found that a 2°C change (10 vs. 12°C) affected ranaviral disease outcomes, with greater infection and mortality at 12°C. There was evidence that 10°C stressed Cope's gray tree frog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, which is a species that breeds during summer-all individuals died at this temperature, but only 10% tested positive for FV3 infection. The greater pathogenicity of FV3 at 25°C might be related to faster viral replication, which in vitro studies have reported previously. Colder temperatures also may decrease systemic infection by reducing blood circulation and the proportion of phagocytes, which are known to disseminate FV3 through the body. Collectively, our results indicate that water temperature during larval development may play a role in the emergence of ranaviruses. PMID:27283058

  12. Ubiquitous urease affects soybean susceptibility to fungi.

    PubMed

    Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Bencke, Marta; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Becker-Ritt, Arlete B; Martinelli, Anne H S; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Polacco, Joseph C; Stolf, Renata; Marcelino, Francismar C; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Homrich, Milena S; Del Ponte, Emerson M; Carlini, Celia R; De Carvalho, Mayra C C G; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2012-05-01

    The soybean ubiquitous urease (encoded by GmEu4) is responsible for recycling metabolically derived urea. Additional biological roles have been demonstrated for plant ureases, notably in toxicity to other organisms. However, urease enzymatic activity is not related to its toxicity. The role of GmEu4 in soybean susceptibility to fungi was investigated in this study. A differential expression pattern of GmEu4 was observed in susceptible and resistant genotypes of soybeans over the course of a Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection, especially 24 h after infection. Twenty-nine adult, transgenic soybean plants, representing six independently transformed lines, were obtained. Although the initial aim of this study was to overexpress GmEu4, the transgenic plants exhibited GmEu4 co-suppression and decreased ureolytic activity. The growth of Rhizoctonia solani, Phomopsis sp., and Penicillium herguei in media containing a crude protein extract from either transgenic or non-transgenic leaves was evaluated. The fungal growth was higher in the protein extracts from transgenic urease-deprived plants than in extracts from non-transgenic controls. When infected by P. pachyrhizi uredospores, detached leaves of urease-deprived plants developed a significantly higher number of lesions, pustules and erupted pustules than leaves of non-transgenic plants containing normal levels of the enzyme. The results of the present work show that the soybean plants were more susceptible to fungi in the absence of urease. It was not possible to overexpress active GmEu4. For future work, overexpression of urease fungitoxic peptides could be attempted as an alternative approach.

  13. Individual differences in susceptibility to experimentally induced phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    Burrack, Anna; Brugger, Peter

    2005-09-01

    We investigated individual differences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations.

  14. Water hardness affects catfish susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease can cause tremendous losses of freshwater fish. While it has been studied exhaustively, little is known about its affinity to specific water chemistries that affects attachment. Recent studies in our labs have illuminated this subject. In the first experiment, two waters were ...

  15. Water chemistry affects catfish susceptibility to columnaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While columnaris disease has been well-studied, little is known about how specific water chemistries can affect attachment. Recent studies in our labs offer new insight on this subject. Well waters from the USDA/ARS Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center (SNARC; Stuttgart, Arkansas) and fr...

  16. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  17. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals. PMID:27625628

  18. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The current study is the first to assess the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory. Across three experiments (two video-based and one in a driving simulator), the effect of perceptual load on eyewitness memory was assessed. The results showed that eyewitnesses were less accurate under high load, in particular for peripheral details. For example, memory for the central character in the video was not affected by load but memory for a witness who passed by the window at the edge of the scene was significantly worse under high load. High load memories were also more open to suggestion, showing increased susceptibility to leading questions. High visual perceptual load also affected recall for auditory information, illustrating a possible cross-modal perceptual load effect on memory accuracy. These results have implications for eyewitness memory researchers and forensic professionals.

  19. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE CORAL MONTASTRAEA FAVEOLATE TO BLACK-BAND DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black-band disease affects many species of tropical reef-building corals, but it is unclear what factors contribute to the disease-susceptibility of individual corals or how the disease is transmitted between colonies. Studies have suggested that the ability of black-band disease...

  1. The Susceptibility to Dental Erosion Differs among Individuals.

    PubMed

    Uhlen, M M; Mulic, A; Holme, B; Tveit, A B; Stenhagen, K R

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wine tasters and patients with self-induced vomiting have revealed that 30-50% of individuals at high risk do not develop erosive lesions. The aim was to investigate this apparent individual susceptibility to enamel erosion. Two enamel specimens were made from each of 3 premolars from 8 persons (donors). Six acrylic mouth appliances were worn by 6 volunteers (carriers). One specimen from each donor was mounted on each appliance. The carriers wore the appliances for 9 days. The appliances were immersed in 0.01 M HCl for 3 min twice per day to imitate a vomiting/reflux situation. The enamel specimens were analysed by a white-light interferometer to measure enamel loss (in micrometres). The enamel loss varied significantly both between the donor teeth (p = 0.009) and the carriers (p = 0.004). The lesion in the specimen with the largest amount of enamel loss was 4 times as deep as in the specimen with the lowest. In 1 carrier, all specimens displayed enamel loss above the mean, including the specimen from the donor with the most resistant enamel. The variation in susceptibility to erosion among individuals appears to be influenced both by the sustainability of the enamel and by factors in the oral environment. This could explain the variation in prevalence and severity of dental erosions among patients exposed to similar acidic challenges. The results suggest that for certain individuals, only minimal acidic challenges may be sufficient to cause damage to the teeth, while others may never develop dental erosions despite extensive exposure to acid.

  2. The Susceptibility to Dental Erosion Differs among Individuals.

    PubMed

    Uhlen, M M; Mulic, A; Holme, B; Tveit, A B; Stenhagen, K R

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wine tasters and patients with self-induced vomiting have revealed that 30-50% of individuals at high risk do not develop erosive lesions. The aim was to investigate this apparent individual susceptibility to enamel erosion. Two enamel specimens were made from each of 3 premolars from 8 persons (donors). Six acrylic mouth appliances were worn by 6 volunteers (carriers). One specimen from each donor was mounted on each appliance. The carriers wore the appliances for 9 days. The appliances were immersed in 0.01 M HCl for 3 min twice per day to imitate a vomiting/reflux situation. The enamel specimens were analysed by a white-light interferometer to measure enamel loss (in micrometres). The enamel loss varied significantly both between the donor teeth (p = 0.009) and the carriers (p = 0.004). The lesion in the specimen with the largest amount of enamel loss was 4 times as deep as in the specimen with the lowest. In 1 carrier, all specimens displayed enamel loss above the mean, including the specimen from the donor with the most resistant enamel. The variation in susceptibility to erosion among individuals appears to be influenced both by the sustainability of the enamel and by factors in the oral environment. This could explain the variation in prevalence and severity of dental erosions among patients exposed to similar acidic challenges. The results suggest that for certain individuals, only minimal acidic challenges may be sufficient to cause damage to the teeth, while others may never develop dental erosions despite extensive exposure to acid. PMID:26981853

  3. Role of individual susceptibility in risk assessment of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Leng, G.; Lewalter, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study presents criteria for assessing the individual pesticide burden of workers in the chemical industry. METHODS: A group of 1003 workers exposed to methylparathion or ethylparathion (alkyl phosphates), propoxur (carbamate), or cyfluthrin (pyrethroid) was investigated. After exposure to methylparathion or ethylparathion the methylparathion or ethylparathion and methylparaoxon or ethylparaoxon concentrations in plasma, the p-nitrophenol concentration in urine, and the activities of cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase were measured. For exposure to propoxur the propoxur concentration in plasma, the 2-isopropoxyphenol concentration in urine, and the cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase activities were measured. For exposure to cyfluthrin the cyfluthrin concentration in plasma was measured. RESULTS: At the same propoxur concentration only workers with a low individual acetylcholinesterase activity reported symptoms. Workers who metabolised cyfluthrin rapidly reported less symptoms than workers with a lower rate of metabolism. This tendency was also evident in cases of mixed exposure (cyfluthrin and methylparathion). CONCLUSIONS: In the assessment of exposure to pesticides susceptibility of the individual person has to be considered.   PMID:10472315

  4. Hypermetabolism in B–lymphocytes from malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Kerstin; Hack, Guido; Lehmann–Horn, Frank; Jurkat–Rott, Karin; Wearing, Scott; Zullo, Alberto; Carsana, Antonella; Klingler, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle metabolism which is characterized by generalized muscle rigidity, increased body temperature, rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic acidosis. The underlying mechanism of MH involves excessive Ca2+ release in myotubes via the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). As RyR1 is also expressed in B–lymphocytes, this study investigated whether cellular metabolism of native B–lymphocytes was also altered in MH susceptible (MHS) individuals. A potent activator of RyR1, 4–chloro–m–cresol (4-CmC) was used to challenge native B-lymphocytes in a real–time, metabolic assay based on a pH–sensitive silicon biosensor chip. At the cellular level, a dose–dependent, phasic acidification occurred with 4–CmC. The acidification rate, an indicator of metabolic activation, was significantly higher in B–lymphocytes from MHS patients and required 3 to 5 fold lower concentrations of 4–CmC to evoke similar acidification rates to MHN. Native B–lymphocytes from MHS individuals are more sensitive to 4–CmC than those from MHN, reflecting a greater Ca2+ turnover. The acidification response, however, was less pronounced than in muscle cells, presumably reflecting the lower expression of RyR1 in B–lymphocytes. PMID:27646467

  5. Hypermetabolism in B-lymphocytes from malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Kerstin; Hack, Guido; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Wearing, Scott; Zullo, Alberto; Carsana, Antonella; Klingler, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle metabolism which is characterized by generalized muscle rigidity, increased body temperature, rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic acidosis. The underlying mechanism of MH involves excessive Ca(2+) release in myotubes via the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). As RyR1 is also expressed in B-lymphocytes, this study investigated whether cellular metabolism of native B-lymphocytes was also altered in MH susceptible (MHS) individuals. A potent activator of RyR1, 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) was used to challenge native B-lymphocytes in a real-time, metabolic assay based on a pH-sensitive silicon biosensor chip. At the cellular level, a dose-dependent, phasic acidification occurred with 4-CmC. The acidification rate, an indicator of metabolic activation, was significantly higher in B-lymphocytes from MHS patients and required 3 to 5 fold lower concentrations of 4-CmC to evoke similar acidification rates to MHN. Native B-lymphocytes from MHS individuals are more sensitive to 4-CmC than those from MHN, reflecting a greater Ca(2+) turnover. The acidification response, however, was less pronounced than in muscle cells, presumably reflecting the lower expression of RyR1 in B-lymphocytes. PMID:27646467

  6. Hypermetabolism in B-lymphocytes from malignant hyperthermia susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Kerstin; Hack, Guido; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Wearing, Scott; Zullo, Alberto; Carsana, Antonella; Klingler, Werner

    2016-09-20

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle metabolism which is characterized by generalized muscle rigidity, increased body temperature, rhabdomyolysis, and severe metabolic acidosis. The underlying mechanism of MH involves excessive Ca(2+) release in myotubes via the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). As RyR1 is also expressed in B-lymphocytes, this study investigated whether cellular metabolism of native B-lymphocytes was also altered in MH susceptible (MHS) individuals. A potent activator of RyR1, 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) was used to challenge native B-lymphocytes in a real-time, metabolic assay based on a pH-sensitive silicon biosensor chip. At the cellular level, a dose-dependent, phasic acidification occurred with 4-CmC. The acidification rate, an indicator of metabolic activation, was significantly higher in B-lymphocytes from MHS patients and required 3 to 5 fold lower concentrations of 4-CmC to evoke similar acidification rates to MHN. Native B-lymphocytes from MHS individuals are more sensitive to 4-CmC than those from MHN, reflecting a greater Ca(2+) turnover. The acidification response, however, was less pronounced than in muscle cells, presumably reflecting the lower expression of RyR1 in B-lymphocytes.

  7. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity.

  8. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Soriano, Virtudes; Juberias, Pablo; Saez, Berta; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Grasa, Matilde; Höiom, Veronica; Lindblom, Annika; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; van Rossum, Michelle M; Aben, Katja K H; de Vries, Esther; Santinami, Mario; Di Mauro, Maria G; Maurichi, Andrea; Wendt, Judith; Hochleitner, Pia; Pehamberger, Hubert; Gudmundsson, Julius; Magnusdottir, Droplaug N; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Holm, Hilma; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Frigge, Michael L; Blondal, Thorarinn; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Bjarnason, Hjördis; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Okamoto, Ichiro; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hansson, Johan; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Karagas, Margaret R; Nelson, Heather H; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Olafsson, Jon H; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-08-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 x 10(-9)), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 x 10(-10)). The effect of rs157935[T] is dependent on the parental origin of the risk allele. None of these variants were found to be associated with melanoma or fair-pigmentation traits. A melanoma- and pigmentation-associated variant in the SLC45A2 gene, L374F, is associated with risk of both BCC and squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we report conclusive evidence that rs401681[C] in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus confers susceptibility to BCC but protects against melanoma. PMID:19578363

  9. Physiological conditions affecting Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to staphylococcin 1580.

    PubMed

    Weerkamp, A; Vogels, G D

    1978-02-01

    Loss of salt tolerance, irreversible loss of viability, inhibition of l-glutamic acid uptake and effects on the high energy state of the membrane were used as parameters to measure the injury induced by staphylococcin 1580, a bacteriocin of Staphylococcus epidermidis, in susceptible cells of Staphylococcus aureus Oxford 209P. A small part of a growing cell population appeared to be temporarily resistant to the bacteriocin, and the cells were arrested in this stage when suspended in buffer. The proportion of susceptible cells may rapidly shift during exponential growth, apparently concomitantly with a change in cell metabolism. Glucose- and pyruvate-grown cells were equally susceptible to salts after staphylococcin treatment. Only in pyruvate-grown cells was amino acid uptake strongly inhibited, and the membrane potential was abolished after a short lag time. Also, irreversible killing was more distinct in pyruvate-grown cells. The proton gradient across the cell membrane was only slightly disturbed in both types of cells. Specific inhibitors of the energy metabolism revealed that the high energy state of the membrane was largely supported by hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate in glucose-grown cells, whereas the oxidative input through electron transport appeared to be relatively more important in pyruvate-grown cells. Staphylococcin 1580 affected primarily the oxidative energy metabolism, although electron transport is not inhibited. Below a distinct incubation temperature cells were completely resistant to the action of the bacteriocin. Varying the growth temperature had only a slight effect on the transition temperature, but growth in the presence of Tween 80, which greatly enhanced the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, decreased the transition temperature.

  10. Physiological conditions affecting Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to staphylococcin 1580.

    PubMed

    Weerkamp, A; Vogels, G D

    1978-02-01

    Loss of salt tolerance, irreversible loss of viability, inhibition of l-glutamic acid uptake and effects on the high energy state of the membrane were used as parameters to measure the injury induced by staphylococcin 1580, a bacteriocin of Staphylococcus epidermidis, in susceptible cells of Staphylococcus aureus Oxford 209P. A small part of a growing cell population appeared to be temporarily resistant to the bacteriocin, and the cells were arrested in this stage when suspended in buffer. The proportion of susceptible cells may rapidly shift during exponential growth, apparently concomitantly with a change in cell metabolism. Glucose- and pyruvate-grown cells were equally susceptible to salts after staphylococcin treatment. Only in pyruvate-grown cells was amino acid uptake strongly inhibited, and the membrane potential was abolished after a short lag time. Also, irreversible killing was more distinct in pyruvate-grown cells. The proton gradient across the cell membrane was only slightly disturbed in both types of cells. Specific inhibitors of the energy metabolism revealed that the high energy state of the membrane was largely supported by hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate in glucose-grown cells, whereas the oxidative input through electron transport appeared to be relatively more important in pyruvate-grown cells. Staphylococcin 1580 affected primarily the oxidative energy metabolism, although electron transport is not inhibited. Below a distinct incubation temperature cells were completely resistant to the action of the bacteriocin. Varying the growth temperature had only a slight effect on the transition temperature, but growth in the presence of Tween 80, which greatly enhanced the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, decreased the transition temperature. PMID:25615

  11. Factors Affecting the Crevice Corrosion Susceptibility of Alloy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-11-24

    The susceptibility or Alloy 22 (N06022) to crevice corrosion may depend on environmental or external factors and metallurgical or internal factors. Some of the most important environmental factors are chloride concentration, inhibitors, temperature and potential. The presence of a weld seam or second phase precipitation in the alloy are classified as internal factors. The localized corrosion resistance of Alloy 22 has been extensively investigated in the last five years, however not all affecting factors were considered in the studies. This paper discusses the current findings regarding the effect of many of these variables on the susceptibility (or resistance) of Alloy 22 to crevice corrosion. The effect of variables such as temperature, chloride concentration and nitrate are rather well understood. However there are only limited or no data regarding effect of other factors such as pH, other inhibitive or deleterious species and type of crevicing material and crevice geometry. There are contradictory results regarding the effect of metallurgical factors such as solution heat treatment.

  12. Individual differences in the acquisition of affectively valenced associations.

    PubMed

    Zinbarg, R E; Mohlman, J

    1998-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the predictions derived from the behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system theory of personality that trait anxiety is positively related to the speed of acquisition of punishment expectancies and impulsivity is positively related to the speed of acquisition of reward expectancies. Both studies used a standard approach-avoidance discrimination task with self-report measures of expectancies. Both studies found support for the hypothesized relation between trait and acquisition of punishment expectancies but not for the hypothesized relation between impulsivity and acquisition of reward expectancies. Study 2 suggested that the relation between trait anxiety and punishment expectancy is affected by the type of incentive and the type of trait anxiety measure used. The results suggest that highly trait anxious individuals are more susceptible to developing new sources of anxiety than others.

  13. Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Bradley B.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Frank, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is critical for the incremental learning of values associated with behavioral actions. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) represents abstract rules and explicit contingencies to support rapid behavioral adaptation in the absence of cumulative experience. Here we test two alternative models of the interaction between these systems, and individual differences thereof, when human subjects are instructed with prior information about reward contingencies that may or may not be accurate. Behaviorally, subjects are overly influenced by prior instructions, at the expense of learning true reinforcement statistics. Computational analysis found that this pattern of data is best accounted for by a confirmation bias mechanism in which prior beliefs - putatively represented in PFC - influence the learning that occurs in the striatum such that reinforcement statistics are distorted. We assessed genetic variants affecting prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. A polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680), associated with prefrontal dopaminergic function, was predictive of the degree to which participants persisted in responding in accordance with prior instructions even as evidence against their veracity accumulated. Polymorphisms in genes associated with striatal dopamine function (DARPP-32, rs907094, and DRD2, rs6277), were predictive of learning from positive and negative outcomes. Notably, these same variants were predictive of the degree to which such learning was overly inflated or neglected when outcomes are consistent or inconsistent with prior instructions. These findings indicate dissociable neurocomputational and genetic mechanisms by which initial biases are strengthened by experience. PMID:21508242

  14. Does Acquiescence Affect Individual Items Consistently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found the effects of acquiescence to be generally consistent across item "aggregates" within a single survey (i.e., essential tau-equivalence), but it is unknown whether this phenomenon is consistent at the" individual item" level. This article evaluated the often assumed but inadequately tested…

  15. Dextroamphetamine and individual susceptibility to reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B S; Gupta, U

    1984-05-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the relationships between extraversion, d-amphetamine and modes of reinforcement in verbal operant conditioning. A factorial design involving two levels of extraversion (extraverts and introverts), two reinforcement conditions ('good' and 'electric shock') and three treatments (placebo and two doses, 7.5 and 12.5 mg, of d-amphetamine) with repeated measures on the last factor was used. Sixty postgraduate female students were individually subjected to Taffel's verbal conditioning procedure. The study supported the following conclusions: (1) under the placebo condition, the extraverted subjects condition better with the rewarding reinforcer while the introverted subjects condition better with the punishing reinforcer; (2) under the influence of d-amphetamine, the extraverted subjects condition better with the punishing reinforcer while the conditioning scores of introverted subjects decrease with the punishing reinforcer but are not influenced with the rewarding reinforcer.

  16. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to False Memory in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jason M.; Bunting, Michael F.; Poole, Bradley J.; Conway, Andrew R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors addressed whether individual differences in the working memory capacity (WMC) of young adults influence susceptibility to false memories for nonpresented critical words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott associative list paradigm. The results of 2 experiments indicated that individuals with greater WMC recalled fewer critical words than…

  17. Ethylene signalling affects susceptibility of tomatoes to Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Noel, Jason T; George, Andrée S; Farias, Marcelo A; Jenkins, Keith T; Hochmuth, George; Xu, Yimin; Giovanonni, Jim J; Teplitski, Max

    2014-01-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly recognized as important reservoirs of human pathogens, and therefore, significant attention has been directed recently to understanding mechanisms of the interactions between plants and enterics, like Salmonella. A screen of tomato cultivars for their susceptibility to Salmonella revealed significant differences in the ability of this human pathogen to multiply within fruits; expression of the Salmonella genes (cysB, agfB, fadH) involved in the interactions with tomatoes depended on the tomato genotype and maturity stage. Proliferation of Salmonella was strongly reduced in the tomato mutants with defects in ethylene synthesis, perception and signal transduction. While mutation in the ripening-related ethylene receptor Nr resulted only in a modest reduction in Salmonella numbers within tomatoes, strong inhibition of the Salmonella proliferation was observed in rin and nor tomato mutants. RIN and NOR are regulators of ethylene synthesis and ripening. A commercial tomato variety heterozygous for rin was less susceptible to Salmonella under the greenhouse conditions but not when tested in the field over three production seasons. PMID:24888884

  18. Inter-individual susceptibility to environmental toxicants-A current assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nebert, Daniel W. . E-mail: dan.nebert@uc.edu

    2005-09-01

    Virtually all diseases have an environmental component. The two most important factors affecting your unique risk of an environmental disease (toxicity or cancer) are (a) your exposure to the environmental agent and (b) your genes. Epidemiologists have found ways to calculate inter-individual risk-if the exposure to environmental agents is sufficiently high and can be documented (e.g., years of cigarette smoking, taking prescribed drugs, drinking alcohol, or exposure to radon or other radioactive material, etc.). If the dose of environmental agents is lower and more ambiguous (e.g., exposure to chemicals on the job, herbicides sprayed on a golf course, outdoor or indoor air pollution, endocrine disruptors in cans of food, living near a toxic waste dump site, etc.), however, calculations of inter-individual risk become much more difficult. Highly accurate DNA tests for genetic susceptibility to toxicity and cancer have been sought in order to identify individuals at increased risk; this type of research represents the leading edge of phenotype-genotype association studies and is the major goal of most public health and preventive medicine programs. The task, however, has turned out to be far more challenging than anticipated. The major stumbling block has been the difficulty in determining an unequivocal phenotype or an unequivocal genotype. We were quite optimistic 5-10 years ago that this would be easy, but now we are beginning to appreciate how difficult it is to determine an unequivocal phenotype or genotype with certainty. For many reasons set forth in this overview, it appears that DNA testing alone, to predict and prevent environmental disease on an individual basis, may be virtually impossible with current knowledge and technologies and will require novel insights before major practical applications will evolve.

  19. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koufaris, Costas; Sismani, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25903146

  20. Failure of aspartame to affect seizure susceptibility in kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Cain, D P; Boon, F; Bevan, M

    1989-04-01

    The effect of aspartame administered by gavage to rats on amygdala and hippocampal kindled seizures was assessed. Despite the administration of a wide range of doses (25-2000 mg/kg) no evidence for an effect of aspartame on afterdischarge threshold or seizure strength was obtained when testing was done at a time when serum and brain levels of neutral amino acids are known to be significantly elevated as a result of this treatment. There is controversy whether dietary aspartame (N-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester), a food additive sweetner, can lead to seizures in susceptible humans and in laboratory animals. A proseizure effect of high consumption of aspartame has been alleged (Wurtman, 1985; Walton, 1986) and denied (Gaull, 1985). Recent studies using mice have yielded mixed results. Thus, Kim and Kim (1986) and Pinto and Maher (1988) observed potentiating effects of high loads of aspartame on chemically induced seizures, but Nevins, Arnolde and Haigler (1986) observed no effect on chemical and ECS seizures. We used the electrical kindling model of epilepsy to assess whether aspartame can alter seizure threshold or strength in rats. The kindled response is highly repeatable and stable and has been shown to be sensitive to a large variety of pharmacological treatments (Racine, 1978) and to dietary manipulation (McCann, Cain and Philbrick, 1983).

  1. Genomewide Scan for Affective Disorder Susceptibility Loci in Families of a Northern Swedish Isolated Population

    PubMed Central

    Venken, Tine; Claes, Stephan; Sluijs, Samuël; Paterson, Andrew D.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Adolfsson, Rolf; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed nine multigenerational families with ascertained affective spectrum disorders in northern Sweden's geographically isolated population of Västerbotten. This northern Swedish population, which originated from a limited number of early settlers ∼8,000 years ago, is genetically more homogeneous than outbred populations. In a genomewide linkage analysis, we identified three chromosomal loci with multipoint LOD scores (MPLOD) ⩾2 at 9q31.1-q34.1 (MPLOD 3.24), 6q22.2-q24.2 (MPLOD 2.48), and 2q33-q36 (MPLOD 2.26) under a recessive affected-only model. Follow-up genotyping with application of a 2-cM density simple-tandem-repeat (STR) map confirmed linkage at 9q31.1-q34.1 (MPLOD 3.22), 6q23-q24 (MPLOD 3.25), and 2q33-q36 (MPLOD 2.2). In an initial analysis aimed at identification of the underlying susceptibility genes, we focused our attention on the 9q locus. We fine mapped this region at a 200-kb STR density, with the result of an MPLOD of 3.70. Genealogical studies showed that three families linked to chromosome 9q descended from common founder couples ∼10 generations ago. In this ∼10-generation pedigree, a common ancestral haplotype was inherited by the patients, which reduced the 9q candidate region to 1.6 Mb. Further, the shared haplotype was observed in 4.2% of patients with bipolar disorder with alternating episodes of depression and mania, but it was not observed in control individuals in a patient-control sample from the Västerbotten isolate. These results suggest a susceptibility locus on 9q31-q33 for affective disorder in this common ancestral region. PMID:15614721

  2. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Das, Partha Pratim; Saikia, Lahari; Nath, Reema; Phukan, Sanjib Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The changing spectrum of Candida species in causation of oropharyngeal candidiasis and their antifungal susceptibility pattern among the HIV infected individuals has made the identification to species level mandatory and detection of drug resistance necessary for patient care. The present study was carried out to determine the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting both HIV seropositive and seronegative individuals. Methods: A case-control study was conducted including 141 consecutive, non-repeat HIV-seropositive individuals and an equal number of sex and age matched HIV-seronegative control. Speciation of the oropharyngeal Candida isolates was done using standard yeast identification protocol. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by the disk-diffusion method as well as by Fungitest method. Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candida albicans (n=47, 77.0%), C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%), C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%), C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%), and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%). Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control) group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3%) C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country. PMID:27377507

  3. Positive affect increases secondary control among causally uncertain individuals.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Stephanie J; George, Melanie P

    2015-01-01

    Secondary control (acceptance of and adjustment to negative events) is thought to promote positive affect. We examined the opposite path: could positive affect increase secondary control, particularly among individuals high in causal uncertainty, who stand to benefit from it the most? In two studies, participants completed a causal uncertainty scale, thought about a problem while listening to affect-inducing music or no music, and then completed items that assessed secondary control. In Study 1, the music induced positive or negative affect. In Study 2, the music induced affect that was high or low in activation and positive or negative in valence. In both studies, we found that positive affect-inducing music increased secondary control among high causal uncertainty participants. Furthermore, trait affect did not account for the effects of causal uncertainty, and music did not influence primary control. These findings show that secondary control can fluctuate as a function of state affect.

  4. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction of Individual Polygenic Susceptibility to Sporadic Vascular Dementia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaeyoung

    2016-05-31

    Genetic factors of sporadic vascular dementia have been quite limitedly understood. Many underlying polygenes are suspected to contribute to susceptibility to sporadic vascular dementia as a typical complex disease although they have not been identified from genome-wide association studies. This study suggests a stochastic prediction of individual polygenetic susceptibility to sporadic vascular dementia using best linear unbiased prediction in a mixed model framework. The prediction shows a relative degree of individual genetic susceptibility to the disease that reflects its integrative polygenetic factors across the genome. The estimate should take into account heritability and the prevalence of sporadic vascular dementia to cope with the disease. This offers a model for application of a genetic blueprint for a complex disease to personalized preventive medicine. PMID:27258425

  5. Mind the gap: glucocorticoids modulate hippocampal glutamate tone underlying individual differences in stress susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Nasca, Carla; Bigio, Benedetta; Zelli, Danielle; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; McEwen, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Why do some individuals succumb to stress and develop debilitating psychiatric disorders, whereas others adapt well in the face of adversity? There is a gap in understanding the neural bases of individual differences in the responses to environmental factors on brain development and functions. Here, using a novel approach for screening an inbred population of laboratory animals, we identified two sub-populations of mice: susceptible mice that show mood-related abnormalities compared to resilient mice, which cope better with stress. This approach combined with molecular and behavioral analyses, led us to recognize, in hippocampus, presynaptic mGlu2 receptors, which inhibit glutamate release, as a stress sensitive marker of individual differences to stress-induced mood disorders. Indeed genetic mGlu2 deletion in mice results in a more severe susceptibility to stress, mimicking the susceptible mouse sub-population. Furthermore, we describe an underlying mechanism by which glucocorticoids, acting via mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), decrease resilience to stress via down regulation of mGlu2 receptors. We also provide a mechanistic link between MR and an epigenetic control of the glutamatergic synapse that underlies susceptibility to stressful experiences. The approach and the epigenetic allostasis concept introduced here serve as a model for identifying individual differences based upon biomarkers and underlying mechanisms and also provide molecular features that may be useful in translation to human behavior and psychopathology. PMID:25178162

  6. Mind the gap: glucocorticoids modulate hippocampal glutamate tone underlying individual differences in stress susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Nasca, C; Bigio, B; Zelli, D; Nicoletti, F; McEwen, B S

    2015-06-01

    Why do some individuals succumb to stress and develop debilitating psychiatric disorders, whereas others adapt well in the face of adversity? There is a gap in understanding the neural bases of individual differences in the responses to environmental factors on brain development and functions. Here, using a novel approach for screening an inbred population of laboratory animals, we identified two subpopulations of mice: susceptible mice that show mood-related abnormalities compared with resilient mice, which cope better with stress. This approach combined with molecular and behavioral analyses, led us to recognize, in hippocampus, presynaptic mGlu2 receptors, which inhibit glutamate release, as a stress-sensitive marker of individual differences to stress-induced mood disorders. Indeed, genetic mGlu2 deletion in mice results in a more severe susceptibility to stress, mimicking the susceptible mouse sub-population. Furthermore, we describe an underlying mechanism by which glucocorticoids, acting via mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), decrease resilience to stress via downregulation of mGlu2 receptors. We also provide a mechanistic link between MRs and an epigenetic control of the glutamatergic synapse that underlies susceptibility to stressful experiences. The approach and the epigenetic allostasis concept introduced here serve as a model for identifying individual differences based upon biomarkers and underlying mechanisms and also provide molecular features that may be useful in translation to human behavior and psychopathology.

  7. On the correlation between variance in individual susceptibilities and infection prevalence in populations.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Alessandro; Rebelo, Carlota; Gomes, M Gabriela M

    2015-12-01

    The hypothesis that infection prevalence in a population correlates negatively with variance in the susceptibility of its individuals has support from experimental, field, and theoretical studies. However, its generality has never been formally demonstrated. Here we formulate an endemic SIS model with individual susceptibility distributed according to a discrete or continuous probability function to assess the generality of such hypothesis. We introduce an ordering among susceptibility distributions with the same mean, analogous to that considered in Katriel (J Math Biol 65:237-262, 2012) to order the attack rates in an epidemic SIR model with heterogeneity. It turns out that if one distribution dominates another in this order then it has greater variance and corresponds to a lower infection prevalence for R0 varying in a suitable maximal interval of the form ]1, R0*]. We show that in both the discrete and continuous frameworks R0* can be finite, so that the expected correlation among variance and prevalence does not always hold. For discrete distributions this fact is demonstrated analytically, and the proof introduces a constructive procedure to find ordered pairs for which R0* is arbitrarily close to 1. For continuous distributions our conclusion is based on numerical studies with the beta distribution. Finally, we present explicit partial orderings among discrete susceptibility distributions and among symmetric beta distributions which guarantee that R0* = +∞.

  8. Recent social conditions affect boldness repeatability in individual sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Jolle Wolter; Aaron Taylor, Benjamin; Manica, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Animal personalities are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom and have been shown both to influence individual behaviour in the social context and to be affected by it. However, little attention has been paid to possible carryover effects of social conditions on personality expression, especially when individuals are alone. Here we investigated how the recent social context affected the boldness and repeatability of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, during individual assays. We housed fish either solitarily, solitarily part of the time or socially in groups of four, and subjected them twice to a risk-taking task. The social conditions had a large effect on boldness repeatability, with fish housed solitarily before the trials showing much higher behavioural repeatability than fish housed socially, for which repeatability was not significant. Social conditions also had a temporal effect on the boldness of the fish, with only fish housed solitarily taking more risks during the first than the second trial. These results show that recent social conditions can thus affect the short-term repeatability of behaviour and obfuscate the expression of personality even in later contexts when individuals are alone. This finding highlights the need to consider social housing conditions when designing personality studies and emphasizes the important link between animal personality and the social context by showing the potential role of social carryover effects. PMID:26949265

  9. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  10. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  11. Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-01-01

    The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10−5. If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local. PMID:25297709

  12. Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-01-01

    The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10(-5). If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local. PMID:25297709

  13. Cytogenetic damage and genetic variants in the individuals susceptible to arsenic-induced cancer through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pritha; Basu, Anamika; Mahata, Julie; Basu, Sreemanti; Sengupta, Mainak; Das, Jayanta K; Mukherjee, Angshuman; Sarkar, Ajoy K; Mondal, Lakshmikanta; Ray, Kunal; Giri, Ashok K

    2006-05-15

    In West Bengal, India, more than 300,000 arsenic-exposed people are showing symptoms of arsenic toxicity, which include cancers of skin and different internal organs. Since only 15-20% of the exposed population manifest arsenic-induced skin lesions, it is thought that genetic variation might play an important role in arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. A total of 422 unrelated arsenic-exposed subjects (244 skin-symptomatic and 178 asymptomatic) were recruited for this study. Cytogenetic damage, as measured by chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes and micronuclei formation in oral mucosa cells, urothelial cells and binucleated lymphocytes, was studied in unexposed, skin-symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals with similar socioeconomic status. Identification of null mutations in GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes were carried out by PCR amplification. GSTP1 SNPs, implicated in susceptibility to various cancers, were assessed by PCR-RFLP method. Symptomatic individuals had higher level of cytogenetic damage compared to asymptomatic individuals and asymptomatic individuals had significantly higher genotoxicity than unexposed individuals. No difference in allelic variants in GSTT1 and GSTP1 was observed between these 2 groups. Incidence of GSTM1 null gene frequencies was significantly higher in the asymptomatic group. Individuals with GSTM1-positive (at least one allele) had significantly higher risk of arsenic-induced skin lesions (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.22). These results show a protective role of GSTM1 null in arsenic toxicity. This study also indicates that asymptomatic individuals are sub clinically affected and are also significantly susceptible to arsenic-induced genotoxicity.

  14. Multi-Order Investigation of the Nonlinear Susceptibility Tensors of Individual Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Cédric; Riporto, Jérémy; Uldry, Aline; Rogov, Andrii; Mugnier, Yannick; Dantec, Ronan Le; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Bonacina, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    We use Hyper Rayleigh Scattering and polarization resolved multiphoton microscopy to investigate simultaneously the second and third-order nonlinear response of Potassium Niobate and Bismuth Ferrite harmonic nanoparticles. We first derive the second-to-third harmonic intensity ratio for colloidal ensembles and estimate the average third-order efficiency of these two materials. Successively, we explore the orientation dependent tensorial response of individual nanoparticles fixed on a substrate. The multi-order polarization resolved emission curves are globally fitted with an analytical model to retrieve individual elements of susceptibility tensors. PMID:27140074

  15. Multi-Order Investigation of the Nonlinear Susceptibility Tensors of Individual Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Cédric; Riporto, Jérémy; Uldry, Aline; Rogov, Andrii; Mugnier, Yannick; Dantec, Ronan Le; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Bonacina, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    We use Hyper Rayleigh Scattering and polarization resolved multiphoton microscopy to investigate simultaneously the second and third-order nonlinear response of Potassium Niobate and Bismuth Ferrite harmonic nanoparticles. We first derive the second-to-third harmonic intensity ratio for colloidal ensembles and estimate the average third-order efficiency of these two materials. Successively, we explore the orientation dependent tensorial response of individual nanoparticles fixed on a substrate. The multi-order polarization resolved emission curves are globally fitted with an analytical model to retrieve individual elements of susceptibility tensors.

  16. Fya/Fyb antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    King, Christopher L.; Adams, John H.; Xianli, Jia; Grimberg, Brian T.; McHenry, Amy M.; Greenberg, Lior J.; Siddiqui, Asim; Howes, Rosalind E.; da Silva-Nunes, Monica; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is a major cause of human malaria and is increasing in public health importance compared with falciparum malaria. Pv is unique among human malarias in that invasion of erythrocytes is almost solely dependent on the red cell's surface receptor, known as the Duffy blood-group antigen (Fy). Fy is an important minor blood-group antigen that has two immunologically distinct alleles, referred to as Fya or Fyb, resulting from a single-point mutation. This mutation occurs within the binding domain of the parasite's red cell invasion ligand. Whether this polymorphism affects susceptibility to clinical vivax malaria is unknown. Here we show that Fya, compared with Fyb, significantly diminishes binding of Pv Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) at the erythrocyte surface, and is associated with a reduced risk of clinical Pv in humans. Erythrocytes expressing Fya had 41–50% lower binding compared with Fyb cells and showed an increased ability of naturally occurring or artificially induced antibodies to block binding of PvDBP to their surface. Individuals with the Fya+b− phenotype demonstrated a 30–80% reduced risk of clinical vivax, but not falciparum malaria in a prospective cohort study in the Brazilian Amazon. The Fya+b− phenotype, predominant in Southeast Asian and many American populations, would confer a selective advantage against vivax malaria. Our results also suggest that efficacy of a PvDBP-based vaccine may differ among populations with different Fy phenotypes. PMID:22123959

  17. Behavior of susceptible-vaccinated-infected-recovered epidemics with diversity in the infection rate of individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chao-Ran; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2013-12-01

    We study a susceptible-vaccinated-infected-recovered (SVIR) epidemic-spreading model with diversity of infection rate of the individuals. By means of analytical arguments as well as extensive computer simulations, we demonstrate that the heterogeneity in infection rate can either impede or accelerate the epidemic spreading, which depends on the amount of vaccinated individuals introduced in the population as well as the contact pattern among the individuals. Remarkably, as long as the individuals with different capability of acquiring the disease interact with unequal frequency, there always exist a cross point for the fraction of vaccinated, below which the diversity of infection rate hinders the epidemic spreading and above which expedites it. The overall results are robust to the SVIR dynamics defined on different population models; the possible applications of the results are discussed.

  18. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress

    PubMed Central

    Hodes, Georgia E.; Pfau, Madeline L.; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A.; Christoffel, Daniel J.; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L.; Labonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A.; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H. F.; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A.; Murrough, James W.; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6−/−) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6−/− BM chimeric and IL-6−/− mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities. PMID:25331895

  19. Implicit Processing of Visual Emotions Is Affected by Sound-Induced Affective States and Individual Affective Traits

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bertolino, Alessandro; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize emotions contained in facial expressions are affected by both affective traits and states and varies widely between individuals. While affective traits are stable in time, affective states can be regulated more rapidly by environmental stimuli, such as music, that indirectly modulate the brain state. Here, we tested whether a relaxing or irritating sound environment affects implicit processing of facial expressions. Moreover, we investigated whether and how individual traits of anxiety and emotional control interact with this process. 32 healthy subjects performed an implicit emotion processing task (presented to subjects as a gender discrimination task) while the sound environment was defined either by a) a therapeutic music sequence (MusiCure), b) a noise sequence or c) silence. Individual changes in mood were sampled before and after the task by a computerized questionnaire. Additionally, emotional control and trait anxiety were assessed in a separate session by paper and pencil questionnaires. Results showed a better mood after the MusiCure condition compared with the other experimental conditions and faster responses to happy faces during MusiCure compared with angry faces during Noise. Moreover, individuals with higher trait anxiety were faster in performing the implicit emotion processing task during MusiCure compared with Silence. These findings suggest that sound-induced affective states are associated with differential responses to angry and happy emotional faces at an implicit stage of processing, and that a relaxing sound environment facilitates the implicit emotional processing in anxious individuals. PMID:25072162

  20. Genetic polymorphisms affecting susceptibility to mercury neurotoxicity in children: summary findings from the Casa Pia Children's Amalgam clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Farin, Federico M

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic, and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic predisposition. We examined the possibility that common genetic variants that are known to affect neurologic functions or Hg handling in adults would modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Three hundred thirty subjects who participated as children in the recently completed Casa Pia Clinical Trial of Dental Amalgams in Children were genotyped for 27 variants of 13 genes that are reported to affect neurologic functions and/or Hg disposition in adults. Urinary Hg concentrations, reflecting Hg exposure from any source, served as the Hg exposure index. Regression modeling strategies were employed to evaluate potential associations between allelic status for individual genes or combinations of genes, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes assessed at baseline and for 7 subsequent years during the clinical trial. Among boys, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral outcomes over a broad range of neurologic domains was observed with variant genotypes for 4 of 13 genes evaluated. Modification of Hg effects on a more limited number of neurobehavioral outcomes was also observed for variants of another 8 genes. Cluster analyses suggested some genes interacting in common processes to affect Hg neurotoxicity. In contrast, significant modification of Hg effects on neurobehavioral functions among girls with the same genotypes was substantially more limited. These observations suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children, particularly boys, with genetic variants that are relatively common to the general human population. These findings advance public health goals to identify factors underlying susceptibility to Hg toxicity and may contribute to strategies for preventing

  1. Individual experience affects host choice in malaria vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite epidemiological importance, few studies have explored whether individual experience and learning could affect the vertebrate host choice of mosquito disease vectors. Here, we investigated whether a first successful blood meal can modulate mosquito preference during a second blood meal. Methods In no-choice situations, females of the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii, one of the primary African malaria vectors, were first allowed to feed on either human, rabbit or guinea pig. Four days later in dual-choice situations, the same mosquitoes were allowed to choose between the two uncommon hosts, rabbit and guinea pig, as a source of blood. ELISA assays were then used to determine which host mosquitoes fed on. Results Our results indicate that, overall, mosquitoes preferred to feed on rabbit over guinea pig and that the nature of the first blood meal had a significant impact on the mosquito host choice during the second blood meal. Compared to mosquitoes that previously fed on guinea pigs or humans, mosquitoes that fed on rabbits were less likely to choose this host species during a second exposition. The decreased preference for rabbit was observed four days after mosquitoes were first exposed to this host, suggesting that the effect lasts at least the duration of a gonotrophic cycle. Furthermore, this effect was observed after only one successful blood meal. Fitness measurements on mosquitoes fed on the three different vertebrate hosts showed that the origin of the blood meal affected mosquito longevity but not fecundity. In particular, human-fed mosquitoes lived longer than guinea pig-fed or rabbit-fed mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that individual experience affects host choice in this mosquito species and might have strong repercussions on biting patterns in natural conditions and hence on malaria transmission. PMID:24885668

  2. Cancer therapy. Ex vivo culture of circulating breast tumor cells for individualized testing of drug susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Bardia, Aditya; Aceto, Nicola; Bersani, Francesca; Madden, Marissa W; Donaldson, Maria C; Desai, Rushil; Zhu, Huili; Comaills, Valentine; Zheng, Zongli; Wittner, Ben S; Stojanov, Petar; Brachtel, Elena; Sgroi, Dennis; Kapur, Ravi; Shioda, Toshihiro; Ting, David T; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Getz, Gad; Iafrate, A John; Benes, Cyril; Toner, Mehmet; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2014-07-11

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present at low concentrations in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumors. It has been proposed that the isolation, ex vivo culture, and characterization of CTCs may provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor the changing patterns of drug susceptibility in individual patients as their tumors acquire new mutations. In a proof-of-concept study, we established CTC cultures from six patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Three of five CTC lines tested were tumorigenic in mice. Genome sequencing of the CTC lines revealed preexisting mutations in the PIK3CA gene and newly acquired mutations in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1), PIK3CA gene, and fibroblast growth factor receptor gene (FGFR2), among others. Drug sensitivity testing of CTC lines with multiple mutations revealed potential new therapeutic targets. With optimization of CTC culture conditions, this strategy may help identify the best therapies for individual cancer patients over the course of their disease.

  3. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Snogdal Boutrup, Torsten; Hansen, Per Juel; Lorenzen, Niels

    2016-01-13

    Ichthyotoxic algal blooms are normally considered a threat to maricultured fish only when blooms reach lethal cell concentrations. The degree to which sublethal algal concentrations challenge the health of the fish during blooms is practically unknown. In this study, we analysed whether sublethal concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae for 12 h prior to the addition of virus, a marginal decrease in the susceptibility to VHSV was observed compared to fish exposed to VHSV without algae. If virus and algae were added simultaneously, inclusion of the algae increased mortality by 50% compared to fish exposed to virus only, depending on the experimental setup. We concluded that depending on the local exposure conditions, sublethal concentrations of P. parvum could affect susceptibility of fish to infectious agents such as VHSV. PMID:26758652

  4. Ethical, social, and legal issues surrounding studies of susceptible populations and individuals.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, C L

    1997-06-01

    Calls for professional accountability have resulted in the development of ethics guidelines by numerous specialty and subspecialty groups of scientists. Indeed, guidelines among some health professions now address vulnerable and dependent groups: but these are silent on issues related to biomarkers. In parallel, attention has been drawn to human rights concerns associated with attempts to detect hypersusceptible workers, especially in democratic countries. Despite this, concern for vulnerable populations grows as advances in biomarker technology make the identification of genetic predisposition and susceptibility markers of both exposure and outcome more attainable. In this article, the principles derived from the ethical theory of utilitarianism provide the basis for principle-based ethical analysis. In addition, the four principles of biomedical ethics--respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and social justice--are considered for biomarker studies. The need for a context in which ethical analysis is conducted and from which prevailing social values are shown to drive decisions of an ethical nature is emphasized; these include statutory regulation and law. Because biomarker studies can result in more harm than good, special precautions to inform research participants prior to any involvement in the use of biomarkers are needed. In addition, safeguards to maintain the privacy of data derived from biomarker studies must be developed and implemented prior to the application of these new technologies. Guidelines must be expanded to incorporate ethical, social, and legal considerations surrounding the introduction of new technologies for studying susceptible populations and individuals who may be vulnerable to environmental exposures.

  5. Susceptibility to subchronic unpredictable stress is related to individual reactivity to threat stimuli in mice.

    PubMed

    Ducottet, C; Aubert, A; Belzung, C

    2004-12-01

    As in many complex behavioral responses, inter-individual variability can be observed in the responses to a chronic mild stress. While some subjects exhibit more resilient behaviours, others appear more susceptible to stress. This study hypothesizes that this variability relies on the individual appraisal of the stressful event. To study this assumption, mice were first subjected to a conditioned task occurring in a circular arena. In this task, a mild air-puff (i.e. stressor) in a given quadrant of the arena was coupled with the presence or the absence of a light in the same quadrant. Half of mice were then submitted to a 15-day subchronic stress consisting in various environmental and social mild stressors randomly applied two or three times a day. At the end of this procedure, the occurrence of depressive-like behaviours in stressed mice was assessed using measures of the stress regime (i.e. physical state, choice test, grooming test). The physical state assessed the physical appearance of mice. The grooming test consisted in measuring the time spent in grooming after mice were sprayed upon with a viscous solution. The choice test consisted in measuring the time spent in an uncomfortable place (i.e. whose floor was covered with damp sawdust) versus a more comfortable one (i.e. with dry sawdust) to evaluate the reactivity to a negative stimulus previously encountered during the subchronic stress. Multiple regression analyses revealed a relationship between attention toward salient stressful stimuli in the conditioned task and susceptibility to the subchronic stress procedure. These results are discussed regarding their relevance for the understanding of aetiologies of depressive illnesses. PMID:15364489

  6. A combined oral contraceptive affects mucosal SHIV susceptibility factors in a pigtail macaque model

    PubMed Central

    Ostergaard, Sharon Dietz; Butler, Katherine; Ritter, Jana M.; Johnson, Ryan; Sanders, Jeanine; Powell, Nathaniel; Lathrop, George; Zaki, Sherif R.; McNicholl, Janet M.; Kersh, Ellen N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Injectable hormonal contraception may increase women’s risk of HIV acquisition, and can affect biological risk factors in animal models of HIV. We established, for the first time, a model to investigate whether combined oral contraceptives (COC) alter SHIV susceptibility in macaques. Methods Seven pigtail macaques were administered a monophasic levonorgestrel (LNG)/ethinyl estradiol (EE) COC at 33% or 66% of the human dose for 60 days. Menstrual cycling, vaginal epithelial thickness and other SHIV susceptibility factors were monitored for a mean of 18 weeks. Results Mean vaginal epithelial thicknesses was 290.8 μm at baseline and 186.2 μm during COC (p=0.0141, Mann Whitney test). Vaginal pH decreased from 8.5 during to 6.5 post- treatment (0.0176 two-tailed t-test). Measured microflora was unchanged. Conclusions COC caused thinning of the vaginal epithelium and vaginal pH changes, which may increase SHIV susceptibility. 0.033 mg LNG + 0.0066 mg EE appeared effective in suppressing ovulation. PMID:25536296

  7. Prediction and quantification of individual differences in susceptibility to simulator sickness in fixed-base simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young H.

    Simulator sickness in a fixed-base simulator is a form of visually-induced motion sickness. Visual-vestibular interaction on spatial orientation and postural control predicts that vection information in the visual stimuli triggers compensatory head sways to stabilize body orientation to perceived visual motion. Simulator sickness might result from perceptual conflicts caused by the visual-vestibular interaction in unusual environments (i.e., fixed-base simulators). Relationship between simulator sickness, vection, and compensatory head sways to perceived vection might help to quantify and predict presence and magnitude of simulator sickness in simulated environments. It was hypothesized that there was significant and positive relationship between sickness, vection, and compensatory head sways. Existence of individual differences was also possible, depending on individual sensitivity to vection. It was also hypothesized that females would experience more intense vection than males because females have wider periphery and shorter vection latencies. Correlations and the multiple linear regression analyses were performed to test the linear relationship between simulator sickness, vection, head sway, gender, and age. There was significant linear relationship between variables. It was concluded that vection and Y-velocity are significant predictors by itself and in interaction forms. Interaction between gender and vection, Y-velocity, and age in the regression function implied that gender difference is significant and gender is also a significant predictor of simulator sickness. Therefore, it was also concluded that there was significant gender difference in susceptibility to simulator sickness between males and females. General linear model also indicates that mean difference in magnitudes of vection, and Y-velocity and difference in gender and age have effects on the magnitude of simulator sickness. Time-course of vection implies that magnitude of vection increases as

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction by pro-oxidant vanadium: ex vivo assessment of individual susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Picerno, Isa; Spataro, Pasquale; Di Pietro, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the individual susceptibility to mitochondrial impairment induced by ex vivo exposure to vanadium, an airborne pro-oxidant pollutant. In lymphocyte cultures V(IV)-treated of forty-five healthy subjects, we evaluated the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and the H2O2 in comparison to background values. As variables, we included both lifestyle factors and genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1 variants, and C677T and A1298C variants of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR). H2O2 mitochondrial content increased significantly (P<0.05) after metal exposure while, in comparison to basal Δψm, both depolarisation and hyperpolarisation were recorded. This underlined the mitochondrial dysfunction vanadium-induced that worsens the redox imbalance by endogenous ROS overproduction. Only age was found to contribute significantly to the high inter-individual variability, as assessed by multivariate analysis. In older subjects, the H2O2/Δψm values underline the organelle impairment and, under V-exposure, Δψm values were inversely related to age (R=-0.591; P=0.012).

  9. Meta-analysis of 375,000 individuals identifies 38 susceptibility loci for migraine.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Padhraig; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S; Palta, Priit; Esko, Tonu; Pers, Tune H; Farh, Kai-How; Cuenca-Leon, Ester; Muona, Mikko; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Kurth, Tobias; Ingason, Andres; McMahon, George; Ligthart, Lannie; Terwindt, Gisela M; Kallela, Mikko; Freilinger, Tobias M; Ran, Caroline; Gordon, Scott G; Stam, Anine H; Steinberg, Stacy; Borck, Guntram; Koiranen, Markku; Quaye, Lydia; Adams, Hieab H H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Wedenoja, Juho; Hinds, David A; Buring, Julie E; Schürks, Markus; Ridker, Paul M; Hrafnsdottir, Maria Gudlaug; Stefansson, Hreinn; Ring, Susan M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Färkkilä, Markus; Artto, Ville; Kaunisto, Mari; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Malik, Rainer; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kurki, Mitja I; Kals, Mart; Mägi, Reedik; Pärn, Kalle; Hämäläinen, Eija; Huang, Hailiang; Byrnes, Andrea E; Franke, Lude; Huang, Jie; Stergiakouli, Evie; Lee, Phil H; Sandor, Cynthia; Webber, Caleb; Cader, Zameel; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Eriksson, Johan G; Salomaa, Veikko; Heikkilä, Kauko; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Cherkas, Lynn; Pedersen, Linda M; Stubhaug, Audun; Nielsen, Christopher S; Männikkö, Minna; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Göbel, Hartmut; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Christensen, Anne Francke; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Werge, Thomas; Kaprio, Jaakko; Aromaa, Arpo J; Raitakari, Olli; Ikram, M Arfan; Spector, Tim; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Metspalu, Andres; Kubisch, Christian; Strachan, David P; Ferrari, Michel D; Belin, Andrea C; Dichgans, Martin; Wessman, Maija; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Zwart, John-Anker; Boomsma, Dorret I; Smith, George Davey; Stefansson, Kari; Eriksson, Nicholas; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Olesen, Jes; Chasman, Daniel I; Nyholt, Dale R; Palotie, Aarno

    2016-08-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting around one in seven people worldwide, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. There is some debate about whether migraine is a disease of vascular dysfunction or a result of neuronal dysfunction with secondary vascular changes. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 13 independent loci associated with migraine. To identify new susceptibility loci, we carried out a genetic study of migraine on 59,674 affected subjects and 316,078 controls from 22 GWA studies. We identified 44 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with migraine risk (P < 5 × 10(-8)) that mapped to 38 distinct genomic loci, including 28 loci not previously reported and a locus that to our knowledge is the first to be identified on chromosome X. In subsequent computational analyses, the identified loci showed enrichment for genes expressed in vascular and smooth muscle tissues, consistent with a predominant theory of migraine that highlights vascular etiologies. PMID:27322543

  10. EEG quantification of alertness: methods for early identification of individuals most susceptible to sleep deprivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Philip; Davis, Gene; Lumicao, Michelle N.; Olmstead, Richard E.; Popovic, Miodrag; Zivkovic, Vladimir T.; Ramsey, Caitlin K.

    2005-05-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) and neurocognitive measures were simultaneously acquired to quantify alertness from 24 participants during 44-hours of sleep deprivation. Performance on a three-choice vigilance task (3C-VT), paired-associate learning/memory task (PAL) and modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and sleep technician-observed drowsiness (eye-closures, head-nods, EEG slowing) were quantified. The B-Alert system automatically classifies each second of EEG on an alertness/drowsiness continuum. B-Alert classifications were significantly correlated with technician-observations, visually scored EEG and performance measures. B-Alert classifications during 3C-VT, and technician observations and performance during the 3C-VT and PAL evidenced progressively increasing drowsiness as a result of sleep deprivation with a stabilizing effect observed at the batteries occurring between 0600 and 1100 suggesting a possible circadian effect similar to those reported in previous sleep deprivation studies. Participants were given an opportunity to take a 40-minute nap approximately 24-hours into the sleep deprivation portion of the study (i.e., 7 PM on Saturday). The nap was followed by a transient period of increased alertness. Approximately 8 hours after the nap, behavioral and physiological measures of drowsiness returned to levels prior to the nap. Cluster analysis was used to stratify individuals into three groups based on their level of impairment as a result of sleep deprivation. The combination of B-Alert and neuro-behavioral measures may identify individuals whose performance is most susceptible to sleep deprivation. These objective measures could be applied in an operational setting to provide a "biobehavioral assay" to determine vulnerability to sleep deprivation.

  11. Exploring the Contribution of Host Susceptibility to Epidemiological Patterns of Schistosoma japonicum Infection Using an Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Spear, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the analysis of epidemiological data suggesting variability in individual susceptibility to infection by Schistosoma japonicum among rural villagers who reside in Sichuan Province of southwestern China. By supplementing the data used in the earlier analysis from other studies we have reported from this region, we presented improved estimates of cercarial exposure, which in turn, result in stronger evidence of susceptibility. This analysis was conducted using an individual-based mathematical model (IBM) whose use was motivated by the nature and extent of field data from the low-transmission environments exemplified by one of our datasets and typical of the current situation in most endemic areas of China. In addition to individual susceptibility and water contact, the model includes stochastic aspects of cercarial exposure as well as of diagnostic procedures, the latter being particularly relevant to the low-transmission environment. The simulation studies show that, to produce key aspects of the epidemiological findings, the distribution of susceptibility ranges over several orders of magnitude and is highly right skewed. We found no compelling evidence that the distribution of susceptibility differed between the two populations that underlie both the epidemiological and simulation results. PMID:25870427

  12. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  13. Susceptible period of socio-emotional development affected by constant exposure to daylight.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Senoo, Aya; Karino, Genta; Ozawa, Simpei; Tanaka, Ikuko; Honda, Yoshiko; Usui, Setsuo; Kodama, Tohru; Mimura, Koki; Nakamura, Shun; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    As a diurnal experimental primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has recently contributed to numerous kinds of studies of neurobiological psychiatry as an essential pre-clinical model. The marmoset matures sexually within one or two years after birth. Thus, we can observe how the primate learns and develops psycho-cognitive functions through experiences in experimental environment for a much shorter period compared to that of humans. Longer daylight exposure may affect psychological development of children. In our research, we focus on raising marmosets under constant daylight from birth until various ages. In order to quantitatively evaluate the development of higher-ordered psychological functions, we designed a system of socio-behavioral tests and multivariate correlation analysis methods based on principal component analysis. With reference to the call and typical body movement expressed during a particular social context, we statistically inferred the emotional features of the subjects. In the current literature, we review our published results showing increased alert behaviors by constant light, and then, attempted to extend our additional analysis to seek age-dependent susceptibility to constant light. We then present the neurobiological mechanisms with reference to previous research reports. The current review suggests possible existence of a susceptible period earlier than three to five month-old in the environment-induced developmental disorder model, supposedly like attention deficit hyperactive disorders (ADHD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

  14. Interactions of warming and exposure affect susceptibility to parasite infection in a temperate fish species.

    PubMed

    Sheath, Danny J; Andreou, Demetra; Britton, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    Predicting how elevated temperatures from climate change alter host-parasite interactions requires understandings of how warming affects host susceptibility and parasite virulence. Here, the effect of elevated water temperature and parasite exposure level was tested on parasite prevalence, abundance and burden, and on fish growth, using Pomphorhynchus laevis and its fish host Squalius cephalus. At 60 days post-exposure, prevalence was higher at the elevated temperature (22 °C) than ambient temperature (18 °C), with infections achieved at considerably lower levels of exposure. Whilst parasite number was significantly higher in infected fish at 22 °C, both mean parasite weight and parasite burden was significantly higher at 18 °C. There were, however, no significant relationships between fish growth rate and temperature, parasite exposure, and the infection parameters. Thus, whilst elevated temperature significantly influenced parasite infection rates, it also impacted parasite development rates, suggesting warming could have complex implications for parasite dynamics and host resistance.

  15. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  16. Population coding of affect across stimuli, modalities and individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chikazoe, Junichi; Lee, Daniel H.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Anderson, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    It remains unclear how the brain represents external objective sensory events alongside our internal subjective impressions of them—affect. Representational mapping of population level activity evoked by complex scenes and basic tastes uncovered a neural code supporting a continuous axis of pleasant-to-unpleasant valence. This valence code was distinct from low-level physical and high-level object properties. While ventral temporal and anterior insular cortices supported valence codes specific to vision and taste, both the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC), maintained a valence code independent of sensory origin. Further only the OFC code could classify experienced affect across participants. The entire valence spectrum is represented as a collective pattern in regional neural activity as sensory-specific and abstract codes, whereby the subjective quality of affect can be objectively quantified across stimuli, modalities, and people. PMID:24952643

  17. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates collected from oral cavities of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Moris, D V; Melhem, M S C; Martins, M A; Souza, L R; Kacew, S; Szeszs, M W; Carvalho, L R; Pimenta-Rodrigues, M V; Berghs, H A M; Mendes, R P

    2012-12-01

    At present, few data are available on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates from HIV-infected individuals. The C. parapsilosis complex comprises three species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Fifteen of 318 Candida isolates were identified as members of the C. parapsilosis complex by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex isolates was 4.7 %, 2.2 % being identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 2.5 % as C. metapsilosis, while no C. orthopsilosis was isolated. This is believed to be the first study that has identified isolates of C. metapsilosis obtained from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), ketoconazole (KTC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC) and caspofungin (CASPO). Although isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to FLC, isolates of C. metapsilosis showed a tendency for higher MICs (≥1.0 µg ml(-1)). Based upon the frequency of candidiasis and the fact that certain isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex respond differently to FLC therapy, our data may be of therapeutic relevance with respect to susceptibility and potential resistance to specific antifungal agents. Our data suggest that C. metapsilosis can be a human commensal; its importance as a pathogen has yet to be confirmed. PMID:22956748

  18. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  19. Factors affecting the identification of individual mountain bongo antelope.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, Gwili E M; Bindemann, Markus; Roberts, David L

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of individuals forms the basis of many endangered species monitoring protocols. This process typically relies on manual recognition techniques. This study aimed to calculate a measure of the error rates inherent within the manual technique and also sought to identify visual traits that aid identification, using the critically endangered mountain bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, as a model system. Identification accuracy was assessed with a matching task that required same/different decisions to side-by-side pairings of individual bongos. Error rates were lowest when only the flanks of bongos were shown, suggesting that the inclusion of other visual traits confounded accuracy. Accuracy was also higher for photographs of captive animals than camera-trap images, and in observers experienced in working with mountain bongos, than those unfamiliar with the sub-species. These results suggest that the removal of non-essential morphological traits from photographs of bongos, the use of high-quality images, and relevant expertise all help increase identification accuracy. Finally, given the rise in automated identification and the use of citizen science, something our results would suggest is applicable within the context of the mountain bongo, this study provides a framework for assessing their accuracy in individual as well as species identification. PMID:26587336

  20. Factors affecting the identification of individual mountain bongo antelope

    PubMed Central

    Bindemann, Markus; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of individuals forms the basis of many endangered species monitoring protocols. This process typically relies on manual recognition techniques. This study aimed to calculate a measure of the error rates inherent within the manual technique and also sought to identify visual traits that aid identification, using the critically endangered mountain bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci, as a model system. Identification accuracy was assessed with a matching task that required same/different decisions to side-by-side pairings of individual bongos. Error rates were lowest when only the flanks of bongos were shown, suggesting that the inclusion of other visual traits confounded accuracy. Accuracy was also higher for photographs of captive animals than camera-trap images, and in observers experienced in working with mountain bongos, than those unfamiliar with the sub-species. These results suggest that the removal of non-essential morphological traits from photographs of bongos, the use of high-quality images, and relevant expertise all help increase identification accuracy. Finally, given the rise in automated identification and the use of citizen science, something our results would suggest is applicable within the context of the mountain bongo, this study provides a framework for assessing their accuracy in individual as well as species identification. PMID:26587336

  1. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Caglar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2014-01-22

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009-2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait 'communicativeness' and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of 'under-signalling'.

  2. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  3. Predicting individual affect of health interventions to reduce HPV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Corley, Courtney D; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R; Sanfilippo, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and HPV is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials, and it is currently available in the USA. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step toward automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a text's affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age- and gender-targeted vaccination schemes.

  4. Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Devor, Marshall; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Gebauer, Mathias; Michaelis, Martin; Tal, Michael; Dorfman, Ruslan; Abitbul-Yarkoni, Merav; Lu, Yan; Elahipanah, Tina; delCanho, Sonia; Minert, Anne; Fried, Kaj; Persson, Anna-Karin; Shpigler, Hagai; Shabo, Erez; Yakir, Benjamin; Pisanté, Anne; Darvasi, Ariel

    2010-09-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is affected by specifics of the precipitating neural pathology, psychosocial factors, and by genetic predisposition. Little is known about the identity of predisposing genes. Using an integrative approach, we discovered that CACNG2 significantly affects susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury. CACNG2 encodes for stargazin, a protein intimately involved in the trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors. The protein might also be a Ca(2+) channel subunit. CACNG2 has previously been implicated in epilepsy. Initially, using two fine-mapping strategies in a mouse model (recombinant progeny testing [RPT] and recombinant inbred segregation test [RIST]), we mapped a pain-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) (Pain1) into a 4.2-Mb interval on chromosome 15. This interval includes 155 genes. Subsequently, bioinformatics and whole-genome microarray expression analysis were used to narrow the list of candidates and ultimately to pinpoint Cacng2 as a likely candidate. Analysis of stargazer mice, a Cacng2 hypomorphic mutant, provided electrophysiological and behavioral evidence for the gene's functional role in pain processing. Finally, we showed that human CACNG2 polymorphisms are associated with chronic pain in a cohort of cancer patients who underwent breast surgery. Our findings provide novel information on the genetic basis of neuropathic pain and new insights into pain physiology that may ultimately enable better treatments.

  5. Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2

    PubMed Central

    Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Devor, Marshall; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Gebauer, Mathias; Michaelis, Martin; Tal, Michael; Dorfman, Ruslan; Abitbul-Yarkoni, Merav; Lu, Yan; Elahipanah, Tina; delCanho, Sonia; Minert, Anne; Fried, Kaj; Persson, Anna-Karin; Shpigler, Hagai; Shabo, Erez; Yakir, Benjamin; Pisanté, Anne; Darvasi, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is affected by specifics of the precipitating neural pathology, psychosocial factors, and by genetic predisposition. Little is known about the identity of predisposing genes. Using an integrative approach, we discovered that CACNG2 significantly affects susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury. CACNG2 encodes for stargazin, a protein intimately involved in the trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors. The protein might also be a Ca2+ channel subunit. CACNG2 has previously been implicated in epilepsy. Initially, using two fine-mapping strategies in a mouse model (recombinant progeny testing [RPT] and recombinant inbred segregation test [RIST]), we mapped a pain-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) (Pain1) into a 4.2-Mb interval on chromosome 15. This interval includes 155 genes. Subsequently, bioinformatics and whole-genome microarray expression analysis were used to narrow the list of candidates and ultimately to pinpoint Cacng2 as a likely candidate. Analysis of stargazer mice, a Cacng2 hypomorphic mutant, provided electrophysiological and behavioral evidence for the gene's functional role in pain processing. Finally, we showed that human CACNG2 polymorphisms are associated with chronic pain in a cohort of cancer patients who underwent breast surgery. Our findings provide novel information on the genetic basis of neuropathic pain and new insights into pain physiology that may ultimately enable better treatments. PMID:20688780

  6. The impairment of methylmenaquinol:fumarate reductase affects hydrogen peroxide susceptibility and accumulation in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Issmat I; Khatri, Mahesh; Sanad, Yasser M; Wolboldt, Melinda; Saif, Yehia M; Olson, Jonathan W; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2014-04-01

    The methylmenaquinol:fumarate reductase (Mfr) of Campylobacter jejuni is a periplasmic respiratory (redox) protein that contributes to the metabolism of fumarate and displays homology to succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh). Since chemically oxidized redox-enzymes, including fumarate reductase and Sdh, contribute to the generation of oxidative stress in Escherichia coli, we assessed the role of Mfr in C. jejuni after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Our results show that a Mfr mutant (∆mfrA) strain was less susceptible to H2 O2 as compared to the wildtype (WT). Furthermore, the H2 O2 concentration in the ∆mfrA cultures was significantly higher than that of WT after exposure to the oxidant. In the presence of H2 O2 , catalase (KatA) activity and katA expression were significantly lower in the ∆mfrA strain as compared to the WT. Exposure to H2 O2 resulted in a significant decrease in total intracellular iron in the ∆mfrA strain as compared to WT, while the addition of iron to the growth medium mitigated H2 O2 susceptibility and accumulation in the mutant. The ∆mfrA strain was significantly more persistent in RAW macrophages as compared to the WT. Scanning electron microscopy showed that infection with the ∆mfrA strain caused prolonged changes to the macrophages' morphology, mainly resulting in spherical-shaped cells replete with budding structures and craters. Collectively, our results suggest a role for Mfr in maintaining iron homeostasis in H2 O2 stressed C. jejuni, probably via affecting the concentrations of intracellular iron. PMID:24515965

  7. Affective imaging: psychological and physiological reactions to individually chosen images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; Miller, Paige; Prabhu, Girish; Horwitz, Cecelia; Matraszek, Tomasz; Parks, Peter; Blazey, Richard; Endrikhovski, Serguei

    2001-06-01

    In a series of experiments, observers' cognitive and psychophysiological responses to pictorial stimuli were evaluated. In the first experiment, subjects were viewing a set of randomly presented images. After each image presentation, they rates every image on a number of cognitive scales. In the second experiment, images producing certain physiological effects - deactivating, neutral, or activating - were individually selected based on the results of the first experiment and shown to the subjects again. Psychophysiological measurements included electrocardiogram, hand temperature, muscle tension, eye movements, blood oxygen, respiration, and galvanic skin response. Our result indicate that images produced significant emotional changes based on verbal and physiological assessment. The changes were in agreement with the predictions derived from the metric that we developed in a number of cases that exceeded the change level. The direction of changes corresponded to previous findings reported elsewhere.

  8. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii.

  9. Individual Flagellar Waveform Affects Collective Behavior of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kage, Azusa; Mogami, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Bioconvection is a form of collective motion that occurs spontaneously in the suspension of swimming microorganisms. In a previous study, we quantitatively described the "pattern transition," a phase transition phenomenon that so far has exclusively been observed in bioconvection of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas. We suggested that the transition could be induced by changes in the balance between the gravitational and shear-induced torques, both of which act to determine the orientation of the organism in the shear flow. As both of the torques should be affected by the geometry of the Chlamydomonas cell, alteration in the flagellar waveform might change the extent of torque generation by altering overall geometry of the cell. Based on this working hypothesis, we examined bioconvection behavior of two flagellar mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, ida1 and oda2, making reference to the wild type. Flagella of ida1 beat with an abnormal waveform, while flagella of oda2 show a normal waveform but lower beat frequency. As a result, both mutants had swimming speed of less than 50% of the wild type. ida1 formed bioconvection patterns with smaller spacing than those of wild type and oda2. Two-axis view revealed the periodic movement of the settling blobs of ida1, while oda2 showed qualitatively similar behavior to that of wild type. Unexpectedly, ida1 showed stronger negative gravitaxis than did wild type, while oda2 showed relatively weak gravitaxis. These findings suggest that flagellar waveform, not swimming speed or beat frequency, strongly affect bioconvection behavior in C. reinhardtii. PMID:26245228

  10. Virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolates from oral candidosis patients and control individuals.

    PubMed

    Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Lyon, Juliana Pereira; Vidotto, Valerio; de Resende, Maria Aparecida

    2006-04-01

    Sixty isolates of Candida albicans, 30 obtained from the oral cavity of denture wearers presenting signs of candidosis and 30 obtained from the oral cavity of denture wearers with normal palatal mucosa were assayed for phospholipase and proteinase production, as well as for adherence to buccal epithelial cells. Likewise, susceptibility of the isolates to antifungals was determined by the NCCLS reference method and the E-test method. Proteinase activity was increased among the strains obtained from oral candidosis patients. In contrast, no significant differences between the two groups of isolates were observed in their adherence ability in vitro, in phospholipase production, and susceptibility to antifungal drugs.

  11. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of genital mycoplasmas in sexually active individuals in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Pónyai, K; Mihalik, N; Ostorházi, E; Farkas, B; Párducz, L; Marschalkó, M; Kárpáti, S; Rozgonyi, F

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and antibiotic sensitivity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis strains cultured from the genital discharges of sexually active individuals who attended our STD outpatient service. Samples were taken with universal swab (Biolab®, Budapest, Hungary) into the Urea-Myco DUO kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) and incubated in ambient air for 48 h at 37 °C. The determination of antibiotic sensitivity was performed in U9 and arginin broth using the SIR Mycoplasma kit (Bio-Rad®, Budapest, Hungary) under the same conditions. Between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2011, 373/4,466 (8.35 %) genito-urethral samples with U. urealyticum and 41/4,466 (0.91 %) genito-urethral samples with M. hominis infection were diagnosed in sexually active individuals in the National STD Center, Semmelweis University. U. urealyticum was isolated in 12.54 % in the cervix and 4.1 % in the male urethra, while M. hominis was isolated in 1.33 % in the cervix and 0.51 % in the male urethra. The affected age group was between 21 and 60 years old. U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to tetracycline (95.9 %), doxycycline (97.32 %), and azithromycin (85.79 %), and resistant to erythromycin (81.23 %), clindamycin (75.06 %), and ofloxacin (25.2 %). Cross-resistance occurred in 38.71 % of patients to erythromycin and clindamycin. M. hominis strains were sensitive to clindamycin, ofloxacin, and doxycycline in more than 95 %, to tetracycline in 82.92 %, and no cross-resistance was detected among the antibiotics. Our study confirms that the continuously changing antibiotic resistance of ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas should be followed at least in a few centers in every country, so as to determine the best local therapy options for sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients.

  12. Susceptibility to Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes Is Not Affected in Mice Coinfected with Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Maaz, Denny; Rausch, Sebastian; Richter, Dania; Krücken, Jürgen; Kühl, Anja A.; Demeler, Janina; Blümke, Julia; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. In a parasitological survey of wild mice in Berlin, Germany, approximately 40% of Ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus Heligmosomoides. We therefore aimed to analyze the immunological impact of the nematode/tick coinfection as well as its effect on the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii. Hosts experimentally coinfected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and larval/nymphal I. ricinus ticks developed substantially stronger systemic type 2 T helper cell (Th2) responses, on the basis of the levels of GATA-3 and interleukin-13 expression, than mice infected with a single pathogen. During repeated larval infestations, however, anti-tick Th2 reactivity and an observed partial immunity to tick feeding were unaffected by concurrent nematode infections. Importantly, the strong systemic Th2 immune response in coinfected mice did not affect susceptibility to tick-borne B. afzelii. An observed trend for decreased local and systemic Th1 reactivity against B. afzelii in coinfected mice did not result in a higher spirochete burden, nor did it facilitate bacterial dissemination or induce signs of immunopathology. Hence, this study indicates that strong systemic Th2 responses in nematode/tick-coinfected house mice do not affect the success of tick feeding and the control of the causative agent of Lyme disease. PMID:26883594

  13. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mike J F; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-08-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or 'wanting'). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened 'wanting' was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact ('liking') of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal 'hot-spots' that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation. PMID:25761571

  14. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mike J F; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-08-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or 'wanting'). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened 'wanting' was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact ('liking') of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal 'hot-spots' that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation.

  15. Individual Differences in Cue-Induced Motivation and Striatal Systems in Rats Susceptible to Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mike JF; Burghardt, Paul R; Patterson, Christa M; Nobile, Cameron W; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J; Berridge, Kent C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2015-01-01

    Pavlovian cues associated with junk-foods (caloric, highly sweet, and/or fatty foods), like the smell of brownies, can elicit craving to eat and increase the amount of food consumed. People who are more susceptible to these motivational effects of food cues may have a higher risk for becoming obese. Further, overconsumption of junk-foods leading to the development of obesity may itself heighten attraction to food cues. Here, we used a model of individual susceptibility to junk-foods diet-induced obesity to determine whether there are pre-existing and/or diet-induced increases in attraction to and motivation for sucrose-paired cues (ie, incentive salience or ‘wanting'). We also assessed diet- vs obesity-associated alterations in mesolimbic function and receptor expression. We found that rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity displayed heightened conditioned approach prior to the development of obesity. In addition, after junk-food diet exposure, those rats that developed obesity also showed increased willingness to gain access to a sucrose cue. Heightened ‘wanting' was not due to individual differences in the hedonic impact (‘liking') of sucrose. Neurobiologically, Mu opioid receptor mRNA expression was lower in striatal ‘hot-spots' that generate eating or hedonic impact only in those rats that became obese. In contrast, prolonged exposure to junk-food resulted in cross-sensitization to amphetamine-induced locomotion and downregulation of striatal D2R mRNA regardless of the development of obesity. Together these data shed light on individual differences in behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exposure to junk-food diets and the potential contribution of incentive sensitization in susceptible individuals to greater food cue-triggered motivation. PMID:25761571

  16. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  17. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant.

  18. Autophagy gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to leprosy by affecting inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Degang; Chen, Jia; Shi, Chao; Jing, Zhichun; Song, Ningjing

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy and inflammation closely interact with each other, and together, they play critical roles in bacterial infection. Leprosy is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). The objective of the study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in IRGM, an autophagy gene, and susceptibility to leprosy, and identify possible functions of the polymorphism in the infection of M. leprae. Two polymorphisms in IRGM, rs4958842 and rs13361189, were tested in 412 leprosy cases and 432 healthy controls. Levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1 beta, IL-4, IL-6, and interferon gamma (INF-γ) were measured after the infection of M. leprae in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) of subjects with different genotypes of rs13361189. Data showed that prevalence of rs13361189TC and CC genotypes were significantly higher in leprosy patients than in healthy controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.04, P = 0.012; OR = 2.58, 95 % CI 1.65-4.05, P < 0.001; respectively). Furthermore, the frequency of rs13361189CC genotype was increased in patients with complications than those without complications (P = 0.011). When analyzing the effect of rs13361189 polymorphism on M. leprae infection, we identified that M. leprae-infected PBMC with rs13361189CC genotype expressed significantly elevated levels of INF-γ and IL-4 than those with TT genotype. Our results suggested autophagy gene polymorphism was associated with the increased risk of leprosy by affecting inflammatory cytokines.

  19. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  20. Isolation Method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  1. Do Variants Associated with Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer and Type 2 Diabetes Reciprocally Affect Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lang; Rabe, Kari G.; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although type 2 diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the existence of shared genetic susceptibility is largely unknown. We evaluated whether any reported genetic risk variants of either disease found by genome-wide association studies reciprocally confer susceptibility. Methods Data that were generated in previous genome-wide association studies (GENEVA Type 2 Diabetes; PanScan) were obtained through the National Institutes of Health database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Using the PanScan datasets, we tested for association of 38 variants within 37 genomic regions known to be susceptibility factors for type 2 diabetes. We further examined whether type 2 diabetes variants predispose to pancreatic cancer risk stratified by diabetes status. Correspondingly, we examined the association of fourteen pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants within eight genomic regions in the GENEVA Type 2 Diabetes dataset. Results Four plausible associations of diabetes variants and pancreatic cancer risk were detected at a significance threshold of p = 0.05, and one pancreatic cancer susceptibility variant was associated with diabetes risk at threshold of p = 0.05, but none remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion Currently identified GWAS susceptibility variants are unlikely to explain the potential shared genetic etiology between Type 2 diabetes and pancreatic cancer. PMID:25658847

  2. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted.

  3. They know the words, but not the music: affective and semantic priming in individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Blair, K S; Richell, R A; Mitchell, D G V; Leonard, A; Morton, J; Blair, R J R

    2006-08-01

    Previous work has indicated dysfunctional affect-language interactions in individuals with psychopathy through use of the lexical decision task. However, it has been uncertain as to whether these deficits actually reflect impaired affect-language interactions or a more fundamental deficit in general semantic processing. In this study, we examined affective priming and semantic priming (dependent measures were reaction times and error rates) in individuals with psychopathy and comparison individuals, classified according to the psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, R.D., 1991. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Ont] Individuals with psychopathy showed significantly less affective priming relative to comparison individuals. In contrast, the two groups showed comparable levels of semantic priming. The results are discussed with reference to current models of psychopathy.

  4. Individual susceptibility and prevention of occupational diseases: scientific and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, K; Casteleyn, L; Heseltine, E; Huici, A; Sorsa, M; van Larebeke, N; Vineis, P

    1995-01-01

    Genetic testing of employees is controversial; objections have been raised with regard to privacy, right to work, and the relevance of the tests. A study is being conducted on "the ethical, social, and scientific problems related to the application of genetic screening and genetic monitoring for employees in the context of a European approach to health and safety at work." A conceptual model is proposed of the complex interactions between exposure, acquired and inherited susceptibility, and risk for disease. The validity of tests for determining genotype and phenotype and their relevance for disease must be evaluated critically to provide an objective basis for ethical discussions. The acceptability of such tests is related to a number of issues, which are identified and discussed.

  5. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. PMID:27460272

  6. Fy(a)/Fy(b) antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    King, Christopher L; Adams, John H; Xianli, Jia; Grimberg, Brian T; McHenry, Amy M; Greenberg, Lior J; Siddiqui, Asim; Howes, Rosalind E; da Silva-Nunes, Monica; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2011-12-13

    Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is a major cause of human malaria and is increasing in public health importance compared with falciparum malaria. Pv is unique among human malarias in that invasion of erythrocytes is almost solely dependent on the red cell's surface receptor, known as the Duffy blood-group antigen (Fy). Fy is an important minor blood-group antigen that has two immunologically distinct alleles, referred to as Fy(a) or Fy(b), resulting from a single-point mutation. This mutation occurs within the binding domain of the parasite's red cell invasion ligand. Whether this polymorphism affects susceptibility to clinical vivax malaria is unknown. Here we show that Fy(a), compared with Fy(b), significantly diminishes binding of Pv Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) at the erythrocyte surface, and is associated with a reduced risk of clinical Pv in humans. Erythrocytes expressing Fy(a) had 41-50% lower binding compared with Fy(b) cells and showed an increased ability of naturally occurring or artificially induced antibodies to block binding of PvDBP to their surface. Individuals with the Fy(a+b-) phenotype demonstrated a 30-80% reduced risk of clinical vivax, but not falciparum malaria in a prospective cohort study in the Brazilian Amazon. The Fy(a+b-) phenotype, predominant in Southeast Asian and many American populations, would confer a selective advantage against vivax malaria. Our results also suggest that efficacy of a PvDBP-based vaccine may differ among populations with different Fy phenotypes.

  7. Skin fibroblasts from individuals hemizygous for the familial adenopolyposis susceptibility gene show delayed crisis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Kazim, D.; Kraveka, J.; Pollack, R.E. )

    1989-03-01

    Normal human fibroblast cells have not been reported to escape crisis--that is they die after about 24 doublings in culture. The authors have been studying the growth properties of skin fibroblast cells from persons in families with familial adenopolyposis of the colon (FAP). An individual hemizygous at the FAP locus will develop hyperplasia of the colonic epithelium followed by colonic polyps, both at an early age. Polyps themselves still retain a single functional FAP allele. A mutation or deletion in this allele in a polyp is hypothesized to lead to further loss of growth control; thus, a tumor is formed. They found that the in vitro life-span of skin fibroblast cells from FAP individuals and from some asymptomatic children were markedly extended when compared with normal individuals.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus SrrAB Affects Susceptibility to Hydrogen Peroxide and Co-Existence with Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Oogai, Yuichi; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen and a commensal bacterial species that is found in humans. Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) sense and respond to environmental stresses, which include antimicrobial agents produced by other bacteria. In this study, we analyzed the relation between the TCS SrrAB and susceptibility to the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that is produced by Streptococcus sanguinis, which is a commensal oral streptococcus. An srrA-inactivated S. aureus mutant demonstrated low susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis. We investigated the expression of anti-oxidant factors in the mutant. The expression of katA in the mutant was significantly higher than in the wild-type (WT) in the presence or absence of 0.4 mM H2O2. The expression of dps in the mutant was significantly increased compared with the WT in the presence of H2O2 but not in the absence of H2O2. A katA or a dps-inactivated mutant had high susceptibility to H2O2 compared with WT. In addition, we found that the nitric oxide detoxification protein (flavohemoglobin: Hmp), which is regulated by SrrAB, was related to H2O2 susceptibility. The hmp-inactivated mutant had slightly lower susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis than did WT. When a srrA-inactivated mutant or the WT were co-cultured with S. sanguinis, the population percentage of the mutant was significantly higher than the WT. In conclusion, SrrAB regulates katA, dps and hmp expression and affects H2O2 susceptibility. Our findings suggest that SrrAB is related in vivo to the co-existence of S. aureus with S. sanguinis. PMID:27441894

  9. Staphylococcus aureus SrrAB Affects Susceptibility to Hydrogen Peroxide and Co-Existence with Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Oogai, Yuichi; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen and a commensal bacterial species that is found in humans. Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) sense and respond to environmental stresses, which include antimicrobial agents produced by other bacteria. In this study, we analyzed the relation between the TCS SrrAB and susceptibility to the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that is produced by Streptococcus sanguinis, which is a commensal oral streptococcus. An srrA-inactivated S. aureus mutant demonstrated low susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis. We investigated the expression of anti-oxidant factors in the mutant. The expression of katA in the mutant was significantly higher than in the wild-type (WT) in the presence or absence of 0.4 mM H2O2. The expression of dps in the mutant was significantly increased compared with the WT in the presence of H2O2 but not in the absence of H2O2. A katA or a dps-inactivated mutant had high susceptibility to H2O2 compared with WT. In addition, we found that the nitric oxide detoxification protein (flavohemoglobin: Hmp), which is regulated by SrrAB, was related to H2O2 susceptibility. The hmp-inactivated mutant had slightly lower susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis than did WT. When a srrA-inactivated mutant or the WT were co-cultured with S. sanguinis, the population percentage of the mutant was significantly higher than the WT. In conclusion, SrrAB regulates katA, dps and hmp expression and affects H2O2 susceptibility. Our findings suggest that SrrAB is related in vivo to the co-existence of S. aureus with S. sanguinis. PMID:27441894

  10. Linkage analyses of chromosome 18 markers do not identify a major susceptibility locus for bipolar affective disorder in the Old Order Amish

    SciTech Connect

    Pauls, D.L.; Paul, S.M. |; Allen, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    Previously reported linkage of bipolar affective disorder to DNA markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 18 was reexamined in a larger homogeneous sample of Old Order Amish families. Four markers (D18S21, D18S53, D18S44, and D18S40) were examined in three kindreds containing 31 bipolar I (BP I) individuals. Although linkage findings were replicated in the one previously studied Amish pedigree containing four BP I individuals, linkage to this region was excluded in the larger sample. If a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is located in this region of chromosome 18, it is of minor significance in this population. 40 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  11. Cocaine dependent individuals with attenuated striatal activation during reinforcement learning are more susceptible to relapse.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer L; Connolly, Colm G; May, April C; Tapert, Susan F; Wittmann, Marc; Paulus, Martin P

    2014-08-30

    Cocaine-dependent individuals show altered brain activation during decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these activation differences are related to relapse vulnerability. This study tested the hypothesis that brain-activation patterns during reinforcement learning are linked to relapse 1 year later in individuals entering treatment for cocaine dependence. Subjects performed a Paper-Scissors-Rock task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A year later, we examined whether subjects had remained abstinent (n=15) or relapsed (n=15). Although the groups did not differ on demographic characteristics, behavioral performance, or lifetime substance use, abstinent patients reported greater motivation to win than relapsed patients. The fMRI results indicated that compared with abstinent individuals, relapsed users exhibited lower activation in (1) bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and striatum during decision making more generally; and (2) bilateral middle frontal gyrus and anterior insula during reward contingency learning in particular. Moreover, whereas abstinent patients exhibited greater left middle frontal and striatal activation to wins than losses, relapsed users did not demonstrate modulation in these regions as a function of outcome valence. Thus, individuals at high risk for relapse relative to those who are able to abstain allocate fewer neural resources to action-outcome contingency formation and decision making, as well as having less motivation to win on a laboratory-based task.

  12. Individual risk alleles of susceptibility to schizophrenia are associated with poor clinical and social outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shinji; Takaki, Manabu; Okahisa, Yuko; Mizuki, Yutaka; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ujike, Hiroshi; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Takao, Soshi; Ikeda, Masashi; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Iwata, Nakao; Yamada, Norihito

    2016-04-01

    Many patients with schizophrenia have poor clinical and social outcomes. Some risk alleles closely related to the onset of schizophrenia have been reported to be associated with their clinical phenotypes, but the direct relationship between genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia and clinical/social outcomes of schizophrenia, as evaluated by both practical clinical scales and 'real-world' function, has not been investigated. We evaluated the clinical and social outcomes of 455 Japanese patients with schizophrenia by severity of illness according to the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and social outcomes by social adjustment/maladjustment at 5 years after the first visit. We examined whether 46 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from a Japanese genome-wide association study of susceptibility to schizophrenia were associated with clinical and social outcomes. We also investigated the polygenic risk scores of 46 SNPs. Allele-wise association analysis detected three SNPs, including rs2623659 in the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene, associated with severity of illness at end point. The severity of illness at end point was associated with treatment response, but not with the severity of illness at baseline. Three SNPs, including rs2294424 in the C6orf105 gene, were associated with social outcomes. Point estimates of odds ratios showed positive relationships between polygenic risk scores and clinical/social outcomes; however, the results were not statistically significant. Because these results are exploratory, we need to replicate them with a larger sample in a future study. PMID:26674612

  13. Simulated microgravity affects ciprofloxacin susceptibility and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli ATCC25922

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Zheng, Yanhua; Si, Shaoyan; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Yuling; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan; Cui, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    As a representative fluoroquinolone antibacterial, ciprofloxacin is frequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. It is much meaningful to explore ciprofloxacin susceptibility and investigate a possible mechanism of drug susceptibility changes in E. coli ATCC25922 exposed to the environmental stress of simulated microgravity. The subculture of E. coli lasted for 7 days under simulated microgravity conditions (SMG) and normal microgravity (NG) conditions. On the 8th day, the cultures were divided into three groups: (1) NG group (continuous NG cultures); (2) SMG group (continuous SMG cultures); (3) SMCNG group (simulated microgravity change into normal gravity cultures). Ciprofloxacin (a final concentration of 0.125 μg/ml) sensitivity and expression of acrAB-tolC genes were detected in E. coli cells. The count and percentage of viable cells in the SMG cultures bacteria exposed to ciprofloxacin were higher than that in NG cultures and reduced to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. The expressions of efflux pump genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) were upregulated in SMG culture and downregulated to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli could be reversibly affected by SMG conditions. Over expression of efflux pump genes acrAB-tolC perhaps played an important role in decreased CIP susceptibility under SMG. PMID:26339360

  14. A Locus at 5q33.3 Confers Resistance to Tuberculosis in Highly Susceptible Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sobota, Rafal S.; Stein, Catherine M.; Kodaman, Nuri; Scheinfeldt, Laura B.; Maro, Isaac; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Igo, Robert P.; Magohe, Albert; Malone, LaShaunda L.; Chervenak, Keith; Hall, Noemi B.; Modongo, Chawangwa; Zetola, Nicola; Matee, Mecky; Joloba, Moses; Froment, Alain; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Moore, Jason H.; Scott, William K.; Lahey, Timothy; Boom, W. Henry; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Sirugo, Giorgio; Williams, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression resulting from HIV infection increases the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB) both in individuals newly exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and in those with latent infections. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals who do not develop TB, despite living in areas where it is hyperendemic, provide a model of natural resistance. We performed a genome-wide association study of TB resistance by using 581 HIV-positive Ugandans and Tanzanians enrolled in prospective cohort studies of TB; 267 of these individuals developed active TB, and 314 did not. A common variant, rs4921437 at 5q33.3, was significantly associated with TB (odds ratio = 0.37, p = 2.11 × 10−8). This variant lies within a genomic region that includes IL12B and is embedded in an H3K27Ac histone mark. The locus also displays consistent patterns of linkage disequilibrium across African populations and has signals of strong selection in populations from equatorial Africa. Along with prior studies demonstrating that therapy with IL-12 (the cytokine encoded in part by IL12B, associated with longer survival following MTB infection in mice deficient in CD4 T cells), our results suggest that this pathway might be an excellent target for the development of new modalities for treating TB, especially for HIV-positive individuals. Our results also indicate that studying extreme disease resistance in the face of extensive exposure can increase the power to detect associations in complex infectious disease. PMID:26942285

  15. Energy metabolism affects susceptibility of A. gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Gonçalves, Renata L.S.; Oliveira, Giselle A.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that A. gambiae L35 females, which are refractory (R) to Plasmodium infection, express higher levels of genes involved in redox-metabolism and mitochondrial respiration than susceptible (S) G3 females. Our studies revealed that R females have reduced longevity, faster utilization of lipid reserves, impaired mitochondrial State-3 respiration, increased rate of mitochondrial electron leak and higher expression levels of several glycolytic enzyme genes. Furthermore, when State-3 respiration was reduced in S females by silencing expression of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), hydrogen peroxide generation was higher and the mRNA levels of lactate dehydrogenase increased in the midgut, while the prevalence and intensity of P. berghei infection were significantly reduced. We conclude that there are broad metabolic differences between R and S An. gambiae mosquitoes that influence their susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. PMID:21320598

  16. Final Technical Report for the grant entitled "Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation"

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William, F., Ph.D., D.Sc.

    2006-11-22

    The goal of this proposal was to test the hypothesis that mice heterozygous for the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS1) gene are genetically susceptible to low doses of ionizing radiation. The rationale for this is that patients with NBS are radiation sensitive, because of defects in cellular responses to radiation induced genetic damage and haploinsufficiency at this genetic locus provides the potential for genetic susceptibility to low doses of ionizing radiation. Wild type and heterozygous NBS1 mice were irradiated and followed over their lifetime for radiation induced genomic instability, carcinogenesis and non-specific life shortening. No differences in cytogenetic damage, cancer induction or life span were observed between the hypomorphic mice indicating that genetic imbalance at the NBS1 loci does not modulate low dose radiation sensitivity.

  17. Differential Gene Expression Profile in the Rat Caudal Vestibular Nucleus is Associated with Individual Differences in Motion Sickness Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tang, Yi-Fan; Pan, Lei-Lei; Cai, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    stimulation might be a putative molecular basis for individual differences in MS susceptibility and provide information for the development of new therapeutic strategies for MSS individuals. PMID:25910039

  18. Modeling System Operators Affecting the Information Organizer of an Individual. Research Bulletin 77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Raimo

    This report details a study performed as an interplay between modeling and reality which was designed to find operators that affect the information organizer of an individual in a social system. The operator is defined as a system element that affects other elements. The information organizer is defined as a coordinating interface between the…

  19. Aspartame and seizure susceptibility: results of a clinical study in reportedly sensitive individuals.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A J; Shaywitz, B A; Tuchman, L; French, J A; Luciano, D; Sullivan, C M

    1995-03-01

    The high intensity sweetener aspartame has been implicated anecdotally in seizure provocation. This possibility was investigated with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. After an extensive search, 18 individuals (16 adults and 2 children) who had seizures allegedly related to aspartame consumption were admitted to adult or pediatric epilepsy monitoring units where their EEG was monitored continuously for 5 days. Aspartame (50 mg/kg) or identically enpackaged placebo was administered in divided doses at 0800, 1000, and 1200 h on study days 2 and 4. All meals were uniformly standardized on treatment days. No clinical seizures or other adverse experiences were observed after aspartame ingestion. Mean plasma phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations increased significantly after aspartame ingestion (83.6 microM) as compared with placebo (52.3 microM). Results suggest that aspartame, in acute dosage of approximately 50 mg/kg, is no more likely than placebo to cause seizures in individuals who reported that their seizures were provoked by aspartame consumption.

  20. N-cadherin haploinsufficiency affects cardiac gap junctions and arrhythmic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifen; Levin, Mark D; Xiong, Yanming; Petrenko, Nataliya; Patel, Vickas V.; Radice, Glenn L.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac-specific deletion of the murine gene (Cdh2) encoding the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, results in disassembly of the intercalated disc (ICD) structure and sudden arrhythmic death. Connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junctions are significantly reduced in the heart after depleting N-cadherin, therefore we hypothesized that animals expressing half the normal levels of N-cadherin would exhibit an intermediate phenotype. We examined the effect of N-cadherin haploinsufficiency on Cx43 expression and susceptibility to induced arrhythmias in mice either wild-type or heterozygous for the Cx43 (Gja1)-null allele. An increase in hypophosphorylated Cx43 accompanied by a modest decrease in total Cx43 protein levels was observed in the N-cadherin heterozygous mice. Consistent with these findings N-cadherin heterozygotes exhibited increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias compared to wild-type mice. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a reduction in size of large Cx43-containing plaques in the N-cadherin heterozygous animals compared to wild-type. Gap junctions were further decreased in number and size in the N-cad/Cx43 compound heterozygous mice with increased arrhythmic susceptibility compared to the single mutants. The scaffold protein, ZO-1, was reduced at the ICD in N-cadherin heterozygous cardiomyocytes providing a possible explanation for the reduction in Cx43 plaque size. These data provide further support for the intimate relationship between N-cadherin and Cx43 in the heart, and suggest that germline mutations in the human N-cadherin (Cdh2) gene may predispose patients to increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:18201716

  1. How Porin Heterogeneity and Trade-Offs Affect the Antibiotic Susceptibility of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, Thomas; Phan, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Variations in porin proteins are common in Gram-negative pathogens. Altered or absent porins reduce access of polar antibiotics across the outer membrane and can thus contribute to antibiotic resistance. Reduced permeability has a cost however, in lowering access to nutrients. This trade-off between permeability and nutritional competence is the source of considerable natural variation in porin gate-keeping. Mutational changes in this trade-off are frequently selected, so susceptibility to detergents and antibiotics is polymorphic in environmental isolates as well as pathogens. Understanding the mechanism, costs and heterogeneity of antibiotic exclusion by porins will be crucial in combating Gram negative infections. PMID:26506392

  2. Parental instrumental feeding, negative affect, and binge eating among overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B

    2015-04-01

    Parental instrumental feeding (i.e., rewarding children with food for perceived correct behaviors and punishing by taking away food for perceived incorrect behaviors) and negative affect are independently associated with binge eating in adulthood. However, less is known about interactions between these variables and binge eating. This study examined the relationship of retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and negative affect to binge eating. Participants were 165 overweight and obese undergraduate students at a large Mid-Atlantic University. High parental instrumental feeding strengthened the relationship between negative affect and binge eating. Also, individuals who reported low parental feeding practices reported similar binge eating regardless of negative affect. These findings suggest that overweight and obese individuals whose parents used more instrumental feeding practices are most likely to engage in binge eating in response to negative affect.

  3. Relative - not absolute - judgments of credibility affect susceptibility to misinformation conveyed during discussion.

    PubMed

    French, Lauren; Garry, Maryanne; Mori, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    People remember different details about the same events, and when they discuss events they exchange new - and misleading - information. Discussion can change memory, especially when the source of new information is highly credible. But we do not know whether the effects of credibility are based on absolute judgments - judging a source's credibility independently from our own credibility - or relative judgments - judging a source's credibility only in relation to our own credibility. We addressed this question by manipulating subjects' expectations, leading them to believe that they either had the same, higher or lower "visual acuity" than their partner while they watched a movie together. To create ample opportunities for the pairs to mention misleading details to one another, each member unknowingly saw a different version of the movie. The pairs then discussed some of the critical differences, but not others. Later, everyone took an independent recognition test. Subjects' susceptibility to misinformation depended on their own credibility relative to their partner's, supporting the idea that susceptibility to misinformation depends on relative differences in credibility. PMID:21112042

  4. Susceptibility to Predation Affects Trait-Mediated Indirect Interactions by Reversing Interspecific Competition

    PubMed Central

    Mowles, Sophie L.; Rundle, Simon D.; Cotton, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that the behavioral responses of prey to the presence of predators can have an important role in structuring assemblages through trait-mediated indirect interactions. Few studies, however, have addressed how relative susceptibility to predation influences such interactions. Here we examine the effect of chemical cues from the common shore crab Carcinus maenas on the foraging behavior of two common intertidal gastropod molluscs. Of the two model consumers studied, Littorina littorea is morphologically more vulnerable to crab predation than Gibbula umbilicalis, and it exhibited greater competitive ability in the absence of predation threat. However, Littorina demonstrated a greater anti-predator response when experimentally exposed to predation cues, resulting in a lower level of foraging. This reversed the competitive interaction, allowing Gibbula substantially increased access to shared resources. Our results demonstrate that the susceptibility of consumers to predation can influence species interactions, and suggest that inter-specific differences in trait-mediated indirect interactions are another mechanism through which non-consumptive predator effects may influence trophic interactions. PMID:21857993

  5. The Postnatal Maternal Environment Affects Autoimmune Disease Susceptibility in A/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Case, Laure K.; Rio, Roxana del; Bonney, Elizabeth A.; Zachary, James F.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Tung, Kenneth S. K.; Teuscher, Cory

    2009-01-01

    The postnatal maternal environment is known to increase susceptibility to a number of autoimmune diseases. Here we asked whether the postnatal maternal environment could influence autoimmune disease development to day 3 thymectomy (d3tx)-induced autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in cross-fostered A/J and B6 mice. A/J pups foster-nursed by B6 mothers exhibit an increase in autoimmune disease development while cross-fostering B6 pups on A/J mothers did not alter their susceptibility. The increase in AOD incidence seen in foster-nursed d3tx A/J mice correlated with a decrease in the total number of CD4+ T cells in the lymph nodes of these animals. Analysis of the cellular composition in the milk revealed that B6 mice shed significantly more maternally derived lymphocytes into their milk compared to A/J mothers. These data suggest that there are maternally derived postnatal factors that influence the development of autoimmune disease in A/J mice. PMID:19914609

  6. Susceptibility to predation affects trait-mediated indirect interactions by reversing interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Mowles, Sophie L; Rundle, Simon D; Cotton, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that the behavioral responses of prey to the presence of predators can have an important role in structuring assemblages through trait-mediated indirect interactions. Few studies, however, have addressed how relative susceptibility to predation influences such interactions. Here we examine the effect of chemical cues from the common shore crab Carcinus maenas on the foraging behavior of two common intertidal gastropod molluscs. Of the two model consumers studied, Littorina littorea is morphologically more vulnerable to crab predation than Gibbula umbilicalis, and it exhibited greater competitive ability in the absence of predation threat. However, Littorina demonstrated a greater anti-predator response when experimentally exposed to predation cues, resulting in a lower level of foraging. This reversed the competitive interaction, allowing Gibbula substantially increased access to shared resources. Our results demonstrate that the susceptibility of consumers to predation can influence species interactions, and suggest that inter-specific differences in trait-mediated indirect interactions are another mechanism through which non-consumptive predator effects may influence trophic interactions. PMID:21857993

  7. Identification of QTL affecting resistance/susceptibility to acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Gerald; Bertsch, Natalie; Hoeltig, Doris; Selke, Martin; Willems, Hermann; Gerlach, Gerald Friedrich; Tuemmler, Burkhard; Probst, Inga; Herwig, Ralf; Drungowski, Mario; Waldmann, Karl Heinz

    2014-04-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is among the most important pathogens worldwide in pig production. The agent can cause severe economic losses due to decreased performance, acute or chronic pleuropneumonia and an increased incidence of death. Therapeutics cannot be used in a sustainable manner, and vaccination is not always available, but discovering more about host defence and disease mechanisms might lead to new methods of prophylaxis. The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance/susceptibility to A. pleuropneumoniae. Under controlled conditions, 170 F2 animals of a Hampshire/Landrace family, with known differences in founder populations regarding A. pleuropneumoniae resistance, were challenged with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 aerosol followed by a detailed clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, pathological and bacteriological examination. F2 pigs were genotyped with 159 microsatellite markers. Significant QTL were identified on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 6, 12, 13, 16, 17 and 18. They explained 6-22% of phenotypic variance. One QTL on SSC2 reached significance on a genome-wide level for five associated phenotypic traits. A multiple regression analysis revealed a combinatory effect of markers SWR345 (SSC2) and S0143 (SSC12) on Respiratory Health Score, Clinical Score and the occurrence of death. The results indicate the genetic background of A. pleuropneumoniae resistance in swine and provide new insights into the genetic architecture of resistance/susceptibility to porcine pleuropneumonia. The results will be helpful in identifying the underlying genes and mechanisms.

  8. Roles of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to POAG and Individual Differences in Drug Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang-Long; Jia, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Zong-Ming; Liu, Hai; Duan, Xuan-Chu; Lyu, Xue-Man

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) susceptibility and individual responses to drug treatment. Material/Methods This case-control study consisted of 93 cases with POAG and 125 controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to analyze CYP2C19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After timolol treatment, patients were classified into side effect (SE) group and non-side effect (NSE) group. According to drug treatment responses, patients were divided into 3 groups: excellent group (Ex) (IOP ≥8 mm Hg); utility group (Ut) (5 0.05). Frequencies of extensive metabolizer phenotype and poor metabolizer phenotype or poor metabolizer phenotype and intermediate metabolizer phenotype were significantly different between the SE group and NSE group (both P<0.05). The distribution of intermediate metabolizer phenotype and extensive metabolizer phenotype were significantly different among Ex group, Ut group, and In group (all P<0.05). Conclusions We found no evidence that CYP2C19 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to POAG. However, different CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotypes were identified and observed to have important effects on the individual differences in drug treatment response. PMID:26822491

  9. The 5p12 breast cancer susceptibility locus affects MRPS30 expression in estrogen-receptor positive tumors

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, David A.; Fiorito, Elisa; Nord, Silje; Van Loo, Peter; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Fleischer, Thomas; Tost, Jorg; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Tramm, Trine; Overgaard, Jens; Bukholm, Ida R; Hurtado, Antoni; Balmain, Allan; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci linked to breast cancer susceptibility, but the mechanism by which variations at these loci influence susceptibility is usually unknown. Some variants are only associated with particular clinical subtypes of breast cancer. Understanding how and why these variants influence subtype-specific cancer risk contributes to our understanding of cancer etiology. We conducted a genome-wide expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) study in a discovery set of 287 breast tumors and 97 normal mammary tissue samples and a replication set of 235 breast tumors. We found that the risk-associated allele of rs7716600 in the 5p12 estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) susceptibility locus was associated with elevated expression of the nearby gene MRPS30 exclusively in ER-positive tumors. We replicated this finding in 235 independent tumors. Further, we showed the rs7716600 risk genotype was associated with decreased MRPS30 promoter methylation exclusively in ER-positive breast tumors. In vitro studies in MCF-7 cells carrying the protective genotype showed that estrogen stimulation decreased MRPS30 promoter chromatin availability and mRNA levels. In contrast, in 600MPE cells carrying the risk genotype, estrogen increased MRPS30 expression and did not affect promoter availability. Our data suggest the 5p12 risk allele affects MRPS30 expression in estrogen-responsive tumor cells after tumor initiation by a mechanism affecting chromatin availability. These studies emphasize that the genetic architecture of breast cancer is context-specific, and integrated analysis of gene expression and chromatin remodeling in normal and tumor tissues will be required to explain the mechanisms of risk alleles. PMID:24388359

  10. Genetic isolation of a chromosome 1 region affecting susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    St Lezin, E; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Churchill, M C; Churchill, P C; Kurtz, T W; Liu, W; Wang, N; Kren, V; Zidek, V; Pravenec, M; Bidani, A K

    1999-08-01

    Linkage studies in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat have suggested that genes influencing susceptibility to hypertension-associated renal failure may exist on rat chromosome 1q. To investigate this possibility in a widely used model of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), we compared susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage between an SHR progenitor strain and an SHR congenic strain that is genetically identical except for a defined region of chromosome 1q. Backcross breeding with selection for the markers D1Mit3 and Igf2 on chromosome 1 was used to create the congenic strain (designated SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2) that carries a 22 cM segment of chromosome 1 transferred from the normotensive Brown Norway rat onto the SHR background. Systolic blood pressure (by radiotelemetry) and urine protein excretion were measured in the SHR progenitor and congenic strains before and after the induction of accelerated hypertension by administration of DOCA-salt. At the same level of DOCA-salt hypertension, the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain showed significantly greater proteinuria and histologically assessed renal vascular and glomerular injury than the SHR progenitor strain. These findings demonstrate that a gene or genes that influence susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage have been trapped in the differential chromosome segment of the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain. This congenic strain represents an important new model for the fine mapping of gene(s) on chromosome 1 that affect susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat.

  11. Extreme sensory processing patterns and their relation with clinical conditions among individuals with major affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Muzio, Caterina; Rinosi, Giorgio; Solano, Paola; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Pompili, Maurizio; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies highlighted the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns expressed in hyper- or hyposensitivity was not thoroughly considered. The present study, in real life conditions, examined the unique sensory processing patterns of individuals with major affective disorders and their relationship with psychiatric symptomatology. The sample consisted of 105 participants with major affective conditions ranging in age from 20 to 84 years (mean=56.7±14.6). All participants completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A), the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Sensory sensitivity/avoiding hypersensitivity patterns and low registration (a hyposensitivity pattern) were prevalent among our sample as compared to normative data. About seventy percent of the sample showed lower seeking tendency. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that depression and anxious/cyclothymic affective temperaments were predicted by sensory sensory/avoiding. Anxious and irritable affective temperaments were predicted by low registration. Hyperthymic affective temperament and lower severity of depression were predicted by sensation seeking. Hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity may be "trait" markers of individuals with major affective disorders. Interventions should refer to the individual unique sensory profiles and their behavioral and functional impact in the context of real life.

  12. Hard Exercise, Affect Lability, and Personality Among Individuals with Bulimia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Brownstone, Lisa M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explores the personality traits of compulsivity (e.g., sense of orderliness and duty to perform tasks completely) and restricted expression (e.g., emotion expression difficulties) as potential moderators of the relation between affect lability and frequency of hard exercise episodes in a sample of individuals with bulimic pathology. Participants were 204 adult females recruited in five Midwestern cities who met criteria for threshold or subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). Compulsivity was found to significantly moderate the relation between affect lability and number of hard exercise episodes over the past 28 days, such that among those with high compulsivity, level of affect lability was associated with the number of hard exercise episodes; whereas, among those with low compulsivity, affect lability was not associated with the number of hard exercise episodes. The same pattern of findings emerged for restricted expression; however, this finding approached, but did not reach statistical significance. As such, it appears that affect lability is differentially related to hard exercise among individuals with BN depending upon the level of compulsivity and, to a more limited extent, restricted expression. These results suggest that, for individuals with BN with either compulsivity or restricted expression, focusing treatment on increasing flexibility and/or verbal expression of emotions may help them in the context of intense, fluctuating affect. PMID:24183126

  13. Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Mapping for Selected Areas in the Philippines Severely affected by Super Typhoon Haiyan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, Raquel; Rabonza, Maricar; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Alejandrino, Ian Kaye; Aquino, Dakila; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan, considered as one of the most powerful storms recorded in 2013, devastated the central Philippines region on 8 November 2013. In its wake, Haiyan left 6,190 fatalities, 28,626 injured and 1,785 missing, as well as damage amounting to more than USD 823 million. To mitigate damage from similar events in the future, it is imperative to characterize hazards associated with tropical cyclones such as those brought by Haiyan, with detailed studies of storm surges, landslides and floods. Although strong winds and powerful storm surges up 15-17 feet were the primary causes of damage, landslides studies are also vital in the rehabilitation of typhoon damaged areas. Cities and municipalities of Leyte (7,246.7 sq. km) and Samar (13,121 sq. km) provinces, the heaviest cities area during the onslaught of Haiyan, require detailed and up-to-date hazard maps for their rebuilding and disaster mitigation programs. In order to delineate areas susceptible to rainfall induced shallow landslides, Stability INdex MAPping (SINMAP) software was used over a 6-meter Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)-derived DEM grid. Soil calibration parameters from previous studies were used as parameter input to generate a worst-case scenario hazard map of the two provinces. Topographic, hydrologic and soil parameters (cohesion, angle of friction, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity) were used for each pixel of a given digital elevation model (DEM) grid to compute for the corresponding factor of safety. The landslide maps generated using SINMAP are found to be consistent with the landslide inventory derived from high-resolution satellite imagery 2003-2013. The landslide susceptibility classification found in the landslide hazard maps are useful to identify no-build zones, areas that can be built upon but with slope intervention and monitoring as well as places that are safe from shallow landslides. These maps complement the debris flow and structurally-controlled landslide hazard maps

  14. Affected-sib-pair analyses reveal support of prior evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder, on 21q

    SciTech Connect

    Detera-Wadleigh, S.D.; Badner, J.A.; Goldin, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    In 22 multiplex pedigrees screened for linkage to bipolar disorder, by use of 18 markers on chromosome 21q, single-locus affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis detected a high proportion (57%-62%) of alleles shared identical by descent (IBD), with P values of .049-.0008 on nine marker loci. Multilocus ASP analyses revealed locus trios in the distal region between D21S270 and D21S171, with excess allele sharing (nominal P values <.01) under two affection-status models, ASM I (bipolars and schizoaffectives) and ASM II (ASM I plus recurrent unipolars). In addition, under ASM I, the proximal interval spanned by D21S1436 and D21S65 showed locus trios with excess allele sharing (nominal P values of .03-.0003). These findings support prior evidence that a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder is on 21q. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. How does searching for health information on the Internet affect individuals' demand for health care services?

    PubMed

    Suziedelyte, Agne

    2012-11-01

    The emergence of the Internet made health information, which previously was almost exclusively available to health professionals, accessible to the general public. Access to health information on the Internet is likely to affect individuals' health care related decisions. The aim of this analysis is to determine how health information that people obtain from the Internet affects their demand for health care. I use a novel data set, the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (2003-07), to answer this question. The causal variable of interest is a binary variable that indicates whether or not an individual has recently searched for health information on the Internet. Health care utilization is measured by an individual's number of visits to a health professional in the past 12 months. An individual's decision to use the Internet to search for health information is likely to be correlated to other variables that can also affect his/her demand for health care. To separate the effect of Internet health information from other confounding variables, I control for a number of individual characteristics and use the instrumental variable estimation method. As an instrument for Internet health information, I use U.S. state telecommunication regulations that are shown to affect the supply of Internet services. I find that searching for health information on the Internet has a positive, relatively large, and statistically significant effect on an individual's demand for health care. This effect is larger for the individuals who search for health information online more frequently and people who have health care coverage. Among cancer patients, the effect of Internet health information seeking on health professional visits varies by how long ago they were diagnosed with cancer. Thus, the Internet is found to be a complement to formal health care rather than a substitute for health professional services.

  16. Facial Affect Processing and Depression Susceptibility: Cognitive Biases and Cognitive Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bistricky, Steven L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2011-01-01

    Facial affect processing is essential to social development and functioning and is particularly relevant to models of depression. Although cognitive and interpersonal theories have long described different pathways to depression, cognitive-interpersonal and evolutionary social risk models of depression focus on the interrelation of interpersonal…

  17. Emotional intelligence: a theoretical framework for individual differences in affective forecasting.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Epstein, Ronald M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed.

  18. How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how environmental factors (family environment and school education) and individual characteristics (personality, creative attitudes, and divergent thinking) collectively affect creative achievement of American and Chinese college students. Data were collected from 378 college students in the United States…

  19. Factors Affecting Individual Education Demand at the Entrance to University: Adnan Menderes University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarpkaya, Ruhi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the factors affecting individual education demands at the entrance to university. The research is in survey model. The universe of the study consists of 1630 freshmen at the faculties and vocational schools of Adnan Menderes University, Aydin. 574 students from 7 schools were included in the sample. The…

  20. Individual and Technological Factors Affecting Undergraduates' Use of Mobile Technology in University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olufunmilola Ogulande, Oyeronke; Oladimeji Olafare, Festus; Ayuba Sakaba, Dabo

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation and utilization of handheld mobile technology among undergraduates for mobile learning cannot be underestimated. This study was geared towards investigating individual and technological factors affecting the perceived usefulness of mobile technology by undergraduates in university of Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive…

  1. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia. PMID:27568660

  2. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  3. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  4. Screening the Budding Yeast Genome Reveals Unique Factors Affecting K2 Toxin Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Servienė, Elena; Lukša, Juliana; Orentaitė, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding how biotoxins kill cells is of prime importance in biomedicine and the food industry. The budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) killers serve as a convenient model to study the activity of biotoxins consistently supplying with significant insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host cell interactions and toxin entry into eukaryotic target cells. K1 and K2 toxins are active at the cell wall, leading to the disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequent cell death by ion leakage. K28 toxin is active in the cell nucleus, blocking DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, thereby triggering apoptosis. Genome-wide screens in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae identified several hundred effectors of K1 and K28 toxins. Surprisingly, no such screen had been performed for K2 toxin, the most frequent killer toxin among industrial budding yeasts. Principal Findings We conducted several concurrent genome-wide screens in S. cerevisiae and identified 332 novel K2 toxin effectors. The effectors involved in K2 resistance and hypersensitivity largely map in distinct cellular pathways, including cell wall and plasma membrane structure/biogenesis and mitochondrial function for K2 resistance, and cell wall stress signaling and ion/pH homeostasis for K2 hypersensitivity. 70% of K2 effectors are different from those involved in K1 or K28 susceptibility. Significance Our work demonstrates that despite the fact that K1 and K2 toxins share some aspects of their killing strategies, they largely rely on different sets of effectors. Since the vast majority of the host factors identified here is exclusively active towards K2, we conclude that cells have acquired a specific K2 toxin effectors set. Our work thus indicates that K1 and K2 have elaborated different biological pathways and provides a first step towards the detailed characterization of K2 mode of action. PMID:23227207

  5. The protection of individuals affected with Specific Learning Disorders in the Italian Legislation.

    PubMed

    Feola, A; Marino, V; Masullo, A; Trabucco Aurilio, M; Marsella, L T

    2015-01-01

    Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) affect specific abilities in individuals with an otherwise normal academic development. Among Italian School population, their reported prevalence is between 2.5% and 3.5%. Dysfunctions at the base of these disorders interfere with the normal acquisition process of reading, writing and/or mathematical abilities, leading to various degrees of adjustment difficulties in the affected individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the support that Italian Government offers to its citizens affected with SLDs, with a particular focus on assistance during the school-age years, particularly through the introduction of the Law 170/2010 and successive guidelines, supplementing the existing regulations to offer more efficient means and legal instruments aimed at achieving earlier diagnoses. PMID:26152629

  6. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  7. The Use of Kosher Phenotyping for Mapping QTL Affecting Susceptibility to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eitam, Harel; Yishay, Moran; Schiavini, Fausta; Soller, Morris; Bagnato, Alessandro; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle, caused by multiple pathogens that become more virulent in response to stress. As clinical signs often go undetected and various preventive strategies failed, identification of genes affecting BRD is essential for selection for resistance. Selective DNA pooling (SDP) was applied in a genome wide association study (GWAS) to map BRD QTLs in Israeli Holstein male calves. Kosher scoring of lung adhesions was used to allocate 122 and 62 animals to High (Glatt Kosher) and Low (Non-Kosher) resistant groups, respectively. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip according to the Infinium protocol. Moving average of -logP was used to map QTLs and Log drop was used to define their boundaries (QTLRs). The combined procedure was efficient for high resolution mapping. Nineteen QTLRs distributed over 13 autosomes were found, some overlapping previous studies. The QTLRs contain polymorphic functional and expression candidate genes to affect kosher status, with putative immunological and wound healing activities. Kosher phenotyping was shown to be a reliable means to map QTLs affecting BRD morbidity. PMID:27077383

  8. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. Susceptibility of South Korea to hydrologic extremes affecting the global food system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puma, M. J.; Chon, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in South Korea is closely linked to trade in the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which coincided with a shift in grain self sufficiency from 43% down to 24% over this same period. Many factors led to these changes, including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self sufficiency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system. Here we explore this vulnerability by assessing how global trade disruptions would affect Korea's food security. We impose historical extreme drought and flood events that would possibly affect today's major food producing regions concurrently. Next we compute food supply deficits in South Korea that might result from these events. Our analyses provide a framework for formulating domestic food policies to enhance South Korea's food security in the increasingly fragile global food system.

  10. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  11. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. PMID:26124685

  12. Assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals susceptible to arsenic induced toxicity in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anamika; Som, Arundhati; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mondal, Lakshmikanta; Chaubey, Ramesh C; Bhilwade, Hari N; Rahman, Mohammad M; Giri, Ashok K

    2005-10-15

    Assessment of DNA damage was carried out using alkaline comet assay in lymphocytes of 30 individuals exposed to high levels of arsenic (247.12+/-18.93 microg/l) through contaminated groundwater in North 24 Parganas district, West Bengal, India. All of them exhibited high arsenic contents in nail (4.20+/-0.67 microg/g), hair (2.06+/-0.20 microg/g) and urine (259.75+/-33.89 microg/l) samples and manifested various arsenical skin lesions. Unexposed samples were collected from 30 residents of the unaffected East Midnapur district with very little or no exposure to arsenic (7.69+/-0.49 microg/l) in drinking water. The results were evaluated principally by manual analysis of comets and partly by computerized image analysis. Both the analytical methods exhibited a high degree of agreement in results. The exposed participants expressed significantly higher DNA damage (p < 0.01) in their lymphocytes than the unexposed participants. Alkaline comet assay was also combined with formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase enzyme digestion to confirm that arsenic induced oxidative base damage in the lymphocytes. Significant positive trend effects of comet lengths in relation to arsenic levels in water prove that DNA damage can be used as a sensitive biomarker of arsenic exposure. This study demonstrates that arsenic induced significant DNA damage in the exposed participants, which could correspond to a higher susceptibility to arsenic induced toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  13. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  14. Positive Affect Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Individuals without Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martín-María, Natalia; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Haro, Josep Maria; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have analyzed the relation between well-being and mortality but none of them have attempted to disentangle the differential influence that positive affect, negative affect, and evaluative well-being might have on mortality using a longitudinal design in the general population and measuring independently and accurately each component of well-being. The aim of the present study is to assess the association of these well-being components with mortality after adjusting for health and other lifestyle factors and to analyze whether this association is different in people with and without depression. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 4753 people from Spain was followed up after 3 years. Analyses were performed with Cox regression models among the total sample and separately in people with and without depression. Results: In the analyses adjusted for age, sex, and years of education, all three well-being variables showed separately a statistically significant association with mortality. However, after adjustment for health status and other confounders including the other well-being components, only positive affect remained as marginally associated with a decreased risk of mortality in the overall sample [HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.73–1.03], in particular among individuals without depression [HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68–0.99]. Conclusion: Positive affect is inversely associated with mortality in individuals without depression. Future research should focus on assessing interventions associated with a higher level of positive affect. PMID:27462289

  15. Influence of negative affect on choice behavior in individuals with binge eating pathology.

    PubMed

    Danner, Unna N; Evers, Catharine; Sternheim, Lot; van Meer, Floor; van Elburg, Annemarie A; Geerets, Tiny A M; Breteler, Leonie M T; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-15

    Research suggests that individuals with binge eating pathology (e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED)) have decision making impairments and particularly act impulsively in response to negative affect. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of negative affect on choice behavior in women with BN and BED. Ninety women (59 with BN or BED and 31 healthy controls) watched a sad or control film fragment and were subsequently asked to complete a choice behavior task (as measured by a variation of the Bechara Gambling Task (BGT)). Results showed that negative affect influenced choice behavior differently in healthy controls and in women with BN and BED after punishment (but not after reward). In the context of increased negative affect, punishment was associated with more disadvantageous choice behavior in both BN and BED women but not in healthy controls, while the effect was the exact opposite in both groups after a decrease in negative affect. Levels of sadness were not found to influence choice behavior after reward in either groups. These findings suggest that emotional states may have a direct impact on choice behavior of individuals with binge eating pathology and are not only related to pathological behavior itself.

  16. AFFECT AND THE FRAMING EFFECT WITHIN INDIVIDUALS OVER TIME: RISK TAKING IN A DYNAMIC INVESTMENT SIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; GOLDFARB, BRENT; BARRETT, LISA FELDMAN

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of affect (pleasant or unpleasant feelings) and decision frames (gains or losses) in risk taking in a 20-day stock investment simulation in which 101 participants rated their current feelings while making investment decisions. As predicted, affect attenuated the relationships between decision frames and risk taking. After experiencing losses, individuals made more risky choices, in keeping with the framing effect. However, this tendency decreased and/or disappeared when loss was simultaneously experienced with either pleasant or unpleasant feelings. Similarly, individuals’ tendency to avoid risk after experiencing gains disappeared or even reversed when they simultaneously experienced pleasant feelings. PMID:26412860

  17. TIM-3 Genetic Variations Affect Susceptibility to Osteoarthritis by Interfering with Interferon Gamma in CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufeng; Ren, Yanjun; Peng, Dayong; Yuan, Zhen; Shan, Shiying; Sun, Huaqiang; Yan, Xinfeng; Xiao, Hong; Li, Guang; Song, Haihan

    2015-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis, in which T cell responses and cytokines may play critical roles in the development of the disease. TIM-3 may affect immune responses and is correlated with decreased expression of interferon gamma (INF-γ) in CD4+ T cells. In the current study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms in the TIM-3 gene and susceptibility to OA. Two polymorphisms in TIM-3, -574G/T and +4259T/G polymorphisms, were identified in OA cases and healthy donors by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Data revealed that the prevalence of TIM-3 +4259T/G genotype was significantly elevated in OA patients than in the healthy donors after adjustment (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-5.11, P < 0.001). Similarly, the TIM-3 +4259G allele presented a positive association with the risk of OA after adjustment (OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.29-4.82, P = 0.003). The TIM-3 -574G/T polymorphism did not show any correlation with the disease. We further examined whether the two TIM-3 polymorphisms could affect INF-γ expression in CD4+ T cells. Data revealed that subjects carrying polymorphic +4259TG genotype had significantly higher mRNA and protein levels of INF-γ in CD4+ T cells compared to wild-type GG genotype (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). These results indicated that TIM-3 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to OA possibly by upregulating INF-γ expression in CD4+ T cells.

  18. The CTRB1/2 locus affects diabetes susceptibility and treatment via the incretin pathway.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Leen M; Fritsche, Andreas; Nijpels, Giel; van Leeuwen, Nienke; Donnelly, Louise A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Alssema, Marjan; Fadista, Joao; Carlotti, Françoise; Gjesing, Anette P; Palmer, Colin N A; van Haeften, Timon W; Herzberg-Schäfer, Silke A; Simonis-Bik, Annemarie M C; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Helmer, Quinta; Deelen, Joris; Guigas, Bruno; Hansen, Torben; Machicao, Fausto; Willemsen, Gonneke; Heine, Robert J; Kramer, Mark H H; Holst, Jens J; de Koning, Eelco J P; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Pedersen, Oluf; Groop, Leif; de Geus, Eco J C; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M W; Pearson, Ewan R; Diamant, Michaela

    2013-09-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes glucose homeostasis and enhances β-cell function. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which inhibit the physiological inactivation of endogenous GLP-1, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Using the Metabochip, we identified three novel genetic loci with large effects (30-40%) on GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamps in nondiabetic Caucasian individuals (TMEM114; CHST3 and CTRB1/2; n = 232; all P ≤ 8.8 × 10(-7)). rs7202877 near CTRB1/2, a known diabetes risk locus, also associated with an absolute 0.51 ± 0.16% (5.6 ± 1.7 mmol/mol) lower A1C response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment in G-allele carriers, but there was no effect on GLP-1 RA treatment in type 2 diabetic patients (n = 527). Furthermore, in pancreatic tissue, we show that rs7202877 acts as expression quantitative trait locus for CTRB1 and CTRB2, encoding chymotrypsinogen, and increases fecal chymotrypsin activity in healthy carriers. Chymotrypsin is one of the most abundant digestive enzymes in the gut where it cleaves food proteins into smaller peptide fragments. Our data identify chymotrypsin in the regulation of the incretin pathway, development of diabetes, and response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment. PMID:23674605

  19. Dihydrolipoic but not alpha-lipoic acid affects susceptibility of eukaryotic cells to bacterial invasion.

    PubMed

    Bozhokina, Ekaterina; Khaitlina, Sofia; Gamaley, Irina

    2015-05-01

    Sensitivity of eukaryotic cells to facultative pathogens can depend on physiological state of host cells. Previously we have shown that pretreatment of HeLa cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) makes the cells 2-3-fold more sensitive to invasion by the wild-type Serratia grimesii and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing gene of actin-specific metalloprotease grimelysin [1]. To evaluate the impact of chemically different antioxidants, in the present work we studied the effects of α-Lipoic acid (LA) and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) on efficiency of S. grimesii and recombinant E. coli expressing grimelysin gene to penetrate into HeLa and CaCo cells. Similarly to the effect of NAC, pretreatment of HeLa and CaCo cells with 0.6 or 1.25 mM DHLA increased the entry of grimelysin producing bacteria by a factor of 2.5 and 3 for the wild-type S. grimesii and recombinant E. coli, respectively. In contrast, pretreatment of the cells with 0.6 or 1.25 mM LA did not affect the bacteria uptake. The increased invasion of HeLa and CaCo cells correlated with the enhanced expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin genes, whereas expression of these genes in the LA-treated cells was not changed. Comparison of these results suggests that it is sulfhydryl group of DHLA that promotes efficient modification of cell properties assisting bacterial uptake. We assume that the NAC- and DHLA-induced stimulation of the E-cadherin-catenin pathway contributes to the increased internalization of the grimelysin producing bacteria within transformed cells.

  20. CACNA1C risk variant affects facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nieratschker, Vanessa; Brückmann, Christof; Plewnia, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and correct interpretation of facial emotion is essential for social interaction and communication. Previous studies have shown that impairments in this cognitive domain are common features of several psychiatric disorders. Recent association studies identified CACNA1C as one of the most promising genetic risk factors for psychiatric disorders and previous evidence suggests that the most replicated risk variant in CACNA1C (rs1006737) is affecting emotion recognition and processing. However, studies investigating the influence of rs1006737 on this intermediate phenotype in healthy subjects at the behavioral level are largely missing to date. Here, we applied the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, a facial emotion recognition paradigm in a cohort of 92 healthy individuals to address this question. Whereas accuracy was not affected by genotype, CACNA1C rs1006737 risk-allele carries (AA/AG) showed significantly slower mean response times compared to individuals homozygous for the G-allele, indicating that healthy risk-allele carriers require more information to correctly identify a facial emotion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for an impairing behavioral effect of the CACNA1C risk variant rs1006737 on facial emotion recognition in healthy individuals and adds to the growing number of studies pointing towards CACNA1C as affecting intermediate phenotypes of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26611642

  1. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, Joel

    2014-04-18

    Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of γ-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase

  2. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  3. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  4. Attitudes toward prenatal genetic testing for Treacher Collins syndrome among affected individuals and families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rebecca L; Lawson, Cathleen S; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Sanderson, Saskia C

    2012-07-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a craniofacial syndrome that is both phenotypically variable and heterogeneous, caused by mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D genes. We examined attitudes towards TCS prenatal genetic testing among affected families using a telephone questionnaire. Participants were 31 affected adults and relatives recruited primarily through families cared for in the mid-Atlantic region. Nineteen participants (65%) reported that they would take a TCS prenatal genetic test which could not predict degree of disease severity. Interest in TCS genetic testing was associated with higher income, higher concern about having a child with TCS, lower religiosity, lower concern about genetic testing procedures, and having a sporadic rather than familial mutation. Over half reported that their decision to have TCS genetic testing would be influenced a great deal by their desire to relieve anxiety and attitudes toward abortion. Ten participants (32%) reported that they would be likely to end the pregnancy upon receiving a positive test result; this was lower amongst TCS affected individuals and higher amongst participants with children with TCS. Genetics healthcare providers need to be aware of affected individuals' and families' attitudes and interest in prenatal genetic testing for TCS, and the possible implications for other craniofacial disorders, so that patients' information needs can be met.

  5. Expression levels of pituitary tumor transforming 1 and glutathione-S-transferase theta 3 are associated with the individual susceptibility to D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Chae-Wook; Bae, Il-Hong; Park, Young-Ho; Chung, Jin-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Although drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is frequently observed, individual variation in the susceptibility to DILI is hard to predict. Intrinsic genetic variation is considered a key element for this variation but little is known about the identity of the genes associated with DILI. In this study, pre-biopsy method was applied to uncover the key genes for D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury and a cause and effect study was conducted to elucidate the correlation between the expression of uncovered genes and GalN-induced hepatotoxicity. To identify the genes determining the susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, we compared the innate gene expression profiles in the liver tissue pre-biopsied before GalN treatment of the SD rats susceptible and resistant to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity, using microarray. Eight genes including Pttg1, Ifit1 and Gstt3 were lower or higher in the susceptible animals than the resistant and RT-PCR analysis confirmed it. To determine if these genes are associated with the susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity indeed, expression levels were measured using real-time PCR in a new set of animals and the correlation with GalN-induced hepatotoxicity were analyzed. Notably, the expression of Pttg1 was significantly correlated with the severity of GalN-induced hepatotoxicity (p < 0.01) and the animals with lowest and highest level of Gstt3 turned out to be the most susceptible and resistant, respectively, demonstrating that the expression of Pttg1 and Gstt3 could predict inter-individual susceptibility to GalN-induced hepatotoxicity. More importantly, this study showed the utility of pre-biopsy method in the identification of the gene for the chemical-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Brain imaging of cognitively normal individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset AD

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Tsui, Wai H.; Spector, Nicole; Goldowsky, Alexander; Williams, Schantel; Osorio, Ricardo; McHugh, Pauline; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This brain imaging study examines whether cognitively normal (NL) individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) show evidence of more extensive Alzheimer disease pathology compared with those who have a single parent affected by LOAD. Methods: Fifty-two NL individuals received MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. These included 4 demographically balanced groups (n = 13/group, aged 32–72 years, 60% female, 30% APOE ε4 carriers) of NL individuals with maternal (FHm), paternal (FHp), and maternal and paternal (FHmp) family history of LOAD, and with negative family history (FH−). Statistical parametric mapping, voxel-based morphometry, and z-score mapping were used to compare MRI gray matter volumes (GMVs), partial volume–corrected PiB retention, and FDG metabolism across FH groups and vs FH−. Results: NL FHmp showed more severe abnormalities in all 3 biomarkers vs the other groups regarding the number of regions affected and magnitude of impairment. PiB retention and hypometabolism were most pronounced in FHmp, intermediate in FHm, and lowest in FHp and FH−. GMV reductions were highest in FHmp and intermediate in FHm and FHp vs FH−. In all FH+ groups, amyloid-β deposition exceeded GMV loss and hypometabolism exceeded GMV loss (p < 0.001), while amyloid-β deposition exceeded hypometabolism in FHmp and FHp but not in FHm. Conclusions: These biomarker findings show a “LOAD parent-dose effect” in NL individuals several years, if not decades, before possible clinical symptoms. PMID:24523481

  7. Cecal volatile fatty acids and broiler chick susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium colonization as affected by aflatoxins and T-2 toxin.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Bailey, R H; Byrd, J A; Young, C R; Corrier, D E; Stanker, L H; Rottinghaust, G E

    2001-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted using day-of-hatch, mixed-sex broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of aflatoxins and T-2 toxin on cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the susceptibility to Salmonella colonization. All chicks in these experiments were challenged orally with 10(4) cfu of Salmonella typhimurium (ST) on Day 3. In Experiments 1 and 2, chicks were fed diets containing 0, 2.5, or 7.5 mg aflatoxins/kg of diet and were allowed to develop their microflora naturally. In Experiment 3, all chicks were orally gavaged on the day of hatch with a competitive exclusion (CE) culture (PREEMPT) and were fed diets containing 0, 2.5, or 7.5 mg T-2 toxin/kg. In Experiment 4, the chicks were fed diets containing 0, 7.5, or 15.0 mg T-2 toxin/kg and one-half of the chicks were orally gavaged on the day of hatch with the CE culture. In Experiments 1 and 2, with the exception of increased total VFA at 5 d in chicks fed the 7.5 mg T-2 aflatoxins/kg diet, there were no treatment effects on cecal propionic acid, total VFA, or incidence or severity of ST colonization. In Experiment 3, the only alteration in concentration of cecal propionic acid or total VFA was a significant reduction in total VFA at 5 d in chicks fed the 2.5 mg T-2 toxin/kg diet. No significant treatment differences were observed for numbers of Salmonella cecal culture-positive chicks or for numbers of ST in the cecal contents. In Experiment 4, with minor exceptions, the chicks treated with the CE culture had higher cecal concentrations of propionic acid and were less susceptible to Salmonella colonization than the non-CE-treated chicks. In the non-CE-treated chicks, T-2 toxin had no effect on any of the parameters, and 85 to 90% of the chicks were Salmonella cecal culture-positive. In the CE-treated chicks, there was a decrease in propionic acid concentration at 3 and 11 d and an increase in susceptibility to Salmonella colonization of the chicks fed the 15.0 mg T-2 toxin/kg diet. These results indicate that

  8. A FISTful of Emotion: Individual Differences in Trait Anxiety and Cognitive-Affective Flexibility During Preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.

  9. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. PMID:26008886

  10. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  11. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  12. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Brigitte M; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males' subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  13. Individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and reductions in exercise performance when perfusion pressure is reduced: evidence for vasodilator phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Robert F.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Moynes, Jackie S.; Poitras, Veronica J.; Walsh, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether cardiovascular compensatory response phenotypes exist in the face of a reduced perfusion pressure challenge to exercising muscle oxygen delivery (O2D), and whether these responses might be exercise intensity (EI) dependent. Ten healthy men (19.5 ± 0.4 yr) completed two trials of progressive forearm isometric handgrip exercise to exhaustion (24.5 N increments every 3.5 min) in each of forearm above and below heart level [forearm arterial perfusion pressure (FAPP) difference of 29.5 ± 0.97 mmHg]. At the end of each EI, measurements of forearm blood flow (FBF; ml/min) via brachial artery Doppler and echo ultrasound, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP; mmHg) via finger photoplethysmography, and exercising forearm venous effluent via antecubital vein catheter revealed distinct cardiovascular response groups: n = 6 with compensatory vasodilation vs. n = 4 without compensatory vasodilation. Compensatory vasodilators were able to blunt the perfusion pressure-evoked reduction in submaximal O2D in the arm-above-heart condition, whereas nonvasodilators did not (−22.5 ± 13.6 vs. −65.4 ± 14.1 ml O2/min; P < 0.05), and in combination with being able to increase O2 extraction, nonvasodilators defended submaximal V̇o2 and experienced less of an accumulated submaximal O2D deficit (−80.7 ± 24.7 vs. −219.1 ± 36.0 ml O2/min; P < 0.05). As a result, the compensatory vasodilators experienced less of a compromise to peak EI than nonvasodilators (−24.5 ± 3.5 N vs. −52.1 ± 8.9 N; P < 0.05). In conclusion, in the forearm exercise model studied, vasodilatory response phenotypes exist that determine individual susceptibility to hypoperfusion and the degree to which aerobic metabolism and exercise performance are compromised. PMID:24970851

  14. Chemically Induced Cuticle Mutation Affecting Epidermal Conductance to Water Vapor and Disease Susceptibility in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, M. A.; Joly, R. J.; Peters, P. J.; Rich, P. J.; Axtell, J. D.; Ashworth, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of Sorghum bicolor bloomless (bm) mutants with altered epicuticular wax (EW) structure uncovered a mutation affecting both EW and cuticle deposition. The cuticle of mutant bm-22 was about 60% thinner and approximately one-fifth the weight of the wild-type parent P954035 (WT-P954035) cuticles. Reduced cuticle deposition was associated with increased epidermal conductance to water vapor. The reduction in EW and cuticle deposition increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Exserohilum turcicum. Evidence suggests that this recessive mutation occurs at a single locus with pleiotropic effects. The independently occurring gene mutations of bm-2, bm-6, bm-22, and bm-33 are allelic. These chemically induced mutants had essentially identical EW structure, water loss, and cuticle deposition. Furthermore, 138 F2 plants from a bm-22 x WT-P954035 backcross showed no recombination of these traits. This unique mutation in a near-isogenic background provides a useful biological system to examine plant cuticle biosynthesis, physiology, and function. PMID:12232280

  15. Vagotomy Affects the Development of Oral Tolerance and Increases Susceptibility to Develop Colitis Independently of α-7 Nicotinic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Bosmans, Goele; Meroni, Elisa; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Florens, Morgane; Farro, Giovanna; Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2016-01-01

    Vagotomy (VGX) increases the susceptibility to develop colitis suggesting a crucial role for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the regulation of the immune responses. Since oral tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to preserve mucosal immune homeostasis, we studied the effect of vagotomy and the involvement of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChR) at the steady state and during colitis. Therefore, the development of both oral tolerance and colitis (induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or via T cell transfer) was studied in vagotomized mice and in α7nAChR-/- mice. VGX, but not α7nAChR deficiency, prevented oral tolerance establishment. This effect was associated with reduced Treg conversion in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymphnodes. To the same extent, vagotomized mice, but not α7nAChR-/- mice, developed a more severe DSS colitis compared with control mice treated with DSS, associated with a decreased number of colonic Tregs. However, neither VGX nor absence of α7nAChR in recipient mice affected colitis development in the T cell transfer model. In line, deficiency of α7nAChR exclusively in T cells did not influence the development of colitis induced by T cell transfer. Our results indicate a key role for the vagal intestinal innervation in the development of oral tolerance and colitis, most likely by modulating induction of Tregs independently of α7nAChR. PMID:27341335

  16. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  17. Come rain or come shine: individual differences in how weather affects mood.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, Theo A; Frijns, Tom; Keijsers, Loes; Denissen, Jaap J A; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-12-01

    There is a widespread belief that weather affects mood. However, few studies have investigated this link, and even less is known about individual differences in people's responses to the weather. In the current study, we sought to identify weather reactivity types by linking self-reported daily mood across 30 days with objective weather data. We identified four distinct types among 497 adolescents and replicated these types among their mothers. The types were labeled Summer Lovers (better mood with warmer and sunnier weather), Unaffected (weak associations between weather and mood), Summer Haters (worse mood with warmer and sunnier weather), and Rain Haters (particularly bad mood on rainy days). In addition, intergenerational concordance effects were found for two of these types, suggesting that weather reactivity may run in the family. Overall, the large individual differences in how people's moods were affected by weather reconciles the discrepancy between the generally held beliefs that weather has a substantive effect on mood and findings from previous research indicating that effects of weather on mood are limited or absent.

  18. Genomic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease in five families with multiple affected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stittrich, Anna B; Ashworth, Justin; Shi, Mude; Robinson, Max; Mauldin, Denise; Brunkow, Mary E; Biswas, Shameek; Kim, Jin-Man; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Jung, Jae U; Galas, David; Serikawa, Kyle; Duerr, Richard H; Guthery, Stephen L; Peschon, Jacques; Hood, Leroy; Roach, Jared C; Glusman, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the best clinical predictor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is family history. Over 163 sequence variants have been associated with IBD in genome-wide association studies, but they have weak effects and explain only a fraction of the observed heritability. It is expected that additional variants contribute to the genomic architecture of IBD, possibly including rare variants with effect sizes larger than the identified common variants. Here we applied a family study design and sequenced 38 individuals from five families, under the hypothesis that families with multiple IBD-affected individuals harbor one or more risk variants that (i) are shared among affected family members, (ii) are rare and (iii) have substantial effect on disease development. Our analysis revealed not only novel candidate risk variants but also high polygenic risk scores for common known risk variants in four out of the five families. Functional analysis of our top novel variant in the remaining family, a rare missense mutation in the ubiquitin ligase TRIM11, suggests that it leads to increased nuclear factor of kappa light chain enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling. We conclude that an accumulation of common weak-effect variants accounts for the high incidence of IBD in most, but not all families we analyzed and that a family study design can identify novel rare variants conferring risk for IBD with potentially large effect size, such as the TRIM11 p.H414Y mutation. PMID:27081563

  19. Environmental and individual factors affecting menu labeling utilization: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a prominent public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast-food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study used focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the use of these menu labels among low-income minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were held at various community organizations throughout New York City over a 9-month period in 2011. The focus groups were conducted in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few participants used menu labels, despite awareness. The most frequently cited as barriers to menu label use included: price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding about caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  20. Considerations on assisted resilience and individualized therapy in bipolar affective disorder, with a clinical case exemplification

    PubMed Central

    BOLOS, ALEXANDRA

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity, mortality and economic consequences of bipolar affective disorder are very important to be evaluated because many of the costs entailed by this psychiatric disorder come from indirect costs due to inadequate diagnosis and treatment and from the characteristics of the affective symptoms itself. Psychotherapy focuses on diagnosis and the newest pharmacotherapy determines a decreasing of the morbidity of the disorder and also of its social and economic burden. However, more studies are necessary, with more heterogeneous patients, to find more predictors regarding the psychosocial consequences and to find more information about the prognosis of the bipolar disorder. In this context, in this paper we discuss the role of assisted resilience and the individualization of the therapy of bipolar affective disorder, especially that the resilience must be seen as a continuum and can be used anytime and in any situation, according to the theory of Geanellos. This idea is reflected in a case presentation of a patient with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. PMID:26733744

  1. Phenological mismatch strongly affects individual fitness but not population demography in a woodland passerine.

    PubMed

    Reed, Thomas E; Jenouvrier, Stephanie; Visser, Marcel E

    2013-01-01

    Populations are shifting their phenology in response to climate change, but these shifts are often asynchronous among interacting species. Resulting phenological mismatches can drive simultaneous changes in natural selection and population demography, but the links between these interacting processes are poorly understood. Here we analyse 37 years of data from an individual-based study of great tits (Parus major) in the Netherlands and use mixed-effects models to separate the within- and across-year effects of phenological mismatch between great tits and caterpillars (a key food source for developing nestlings) on components of fitness at the individual and population levels. Several components of individual fitness were affected by individual mismatch (i.e. late breeding relative to the caterpillar food peak date), including the probability of double-brooding, fledgling success, offspring recruitment probability and the number of recruits. Together these effects contributed to an overall negative relationship between relative fitness and laying dates, that is, selection for earlier laying on average. Directional selection for earlier laying was stronger in years where birds bred on average later than the food peak, but was weak or absent in years where the phenology of birds and caterpillars matched (i.e. no population mismatch). The mean number of fledglings per female was lower in years when population mismatch was high, in part because fewer second broods were produced. Population mismatch had a weak effect on the mean number of recruits per female, and no effect on mean adult survival, after controlling for the effects of breeding density and the quality of the autumnal beech (Fagus sylvatica) crop. These findings illustrate how climate change-induced mismatch can have strong effects on the relative fitness of phenotypes within years, but weak effects on mean demographic rates across years. We discuss various general mechanisms that influence the extent of

  2. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  3. Standardization of Operator-Dependent Variables Affecting Precision and Accuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Michael; Maurer, Florian P; Pfiffner, Tamara; Böttger, Erik C; Furrer, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    Parameters like zone reading, inoculum density, and plate streaking influence the precision and accuracy of disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). While improved reading precision has been demonstrated using automated imaging systems, standardization of the inoculum and of plate streaking have not been systematically investigated yet. This study analyzed whether photometrically controlled inoculum preparation and/or automated inoculation could further improve the standardization of disk diffusion. Suspensions of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 of 0.5 McFarland standard were prepared by 10 operators using both visual comparison to turbidity standards and a Densichek photometer (bioMérieux), and the resulting CFU counts were determined. Furthermore, eight experienced operators each inoculated 10 Mueller-Hinton agar plates using a single 0.5 McFarland standard bacterial suspension of E. coli ATCC 25922 using regular cotton swabs, dry flocked swabs (Copan, Brescia, Italy), or an automated streaking device (BD-Kiestra, Drachten, Netherlands). The mean CFU counts obtained from 0.5 McFarland standard E. coli ATCC 25922 suspensions were significantly different for suspensions prepared by eye and by Densichek (P < 0.001). Preparation by eye resulted in counts that were closer to the CLSI/EUCAST target of 10(8) CFU/ml than those resulting from Densichek preparation. No significant differences in the standard deviations of the CFU counts were observed. The interoperator differences in standard deviations when dry flocked swabs were used decreased significantly compared to the differences when regular cotton swabs were used, whereas the mean of the standard deviations of all operators together was not significantly altered. In contrast, automated streaking significantly reduced both interoperator differences, i.e., the individual standard deviations, compared to the standard deviations for the manual method, and the mean of

  4. Standardization of Operator-Dependent Variables Affecting Precision and Accuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method for Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Michael; Maurer, Florian P; Pfiffner, Tamara; Böttger, Erik C; Furrer, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    Parameters like zone reading, inoculum density, and plate streaking influence the precision and accuracy of disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). While improved reading precision has been demonstrated using automated imaging systems, standardization of the inoculum and of plate streaking have not been systematically investigated yet. This study analyzed whether photometrically controlled inoculum preparation and/or automated inoculation could further improve the standardization of disk diffusion. Suspensions of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 of 0.5 McFarland standard were prepared by 10 operators using both visual comparison to turbidity standards and a Densichek photometer (bioMérieux), and the resulting CFU counts were determined. Furthermore, eight experienced operators each inoculated 10 Mueller-Hinton agar plates using a single 0.5 McFarland standard bacterial suspension of E. coli ATCC 25922 using regular cotton swabs, dry flocked swabs (Copan, Brescia, Italy), or an automated streaking device (BD-Kiestra, Drachten, Netherlands). The mean CFU counts obtained from 0.5 McFarland standard E. coli ATCC 25922 suspensions were significantly different for suspensions prepared by eye and by Densichek (P < 0.001). Preparation by eye resulted in counts that were closer to the CLSI/EUCAST target of 10(8) CFU/ml than those resulting from Densichek preparation. No significant differences in the standard deviations of the CFU counts were observed. The interoperator differences in standard deviations when dry flocked swabs were used decreased significantly compared to the differences when regular cotton swabs were used, whereas the mean of the standard deviations of all operators together was not significantly altered. In contrast, automated streaking significantly reduced both interoperator differences, i.e., the individual standard deviations, compared to the standard deviations for the manual method, and the mean of

  5. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  6. Exome Sequencing of 75 Individuals from Multiply Affected Coeliac Families and Large Scale Resequencing Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Vanisha; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Levine, Adam P.; Mirza, Muddassar M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Ciclitira, Paul J.; Hummerich, Holger; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Simpson, Michael A.; Plagnol, Vincent; van Heel, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CeD) is a highly heritable common autoimmune disease involving chronic small intestinal inflammation in response to dietary wheat. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and 40 newer regions identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and dense fine mapping, account for ∼40% of the disease heritability. We hypothesized that in pedigrees with multiple individuals with CeD rare [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%] mutations of larger effect size (odds ratios of ∼ 2–5) might exist. We sequenced the exomes of 75 coeliac individuals of European ancestry from 55 multiply affected families. We selected interesting variants and genes for further follow up using a combination of: an assessment of shared variants between related subjects, a model-free linkage test, and gene burden tests for multiple, potentially causal, variants. We next performed highly multiplexed amplicon resequencing of all RefSeq exons from 24 candidate genes selected on the basis of the exome sequencing data in 2,248 unrelated coeliac cases and 2,230 controls. 1,335 variants with a 99.9% genotyping call rate were observed in 4,478 samples, of which 939 were present in coding regions of 24 genes (Ti/Tv 2.99). 91.7% of coding variants were rare (MAF <0.5%) and 60% were novel. Gene burden tests performed on rare functional variants identified no significant associations (p<1×10−3) in the resequenced candidate genes. Our strategy of sequencing multiply affected families with deep follow up of candidate genes has not identified any new CeD risk mutations. PMID:25635822

  7. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B; Partin, Alan W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian E; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.

  8. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I.; Conti, David V.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O.; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A.; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Tim J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B.; Partin, Alan W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L.; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S. Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E.; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three novel susceptibility loci were revealed at P<5×10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 from multiethnic analyses and one was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with the known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk of the disease in European ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the utility of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  9. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B; Partin, Alan W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian E; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  10. Interacting with Nature Improves Cognition and Affect for Individuals with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Kross, Ethan; Krpan, Katherine M.; Askren, Mary K.; Burson, Aleah; Deldin, Patricia J.; Kaplan, Stephen; Sherdell, Lindsey; Gotlib, Ian H.; Jonides, John

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore whether walking in nature may be beneficial for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Healthy adults demonstrate significant cognitive gains after nature walks, but it was unclear whether those same benefits would be achieved in a depressed sample as walking alone in nature might induce rumination, thereby worsening memory and mood. Methods Twenty individuals diagnosed with MDD participated in this study. At baseline, mood and short term memory span were assessed using the PANAS and the backwards digit span (BDS) task, respectively. Participants were then asked to think about an unresolved negative autobiographical event to prime rumination, prior to taking a 50 minute walk in either a natural or urban setting. After the walk, mood and short-term memory span were reassessed. The following week, participants returned to the lab and repeated the entire procedure, but walked in the location not visited in the first session (i.e., a counterbalanced within-subjects design). Results Participants exhibited significant increases in memory span after the nature walk relative to the urban walk, p < .001, ηp2= .53 (a large effect-size). Participants also showed increases in mood, but the mood effects did not correlate with the memory effects, suggesting separable mechanisms and replicating previous work. Limitations Sample size and participants’ motivation. Conclusions These findings extend earlier work demonstrating the cognitive and affective benefits of interacting with nature to individuals with MDD. Therefore, interacting with nature may be useful clinically as a supplement to existing treatments for MDD. PMID:22464936

  11. Individual vulnerability to substance abuse and affective disorders: role of early environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Koehl, Muriel; Lemaire, Valérie; Mayo, Willy; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Maccari, Sefania; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Le Moal, Michel; Vallée, Monique

    2002-06-01

    One of the most important questions raised by modern psychiatry and experimental psychopathology is the origin of mental diseases. More concisely, clinical and experimental neurosciences are increasingly concerned with the factors that render one individual more vulnerable than another to a given pathological outcome. Animal models are now available to understand the sources of individual differences for specific phenotypes prone to behavioral disadaptations. Over the last 10 years we have explored the consequences of environmental perinatal manipulations in the rat. We have shown that prenatal stress is at the origin of a wide range of physiological and behavioral aberrances such as alterations in the activity of the hormonal stress axis, increased vulnerability to drug of abuse, emotional liability, cognitive impairments and predisposition to pathological aging. Taken together, these abnormalities define a bio-behavioral syndrome. Furthermore, the cognitive disabilities observed in prenatally-stressed rats were recently related to an alteration of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, thus confirming the impact of early life events on brain morphology. A second model (handling model) has also been developed in which pups are briefly separated from their mothers during early postnatal life. In contrast with prenatally-stressed animals, handled rats exhibited a reduced emotion response when confronted with novel situations and were protected against age-induced impairments of both the hormonal stress axis and cognitive functions. Taken together, the results of these investigations show that the bio-behavioral phenotype that characterizes each individual is strongly linked to the nature and timing of perinatal experience. Furthermore, data collected in prenatally-stressed animals indicate that this model could be used profitably to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders. PMID:12829419

  12. Revealing a latent variable: Individual differences in affective response to repeated injections

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-01-01

    Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals one such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally-naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3rd) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3rd) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared to handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in rats. Given that such underlying emotional variability exists within standard, outbred rat populations, this study highlights the importance of accounting for such variability in any study investigating the effects of repeated drug administration on depressive-like behavior for reliability and replicability of findings. Thus, we recommend including an uninjected control group in all studies. PMID:26191946

  13. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  14. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  15. Effects of the therapist's nonverbal behavior on participation and affect of individuals with Alzheimer's disease during group music therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Thyroid status affects membranes susceptibility to free radicals and oxidative balance in skeletal muscle of Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Romestaing, Caroline; Bodennec, Jacques; Dumet, Adeline; Fongy, Anaïs; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are major contributor to oxidative stress in mammals because they (1) stimulate reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), (2) impair antioxidant defenses, and (3) increase the susceptibility to free radicals of most tissues. Unlike mammals, THs seem to diminish mitochondrial ROS while they have limited effect on the antioxidant machinery in birds. However, how THs modify the susceptibility to ROS has never been explored in an avian model, and very little is known about their effect on oxidative balance in birds. Therefore, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of chronic pharmacological hypo- and hyperthyroidism on (i) the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to ROS; and (ii) the level of oxidative stress assessed by measuring oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle of ducklings. We show that hypothyroidism had no effect on the susceptibility of mitochondrial membranes to free radicals. Hypothyroid ducklings had lower oxidized lipids (-31%) and DNA (-25%) but a similar level of protein carbonylation relative to controls. Conversely, mitochondrial membranes of hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited higher unsaturation (+12%) and peroxidation (+31%) indexes than in controls indicating a greater susceptibility to free radicals. However, hyperthyroid ducklings exhibited more oxidative damages on proteins (+67%) only, whereas lipid damages remained unchanged, and there was a slight reduction (-15%) in damages to DNA compared to euthyroid controls. Our results indicate that birds and mammals present fundamental differences in their oxidative stress response to thyroid status.

  17. Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Affective Episodes Correlate in Male Individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birner, Armin; Seiler, Stephan; Lackner, Nina; Bengesser, Susanne A.; Queissner, Robert; Fellendorf, Frederike T.; Platzer, Martina; Ropele, Stefan; Enzinger, Christian; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Mangge, Harald; Pirpamer, Lukas; Deutschmann, Hannes; McIntyre, Roger S.; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Reininghaus, Bernd; Reininghaus, Eva Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter lesions (WML) have been found in normal aging, vascular disease and several neuropsychiatric conditions. Correlations of WML with clinical parameters in BD have been described, but not with the number of affective episodes, illness duration, age of onset and Body Mass Index in a well characterized group of euthymic bipolar adults. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the associations between bipolar course of illness parameters and WML measured with volumetric analysis. Methods In a cross-sectional study 100 euthymic individuals with BD as well as 54 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging using 3T including a FLAIR sequence for volumetric assessment of WML-load using FSL-software. Additionally, clinical characteristics and psychometric measures including Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM-IV, Hamilton-Depression, Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory were evaluated. Results Individuals with BD had significantly more (F = 3.968, p < .05) WML (Mdn = 3710mm3; IQR = 2961mm3) than HC (Mdn = 2185mm3; IQR = 1665mm3). BD men (Mdn = 4095mm3; IQR = 3295mm3) and BD women (Mdn = 3032mm3; IQR = 2816mm3) did not significantly differ as to the WML-load or the number and type of risk factors for WML. However, in men only, the number of manic/hypomanic episodes (r = 0.72; p < .001) as well as depressive episodes (r = 0.51; p < .001) correlated positively with WML-load. Conclusions WML-load strongly correlated with the number of manic episodes in male BD patients, suggesting that men might be more vulnerable to mania in the context of cerebral white matter changes. PMID:26252714

  18. The Quorum Sensing Inhibitor Hamamelitannin Increases Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms by Affecting Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis and eDNA Release

    PubMed Central

    Brackman, Gilles; Breyne, Koen; De Rycke, Riet; Vermote, Arno; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Meyer, Evelyne; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Coenye, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the rapid emergence and dissemination of methicillin-resistant strains. In addition, S. aureus reside within biofilms at the site of infection. Few novel antibacterial agents have been developed in recent years and their bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity results in selective pressure, inevitably inducing antimicrobial resistance. Consequently, innovative antimicrobials with other modes of action are urgently needed. One alternative approach is targeting the bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system. Hamamelitannin (2′,5-di-O-galloyl-d-hamamelose; HAM) was previously suggested to block QS through the TraP QS system and was shown to increase S. aureus biofilm susceptibility towards vancomycin (VAN) although mechanistic insights are still lacking. In the present study we provide evidence that HAM specifically affects S. aureus biofilm susceptibility through the TraP receptor by affecting cell wall synthesis and extracellular DNA release of S. aureus. We further provide evidence that HAM can increase the susceptibility of S. aureus biofilms towards different classes of antibiotics in vitro. Finally, we show that HAM increases the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotic treatment in in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse mammary gland infection models. PMID:26828772

  19. Revealing a latent variable: individual differences in affective response to repeated injections.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 129(5) of Behavioral Neuroscience (see record 2015-43762-001). In the article, there was an error in the abstract. The sentence "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared with handled-controls." should be "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, compared with handled-controls."] Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals 1 such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, [corrected] while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, [corrected] compared with handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses

  20. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend et al. (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  1. Does degree of handedness in a group of right-handed individuals affect language comprehension?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene; Malaia, Evie; Seo, Roy

    2014-04-01

    The impact of handedness on language processing has been studied extensively and the results indicate that there is a relationship between the two variables; however, the nature of the relationship is not at all clear. In the current study we explored degree of handedness (DH) opposed to direction in a group of right-handed individuals. fMRI was used to explore the impact of DH on the sentence comprehension network. The results revealed that during sentence comprehension activation in regions linked to semantic memory (e.g., anterior temporal cortex) were modulated by DH. Also, unexpectedly the precuneus/posterior cingulate gyrus which has been linked to episodic memory was also affected by DH. These results extend those reported previously by showing that the neural architecture that supports sentence comprehension is modulated by DH. More specifically, together the results presented here support the hypothesis proposed by Townsend, Carrithers, and Bever (2001) that DH interacts with the language system and impacts the strategy used during sentence comprehension. PMID:24607732

  2. Picosecond-resolved FRET on non-amplified DNA for identifying individuals genetically susceptible to type-1 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardo, Luca; Tosi, Giovanna; Bondani, Maria; Accolla, Roberto; Andreoni, Alessandra

    2012-06-01

    By tens-of-picosecond resolved fluorescence detection we study Förster resonance energy transfer between a donor and a black-hole-quencher bound at the 5'- and 3'-positions of an oligonucleotide probe matching the highly polymorphic region between codons 51 and 58 of the human leukocyte antigen DQB1 0201 allele, conferring susceptibility to type-1 diabetes. The probe is annealed with non-amplified genomic DNAs carrying either the 0201 sequence or other DQB1 allelic variants. We detect the longest-lived donor fluorescence in the case of hybridization with the 0201 allele and definitely faster and distinct decays for the other allelic variants, some of which are single-nucleotide polymorphic.

  3. Two-locus admixture linkage analysis of bipolar and unipolar affective disorder supports the presence of susceptibility loci on chromosomes 11p15 and 21q22

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, C.; Kalsi, G.; O`Neill, J.

    1997-02-01

    Following a report of a linkage study that yielded evidence for a susceptibility locus for bipolar affective disorder on the long arm of chromosome 21, we studied 23 multiply affected pedigrees collected from Iceland and the UK, using the markers PFKL, D21S171, and D21S49. Counting only bipolar cases as affected, a two-point LOD of 1.28 was obtained using D21S171 ({theta} = 0.01, {alpha} = 0.35), with three Icelandic families producing LODs of 0.63, 0.62, and 1.74 (all at {theta} = 0.0). Affected sib pair analysis demonstrated increased allele sharing at D21S171 (P = 0.001) when unipolar cases were also considered affected. The same set of pedigrees had previously been typed for a tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH) polymorphism at 11p15 and had shown some moderate evidence for linkage. When information from TH and the 21q markers was combined in a two-locus admixture analysis, an overall admixture LOD of 3.87 was obtained using the bipolar affection model. Thus the data are compatible with the hypothesis that a locus at or near TH influences susceptibility in some pedigrees, while a locus near D21S171 is active in others. Similar analyses in other datasets should be carried out to confirm or refute our tentative finding. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Circulating miR-126 is a potential biomarker to predict the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in susceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Liling; Shang, Qingkun; Lv, ChunFang; Wang, ChangYi; Su, Bing

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem in China. Diagnostic markers are urgently needed to identify individuals at risk of developing T2DM and thus encouraging healthier life styles. Circulating miRNAs are valuable sources for non-invasive biomarkers of various diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether reduced miR-126 expression could predict the onset of T2DM in susceptible individuals. Two groups of study subjects were involved, one group was diagnosed T2DM in 2013 and the other group was healthy control. To this end, our results showed that miR-126 expression were already decreased before the manifestation of T2DM. Univariable logistic regression confirmed that the plasma miR-126 level was inversely associated with the onset of DM (P = 0.0158 ˂ 0.05), suggesting reduced miR-126 is a predictor for the onset of T2DM. According to the logistic regression model and ROC curve, a cut-off points of miR-126 plasma level as 35 is recommended for clinical study to predict whether an individual is more likely to develop T2DM. If miR-126 expression is lower than 35, the individual is more likely to T2DM in the next 2 years. In conclusion, our results support the notion that the circulating miR-126 can be developed into a non-invasive and rapid diagnostic tool for the prediction of susceptible individuals to developing T2DM. PMID:25986735

  5. CO2 and fertility affect growth and reproduction but not susceptibility to aphids in field grown Solanum ptycanthum

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    In general, C3 annual plants respond positively in terms of growth, reproduction and biomass accrued when grown under elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, most studies documenting this response have been conducted in growth chambers where plants can be reared under conditions free form environmental stressors such as nutrient and water constraints, UV exposure and damage from pests. During the 1993 fieldseason, I grew 200 individuals of Solanum ptycanthum in an array of 10 outdoor, open-topped CO2 enclosures (5 @ 700 ppm CO2) at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI. Half of the plants were grown in a 50;50 mix of native C-horizon soil and topsoil (low fertility); the other half were grown in 100% topsoil (high-fertility). Plants were censused throughout the growing season for flower and fruit production, growth rate and degree of infestation of aphids. Fertility and CO2 both significantly affected production of flowers and fruits, but only fertility was significantly related to vegetative growth. Aphid infestation varied significantly among enclosures, but was not related to CO2 or fertility.

  6. Memory Load Affects Object Individuation in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Accurate representation of a changing environment requires individuation--the ability to determine how many numerically distinct objects are present in a scene. Much research has characterized early individuation abilities by identifying which object features infants can use to individuate throughout development. However, despite the fact that…

  7. Reversal of Refractory Ulcerative Colitis and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptoms Arising from Immune Disturbance in an HLADR/DQ Genetically Susceptible Individual with Multiple Biotoxin Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Shelly R.; Gibson Gunn, G.; Mueller, Francis W.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Ulcerative colitis and chronic fatigue syndrome Symptoms: Colitis • profound fatigue • multi-joint pain • cognitive impairment • corneal keratitis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: VIP replacement therapy Specialty: Family Medicine Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Patients with multisymptom chronic conditions, such as refractory ulcerative colitis (RUC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), present diagnostic and management challenges for clinicians, as well as the opportunity to recognize and treat emerging disease entities. In the current case we report reversal of co-existing RUC and CFS symptoms arising from biotoxin exposures in a genetically susceptible individual. Case Report: A 25-year-old previously healthy male with new-onset refractory ulcerative colitis (RUC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) tested negative for autoimmune disease biomarkers. However, urine mycotoxin panel testing was positive for trichothecene group and air filter testing from the patient’s water-damaged rental house identified the toxic mold Stachybotrys chartarum. HLA-DR/DQ testing revealed a multisusceptible haplotype for development of chronic inflammation, and serum chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) biomarker testing was positive for highly elevated TGF-beta and a clinically undetectable level of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Following elimination of biotoxin exposures, VIP replacement therapy, dental extractions, and implementation of a mind body intervention-relaxation response (MBI-RR) program, the patient’s symptoms resolved. He is off medications, back to work, and resuming normal exercise. Conclusions: This constellation of RUC and CFS symptoms in an HLA-DR/DQ genetically susceptible individual with biotoxin exposures is consistent with the recently described CIRS disease pathophysiology. Chronic immune disturbance (turbatio immuno) can be identified with clinically available CIRS biomarkers and

  8. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  9. Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Lindstrom, Sara; Canisius, Sander; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael J; Maranian, Mel J; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Brand, Judith S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Behrens, Sabine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Ursin, Giske; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Casey, Graham; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Figueroa, Jonine; Hoover, Robert N; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; van Limbergen, Erik; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Mulot, Claire; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surowy, Harald; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Tan, Gie-Hooi; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Canzian, Federico; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc J; Palli, Domenico; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Dossus, Laure; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Chan, Ching Wan; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Haeberle, Lothar; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Brinton, Louise; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul P D P; Kraft, Peter; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ∼14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS, comprising 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls together with 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 211,155-marker custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. We generated genotypes for more than 11 million SNPs by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, and we identified 15 new loci associated with breast cancer at P < 5 × 10(-8). Combining association analysis with ChIP-seq chromatin binding data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data from ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 at 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 at 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino acid substitution encoded in EXO1. PMID:25751625

  10. Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Lindstrom, Sara; Canisius, Sander; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael J; Maranian, Mel J; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Brand, Judith S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Behrens, Sabine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Ursin, Giske; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Casey, Graham; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Figueroa, Jonine; Hoover, Robert N; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; van Limbergen, Erik; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Mulot, Claire; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surowy, Harald; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Tan, Gie-Hooi; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Canzian, Federico; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc J; Palli, Domenico; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Dossus, Laure; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Chan, Ching Wan; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Haeberle, Lothar; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Brinton, Louise; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul P D P; Kraft, Peter; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ∼14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS, comprising 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls together with 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 211,155-marker custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. We generated genotypes for more than 11 million SNPs by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, and we identified 15 new loci associated with breast cancer at P < 5 × 10(-8). Combining association analysis with ChIP-seq chromatin binding data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data from ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 at 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 at 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino acid substitution encoded in EXO1.

  11. Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Beesley, Jonathan; Lindstrom, Sara; Canisius, Sander; Dennis, Joe; Lush, Michael; Maranian, Mel J; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Darabi, Hatef; Brand, Judith S; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Eilber, Ursula; Behrens, Sabine; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Ahsan, Habibul; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Whittemore, Alice S; John, Esther M; Malone, Kathleen E; Gammon, Marilie D; Santella, Regina M; Ursin, Giske; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Casey, Graham; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Diver, W Ryan; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Hoover, Robert N; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; van Limbergen, Erik; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Cornelissen, Sten; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Yoo, Keun-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Mulot, Claire; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Surowy, Harald; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm WR; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; TAN, Gie-Hooi; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John WM; Collée, J Margriet; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Kristensen, Vessela N; Nord, Silje; Alnaes, Grethe I Grenaker; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Canzian, Federico; Trichopoulos, Dmitrios; Peeters, Petra; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc J; Palli, Domenico; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Dossus, Laure; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Chan, Ching Wan; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Haeberle, Lothar; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Brinton, Louise; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert AEM; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul PDP; Kraft, Peter; Dunning, Alison M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) and large scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ~14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS comprising of 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls, and 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 200K custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. Genotypes for more than 11M SNPs were generated by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. We identified 15 novel loci associated with breast cancer at P<5×10−8. Combining association analysis with ChIP-Seq data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data in ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 on 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 on 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino-acid substitution in EXO1. PMID:25751625

  12. Copper supplementation in humans does not affect the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to in vitro induced oxidation (FOODCUE project).

    PubMed

    Turley, E; McKeown, A; Bonham, M P; O'Connor, J M; Chopra, M; Harvey, L J; Majsak-Newman, G; Fairweather-Tait, S J; Bügel, S; Sandström, B; Rock, E; Mazur, A; Rayssiguier, Y; Strain, J J

    2000-12-01

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Copper (Cu) is essential for antioxidant enzymes in vivo and animal studies show that Cu deficiency is accompanied by increased atherogenesis and LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Nevertheless, Cu has been proposed as a pro-oxidant in vivo and is routinely used to induce lipid peroxidation in vitro. Given the dual role of Cu as an in vivo antioxidant and an in vitro pro-oxidant, a multicenter European study (FOODCUE) was instigated to provide data on the biological effects of increased dietary Cu. Four centers, Northern Ireland (coordinator), England, Denmark, and France, using different experimental protocols, examined the effect of Cu supplementation (3 or 6 mg/d) on top of normal Cu dietary intakes or Cu-controlled diets (0.7/1.6/6.0 mg/d), on Cu-mediated and peroxynitrite-initiated LDL oxidation in apparently healthy volunteers. Each center coordinated its own supplementation regimen and all samples were subsequently transported to Northern Ireland where lipid peroxidation analysis was completed. The results from all centers showed that dietary Cu supplementation had no effect on Cu- or peroxynitrite-induced LDL susceptibility to oxidation. These data show that high intakes (up to 6 mg Cu) for extended periods do not promote LDL susceptibility to in vitro-induced oxidation. PMID:11121720

  13. Biomarkers for individual susceptibility to carcinogenic agents: excretion and carcinogenic risk of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Likhachev, A J; Beniashvili, D Sh; Bykov, V J; Dikun, P P; Tyndyk, M L; Savochkina, I V; Yermilov, V B; Zabezhinski, M A

    1992-01-01

    In rats exposed to a single intraperitoneal dose of 200 mg/kg of the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in sunflower oil, significant individual variations in excretion of the BP activation (BP-7,8-diol) and deactivation (3-OH-BP) derivatives were found. Most rats developed peritoneal sarcomas. Only the levels of BP-7,8-diol excreted in the urine correlated directly with the latency of tumor formation. After a similar exposure to a dose of 100 mg/kg BP, Macaca fascicularis monkeys excreted smaller quantities than rats of both metabolites. After rats were given 10 intraperitoneal injections each of 10 mg/kg of BP in a water-lipid emulsion, the excreted levels of both metabolites after the first, fifth, and tenth injection were lower than those of the rats that received 200 mg/kg. BP metabolites were also detected in the urine of lung cancer patients who were heavy smokers. The applicability of monitoring the excretion of the BP metabolites to predicting individual cancer risk is discussed. PMID:1336725

  14. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  15. Enrichment and individual differences affect welfare indicators in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Izzo, Genevieve N; Bashaw, Meredith J; Campbell, John B

    2011-08-01

    Enrichment aims to improve captive animals' welfare by enhancing their environments. Two of the struggles associated with measuring welfare are identifying when animals' needs are being met or surpassed and identifying how individual differences play a role in these outcomes. Using a group of related Guyanese squirrel monkeys, we studied changes in five welfare indicators under different environmental conditions. Manipulating food presentation, walkways, and toys, we created five enrichment levels ranging from just above USDA standards to considerably more complex than the animals' normal housing. At the end of each level, a novelty test was performed in which an unfamiliar woman entered the enclosure and offered food. Changes in behavior as a function of enrichment condition were analyzed using a repeated-measures MANOVA. Compared to baseline, less enrichment consistently increased negative welfare indicators (abnormal behavior, aggression, and negative responses to the novelty test), while more enrichment sometimes decreased these indicators. Positive welfare indicators were less consistently related to enrichment, but positive response to the novelty test did increase somewhat in the most enriched condition. Across conditions, rank correlations revealed that individuals had highly consistent individual differences in positive responses to novelty and somewhat consistent individual differences in rates of aggression. The goal of the enrichment and the species, sex, and individual animals to be enriched should be considered when selecting a welfare indicator, and facilities measuring animal welfare should study changes in the behavior of specific individuals to control for individual differences.

  16. VASCULAR OCCLUSION AFFECTS GAIT VARIABILITY PATTERNS OF HEALTHY YOUNGER AND OLDER INDIVIDUALS

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Sara A.; Johanning, Jason M.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Schmid, Kendra K.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Insufficient blood flow is one possible mechanism contributing to altered gait patterns in lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Previously, our laboratory found that induced occlusion alters gait variability patterns in healthy young individuals. However the effect of age was not explored. The purpose of this study was to account for age by investigating gait variability following induced vascular occlusion in healthy older individuals and to identify amount of change from baseline to post vascular occlusion between younger and older individuals. Thirty healthy younger individuals and 30 healthy older individuals walked on a treadmill during baseline and post vascular occlusion conditions while lower extremity joint kinematics were captured. Vascular occlusion was induced by thigh cuffs inflated bilaterally on the upper thighs. Amount and temporal structure of gait variability was assessed. Older individuals exhibited significantly increased values of temporal structure of variability post vascular occlusion. Post vascular occlusion values were similar between younger and older individuals after adjusting for baseline measurements. Results show blood flow contributes to altered gait variability. However alterations were less severe than previously documented in symptomatic PAD patients, suggesting that neuromuscular problems in the lower extremities of PAD patients also contribute to gait alterations in these patients. PMID:23053301

  17. Periodontopathogens levels and clinical response to periodontal therapy in individuals with the interleukin-4 haplotype associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Finoti, L S; Anovazzi, G; Pigossi, S C; Corbi, S C T; Teixeira, S R L; Braido, G V V; Kim, Y J; Orrico, S R P; Cirelli, J A; Mayer, M P A; Scarel-Caminaga, R M

    2013-12-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that results from an interaction between dental biofilm agents and the host immune-inflammatory response. Periodontopathogenic organisms, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, as well as the host's susceptibility, represented by the host's genetic makeup, are the key factors that influence this complex disease. Recently, we identified haplotypes in the IL4 gene that were associated with chronic periodontitis (CP). This study aimed to evaluate whether subjects with different IL4 haplotypes (TCI/CCI and TTD/CTI) would be differentially colonized by periodontopathogens and whether they would respond differently to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Thirty-nine patients carrying the IL4 haplotype of genetic susceptibility to CP (IL4+) or protection against CP (IL4-) were evaluated. Those groups were further subdivided into individuals with CP (CP IL4+ or CP IL4-) and those that were periodontally healthy (H) (H IL4+ or H IL4-). CP patients were submitted to non-surgical periodontal therapy. Clinical and microbiological analyses were performed considering the data at baseline and 45 and 90 days after periodontal therapy. Periodontopathogens levels were evaluated by absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The baseline data revealed that the total levels of periodontopathogens were higher in the CP IL4+ than in the CP IL4- groups. Clinical analyses revealed that the periodontal therapy was equally effective, independent of the subject's IL4 genetic load. The TCI/CCI IL4 haplotype, previously associated with genetic susceptibility to CP, was also associated with increased levels of periodontopathogenic bacteria, but this genetic background did not influence the response to non-surgical periodontal treatment. PMID:23748736

  18. Susceptibility towards intramolecular disulphide-bond formation affects conformational stability and folding of human basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Estapé, D; van den Heuvel, J; Rinas, U

    1998-01-01

    The conformational stability and the folding properties of the all-beta-type protein human basic fibroblast growth factor (hFGF-2) were studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. The results show that the instability of the biological activity of hFGF-2 is also reflected in a low conformational stability of the molecule. The reversibility of the unfolding and refolding process was established under reducing conditions. Determination of the free-energy of unfolding in the presence of reducing agents revealed that the conformational stability of hFGF-2 (DeltaGH2Oapp congruent with21 kJ. mol-1, 25 degreesC) is low compared with other globular proteins under physiological conditions (20-60 kJ.mol-1). However, the conformational stability of hFGF-2 is particularly low under non-reducing conditions. This instability is attributed to intramolecular disulphide-bond formation, rendering the molecule more susceptible to denaturant-induced unfolding. In addition, denaturant-induced unfolding of hFGF-2 renders the protein more susceptible to irreversible oxidative denaturation. Experimental evidence is provided that the irreversibility of the unfolding and refolding process in the absence of reducing agents is linked to the formation of an intramolecular disulphide bond involving cysteines 96 and 101. PMID:9761733

  19. Tobacco susceptibility to Potato virus Y(NTN) infection is affected by grafting and endogenous cytokinin content.

    PubMed

    Spoustová, Petra; Hýsková, Veronika; Müller, Karel; Schnablová, Renata; Ryšlavá, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi; Malbeck, Jiří; Cvikrová, Milena; Synková, Helena

    2015-06-01

    Faster or stronger response to pathogen occurs if plants undergo prior priming. Cytokinins seem to be also involved in plant priming and in response to pathogens. Susceptibility to Potato virus Y(NTN) (PVY(NTN)) was studied in transgenic cytokinin overproducing (Pssu-ipt) tobacco and compared with nontransgenic plants. Since cytokinin overproduction inhibits development of plant roots and grafting overcomes this limitation, both types were grown as rooted and/or grafted plants to check also the effect of grafting. Control rooted tobacco (C), the most susceptible to PVY(NTN), showed always symptoms during the infection together with the rising virus content and a systemic response, such as accumulation of H2O2, salicylic acid (SA) and other phenolic acids, and stress-induced enzyme activities. In transgenic and grafted plants, the response to PVY(NTN) was dependent on protective mechanisms activated prior to the inoculation. In Pssu-ipt tobacco, cytokinin active forms and SA contents exceeded manifold their content in C. Grafting promoted the accumulation of phenolics, but SA, and stimulated peroxidase activities. Thus, the pre-infection barrier established in both transgenic and grafted plants helped to suppress partly the virus multiplication and resulted in milder symptom development. However, only the synergic effect of both grafting and the high cytokinins led to PVY(NTN) tolerance in transgenic grafts. Possible mechanisms were discussed. PMID:25900563

  20. VLDL from Metabolic Syndrome Individuals Enhanced Lipid Accumulation in Atria with Association of Susceptibility to Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Lin, Hsin-Ting; Ke, Liang-Yin; Wei, Chi; Hsiao, Yi-Lin; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lai, Wen-Ter; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Chen, Chu-Huang; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Wu, Bin-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic derangements. Dyslipidemia is an important factor in MetS and is related to atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in MetS (MetS-VLDL) may induce atrial dilatation and vulnerability to AF. VLDL was therefore separated from normal (normal-VLDL) and MetS individuals. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were divided into control, normal-VLDL (nVLDL), and MetS-VLDL (msVLDL) groups. VLDL (15 µg/g) and equivalent volumes of saline were injected via tail vein three times a week for six consecutive weeks. Cardiac chamber size and function were measured by echocardiography. MetS-VLDL significantly caused left atrial dilation (control, n = 10, 1.64 ± 0.23 mm; nVLDL, n = 7, 1.84 ± 0.13 mm; msVLDL, n = 10, 2.18 ± 0.24 mm; p < 0.0001) at week 6, associated with decreased ejection fraction (control, n = 10, 62.5% ± 7.7%, vs. msVLDL, n = 10, 52.9% ± 9.6%; p < 0.05). Isoproterenol-challenge experiment resulted in AF in young msVLDL mice. Unprovoked AF occurred only in elderly msVLDL mice. Immunohistochemistry showed excess lipid accumulation and apoptosis in msVLDL mice atria. These findings suggest a pivotal role of VLDL in AF pathogenesis for MetS individuals. PMID:26805814

  1. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  2. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals' Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  3. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  4. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  5. Individual species affect plant traits structure in their surroundings: evidence of functional mechanisms of assembly.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Labella, Julia; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Pescador, David S; Escudero, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating community assembly through the use of functional traits is a promising tool for testing predictions arising from Niche and Coexistence theories. Although interactions among neighboring species and their inter-specific differences are known drivers of coexistence with a strong spatial signal, assessing the role of individual species on the functional structure of the community at different spatial scales remains a challenge. Here, we ask whether individual species exert a measurable effect on the spatial organization of different functional traits in local assemblages. We first propose and compute two functions that describe different aspects of functional trait organization around individual species at multiple scales: individual weighted mean area relationship and individual functional diversity area relationship. Secondly, we develop a conceptual model on the relationship and simultaneous variation of these two metrics, providing five alternative scenarios in response to the ability of some target species to modify its neighbor environment and the possible assembly mechanisms involved. Our results show that some species influence the spatial structure of specific functional traits, but their effects were always restricted to the finest spatial scales. In the basis of our conceptual model, the observed patterns point to two main mechanisms driving the functional structure of the community at the fine scale, "biotic" filtering meditated by individual species and resource partitioning driven by indirect facilitation rather than by competitive mechanisms.

  6. Association of elevated rotavirus-specific antibody titers with HBGA secretor status in Swedish individuals: The FUT2 gene as a putative susceptibility determinant for infection.

    PubMed

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Nordgren, Johan; Sharma, Sumit; Hammarström, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    The histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have recently been suggested to serve as attachment factors for rotavirus VP8* (P-genotype) in vitro and associated with susceptibility in vivo. We thus investigated whether rotavirus antibody titers and genotype specific neutralization titers correlate with HBGA status in Swedish individuals. We investigated the effect of inactivating mutations in the secretor FUT2 (rs601338) and Lewis FUT3 genes (rs28362459, rs3894326, rs812936 and rs778986) on serum IgG antibody titers and neutralizing antibody titers to rotavirus strains of the P[8] and P[6] genotypes in Swedish healthy blood donors and patients with IgA deficiency using genotyping, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a neutralization assay. Rotavirus-specific serum IgG and neutralizing antibody titers to the Wa strain (G1P[8]), but not to the ST3 (G4P[6]) strain, were significantly higher in secretors (with at least one functional FUT2 gene) than in non-secretors (P<0.001) (with homozygous nonsense mutation in the FUT2 gene). Thus, our results represent that secretors show elevated rotavirus specific serum antibodies, suggesting a higher susceptibility to rotavirus infections, as compared to non-secretors in Sweden.

  7. How the spatial position of individuals affects their influence on swarms: a numerical comparison of two popular swarm dynamics models.

    PubMed

    Kolpas, Allison; Busch, Michael; Li, Hong; Couzin, Iain D; Petzold, Linda; Moehlis, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Schools of fish and flocks of birds are examples of self-organized animal groups that arise through social interactions among individuals. We numerically study two individual-based models, which recent empirical studies have suggested to explain self-organized group animal behavior: (i) a zone-based model where the group communication topology is determined by finite interacting zones of repulsion, attraction, and orientation among individuals; and (ii) a model where the communication topology is described by Delaunay triangulation, which is defined by each individual's Voronoi neighbors. The models include a tunable parameter that controls an individual's relative weighting of attraction and alignment. We perform computational experiments to investigate how effectively simulated groups transfer information in the form of velocity when an individual is perturbed. A cross-correlation function is used to measure the sensitivity of groups to sudden perturbations in the heading of individual members. The results show how relative weighting of attraction and alignment, location of the perturbed individual, population size, and the communication topology affect group structure and response to perturbation. We find that in the Delaunay-based model an individual who is perturbed is capable of triggering a cascade of responses, ultimately leading to the group changing direction. This phenomenon has been seen in self-organized animal groups in both experiments and nature. PMID:23555585

  8. Exploring Individual and Item Factors that Affect Assessment Validity for Diverse Learners: Results from a Large-Scale Cognitive Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Phoebe C.; Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Chen, Chen-Su; Emick, Jessica E.

    2006-01-01

    A cognitive lab technique (n=156) was used to investigate interactions between individual factors and item factors presumed to affect assessment validity for diverse students, including English language learners. Findings support the concept of "access"--an interaction between specific construct-irrelevant item features and individual…

  9. Ex vivo study for the assessment of behavioral factor and gene polymorphisms in individual susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage metals-induced.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Angela; Baluce, Barbara; Visalli, Giuseppa; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Izzotti, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Transition metals in fine particulate matter generated by combustion induce oxidative DNA damage and inflammation. However, there is remarkable inter-individual variability in susceptibility to these damages. To assess this variability, an ex vivo study was performed using lymphocytes of 47 Caucasian healthy subjects. Cell samples were exposed to a water solution of oil fly ash (OFA). This was formed by the distinctive transition metals vanadium, iron, and nickel. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by testing cell viability, intracellular ROS production and 8-oxo-dG. DNA fragmentation and DNA repair capacity were assessed by using the Alkaline-Halo assay. GSTM1, GSTT1, hOGG1, and C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphisms were tested. Demographic and behavioral factors, collected by questionnaire, were also considered. OFA induced damages showed: (a) a 20-fold variation in range among different subjects in ROS production, (b) a 7-fold variation in range of 8-oxo-dG, and (c) a 25-fold variation in range in DNA repair capacity. A significant increase in DNA damage was detected in GSTT1-deficent subjects compared with wild type genotype carriers. Increases in cytoplasmic ROS and decreases in DNA repair capacity (P<0.05) were observed in C677T and A1298C variants of MTHFR. A remarkable protective effect of high fruits and vegetable intake was observed for ROS production and DNA damage. Conversely, an adverse effect of meat intake was observed on ROS increase, DNA damage and repair capacity, probably due to the increased intake of bioavailable iron. Smoking decreased DNA repair capacity, while age increased OFA-induced DNA damage. The wide comparative analysis of the complex interactions network, between genetic and behavioral factors provides evidence of the remarkable role of several lifestyle factors. In comparison to genetic polymorphisms they seem to have a higher weight in determining individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of airborne pollutants as

  10. The accumulation of DNA demethylation in Sat α in normal gastric tissues with Helicobacter pylori infection renders susceptibility to gastric cancer in some individuals.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masaaki; Suzuki, Koichi; Maeda, Takafumi; Kato, Takaharu; Kamiyama, Hidenori; Koizumi, Kei; Miyaki, Yuichiro; Okada, Shinichiro; Kiyozaki, Hirokazu; Konishi, Fumio

    2012-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is widely recognized as a risk factor for gastric cancer, but only a minority of infected individuals develop gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA demethylation in non-cancerous gastric mucosa (NGM) significantly enhances susceptibility to gastric cancer. A total of 165 healthy volunteers, including 83 HP-positive and 82-negative individuals, as well as 83 patients with single and 18 with synchronous double gastric cancer (GC) were enrolled in this study. The relative demethylation levels (RDLs) of repetitive sequences, including Alu, LINE-1 and Sat α, were quantified by real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The Alu RDL did not exhibit any differences within each respective group, whereas LINE-1 RDL was significantly elevated in cancer tissues compared with the NGM in the other groups (P<0.001). Our results indicated that a gradual increase in Sat α RDL correlated with HP infection and cancer development. Sat α RDL was significantly elevated in the NGM in HP-positive compared with HP-negative (P<0.001), and significantly elevated in cancer tissues (P<0.001). Although the Sat α RDL of the NGM in the total population increased in an age-dependent manner, it was significantly increased in a fraction of younger GC patients (<45 years) compared with all of the others (45 years or older, P=0.0391). In addition, double GC exhibited a significantly higher Sat α RDL in the NGM compared with single GC (P=0.0014). In these two fractions, Sat α RDL in the NGM exhibited an inverse correlation with age. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the accumulation of DNA demethylation in Sat α RDL in the NGM with HP infection potentially renders susceptibility to gastric cancer in a fraction of GC patients younger than 45 years or in patients with multiple cancers. PMID:22426602

  11. How individual movement response to habitat edges affects population persistence and spatial spread.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Gabriel Andreguetto; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2013-07-01

    How individual-level movement decisions in response to habitat edges influence population-level patterns of persistence and spread of a species is a major challenge in spatial ecology and conservation biology. Here, we integrate novel insights into edge behavior, based on habitat preference and movement rates, into spatially explicit growth-dispersal models. We demonstrate how crucial ecological quantities (e.g., minimal patch size, spread rate) depend critically on these individual-level decisions. In particular, we find that including edge behavior properly in these models gives qualitatively different and intuitively more reasonable results than those of some previous studies that did not consider this level of detail. Our results highlight the importance of new empirical work on individual movement response to habitat edges.

  12. Does pain in individuals with multiple sclerosis affect employment? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shahrbanian, Shahnaz; Auais, Mohammad; Duquette, Pierre; Anderson, Katie; Mayo, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience some of the highest unemployment rates among all groups of chronic illnesses. Pain has been found to be a common reason for sick leave or early retirement in healthy populations or other groups with chronic illness; however, there is little awareness regarding the effect of pain on the work status of individuals with MS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent to which individuals with pain differ in employment status compared with those without pain among MS patients. METHODS: An extensive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration to identify studies focusing on the effect of pain on employment in individuals with MS. The following databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science, MD Consult and Elsevier, and Science Direct. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. RESULTS: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of these studies, five that exhibited clinical, methodological and statistical homogeneity were included in the meta-analysis. The between-groups (pain + versus pain −) pooled random OR of being employed was 0.7 (strong), and was significantly different from unity (95% CI 0.5 to 0.9; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicated that individuals with MS who experience pain were significantly more likely to report a decreased employment rate than individuals with MS who were pain free. PMID:24093124

  13. Doing It Your Way: How Individual Movement Styles Affect Action Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Individuals show significant variations in performing a motor act. Previous studies in the action observation literature have largely ignored this ubiquitous, if often unwanted, characteristic of motor performance, assuming movement patterns to be highly similar across repetitions and individuals. In the present study, we examined the possibility that individual variations in motor style directly influence the ability to understand and predict others’ actions. To this end, we first recorded grasping movements performed with different intents and used a two-step cluster analysis to identify quantitatively ‘clusters’ of movements performed with similar movement styles (Experiment 1). Next, using videos of the same movements, we proceeded to examine the influence of these styles on the ability to judge intention from action observation (Experiments 2 and 3). We found that motor styles directly influenced observers’ ability to ‘read’ others’ intention, with some styles always being less ‘readable’ than others. These results provide experimental support for the significance of motor variability for action prediction, suggesting that the ability to predict what another person is likely to do next directly depends on her individual movement style. PMID:27780259

  14. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  15. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  16. Using a Structural Equation Model to Examine Factors Affecting Married Individuals' Sexual Embarrassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Eyup; Arici, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the effects of levels of sexual awareness, sexual courage, and sexual self-disclosure on sexual embarrassment. Data was collected from 336 married individuals, who have students in the Sultangazi District of Istanbul. According to the structural equation model (SEM), sexual self-disclosure, directly, and sexual courage…

  17. Exploring Factors Affecting Students' Continued Wiki Use for Individual and Collaborative Learning: An Extended UTAUT Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yueh, Hsiu-Ping; Huang, Jo-Yi; Chang, Chueh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors affect students' adaptation and continued use of a Wiki system for collaborative writing tasks through an extension of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). This study was conducted in a general education course in a university in northern Taiwan. Data were…

  18. The Pedagogy of the Body: Affect and Collective Individuation in the Classroom and on the Dancefloor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Much recent work in the study of popular culture has emphasized the extent to which it is not only a site of signifying practices, myths, meanings and identifications, but also an arena of intensities, of affective flows and corporeal state-changes. From this perspective, many areas of popular culture (from calisthenics to social dance to video…

  19. Is Long-Term Structural Priming Affected by Patterns of Experience with Individual Verbs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Borreggine, Kristin L.

    2008-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these…

  20. Individual and School Factors Affecting Students' Participation and Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify school factors that affect students' achievements at the secondary and tertiary levels of education. The analysis included data of 9,894 students who studied in Auckland regional secondary schools in 2004. The results indicate that, although student demographic characteristics are associated with students'…

  1. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  2. Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Gary M; Green, David B; Shaffer, H Bradley; Kats, Lee B

    2016-05-25

    Behaviours that influence habitat selection strongly determine species movement patterns. One component of animal behaviour that largely influences movement patterns and habitat choice is site fidelity. California newts (family Salamandridae) demonstrate remarkable site fidelity, typically homing to the same pool of a stream each breeding season. Individuals often occupy a specific pool throughout the breeding season, but some males shift among breeding pools, altering their set of potential mates, competitors, and predators. In this study, we measured dermal concentrations of the chemical defence compound tetrodotoxin (TTX) in recaptured male California newts (Taricha torosa) over five breeding seasons to evaluate whether relative TTX concentrations are associated with breeding site fidelity in the field. Our five years of field sampling indicates that TTX concentrations of individuals and group means fluctuate tremendously, implying that TTX is not a stable phenotypic trait. Despite such fluctuations, we found that an individual's relative TTX concentration explains fidelity to a breeding pool and suggests that newts may be able to assess both their own concentrations of TTX and that of conspecifics to make decisions about remaining in or abandoning a breeding pool. These results provide us a novel dimension to chemical defence phenotypes in nature and their ecological consequences, potentially requiring a re-evaluation of the coevolutionary dynamics of predation pressure on toxin-laden organisms. PMID:27194704

  3. Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Anouk; Sanfey, Alan G

    2006-01-01

    Background In the growing body of literature on economic decision making, the main focus has typically been on explaining aggregate behavior, with little interest in individual differences despite considerable between-subject variability in decision responses. In this study, we were interested in asking to what degree individual differences in fundamental psychological processes can mediate economic decision-making behavior. Methods Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS) which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed. Results We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers. Conclusion These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making. PMID:17049091

  4. Genetic variation at the 8q24.21 renal cancer susceptibility locus affects HIF binding to a MYC enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Grampp, Steffen; Platt, James L.; Lauer, Victoria; Salama, Rafik; Kranz, Franziska; Neumann, Viviana K.; Wach, Sven; Stöhr, Christine; Hartmann, Arndt; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ratcliffe, Peter J.; Mole, David R.; Schödel, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by loss of function of the von Hippel–Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) and unrestrained activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Genetic and epigenetic determinants have an impact on HIF pathways. A recent genome-wide association study on renal cancer susceptibility identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an intergenic region located between the oncogenes MYC and PVT1. Here using assays of chromatin conformation, allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome editing, we show that HIF binding to this regulatory element is necessary to trans-activate MYC and PVT1 expression specifically in cells of renal tubular origins. Moreover, we demonstrate that the risk-associated polymorphisms increase chromatin accessibility and activity as well as HIF binding to the enhancer. These findings provide further evidence that genetic variation at HIF-binding sites modulates the oncogenic transcriptional output of the VHL–HIF axis and provide a functional explanation for the disease-associated effects of SNPs in ccRCC. PMID:27774982

  5. Susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. We compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed Candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (January 2007 to September 2014). Biofilms were classified as having low, moderate, or high metabolic activity according XTT reduction assay or having low, moderate, or high biomass according to crystal violet assay. Echinocandin MICs for planktonic and sessile cells were measured using the EUCAST E.Def 7.2 procedure and XTT reduction assay, respectively. Micafungin showed the highest activity against biofilms classified according to the metabolic activity and biomass production (P < .001). The activity of caspofungin and anidulafungin was not dependent on the metabolic activity of the biofilm or the biomass production. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. None of the echinocandins produced major changes in the structure of biofilms with low metabolic activity and biomass production when compared with the untreated biofilms. However, biofilm with high metabolic activity or high biomass production was considerably more susceptible to micafungin; this effect was not shown by caspofungin or anidulafungin. PMID:26543157

  6. Susceptibility of Candida albicans biofilms to caspofungin and anidulafungin is not affected by metabolic activity or biomass production.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Micafungin is more active against biofilms with high metabolic activity; however, it is unknown whether this observation applies to caspofungin and anidulafungin and whether it is also dependent on the biomass production. We compare the antifungal activity of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against preformed Candida albicans biofilms with different degrees of metabolic activity and biomass production from 301 isolates causing fungemia in patients admitted to Gregorio Marañon Hospital (January 2007 to September 2014). Biofilms were classified as having low, moderate, or high metabolic activity according XTT reduction assay or having low, moderate, or high biomass according to crystal violet assay. Echinocandin MICs for planktonic and sessile cells were measured using the EUCAST E.Def 7.2 procedure and XTT reduction assay, respectively. Micafungin showed the highest activity against biofilms classified according to the metabolic activity and biomass production (P < .001). The activity of caspofungin and anidulafungin was not dependent on the metabolic activity of the biofilm or the biomass production. These observations were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. None of the echinocandins produced major changes in the structure of biofilms with low metabolic activity and biomass production when compared with the untreated biofilms. However, biofilm with high metabolic activity or high biomass production was considerably more susceptible to micafungin; this effect was not shown by caspofungin or anidulafungin.

  7. Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Benyamin, Beben; Esko, Tonu; Ried, Janina S; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Vermeulen, Sita H; Traglia, Michela; Gögele, Martin; Anderson, Denise; Broer, Linda; Podmore, Clara; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Sanna, Serena; van der Meer, Peter; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wang, Fudi; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Hälldin, Jonas; Häldin, Jonas; Winkelmann, Juliane; Meitinger, Thomas; Thiery, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Rendon, Augusto; Jolley, Jennifer; Sambrook, Jennifer; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sweep, Fred C; Sala, Cinzia F; Schwienbacher, Christine; Pichler, Irene; Hui, Jennie; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Steri, Maristella; Waeber, Gérard; Verweij, Niek; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Visscher, Peter M; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; van der Harst, Pim; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Beilby, John; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Oexle, Konrad; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Whitfield, John B

    2014-01-01

    Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here, we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from 11 European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find 11 genome-wide-significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease. PMID:25352340

  8. Cognitive and affective mechanisms linking trait mindfulness to craving among individuals in addiction recovery.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Kelley, Karen; Tronnier, Christine; Hanley, Adam

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify affective, cognitive, and conative mediators of the relation between trait mindfulness and craving in data culled from an urban sample of 165 persons (in abstinence verified by urinalysis) entering into residential treatment for substance use disorders between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate path analysis adjusting for age, gender, education level, employment status, and substance use frequency indicated that the association between the total trait mindfulness score on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and alcohol/drug craving was statistically mediated by negative affect (measured by the PANAS, beta = -.13) and cognitive reappraisal (measured by the CERQ, beta = -.08), but not by readiness to change (measured by the URICA, beta = -.001). Implications for mindfulness-oriented treatment of persons with substance use disorders are discussed. The study's limitations are noted.

  9. Novel loci affecting iron homeostasis and their effects in individuals at risk for hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Benyamin, Beben; Esko, Tonu; Ried, Janina S; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Vermeulen, Sita H; Traglia, Michela; Gögele, Martin; Anderson, Denise; Broer, Linda; Podmore, Clara; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltan; Sanna, Serena; van der Meer, Peter; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wang, Fudi; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Hälldin, Jonas; Häldin, Jonas; Winkelmann, Juliane; Meitinger, Thomas; Thiery, Joachim; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Rendon, Augusto; Jolley, Jennifer; Sambrook, Jennifer; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sweep, Fred C; Sala, Cinzia F; Schwienbacher, Christine; Pichler, Irene; Hui, Jennie; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Amin, Najaf; Steri, Maristella; Waeber, Gérard; Verweij, Niek; Powell, Joseph E; Nyholt, Dale R; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Visscher, Peter M; Wright, Margaret J; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Hernandez, Dena; Bandinelli, Stefania; van der Harst, Pim; Uda, Manuela; Vollenweider, Peter; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Beilby, John; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Oexle, Konrad; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Camaschella, Clara; Toniolo, Daniela; Swinkels, Dorine W; Whitfield, John B

    2014-10-29

    Variation in body iron is associated with or causes diseases, including anaemia and iron overload. Here, we analyse genetic association data on biochemical markers of iron status from 11 European-population studies, with replication in eight additional cohorts (total up to 48,972 subjects). We find 11 genome-wide-significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci, some including known iron-related genes (HFE, SLC40A1, TF, TFR2, TFRC, TMPRSS6) and others novel (ABO, ARNTL, FADS2, NAT2, TEX14). SNPs at ARNTL, TF, and TFR2 affect iron markers in HFE C282Y homozygotes at risk for hemochromatosis. There is substantial overlap between our iron loci and loci affecting erythrocyte and lipid phenotypes. These results will facilitate investigation of the roles of iron in disease.

  10. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.

  11. New brittle bone disorder: report of a family with six affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, G; Haga, N; Aoki, K; Hamazaki, M; Taniguchi, K; Iwaya, T

    1999-06-01

    We report on a family in which four females and two males in three generations had a previously undescribed brittle bone disorder that was dominantly transmitted through a maternal line. The cardinal manifestations of the disorder comprised dolichocephaly with frontal bossing, hypoplasia of the midface, postpubertal prognathism, micromelic short stature, coarse trabeculae of the entire skeleton, and bone fragility of variable degrees. Mild spondylar modification and iliac hypoplasia were other hallmarks that were recognized in childhood. The proband, a 19-year-old male, was most severely affected with multiple wormian bones in the calvaria, repetitive fractures, intractable bowing of the legs and forearms, and pseudofractures of the long bones with metaphyseal narrowing. His male cousin was next severely affected with angular deformity restricted to the forearm. The four females were much less affected without angular deformity. The mode of inheritance was thus consistent with either an autosomal dominant trait with sex-influence or an X-linked semidominant trait. Histological bone examination in the proband showed atrophy and fibrous degeneration of the lamellar trabeculae and disorganized chondro-osseous junction, which implied that the disorder involved both intramembranous and enchondral ossifications. PMID:10340645

  12. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations. PMID:27192958

  13. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richard J.; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E.

    2012-01-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production1-3. Bees contribute around 80% of insect pollination, so it is imperative we understand and mitigate the causes of current declines4-6. Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour7-11 and reductions in colony queen production12. However the key link between changes in individual behaviour and consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of numerous individual workers. So whilst field-level pesticide concentrations can have a subtle/sublethal effect at the individual level8, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or if it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging13-15, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated16,17. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail. PMID:23086150

  14. Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees.

    PubMed

    Gill, Richard J; Ramos-Rodriguez, Oscar; Raine, Nigel E

    2012-11-01

    Reported widespread declines of wild and managed insect pollinators have serious consequences for global ecosystem services and agricultural production. Bees contribute approximately 80% of insect pollination, so it is important to understand and mitigate the causes of current declines in bee populations . Recent studies have implicated the role of pesticides in these declines, as exposure to these chemicals has been associated with changes in bee behaviour and reductions in colony queen production. However, the key link between changes in individual behaviour and the consequent impact at the colony level has not been shown. Social bee colonies depend on the collective performance of many individual workers. Thus, although field-level pesticide concentrations can have subtle or sublethal effects at the individual level, it is not known whether bee societies can buffer such effects or whether it results in a severe cumulative effect at the colony level. Furthermore, widespread agricultural intensification means that bees are exposed to numerous pesticides when foraging, yet the possible combinatorial effects of pesticide exposure have rarely been investigated. Here we show that chronic exposure of bumblebees to two pesticides (neonicotinoid and pyrethroid) at concentrations that could approximate field-level exposure impairs natural foraging behaviour and increases worker mortality leading to significant reductions in brood development and colony success. We found that worker foraging performance, particularly pollen collecting efficiency, was significantly reduced with observed knock-on effects for forager recruitment, worker losses and overall worker productivity. Moreover, we provide evidence that combinatorial exposure to pesticides increases the propensity of colonies to fail.

  15. Genetic variants of MAOB affect serotonin level and specific behavioral attributes to increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) susceptibility in males.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Barnali; Verma, Deepak; Karmakar, Arijit; Jaiswal, Preeti; Sanyal, Aritrika; Paul, Debarshi; Sinha, Swagata; Singh, Asem Surindro; Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Panda, Chinmoy Kumar; Ghosh, Saurabh; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Mukhophadhyay, Kanchan; Rajamma, Usha

    2016-11-01

    Serotonergic system participates in various developmental processes and modulation of behaviour. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by a range of behavioral symptoms scaling from mild to severe. Abnormal 5-HT synthesis and signalling, platelet hyperserotonemia and amelioration of repetitive behaviours by SSRI are some of the key findings, which reinforced the hypothesis that serotonergic genes might act as ASD susceptible genes. Therefore, genes encoding monoamine oxidases A/B (MAOA/MAOB) received special attention as these genes are located on the X-chromosome and the gene products are responsible for 5-HT degradation. In the present study, we conducted population-based association analysis of eight markers of MAOB with ASD in a study cohort of 203 cases and 236 controls form India and examined its effect on platelet 5-HT content and behaviour. Gender-specific changes were observed for the contrasting LD between pair of markers among cases and controls. Case-control analysis demonstrated over-distribution of major C allele of rs2283728 and rs2283727 in male and female ASD cases respectively. Haplotypic distribution and interaction among markers showed more robust effect in male cases. Interestingly, male ASD cases displayed higher platelet 5-HT content in comparison to the respective controls. Quantitative trait analysis revealed significant correlation of genetic variants and haplotypes of MAOB markers, rs1799836 and rs6324 with increased platelet 5-HT level and CARS scores for specific behavioral symptoms respectively in males. This study suggests that MAOB increases ASD risk in males, possibly through its sex-specific regulatory effect on 5-HT metabolism and behavior.

  16. Immunogenetic factors affecting susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses and the clinical course of hantaviral disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Pagès, Marie; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-05-26

    We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives.

  17. Genetic variants of MAOB affect serotonin level and specific behavioral attributes to increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) susceptibility in males.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Barnali; Verma, Deepak; Karmakar, Arijit; Jaiswal, Preeti; Sanyal, Aritrika; Paul, Debarshi; Sinha, Swagata; Singh, Asem Surindro; Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Panda, Chinmoy Kumar; Ghosh, Saurabh; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Mukhophadhyay, Kanchan; Rajamma, Usha

    2016-11-01

    Serotonergic system participates in various developmental processes and modulation of behaviour. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by a range of behavioral symptoms scaling from mild to severe. Abnormal 5-HT synthesis and signalling, platelet hyperserotonemia and amelioration of repetitive behaviours by SSRI are some of the key findings, which reinforced the hypothesis that serotonergic genes might act as ASD susceptible genes. Therefore, genes encoding monoamine oxidases A/B (MAOA/MAOB) received special attention as these genes are located on the X-chromosome and the gene products are responsible for 5-HT degradation. In the present study, we conducted population-based association analysis of eight markers of MAOB with ASD in a study cohort of 203 cases and 236 controls form India and examined its effect on platelet 5-HT content and behaviour. Gender-specific changes were observed for the contrasting LD between pair of markers among cases and controls. Case-control analysis demonstrated over-distribution of major C allele of rs2283728 and rs2283727 in male and female ASD cases respectively. Haplotypic distribution and interaction among markers showed more robust effect in male cases. Interestingly, male ASD cases displayed higher platelet 5-HT content in comparison to the respective controls. Quantitative trait analysis revealed significant correlation of genetic variants and haplotypes of MAOB markers, rs1799836 and rs6324 with increased platelet 5-HT level and CARS scores for specific behavioral symptoms respectively in males. This study suggests that MAOB increases ASD risk in males, possibly through its sex-specific regulatory effect on 5-HT metabolism and behavior. PMID:27381555

  18. Immunogenetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility of Humans and Rodents to Hantaviruses and the Clinical Course of Hantaviral Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Pagès, Marie; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives. PMID:24859344

  19. Radiation-induced late effects in two affected individuals of the Lilo radiation accident.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Abend, Michael; Müller, Kerstin; Beinke, Christina; Braselmann, Herbert; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Köhn, Frank M; Pillekamp, Hans; Schiener, Ralf; Das, Oliver; Peter, Ralf U; Herzog, Gerhard; Tzschach, Andreas; Dörr, Harald D; Fliedner, Theodor M; Meineke, Viktor

    2007-05-01

    Radiation exposure leads to a risk for long-term deterministic and stochastic late effects. Two individuals exposed to protracted photon radiation in the radiological accident at the Lilo Military site in Georgia in 1997 received follow-up treatment and resection of several chronic radiation ulcers in the Bundeswehr Hospital Ulm, Germany, in 2003. Multi-parameter analysis revealed that spermatogenetic arrest and serum hormone levels in both patients had recovered compared to the status in 1997. However, we observed a persistence of altered T-cell ratios, increased ICAM1 and beta1-integrin expression, and aberrant bone marrow cells and lymphocytes with significantly increased translocations 6 years after the accident. This investigation thus identified altered end points still detectable years after the accident that suggest persistent genomic damage as well as epigenetic effects in these individuals, which may be associated with an elevated risk for the development of further late effects. Our observations further suggest the development of a chronic radiation syndrome and indicate follow-up parameters in radiation victims.

  20. Improved Quantification of Cerebral Hemodynamics Using Individualized Time Thresholds for Assessment of Peak Enhancement Parameters Derived from Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nasel, Christian; Kalcher, Klaudius; Boubela, Roland; Moser, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Assessment of cerebral ischemia often employs dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with evaluation of various peak enhancement time parameters. All of these parameters use a single time threshold to judge the maximum tolerable peak enhancement delay that is supposed to reliably differentiate sufficient from critical perfusion. As the validity of this single threshold approach still remains unclear, in this study, (1) the definition of a threshold on an individual patient-basis, nevertheless (2) preserving the comparability of the data, was investigated. Methods The histogram of time-to-peak (TTP) values derived from DSC-MRI, the so-called TTP-distribution curve (TDC), was modeled using a double-Gaussian model in 61 patients without severe cerebrovascular disease. Particular model-based zf-scores were used to describe the arterial, parenchymal and venous bolus-transit phase as time intervals Ia,p,v. Their durations (delta Ia,p,v), were then considered as maximum TTP-delays of each phase. Results Mean-R2 for the model-fit was 0.967. Based on the generic zf-scores the proposed bolus transit phases could be differentiated. The Ip-interval reliably depicted the parenchymal bolus-transit phase with durations of 3.4 s–10.1 s (median = 4.3s), where an increase with age was noted (∼30 ms/year). Conclusion Individual threshold-adjustment seems rational since regular bolus-transit durations in brain parenchyma obtained from the TDC overlap considerably with recommended critical TTP-thresholds of 4 s–8 s. The parenchymal transit time derived from the proposed model may be utilized to individually correct TTP-thresholds, thereby potentially improving the detection of critical perfusion. PMID:25521121

  1. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Murto, C.; Kaplan, C.; Ariza, L.; Schwarz, K.; Alencar, C. H.; da Costa, L. M. M.; Heukelbach, J.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil's Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5%) were birth migrants, 105 (26.6%) were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9%) were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1) alcohol consumption, (2) separation from family/friends, and (3) difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships. PMID:24194769

  2. Body size affects individual winter foraging strategies of thick-billed murres in the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Orben, Rachael A; Paredes, Rosana; Roby, Daniel D; Irons, David B; Shaffer, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Foraging and migration often require different energetic and movement strategies. Though not readily apparent, constraints during one phase might influence the foraging strategies observed in another. For marine birds that fly and dive, body size constraints likely present a trade-off between foraging ability and migration as smaller bodies reduce flight costs, whereas larger bodies are advantageous for diving deeper. This study examines individual wintering strategies of deep diving thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding at three colonies in the south-eastern Bering Sea: St Paul, St George and Bogoslof. These colonies, arranged north to south, are located such that breeding birds forage in a gradient from shelf to deep-water habitats. We used geolocation time-depth recorders and stable isotopes from feathers to determine differences in foraging behaviour and diet of murres during three non-breeding periods, 2008-2011. Body size was quantified by a principal component analysis (wing, culmen, head+bill and tarsus length). A hierarchical cluster analysis identified winter foraging strategies based on individual movement, diving behaviour and diet (inferred from stable isotopes). Structural body size differed by breeding island. Larger birds from St Paul had higher wing loading than smaller birds from St George. Larger birds, mainly from St Paul, dove to deeper depths, spent more time in the Bering Sea, and likely consumed higher trophic-level prey in late winter. Three winter foraging strategies were identified. The main strategy, employed by small birds from all three breeding colonies in the first 2 years, was characterized by high residency areas in the North Pacific south of the Aleutians and nocturnal diving. In contrast, 31% of birds from St Paul remained in the Bering Sea and foraged mainly during the day, apparently feeding on higher trophic-level prey. Throat feather stable isotopes indicated that individuals exhibited flexibility in the use of this

  3. Factors affecting grief reactions in close family members to individuals who have died of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ringdal, G I; Jordhøy, M S; Ringdal, K; Kaasa, S

    2001-12-01

    This longitudinal study examined factors related to grief reactions in a systematic and standardized way in 183 close family members to individuals who died of cancer. Grief reactions were measured using the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG). A repeated measures MANOVA was used to test and compare the grief reactions of the bereaved for one year after the loss. The female respondents showed stronger grief reactions than the male respondents. The grief reactions increased with age, and those who had lost a younger family member experienced stronger grief reactions than those who had lost an older family member. The relationship to the deceased, the duration of the disease, place of death, aspects of social support such as children living at home, and employment were not related to the grief reactions in the bereaved respondents when controlling for the former factors. PMID:11738164

  4. Understandings of health. How individual perceptions of health affect health promotion needs in organizations.

    PubMed

    Ness, P

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to discover what the concept of health means to the participants and to determine how an organization can assist its members in developing and maintaining their notion of health. The participants for this study were drawn from the employees at a post secondary educational institution. Tape recorded interviews were transcribed by the researcher, and the transcripts were analyzed for common topics and predominant themes. Imbedded in the data were four themes that provided an over arching conceptual framework from which to view health and health promoting activities: well being as a broad definition of health; the concept of balance as a prime contributor to health; the notion of self efficacy in determining one's health, and the value of caring as a significant determinant of health. Findings of the study have significance for individual health, organizations and health, health promoters, and further research. PMID:9250025

  5. Factors affecting treatment efficacy in social phobia: the use of video feedback and individual vs. group formats.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed two potential moderators of treatment efficacy in social phobia: video feedback, and treatment format (i.e., individual vs. group). Eighteen recent (2000-2006) trials including a total of 511 participants were sampled. Effect sizes (Cohen's d's) were calculated for each trial while correcting for measurement error. The Q statistic was used to test (a) heterogeneity across trials and (b) potential moderators. Results indicated that use of video feedback was not a moderator of treatment efficacy and did not significantly affect effect sizes. In contrast, treatment format was a moderator of treatment efficacy such that individual treatments reported larger effect sizes and lower attrition rates compared with group treatments. The results suggest that individual treatments in social phobia may be superior to group treatments irrespective of treatment type. PMID:18599263

  6. Relations between pure dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity in binge eating individuals.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Crépin, Christelle; Ceschi, Grazia; Golay, Alain; Van der Linden, Martial

    2012-01-01

    To investigate potential predictors of the severity of binge eating disorder (BED), two subtypes of patients with the disorder, a pure dietary subtype and a dietary-negative affect subtype, were identified. This study investigated the relationships between the two subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity. Ninety-two women meeting threshold and subthreshold criteria for BED diagnosis filled out questionnaires to determine eating disorder severity, impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity before and after participating in an online guided self-help program for BED. Cluster analyses revealed a pure dietary subtype (N=66, 71.7%) and a dietary-negative affect subtype (N=26, 28.3%). Compared to the pure dietary subtype, the dietary-negative affect subtype reported a higher frequency of objective binge episodes, more severe eating disorders, higher urgency scores (defined as a tendency to act rashly in the context of negative affect), a greater sensitivity to punishment, and a higher dropout rate during treatment. These findings suggest that BED patients in the dietary-negative affect subtype exhibit heightened anxiety and are highly impulsive, especially in contexts of negative affect. For these individuals, psychological interventions for BED should focus on inhibiting automatic responses to negative emotions.

  7. Cross-modal influences of affect across social and non-social domains in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Vines, Bradley W; Hill, Kiley J; Yam, Anna; Grichanik, Mark; Mills, Debra; Reiss, Allan L; Korenberg, Julie R; Bellugi, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    The Williams syndrome (WS) cognitive profile is characterized by relative strengths in face processing, an attentional bias towards social stimuli, and an increased affinity and emotional reactivity to music. An audio-visual integration study examined the effects of auditory emotion on visual (social/non-social) affect identification in individuals with WS and typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) controls. The social bias in WS was hypothesized to manifest as an increased ability to process social than non-social affect, and a reduced auditory influence in social contexts. The control groups were hypothesized to perform similarly across conditions. The results showed that while participants with WS exhibited indistinguishable performance to TD controls in identifying facial affect, DD controls performed significantly more poorly. The TD group outperformed the WS and DD groups in identifying non-social affect. The results suggest that emotionally evocative music facilitated the ability of participants with WS to process emotional facial expressions. These surprisingly strong facial-processing skills in individuals with WS may have been due to the effects of combining social and music stimuli and to a reduction in anxiety due to the music in particular. Several directions for future research are suggested.

  8. The impact of affective contexts on working memory capacity in healthy populations and in individuals with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Susanne; Dalgleish, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) strongly predict variations in real-world cognitive functioning. However, little is known about how WMC is influenced by the ubiquitously present affective information in our everyday environments. Here, we present a series of 3 experiments investigating a novel WMC paradigm performed in affective (vs. neutral) contexts. The paradigm requires simultaneous performance of a visuospatial search and a verbal storage task. These tasks are performed in the presence of either neutral or negative emotional distractor images. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed our prediction that WMC would be reduced in the context of emotional compared with neutral distractors in student and community samples. Experiment 3 extended these findings to a clinical sample. WMC in motor vehicle accident survivors with a history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was selectively reduced in the presence of trauma-related emotional distraction compared with survivors without a history of PTSD. Implications of these findings for affective cognitive science are discussed.

  9. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice.

    PubMed

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja

    2014-11-01

    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  10. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion. PMID:25491473

  11. Emotional state affects gait initiation in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Chris J.; Bowers, Dawn; Janelle, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of manipulating emotional state on gait initiation in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and healthy older adults. Following the presentation of pictures that are known to elicit specific emotional responses, participants initiated gait and continued to walk for several steps at their normal pace. Reaction time, the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory during the preparatory postural adjustments, and length and velocity of the first two steps were measured. Analysis of the gait initiation measures revealed that exposure to (1) threatening pictures, relative to all other pictures, speeded the initiation of gait for PD patients and healthy older adults; (2) approach-oriented emotional pictures (erotic and happy people), relative to withdrawal-oriented pictures, facilitated the anticipatory postural adjustments of gait initiation for PD patients and healthy older adults, as evidenced by greater displacement and velocity of the COP movement; and (3) emotional pictures modulated gait initiation parameters in PD patients to the same degree as in healthy older adults. Collectively, these findings hold significant implications for understanding the circuitry underlying the manner by which emotions modulate movement and for the development of emotion-based interventions designed to maximize improvements in gait initiation for individuals with PD. PMID:22194236

  12. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  13. Training approach-avoidance of smiling faces affects emotional vulnerability in socially anxious individuals

    PubMed Central

    Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs' automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation). We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: it led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia. PMID:23970862

  14. Individual factors affecting preferences for feedback message tactics in the contexts of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Noora; Enwald, Heidi; Bath, Peter A; Pyky, Riitta; Korpelainen, Raija; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2015-01-01

    Tailored feedback on personal physical activity behavior has been used to inform individuals and promote physical activity among different populations. This study aimed to increase the understanding of factors associated with young men's preferences for feedback message tactics in the context of physical activity and exercise. How preferences vary was analyzed in terms of the self-reported physical activity, stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, objectively measured physical health status, and sociodemographic characteristics of young Finnish men. Population-based survey data, including physiological measurements (n = 525), were collected at the Finnish Defence Forces' call-ups in the city of Oulu, Finland, in September 2011. The results indicate that the stage of exercise behavior change, exercise self-efficacy, physical health status, and educational level are associated with a preference for normative and ipsative comparison. Multivariate logistic regression models show that an advanced stage of exercise behavior change and education in the academic track of an upper secondary school are independent predictors of preferring ipsative and normative physical activity feedback among young men. The study provides new insights into how the stage of behavior change influences health information behavior and is in line with studies emphasizing social factors--including education--as being important in shaping health-related behavior. These factors could form the basis for tailoring information when designing health promotion.

  15. CYP2C9 Mutation Affecting the Individual Variability of Warfarin Dose Requirement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Bum; Ko, Moon Ju; Lee, Dae Gu; Do, Jong Gul; Hwang, Ji Hye

    2012-12-01

    Warfarin is a frequently prescribed anticoagulant in rehabilitation patients. Adverse drug reactions of warfarin were reported as bleeding and cutaneous microvascular thrombosis. Major bleeding, such as intracranial hemorrhage and psoas hematoma, in patients receiving anticoagulation therapy is a rare condition, but sometimes very serious complication that can even be fatal. Patient-specific factors (eg, age, body size, race, concurrent diseases, and medications) explain some of the individual variability in warfarin dose, but genetic factors, which influence warfarin response, explain a significantly higher proportion of the variability in the dose. There are two identified genes that are responsible for the main proportion of the genetic effect: CYP2C9, which codes for the enzyme cytochrome P450 2C9 that metabolizes S-warfarin, and VKORC1, which codes for warfarin's target, vitamin K epoxide reductase. We report a case of intolerance to warfarin dosing, due to impaired drug metabolism in a patient with CYP2C9(*)1/(*)3 and VKORC 1173TT. Fortunately, there are no severe complications.

  16. Did the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act affect dietary intake of low-income individuals?

    PubMed

    Waehrer, Geetha; Deb, Partha; Decker, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the relationship between increased Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits following the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and the diet quality of individuals from SNAP-eligible compared to ineligible (those with somewhat higher income) households using data from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The ARRA increased SNAP monthly benefits by 13.6% of the maximum allotment for a given household size, equivalent to an increase of $24 to $144 for one-to-eight person households respectively. In the full sample, we find that these increases in SNAP benefits are not associated with changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. However, among those with no more than a high school education, higher SNAP benefits are associated with a 46% increase in the mean caloric share from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and a decrease in overall diet quality especially for those at the lower end of the diet quality distribution, amounting to a 9% decline at the 25th percentile. PMID:26414481

  17. Apparent autosomal recessive inheritance in families with proximal spinal muscular atrophy affecting individuals in two generations

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnik-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K.; Hahnen, E.

    1996-11-01

    With the evidence that deletions in the region responsible for childhood- and juvenile-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are on chromosome 5 it is now possible to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance in most patients (denoted {open_quotes}SMA 5q{close_quotes}). Homozygous deletions in the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene can be detected in 95%-98% of patients with early-onset SMA (types I and II), whereas as many as 10%-20% of patients with the milder, juvenile-onset form (type III SMA) do not show deletions. In families with affected subjects in two generations, it is difficult to decide whether they are autosomal dominantly inherited or caused by three independent recessive mutations (pseudodominant inheritance). Given an incidence of >1/10,000 of SMA 5q, patients with autosomal recessive SMA have an {approximately}1% recurrence risk to their offspring. Although the dominant forms are not linked to chromosome 5q, pseudodominant families can now be identified by the presence of homozygous deletions in the SMN gene. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Task- and resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions related to affection and susceptible to concurrent cognitive demand

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, Tanja S.; Caspers, Svenja; Fox, Peter T.; Zilles, Karl; Roski, Christian; Laird, Angela R.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    A recent fMRI-study revealed neural responses for affective processing of stimuli for which overt attention irrespective of stimulus valence was required in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and bilateral amygdala (AMY): activation decreased with increasing cognitive demand. To further characterize the network putatively related to this attenuation, we here characterized these regions with respect to their functional properties and connectivity patterns in task-dependent and task-independent states. All experiments of the BrainMap database activating the seed regions OFC and bilateral AMY were identified. Their functional characteristics were quantitatively inferred using the behavioral meta-data of the retrieved experiments. Task-dependent functional connectivity was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) of significant co-activations with these seed regions. Task-independent resting-state functional connectivity analysis in a sample of 100 healthy subjects complemented these analyses. All three seed regions co-activated with subgenual cingulum (SGC), precuneus (PCu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the task-dependent MACM analysis. Task-independent resting-state connectivity revealed significant coupling of the seeds only with the SGC, but not the PCu and the NAcc. The former region (SGC) moreover was shown to feature significant resting-state connectivity with all other regions implicated in the network connected to regions where emotional processing may be modulated by a cognitive distractor. Based on its functional profile and connectivity pattern, we suggest that the SGC might serve as a key hub in the identified network, as such linking autobiographic information [PCu], reward [NAcc], (reinforce) values [OFC] and emotional significance [AMY]. Such a role, in turn, may allow the SGC to influence the OFC and AMY to modulate affective processing. PMID:23370055

  19. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  20. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests.

  1. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Affects Floral Visitors but Not the Structure of Individual-Based Palm-Pollinator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  2. The relation between social behavior and negative affect in psychosis-prone individuals: an experience sampling investigation.

    PubMed

    Husky, Mathilde M; Grondin, Olivier S; Swendsen, Joel D

    2004-02-01

    Daily social behavior and negative affect were examined in a sample of individuals with a wide spectrum of psychosis-proneness scores. Using the experience sampling method, participants were signaled five times per day for a 1-week period to provide naturalistic reports of location, activity, and social behavior. Little evidence was found for a direct association between psychosis-proneness and specific behavioral profiles, but individuals with higher scores of psychosis-proneness reported spending more time doing nothing or waiting. However, the levels of anxious and depressed moods experienced in certain social and environmental contexts were also predicted by psychosis-proneness scores. The present results indicate that psychosis-proneness was associated with an increase in anxiety when individuals were with friends and an increase in depressed mood in daily task situations such as working or studying. By contrast, psychosis-proneness predicted a decrease in depressed and anxious moods in other situations when the individual was not likely to be confronted by social contact with less known individuals, and lower anxious and depressed moods when in secure environments (in one's own home, home of family or friends). The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of understanding the expression of psychosis vulnerability and the potential reinforcement of maladaptive social behavior through operant conditioning mechanisms.

  3. Individual and Center-Level Factors Affecting Mortality Among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Alleman, Brandon W.; Li, Lei; Dagle, John M.; Smith, P. Brian; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Cotten, C. Michael; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Ellsbury, Dan L.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Wallace, Dennis D.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting center differences in mortality for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: We analyzed data for 5418 ELBW infants born at 16 Neonatal Research Network centers during 2006–2009. The primary outcomes of early mortality (≤12 hours after birth) and in-hospital mortality were assessed by using multilevel hierarchical models. Models were developed to investigate associations of center rates of selected interventions with mortality while adjusting for patient-level risk factors. These analyses were performed for all gestational ages (GAs) and separately for GAs <25 weeks and ≥25 weeks. RESULTS: Early and in-hospital mortality rates among centers were 5% to 36% and 11% to 53% for all GAs, 13% to 73% and 28% to 90% for GAs <25 weeks, and 1% to 11% and 7% to 26% for GAs ≥25 weeks, respectively. Center intervention rates significantly predicted both early and in-hospital mortality for infants <25 weeks. For infants ≥25 weeks, intervention rates did not predict mortality. The variance in mortality among centers was significant for all GAs and outcomes. Center use of interventions and patient risk factors explained some but not all of the center variation in mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: Center intervention rates explain a portion of the center variation in mortality, especially for infants born at <25 weeks’ GA. This finding suggests that deaths may be prevented by standardizing care for very early GA infants. However, differences in patient characteristics and center intervention rates do not account for all of the observed variability in mortality; and for infants with GA ≥25 weeks these differences account for only a small part of the variation in mortality. PMID:23753096

  4. Ratio of anogenital warts between different anatomical sites in homosexual and heterosexual individuals in Australia, 2002-2013: implications for susceptibility of different anatomical sites to genital warts.

    PubMed

    Chow, E P F; Lin, A C; Read, T R H; Bradshaw, C S; Chen, M Y; Fairley, C K

    2015-05-01

    There is little known regarding the transmissibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) between different sites in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual individuals. We conducted a retrospective analysis investigating all new patients attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia between 2002 and 2013. We describe the prevalence and ratio of the first episode of anogenital warts in MSM and heterosexual males and females. The proportion of new MSM clients with anal and penile warts was 4·0% (362/8978) and 1·6% (141/8978), respectively; which gave an anal-to-penile wart ratio of 1:2·6. About 13·7% (1656/12112) of heterosexual males had penile warts and 10·0% (1121/11166) of females had vulval warts, which yielded a penile-to-vulval wart ratio of 1:0·7. Penile-anal transmission has a higher ratio than penile-vulval transmission, suggesting that the anal epithelium may be more susceptible to HPV infection than the vulval epithelium in females; these ratios are important in modelling the control of HPV in MSM.

  5. Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of craniofacial shape in the unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts: a possible marker for genetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth M; Neiswanger, Katherine; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Maher, Brion S; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I; Marazita, Mary L

    2008-02-15

    Numerous studies have described altered patterns of craniofacial form in the unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic clefts. Unfortunately, results from such studies have been highly variable and have failed to provide a reliable method for differentiating "at-risk" relatives from controls. In the present study, we compared craniofacial shape between a sample of unaffected relatives (33 females; 14 males) from cleft multiplex families and an equal number of age/sex/ethnicity-matched controls. Sixteen x,y,z facial landmark coordinates derived from 3D photogrammetry were analyzed via Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis, while 14 additional linear distances were analyzed via t tests. A subset of variables was then entered into a discriminant function analysis (DFA). Compared to controls, female unaffected relatives demonstrated increased upper facial width, midface reduction and lateral displacement of the alar cartilage. DFA correctly classified 70% of female unaffected relatives and 73% of female controls. Male unaffected relatives demonstrated increased upper facial and cranial base width, increased lower facial height and decreased upper facial height compared with controls. DFA correctly classified 86% of male unaffected relatives and 93% of male controls. In both sexes, upper facial width contributed most to group discrimination. Following DFA, unaffected relatives were assigned to risk/liability classes based on the degree of phenotypic divergence from controls. Results indicate that craniofacial shape differences characterizing unaffected relatives are partly sex-specific and are in broad agreement with previous reports. These findings further suggest that a quantitative assessment of the craniofacial phenotype may allow for the identification of susceptible individuals within nonsyndromic cleft families.

  6. FBXW7 and USP7 regulate CCDC6 turnover during the cell cycle and affect cancer drugs susceptibility in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Francesco; Poser, Ina; Visconti, Roberta; Ilardi, Gennaro; Paladino, Simona; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Guggino, Gianluca; Monaco, Roberto; Colecchia, David; Monaco, Guglielmo; Cerrato, Aniello; Chiariello, Mario; Denning, Krista; Claudio, Pier Paolo; Staibano, Stefania; Celetti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    CCDC6 gene product is a pro-apoptotic protein substrate of ATM, whose loss or inactivation enhances tumour progression. In primary tumours, the impaired function of CCDC6 protein has been ascribed to CCDC6 rearrangements and to somatic mutations in several neoplasia. Recently, low levels of CCDC6 protein, in NSCLC, have been correlated with tumor prognosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the variable levels of CCDC6 in primary tumors have not been described yet. We show that CCDC6 turnover is regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner. CCDC6 undergoes a cyclic variation in the phosphorylated status and in protein levels that peak at G2 and decrease in mitosis. The reduced stability of CCDC6 in the M phase is dependent on mitotic kinases and on degron motifs that are present in CCDC6 and direct the recruitment of CCDC6 to the FBXW7 E3 Ubl. The de-ubiquitinase enzyme USP7 appears responsible of the fine tuning of the CCDC6 stability, affecting cells behaviour and drug response. Thus, we propose that the amount of CCDC6 protein in primary tumors, as reported in lung, may depend on the impairment of the CCDC6 turnover due to altered protein-protein interaction and post-translational modifications and may be critical in optimizing personalized therapy. PMID:25885523

  7. FBXW7 and USP7 regulate CCDC6 turnover during the cell cycle and affect cancer drugs susceptibility in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Morra, Francesco; Luise, Chiara; Merolla, Francesco; Poser, Ina; Visconti, Roberta; Ilardi, Gennaro; Paladino, Simona; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Guggino, Gianluca; Monaco, Roberto; Colecchia, David; Monaco, Guglielmo; Cerrato, Aniello; Chiariello, Mario; Denning, Krista; Claudio, Pier Paolo; Staibano, Stefania; Celetti, Angela

    2015-05-20

    CCDC6 gene product is a pro-apoptotic protein substrate of ATM, whose loss or inactivation enhances tumour progression. In primary tumours, the impaired function of CCDC6 protein has been ascribed to CCDC6 rearrangements and to somatic mutations in several neoplasia. Recently, low levels of CCDC6 protein, in NSCLC, have been correlated with tumor prognosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for the variable levels of CCDC6 in primary tumors have not been described yet.We show that CCDC6 turnover is regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner. CCDC6 undergoes a cyclic variation in the phosphorylated status and in protein levels that peak at G2 and decrease in mitosis. The reduced stability of CCDC6 in the M phase is dependent on mitotic kinases and on degron motifs that are present in CCDC6 and direct the recruitment of CCDC6 to the FBXW7 E3 Ubl. The de-ubiquitinase enzyme USP7 appears responsible of the fine tuning of the CCDC6 stability, affecting cells behaviour and drug response.Thus, we propose that the amount of CCDC6 protein in primary tumors, as reported in lung, may depend on the impairment of the CCDC6 turnover due to altered protein-protein interaction and post-translational modifications and may be critical in optimizing personalized therapy.

  8. How stock of origin affects performance of individuals across a meta-ecosystem: an example from sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Jennifer R; Schindler, Daniel E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans. PMID:23505539

  9. How Stock of Origin Affects Performance of Individuals across a Meta-Ecosystem: An Example from Sockeye Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Seeb, Lisa W.

    2013-01-01

    Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the body condition of juvenile sockeye salmon. We use genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to assign individuals of unknown origin to stock group and in turn characterize ecologically relevant attributes across habitats and stocks. Our analyses show that the body condition of juvenile salmon is related to the productivity of alternative habitats across the watershed, irrespective of their stock of origin. Emigrants and residents with genetic origins in the high productivity lake were also differentiated by their body condition, poor and high respectively. These emigrants represented a substantial proportion of juvenile sockeye salmon rearing in the lower productivity lake habitat. Despite emigrants originating from the more productive lake, they did not differ in body condition from the individuals spawned in the lower productivity, recipient habitat. Genetic tools allowed us to assess the performance of different stocks groups across the diverse habitats comprising their meta-ecosystem. The ability to characterize the ecological consequences of meta-ecosystem connectivity can help develop strategies to protect and restore ecosystems and the services they provide to humans. PMID:23505539

  10. Is rat liver affected by non-alcoholic steatosis more susceptible to the acute toxic effect of thioacetamide?

    PubMed

    Kučera, Otto; Lotková, Halka; Staňková, Pavla; Podhola, Miroslav; Roušar, Tomáš; Mezera, Vojtěch; Cervinková, Zuzana

    2011-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic condition of the liver in the western world. There is only little evidence about altered sensitivity of steatotic liver to acute toxic injury. The aim of this project was to test whether hepatic steatosis sensitizes rat liver to acute toxic injury induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum a standard pelleted diet (ST-1, 10% energy fat) and high-fat gelled diet (HFGD, 71% energy fat) for 6 weeks and then TAA was applied intraperitoneally in one dose of 100 mg/kg. Animals were sacrificed in 24-, 48- and 72-h interval after TAA administration. We assessed the serum biochemistry, the hepatic reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, cytokine concentration, the respiration of isolated liver mitochondria and histopathological samples (H+E, Sudan III, bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU] incorporation). Activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and concentration of serum bilirubin were significantly higher in HFGD groups after application of TAA, compared to ST-1. There were no differences in activities of respiratory complexes I and II. Serum tumour necrosis factor alpha at 24 and 48 h, liver tissue interleukin-6 at 72 h and transforming growth factor β1 at 24 and 48 h were elevated in TAA-administrated rats fed with HFGD, but not ST-1. TAA-induced centrilobular necrosis and subsequent regenerative response of the liver were higher in HFGD-fed rats in comparison with ST-1. Liver affected by NAFLD, compared to non-steatotic liver, is more sensitive to toxic effect of TAA. PMID:21410800

  11. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  12. Activity and social factors affect cohesion among individuals in female Japanese macaques: A simultaneous focal-follow study.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Mari; Suzuki, Mariko; Sprague, David S

    2014-07-01

    Understanding cohesion among individuals within a group is necessary to reveal the social system of group-living primates. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are female-philopatric primates that reside in social groups. We investigated whether individual activity and social factors can affect spatio-temporal cohesion in wild female Japanese macaques. We conducted behavioral observation on a group, which contained 38 individuals and ranged over ca. 60 ha during the study period. Two observers carried out simultaneous focal-animal sampling of adult female pairs during full-day follows using global positioning system which enabled us to quantify interindividual distances (IIDs), group members within visual range (i.e., visual unit), and separation duration beyond visual range as indicators of cohesion among individuals. We found considerable variation in spatio-temporal group cohesion. The overall mean IID was 99.9 m (range = 0-618.2 m). The percentage of IIDs within visual range was 23.1%, within auditory range was 59.8%, and beyond auditory range was 17.1%. IIDs varied with activity; they were shorter during grooming and resting, and longer during foraging and traveling. Low-ranking females showed less cohesion than high-ranking ones. Kin females stayed nearly always within audible range. The macaques were weakly cohesive with small mean visual unit size (3.15 counting only adults, 5.99 counting all individuals). Both-sex units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were grooming/resting. Conversely, female units were the most frequently observed visual unit type when they were foraging. The overall mean visual separation duration was 25.7 min (range = 3-513 min). Separation duration was associated with dominance rank. These results suggest that Japanese macaques regulate cohesion among individuals depending on their activity and on social relationships; they were separated to adapt food distribution and aggregated to maintain social

  13. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  14. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    PubMed

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  15. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    PubMed Central

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands. PMID:27275828

  16. A combined analysis of D22S278 marker alleles in affected sib-pairs: Support for a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at chromosome 22q12

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, M.; Vallada, H.; Collier, D.

    1996-02-16

    Several groups have reported weak evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and genetic markers located on chromosome 22q using the lod score method of analysis. However these findings involved different genetic markers and methods of analysis, and so were not directly comparable. To resolve this issue we have performed a combined analysis of genotypic data from the marker D22S278 in multiply affected schizophrenic families derived from 11 independent research groups worldwide. This marker was chosen because it showed maximum evidence for linkage in three independent datasets. Using the affected sib-pair method as implemented by the program ESPA, the combined dataset showed 252 alleles shared compared with 188 alleles not shared (chi-square 9.31, 1df, P = 0.001) where parental genotype data was completely known. When sib-pairs for whom parental data was assigned according to probability were included the number of alleles shared was 514.1 compared with 437.8 not shared (chi-square 6.12, 1df, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained when a likelihood ratio method for sib-pair analysis was used. These results indicate that there may be a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia at 22q12. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Mother-infant dyadic reparation and individual differences in vagal tone affect 4-month-old infants' social stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Casini, Erica; de Simone, Paola; Reni, Gianluigi; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Infants' social stress regulation (i.e., reactivity and recovery) might be affected by mother-infant dyadic functioning and infants' vagal tone (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA). This study investigated the role of a specific dyadic functioning feature (i.e., dyadic reparation) and individual differences in vagal tone regulation (i.e., RSA suppression vs. non-suppression) in relation to social stress regulation in 4-month-old infants. A total of 65 mother-infant dyads participated in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Social stress reactivity and recovery were measured as negative emotionality during Still-Face and Reunion episodes, respectively. RSA was measured during Play, Still-Face, and Reunion episodes. Suppressors had higher dyadic reparation during Play and higher recovery from social stress compared with non-suppressors. Higher reparation during Play was associated with lower reactivity and higher recovery only for suppressors. Findings suggest a joint role of infants' RSA individual differences and dyadic reparation in affecting infants' social stress regulation at 4 months of age. PMID:26247809

  18. Differential impact of a complex environment on positive affect in an animal model of individual differences in emotionality.

    PubMed

    Perez-Sepulveda, J A; Flagel, S B; Garcia-Fuster, M J; Slusky, R J; Aldridge, J W; Watson, S; Akil, H

    2013-09-17

    Anhedonia, or the inability to experience positive feelings is a hallmark of depression. However, few animal models have relied on decreased positive affect as an index of susceptibility to depression. Rats emit frequency-modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), designated as "positive" calls in the 50-kHz range. USVs have been associated with pharmacological activation of motivational reward circuits. Here we utilized selectively-bred rats differing in "emotionality" to ask whether there are associated differences in USVs. Rats bred based on locomotor response to novelty and classified as bred High Responders (bHRs) or bred Low Responders (bLRs) exhibit inborn differences in response to environmental cues, stress responsiveness, and depression-like behavior. These animals also exhibit differences in anxiety-like behavior, which are reversed by exposure to environmental complexity (EC). Finally, these animals exhibit unique profiles of responsiveness to rewarding stimuli accompanied with distinct patterns of dopamine regulation. We investigated whether acute and chronic environmental manipulations impacted USVs in bHRs and bLRs. We found that, relative to bLRs, bHRs emitted significantly more 50-kHz USVs. However, if a bLR is accompanied by another bLR, there is a significant increase in 50-kHZ USVs emitted by this phenotype. bHRs emitted increases in 50-kHZ UVSs upon first exposure to EC, whereas bLRs showed a similar increase only after repeated exposure. bLRs' increase in positive affect after chronic EC was coupled with significant positive correlations between corticosterone levels and c-fos mRNA in the accumbens. Conversely, a decline in the rate of positive calls in bHRs after chronic EC was associated with a negative correlation between corticosterone and accumbens c-fos mRNA. These studies demonstrate that inborn differences in emotionality interact with the environment to influence positive affect and underscore the potential interaction between

  19. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  20. Taking the long view: Implications of individual differences in temporal distancing for affect, stress reactivity, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Ayduk, Özlem; John, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental work demonstrates that temporal distancing from negative experiences reduces distress. Yet two central questions remain: (a) do people differ in the habitual tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences, and if so (b) what implications does this tendency have for well-being? Seven studies explored these questions. Study 1 describes the construction and reliability of the Temporal Distancing Questionnaire, a new measure of individual differences in the tendency to place negative experiences into a broader future time perspective. Study 2 establishes a nomological network around this construct, examining the relationship of temporal distancing to other theoretically related constructs. Study 3 tests whether people high in temporal distancing (i.e., "high temporal distancers") experience greater concurrent well-being, including greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lesser negative affect, worry, and depressive symptoms. Study 4 examines whether temporal distancing predicts well-being measured at the daily level, and across time. Finally, Studies 5a-5c explore a key way in which temporal distancing may support psychological well-being-by facilitating more adaptive responses to negative experiences. Our results demonstrate that the tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences predicts a more positive profile of affective experiences and stress-reactivity that may support immediate and longer-term well-being. Moreover, many of these findings remained significant when controlling for general reappraisal tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. The effect of interleukin-1 allele 2 genotype (IL-1a(-889) and IL-1b(+3954)) on the individual's susceptibility to peri-implantitis: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Ahmed Abd El-Meguid Mostafa; Ebrahem, Mohamed Abd El-Moniem

    2011-06-01

    Individuals bearing the combination of interleukin (IL)-1 allele 2 at IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3954) are referred to as being genotype positive and are susceptible to increased periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association of IL-1 allele 2 (IL-1A(-889) and IL-B(+3954)) genotypes with the severity of peri-implantitis progression and the effect of this combination on treatment outcomes. Fifty patients with International Team for Implantology implants were studied; patients ranged in age from 35-55 years, and each patient had 1 implant. According to peri-implant tissue status, patients were divided into 2 groups: group I consisted of 25 patients with peri-implantitis, and group II comprised 25 patients with healthy peri-implant tissue. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Epithelial cells were collected from the oral mucosa by plastic spatula and were used for IL-1 genotyping by the polymerase chain reaction technique. Group I patients were subjected to a peri-implantitis treatment and maintenance program. In all, 17 patients from group I and 5 patients from group II were genotype positive, with a statistically significant difference noted between the 2 groups. Group I genotype-positive patients presented with higher scores and measurements of clinical parameters with increased suppuration from peri-implant tissues compared with group II; differences were statistically significant (P < .05). In terms of response to treatment, genotype-negative patients demonstrated better response than genotype-positive patients. The combination of IL-1 allele 2 (IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3954)) in patients with inflamed periodontal or peri-implant tissues acts as a risk factor that leads to greater tissue destruction. IL-1 gene polymorphism at IL-1A(-889) and IL-1B(+3954) may affect outcomes of treatment for peri-implantitis in genotype-positive individuals. PMID:20594066

  2. Assessment of first and second degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder shows increased genetic risk scores in both affected relatives and young At‐Risk Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Daniel L.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Liu, Hai; Glowinski, Anne L.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Frankland, Andrew; Roberts, Gloria; Schofield, Peter R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the polygenic nature of bipolar disorder (BP), and identified common risk variants associated with illness. However, the role of common polygenic risk in multiplex families has not previously been examined. The present study examined 249 European‐ancestry families from the NIMH Genetics Initiative sample, comparing subjects with narrowly defined BP (excluding bipolar II and recurrent unipolar depression; n = 601) and their adult relatives without BP (n = 695). Unrelated adult controls (n = 266) were from the NIMH TGEN control dataset. We also examined a prospective cohort of young (12–30 years) offspring and siblings of individuals with BPI and BPII disorder (at risk; n = 367) and psychiatrically screened controls (n = 229), ascertained from five sites in the US and Australia and assessed with standardized clinical protocols. Thirty‐two disease‐associated SNPs from the PGC‐BP Working Group report (2011) were genotyped and additive polygenic risk scores (PRS) derived. We show increased PRS in adult cases compared to unrelated controls (P = 3.4 × 10−5, AUC = 0.60). In families with a high‐polygenic load (PRS score ≥32 in two or more subjects), PRS distinguished cases with BPI/SAB from other relatives (P = 0.014, RR = 1.32). Secondly, a higher PRS was observed in at‐risk youth, regardless of affected status, compared to unrelated controls (GEE‐χ2 = 5.15, P = 0.012). This report is the first to explore common polygenic risk in multiplex families, albeit using only a small number of robustly associated risk variants. We show that individuals with BP have a higher load of common disease‐associated variants than unrelated controls and first‐degree relatives, and illustrate the potential utility of PRS assessment in a family context. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  3. Genomewide Linkage Study in 1,176 Affected Sister Pair Families Identifies a Significant Susceptibility Locus for Endometriosis on Chromosome 10q26

    PubMed Central

    Treloar, Susan A.; Wicks, Jacqueline; Nyholt, Dale R.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Bahlo, Melanie; Smith, Vicki; Dawson, Gary; Mackay, Ian J.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Bennett, Simon T.; Carey, Alisoun; Ewen-White, Kelly R.; Duffy, David L.; O’Connor, Daniel T.; Barlow, David H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kennedy, Stephen H.

    2005-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease that affects up to 10% of women in their reproductive years. It causes pelvic pain, severe dysmenorrhea, and subfertility. The disease is defined as the presence of tissue resembling endometrium in sites outside the uterus. Its cause remains uncertain despite >50 years of hypothesis-driven research, and thus the therapeutic options are limited. Disease predisposition is inherited as a complex genetic trait, which provides an alternative route to understanding the disease. We seek to identify susceptibility loci, using a positional-cloning approach that starts with linkage analysis to identify genomic regions likely to harbor these genes. We conducted a linkage study of 1,176 families (931 from an Australian group and 245 from a U.K. group), each with at least two members—mainly affected sister pairs—with surgically diagnosed disease. We have identified a region of significant linkage on chromosome 10q26 (maximum LOD score [MLS] of 3.09; genomewide P = .047) and another region of suggestive linkage on chromosome 20p13 (MLS = 2.09). Minor peaks (with MLS > 1.0) were found on chromosomes 2, 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, and 17. This is the first report of linkage to a major locus for endometriosis. The findings will facilitate discovery of novel positional genetic variants that influence the risk of developing this debilitating disease. Greater understanding of the aberrant cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis should lead to better diagnostic methods and targeted treatments. PMID:16080113

  4. Does Insight Affect the Efficacy of Antipsychotics in Acute Mania?: An Individual Patient Data Regression Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Welten, Carlijn C M; Koeter, Maarten W J; Wohlfarth, Tamar D; Storosum, Jitschak G; van den Brink, Wim; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Denys, Damiaan A J P

    2016-02-01

    Patients having an acute manic episode of bipolar disorder often lack insight into their condition. Because little is known about the possible effect of insight on treatment efficacy, we examined whether insight at the start of treatment affects the efficacy of antipsychotic treatment in patients with acute mania. We used individual patient data from 7 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled registration studies of 4 antipsychotics in patients with acute mania (N = 1904). Insight was measured with item 11 of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at baseline and study endpoint 3 weeks later. Treatment outcome was defined by (a) mean change score, (b) response defined as 50% or more improvement on YMRS, and (c) remission defined as YMRS score less than 8 at study endpoint. We used multilevel mixed effect linear (or logistic) regression analyses of individual patient data to assess the interaction between baseline insight and treatment outcomes. At treatment initiation, 1207 (63.5%) patients had impaired or no insight into their condition. Level of insight significantly modified the efficacy of treatment by mean change score (P = 0.039), response rate (P = 0.033), and remission rate (P = 0.043), with greater improvement in patients with more impaired insight. We therefore recommend that patients experiencing acute mania should be treated immediately and not be delayed until patients regain insight.

  5. Inter-individual differences in trait negative affect moderate cortisol's effects on memory formation: preliminary findings from two studies.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M

    2012-05-01

    Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors.

  6. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and health-related quality of life in individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Østertun Geirdal, Amy; Øverland, Britt; Heimdal, Ketil; Storhaug, Kari; Asten, Pamela; Akre, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Although the relationship between Quality of Life (QoL) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been reported in several studies, little is known about this relationship among individuals affected with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The aim of this study was to examine the associations between obstructive sleep and QoL in TCS patients. Thirty-six individuals with TCS (8-75 years) were invited to participate in expanded medical examinations, including a sleep study, polysomnography, as well as to respond to questionnaires about health related Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Twenty-three (64 %) responded to the invitation, but four were later excluded due to additional diagnoses or unconfirmed TCS, and four were below 12 years and excluded due to different scoring rules for sleep and respiratory disturbances in young children and adults. The remaining group comprised 15 adults and adolescents with TCS, 5 male (33 %) and 10 female (66 %). The participants were between 12 and 75 years of age (mean 38.6, SD 18.5). Obstructive sleep was found in 87 % of the patients and several sleep apnea parameters, among these wake time after sleep, subjective snoring and mean saturation, were associated with poorer HRQoL. OSA appears to account for reduced HRQoL in adolescents and adults with TCS.

  7. Factors Affecting Parent’s Perception on Air Quality—From the Individual to the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government’s environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents’ perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan’s environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170–9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244–25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212–21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents’ perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public’s perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  8. Stress management training as a prevention program for heavy social drinkers: cognitions, affect, drinking, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, D J; Smith, R E; Johnson, S

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) as a drinking reduction program for heavy social drinking college students was investigated. The SMT package included muscle relaxation and meditation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skill rehearsal during induced affect. Treated and control subjects rated the frequency and intensity of their anxiety, anger and depression and recorded their alcohol consumption on a daily basis over a 6-month period. SMT significantly reduced posttreatment daily anxiety ratings and was associated with changes in four of ten irrational beliefs and a shift toward more internal locus of control in treated subjects. Reduction in anxiety was no longer evident at the 2 1/2- and 5 1/2-month follow-ups. The men in the SMT group showed a significant decrease in daily drinking rates at posttreatment and at the 2 1/2-month follow-up, but drinking returned to baseline levels by 5 1/2 months for the group as a whole. However, significant improvement variance in daily moods and in drinking rates over all posttreatment periods was accounted for by individual difference variables in the trained subjects but not in the control group, suggesting that these cognitive, personality, and social support variables are associated with response to stress management training. Implications of these results for future prevention research are discussed.

  9. Chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects multiple protein-coding genes and can result in severe congenital abnormalities in offspring.

    PubMed

    de Pagter, Mirjam S; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Baas, Annette F; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen J; van Binsbergen, Ellen; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Hochstenbach, Ron; van der Veken, Lars T; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2015-04-01

    Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.

  10. The Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    NAWROCKI,J.G.; DUPONT,J.N.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; MARDER,A.R.

    1999-12-15

    The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic steel, HCM2S, has been evaluated and compared to 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using Gleeble techniques. Simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) were produced under a range of energy inputs and tested at various post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures. Both alloys were tested at a stress of 325 MPa. The 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel was also tested at 270 MPa to normalize for the difference in yield strength between the two materials. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the CGHAZ microstructure. The ''as-welded'' CGHAZ of each alloy consisted of lath martensite or bainite and had approximately equal prior austenite grain sizes. The as-welded hardness of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel CGHAZ was significantly higher than that of the HCM2S alloy. Over the range studied energy input had no effect on the as-welded microstructure or hardness of either alloy. The energy input also had no effect on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of either material. Both alloys failed intergranularly along prior austenite grain boundaries under all test conditions. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel samples experienced significant macroductility and some microductility when tested at 325 MPa. The ductility decreased significantly when tested at 270 MPa but was still higher that than of HCM2S at each test condition. The time to failure decreased with increasing PWHT Temperature for each material. There was no significant difference in the times to failure between the two materials. Varying energy input and stress had no effect on the time-to failure. The ductility, as measured by reduction in are% increased with increasing PWHT temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel tested at both stresses. However, PWHT temperature had no effect on the ductility of HCM2S. The hardness of the CGHAZ for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel decreased significantly after PWHT, but remained constant for HCM2S. The differences in stress

  11. Crop size, plant aggregation, and microhabitat type affect fruit removal by birds from individual melastome plants in the Upper Amazon.

    PubMed

    Blendinger, Pedro G; Loiselle, Bette A; Blake, John G

    2008-11-01

    We studied the efficiency (proportion of the crop removed) and quantitative effectiveness (number of fruits removed) of dispersal of Miconia fosteri and M. serrulata (Melastomataceae) seeds by birds in lowland tropical wet forest of Ecuador. Specifically, we examined variation in fruit removal in order to reveal the spatial scale at which crop size influences seed dispersal outcome of individual plants, and to evaluate how the effect of crop size on plant dispersal success may be affected by conspecific fruit abundance and by the spatial distribution of frugivore abundance. We established two 9-ha plots in undisturbed terra-firme understory, where six manakin species (Pipridae) disperse most seeds of these two plant species. Mean levels of fruit removal were low for both species, with high variability among plants. In general, plants with larger crop sizes experienced greater efficiency and effectiveness of fruit removal than plants with smaller crops. Fruit removal, however, was also influenced by microhabitat, such as local topography and local neighborhood. Fruit-rich and disperser-rich patches overlapped spatially for M. fosteri but not M. serrulata, nonetheless fruit removal of M. serrulata was still much greater in fruit-rich patches. Fruit removal from individual plants did not decrease in patches with many fruiting conspecifics and, in fact, removal effectiveness was enhanced for M. fosteri with small crop sizes when such plants were in patches with more conspecifics. These results suggest that benefits of attracting dispersers to a patch balanced or outweighed the costs of competition for dispersers. Spatial pattern of fruit removal, a measure of plant fitness, depended on a complex interaction among plant traits, spatial patterns of plant distribution, and disperser behavior. PMID:18810498

  12. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  13. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  14. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. PMID:25904723

  15. Does transcranial direct current stimulation to prefrontal cortex affect mood and emotional memory retrieval in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen M; Davis, Nick J; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of prefrontal cortex to improve symptoms of depression have had mixed results. We examined whether using tDCS to change the balance of activity between left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can alter mood and memory retrieval of emotional material in healthy volunteers. Participants memorised emotional images, then tDCS was applied bilaterally to DLPFC while they performed a stimulus-response compatibility task. Participants were then presented with a set of images for memory retrieval. Questionnaires to examine mood and motivational state were administered at the beginning and end of each session. Exploratory data analyses showed that the polarity of tDCS to DLPFC influenced performance on a stimulus-response compatibility task and this effect was dependent on participants' prior motivational state. However, tDCS polarity had no effect on the speed or accuracy of memory retrieval of emotional images and did not influence positive or negative affect. These findings suggest that the balance of activity between left and right DLPFC does not play a critical role in the mood state of healthy individuals. We suggest that the efficacy of prefrontal tDCS depends on the initial activation state of neurons and future work should take this into account.

  16. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  17. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies

    PubMed Central

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Buka, Stephen L.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia. PMID:25904723

  18. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L.; Terwilliger, J.; Weissenbach, J.

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Density-dependent processes in leaf beetles feeding on purple loosestrife: aggregative behaviour affecting individual growth rates.

    PubMed

    Hambäck, P A

    2010-10-01

    Aggregative responses are commonly observed in insects, including chrysomelids, affecting both individual and population growth rates. In two closely related chrysomelid beetles (Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla) feeding on purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), recent studies suggest that male-produced pheromones may cause both inter- and intraspecific attraction. This paper further examines the causes and consequences of feeding aggregations in these species. Olfactometer studies confirm previous findings, showing cross-species attraction to damaged plants, but suggest that also damaged induced plant volatiles may be involved. In addition, the studies suggest that the cross-species attraction observed in previous studies have asymmetric effects on the two beetles. Galerucella pusilla was more attracted to damage by G. calmariensis than to damage by conspecifics. Laboratory and field data suggest that feeding aggregations in these species increase pupal mass, at least at low to intermediate larval densities. This positive feedback may have important consequences for the spatiotemporal dynamics and as a consequence on the role of the two chrysomelid beetles on biological control of purple loosestrife.

  20. Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models to Study Treatment-Induced Changes in Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application to Smokers' Affect

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Griffin, Daniel; Shiffman, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect items calm and content relative to the pre-quitting phase. This reduction in state variability did not differ between the NRT and placebo groups, indicating that quitting smoking may lead to a stabilization of individuals' affect states regardless of whether or not individuals receive NRT. PMID:27499744

  1. Mtf-1 lymphoma-susceptibility locus affects retention of large thymocytes with high ROS levels in mice after {gamma}-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kohara, Yuki; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Mishima, Yukio; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Kominami, Ryo; E-mail: rykomina@med.niigata-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-02

    Mouse strains exhibit different susceptibilities to {gamma}-ray-induced thymic lymphomas. Our previous study identified Mtf-1 (metal responsive transcription factor-1) as a candidate susceptibility gene, which is involved in the radiation-induced signaling pathway that regulates the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). To reveal the mechanism for the increased susceptibility conferred by Mtf-1 locus, we examined early effects of {gamma}-ray on ROS levels in vivo and its difference between Mtf-1 susceptible and resistant congenic mice. Here, we show the detection of clonally growing thymocytes at 4 weeks after irradiation, indicating the start of clonal expansion at a very early stage. We also show that large thymocytes with higher ROS levels and a proliferation capacity were more numerous in the Mtf-1 susceptible mice than the resistant mice when examined at 7 days after irradiation, although such tendency was not found in mice lacking one allele of Bcl11b tumor suppressor gene. This high retention of the large thymocytes, at a high risk for ROS-induced mutation, is a compensatory proliferation and regeneration response to depletion of the thymocytes after irradiation and the response is likely to augment the development of prelymphoma cells leading to thymic lymphomas.

  2. MicroRNA expression profiling in the prefrontal cortex of individuals affected with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert H.; Reimers, Mark; Maher, Brion; Williamson, Vernell; McMichael, Omari; McClay, Joseph L.; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Vladimirov, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of small non-coding RNAs which negatively control gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The number of miRNAs identified is growing rapidly and approximately one-third is expressed in the brain where they have been shown to affect neuronal differentiation, synaptosomal complex localization and synapse plasticity, all functions thought to be disrupted in schizophrenia. Here we investigated the expression of 667 miRNAs (miRBase v.13) in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia (SZ, N=35) and bipolar disorder (BP, N=35) using a real-time PCR-based Taqman Low Density Array (TLDA). After extensive QC steps, 441 miRNAs were included in the final analyses. At a FDR of 10%, 22 miRNAs were identified as being differentially expressed between cases and controls, 7 dysregulated in SZ and 15 in BP. Using in silico target gene prediction programs, the 22miRNAs were found to target brain specific genes contained within networks overrepresented for neurodevelopment, behavior, and SZ and BP disease development. In an initial attempt to corroborate some of these predictions, we investigated the extent of correlation between the expressions of hsa-mir-34a, -132 and -212 and their predicted gene targets. mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) was measured in the SMRI sample. Hsa-miR-132 and -212 were negatively correlated with TH (p=0.0001 and 0.0017) and with PGD (p=0.0054 and 0.017, respectively). PMID:20675101

  3. Yolk testosterone affects growth and promotes individual-level consistency in behavioral lateralization of yellow-legged gull chicks.

    PubMed

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Spiezio, Caterina; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral lateralization is common in animals and may be expressed at the individual- and at the population-level. The ontogenetic processes that control lateralization, however, are largely unknown. Well-established sex-dependence in androgen physiology and sex-dependent variation in lateralization have led to the hypothesis that testosterone (T) has organizational effects on lateralization. The effects of T exposure in early life on lateralization can be efficiently investigated by manipulating T levels in the cleidoic eggs of birds, because the embryo is isolated from maternal and sibling physiological interference, but this approach has been adopted very rarely. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) we increased yolk T concentration within the physiological limits and tested the effects on the direction of lateralization in two functionally fundamental behaviors (begging for parental care and escape to cover) of molecularly sexed hatchlings. We also speculated that T may intervene in regulating consistency, rather than direction of lateralization, and therefore tested if T affected the 'repeatability' of lateral preference in consecutive behavioral trials. T treatment had no effect on the direction of lateralization, but enhanced the consistency of lateral preference in escape responses. Sex did not predict lateralization. Neither behavior was lateralized at the population-level. We therefore showed for the first time in any species an effect of egg T on consistency in lateralization. The implications of the effect of T for the evolution of trade-offs in maternal allocation of egg hormones, and the evolutionary interpretations of findings from our studies on lateralization among unmanipulated birds are discussed. PMID:26836770

  4. Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Yaoundé human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients exhibited intra-individual genetic diversity and variation in antifungal susceptibility profiles between isolates from the same patient.

    PubMed

    Kammalac Ngouana, Thierry; Drakulovski, Pascal; Krasteva, Donika; Kouanfack, Charles; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sebastien

    2016-07-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a dreadful opportunistic fungal infection amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. One complication in the management of the disease is the possible infection of a patient by two or more different strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. This study investigated the intra-individual genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolates from Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Twenty-five clinical isolates were obtained during a prospective study. Five colonies were randomly collected from each initial sample. The 150 isolates obtained (125 colonies and 25 initial samples) were submitted to serotyping by multiplex PCR. Genotyping analyses were achieved using RFLP, and minisatellite- and microsatellite-length polymorphism. The antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out using a Sensititre YeastOne kit. Seven antifungals were tested: itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, posaconazole and voriconazole. The 150 isolates were identified as C. neoformans serotype A and genotype VNI. The microsatellite and minisatellite sequence analyses generated 15 genotypes. Six out of 25 (24 %) patients were found to be infected by two different genotypes. Antifungal susceptibility showed several profiles: posaconazole (0.015-0.25 µg ml-1), amphotericin B (0.06-1 µg ml-1), fluconazole (0.5-16 µg ml-1), itraconazole (0.008-0.12 µg ml-1), ketoconazole (0.008-0.12 µg ml-1), 5-fluorocytosine (0.25-16 µg ml-1) and voriconazole (0.008-0.12 µg ml-1). It was noted that isolates from the same patient might present different susceptibility profiles to an antifungal drug with differences of more than four dilutions. The results achieved highlighted the possible presence of isolates with different genotypes in a patient with dissimilar antifungal susceptibility profiles during a single episode of cryptococcal meningitis. PMID:27100672

  5. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  6. Gene by Environment Interaction Linking the Chromosome 15q25 Locus With Cigarette Consumption and Lung Cancer Susceptibility--Are African American Affected Differently?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, R J; Young, R P

    2016-02-01

    The majority of lung cancer cases result from complex interactions between smoking exposure, genetic susceptibility and a person's immune response to chronic inflammation or lung remodelling. Epidemiological studies confirm that susceptibility to developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially emphysema, is also closely linked to lung cancer susceptibility. Genetic epidemiology studies have consistently reported associations between the chromosome 15q25 locus with lung cancer and COPD. In addition, studies show this locus to be independently associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine addiction in a dose-response manner, primarily at lower levels of cigarette consumption. Studies that measure both cigarette consumption and lung function, together with extensive genotype analysis, will be needed to further unravel these complex relationships.

  7. Gene by Environment Interaction Linking the Chromosome 15q25 Locus With Cigarette Consumption and Lung Cancer Susceptibility — Are African American Affected Differently?

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, R.J.; Young, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of lung cancer cases result from complex interactions between smoking exposure, genetic susceptibility and a person's immune response to chronic inflammation or lung remodelling. Epidemiological studies confirm that susceptibility to developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially emphysema, is also closely linked to lung cancer susceptibility. Genetic epidemiology studies have consistently reported associations between the chromosome 15q25 locus with lung cancer and COPD. In addition, studies show this locus to be independently associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine addiction in a dose-response manner, primarily at lower levels of cigarette consumption. Studies that measure both cigarette consumption and lung function, together with extensive genotype analysis, will be needed to further unravel these complex relationships. PMID:27014742

  8. Gene by Environment Interaction Linking the Chromosome 15q25 Locus With Cigarette Consumption and Lung Cancer Susceptibility--Are African American Affected Differently?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, R J; Young, R P

    2016-02-01

    The majority of lung cancer cases result from complex interactions between smoking exposure, genetic susceptibility and a person's immune response to chronic inflammation or lung remodelling. Epidemiological studies confirm that susceptibility to developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially emphysema, is also closely linked to lung cancer susceptibility. Genetic epidemiology studies have consistently reported associations between the chromosome 15q25 locus with lung cancer and COPD. In addition, studies show this locus to be independently associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine addiction in a dose-response manner, primarily at lower levels of cigarette consumption. Studies that measure both cigarette consumption and lung function, together with extensive genotype analysis, will be needed to further unravel these complex relationships. PMID:27014742

  9. Exploring Genetic Susceptibility to Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Yim, Yi-Rang; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Tae-Jong; Park, Yong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects 1% to 5% of the population, and approximately 90% of the affected individuals are women. FM patients experience impaired quality of life and the disorder places a considerable economic burden on the medical care system. With the recognition of FM as a major health problem, many recent studies have evaluated the pathophysiology of FM. Although the etiology of FM remains unknown, it is thought to involve some combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure that triggers further alterations in gene expression. Because FM shows marked familial aggregation, most previous research has focused on genetic predisposition to FM and has revealed associations between genetic factors and the development of FM, including specific gene polymorphisms involved in the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and catecholaminergic pathways. The aim of this review was to discuss the current evidence regarding genetic factors that may play a role in the development and symptom severity of FM. PMID:26306300

  10. Social, contextual, and individual factors affecting the occurrence and acoustic structure of drumming bouts in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Babiszewska, Magdalena; Schel, Anne Marijke; Wilke, Claudia; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-01-01

    The production of structured and repetitive sounds by striking objects is a behavior found not only in humans, but also in a variety of animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). In this study we examined individual and social factors that may influence the frequency with which individuals engage in drumming behavior when producing long distance pant hoot vocalizations, and analyzed the temporal structure of those drumming bouts. Male chimpanzees from Budongo Forest, Uganda, drummed significantly more frequently during travel than feeding or resting and older individuals were significantly more likely to produce drumming bouts than younger ones. In contrast, we found no evidence that the presence of estrus females, high ranking males and preferred social partners in the caller's vicinty had an effect on the frequency with which an individual accompanied their pant hoot vocalization with drumming. Through acoustic analyses, we demonstrated that drumming sequences produced with pant hoots may have contained information on individual identity and that qualitatively, there was individual variation in the complexity of the temporal patterns produced. We conclude that drumming patterns may act as individually distinctive long-distance signals that, together with pant hoot vocalizations, function to coordinate the movement and spacing of dispersed individuals within a community, rather than as signals to group members in the immediate audience.

  11. Predicting Short-Term Positive Affect in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Selected Personality Traits and Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Jaclyn S.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Lim, Michelle H.; Fernandez, Katya C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, research has provided support for a moderate, inverse relationship between social anxiety and dispositional positive affect. However, the dynamics of this relationship remain poorly understood. The present study evaluates whether certain personality traits and emotion regulation variables predict short-term positive affect for individuals with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Positive affect as measured by two self-report instruments was assessed before and after two tasks in which the participant conversed with either a friend or a romantic partner. Tests of models examining the hypothesized prospective predictors revealed that the paths did not differ significantly across diagnostic group and both groups showed the hypothesized patterns of endorsement for the emotion regulation variables. Further, a variable reflecting difficulty redirecting oneself when distressed prospectively predicted one measure of positive affect. Additional research is needed to explore further the role of emotion regulation strategies on positive emotions for individuals higher in social anxiety. PMID:26119140

  12. Effects of divorce on Dutch boys' and girls' externalizing behavior in Gene × Environment perspective: diathesis stress or differential susceptibility in the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study?

    PubMed

    Nederhof, Esther; Belsky, Jay; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2012-08-01

    The effects of divorce on children's behavioral development have proven to be quite varied across studies, and most developmental and family scholars today appreciate the great heterogeneity in divorce effects. Thus, this inquiry sought to determine whether select dopaminergic genes previously associated with externalizing behavior and/or found to moderate diverse environmental effects (dopamine receptors D2 and D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) might moderate divorce effects on adolescent self-reported externalizing problems; and, if so, whether evidence of gene-environment (G × E) interaction would prove consistent with diathesis-stress or differential-susceptibility models of environmental action. Data from the first and third wave of the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1,134) revealed some evidence of G × E interaction reflecting diathesis-stress but not differential susceptibility. It is intriguing that some evidence pointed to "vantage sensitivity," which are benefits accruing to those with a specific genotype when their parents remained together, the exact opposite of diathesis-stress. The limits of this work are considered, especially with regard to the conditions for testing differential susceptibility, and future directions are outlined.

  13. How do Individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Experience Contact to Other Affected Persons?

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, K.; Fliegner, M.; Brunner, F.; Brucker, S.; Rall, K.; Richter-Appelt, H.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with different sex characteristics may suffer from a feeling of being “different” or “not normal”. In this study, persons with one of 3 diagnoses (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome [CAIS]; Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome [MRKHS], polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]) were asked whether they had contact to other affected persons and how they assessed this contact. The correlation between contact and psychological distress was evaluated. Material and Methods: Information on contacts to other affected individuals was obtained using a written questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured using the German version of the BSI (Brief Symptom Inventory). Results: Data from 11 individuals with CAIS, 49 women with MRKHS and 55 women with PCOS was analysed. The frequency of contacts to other affected individuals differed between the different diagnostic groups (with the highest frequency reported for the group with CAIS, and the lowest for the group with PCOS). Overall, the majority of individuals considered such contacts beneficial (CAIS 81.8 %; MRKHS 90 %; PCOS 83.3 %). The frequency of contacts and their assessment were not found to be correlated with psychological distress. The three diagnostic groups differed in the proportion of people who indicated a wish for contact with other affected persons. The desire to have contact with other affected persons was most commonly expressed by women with PCOS and high levels of psychological distress (60.9 %). Conclusion: Persons with different sex characteristics can benefit from contact to other affected individuals. Particularly women with PCOS and increased levels of psychological distress may benefit if the issue of support groups is addressed during treatment. PMID:25258457

  14. Resource availability affects individual niche variation and its consequences in group-living European badgers Meles meles.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Andrew; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard J; Kelly, Simon D; Bearhop, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Although intra-population variation in niches is a widespread phenomenon with important implications for ecology, evolution and management of a range of animal species, the causes and consequences of this variation remain poorly understood. We used stable isotope analysis to characterise foraging niches and to investigate the causes and consequences of individual niche variation in the European badger, a mustelid mammal that lives in territorial social groups, but forages alone. We found that the degree of individual niche variation within social groups was negatively related to the availability of farmland habitats, which represent an important foraging habitat for badgers; and was positively related to territory size, supporting the idea that resource limitation and ecological opportunity lead to increased individual specialisation. We also found that the degree of individual specialisation related to an individual's body condition and that this effect varied with ecological context; such that specialisation had a stronger positive relationship with body condition in social groups with reduced availability of key farmland habitats. Body condition was also related to the utilisation of specific resources (woodland invertebrates), but again this relationship varied with the availability of farmland foraging habitats. This study supports the idea that resource availability plays an important role in determining patterns of individual niche variation, and identifies the potential adaptive consequences of specialised foraging strategies.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide Phosphorylation by the WaaY Kinase Affects the Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to the Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37*

    PubMed Central

    Bociek, Karol; Ferluga, Sara; Mardirossian, Mario; Benincasa, Monica; Tossi, Alessandro; Gennaro, Renato; Scocchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a multifunctional host defense peptide with immunomodulatory and antimicrobial roles. It kills bacteria primarily by altering membrane barrier properties, although the exact sequence of events leading to cell lysis has not yet been completely elucidated. Random insertion mutagenesis allowed isolation of Escherichia coli mutants with altered susceptibility to LL-37, pointing to factors potentially relevant to its activity. Among these, inactivation of the waaY gene, encoding a kinase responsible for heptose II phosphorylation in the LPS inner core, leads to a phenotype with decreased susceptibility to LL-37, stemming from a reduced amount of peptide binding to the surface of the cells, and a diminished capacity to lyse membranes. This points to a specific role of the LPS inner core in guiding LL-37 to the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Although electrostatic interactions are clearly relevant, the susceptibility of the waaY mutant to other cationic helical cathelicidins was unaffected, indicating that particular structural features or LL-37 play a role in this interaction. PMID:26100635

  16. Intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence: toward a better understanding of brand choice decisions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich R; Kahle, Lynn R

    2008-08-01

    The authors examined intrapersonal variation in consumer susceptibility to normative influence as a key mediator of wine brand choice. On the basis of a consumer sample, the authors found that individual values and social identity complexity affect consumer susceptibility to normative influence with downstream effects on (a) which brand benefits consumers desire in wine and (b) choice. Individuals higher on internal values and with more complex social identities were less susceptible to normative influence and placed less emphasis on social brand benefits. Separate examinations of consumption scenarios with and without salient reference groups showed that reference group salience interacts with personal values and social identity complexity in affecting consumer susceptibility to normative influence, which in turn affects which brand benefits consumers desire and consequently choice.

  17. Clinical Characteristics, Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Overweight and Obese Individuals with Diarrhea: Observed at a Large Diarrheal Disease Hospital, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Huq, Sayeeda; Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Vanderlee, Lana; Kaur, Guddu; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and etiology of overweight and obese (OO) individuals with diarrhea attending an urban Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research (icddr,b), Bangladesh. Methods Total of 508 under-5 children, 96 individuals of 5–19 years and 1331 of >19 years were identified as OO from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System (DDSS) between 1993–2011. Two comparison groups such as well-nourished and malnourished individuals from respective age stratums were selected. Results Isolation rate of rotavirus was higher among OO under-5 children compared to malnourished group (46% vs. 28%). Rotavirus infection among OO individuals aged 5–19 years (9% vs. 3%) (9% vs. 3%) and >19 years (6% vs. 4%) (6% vs. 3%) was higher compared to well-nourished and malnourished children. Conversely, Vibrio cholerae was lower among all OO age groups compared to well-nourished and malnourished ones. Shigella (4% vs. 6%) (4% vs. 8%), and Campylobacter (3% vs. 5%) (3% vs. 5%) were lower only among OO in >19 years individuals compared to their counterparts of the same age stratum. Salmonella was similarly isolated in all age strata and nutritional groups. In multinomial logistic regression among under-5 children, significant association was observed only with use of antimicrobials at home [OR-1.97] and duration of hospital stay [OR-0.68]. For individuals aged 5–19 years, use of antimicrobials at home (OR-1.83), some or severe dehydration (OR-3.12), having received intravenous saline (OR-0.46) and rotavirus diarrhea (OR-2.96) were found to be associated with OO respectively. Moreover, significant associations were also found for duration of diarrhea before coming to hospital (>24 hours) (OR-1.24), Shigella (OR-0.46), and Campylobacter (OR-0.58) among >19 years OO individuals along with other associated co-variates in 5–19 years group (all p<0.05). Conclusion and significance Higher proportion of OO

  18. Modeling Individual Differences in Within-Person Variation of Negative and Positive Affect in a Mixed Effects Location Scale Model Using BUGS/JAGS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe; Hofer, Scott M.; Sparks, Catharine

    2012-01-01

    A mixed effects location scale model was used to model and explain individual differences in within-person variability of negative and positive affect across 7 days (N=178) within a measurement burst design. The data come from undergraduate university students and are pooled from a study that was repeated at two consecutive years. Individual…

  19. Cognitive-affective processing system analysis of intra-individual dynamics in collaborative therapeutic assessment: translating basic theory and research into clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Yuichi; Wilson, Nicole L; Chen, Jessica; Gilmore, Amanda K; Smith, Ronald E

    2013-12-01

    According to the cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS) model, behavior is a function of how the distinctive cognitive-affective system of the individual responds to one's subjective experience of the situation encountered. Thus an individual's maladaptive coping processes may be understood by identifying the nature of the situations that a client experiences as highly stressful and the psychological reactions they trigger. An initial study established the feasibility and utility of an Internet-based CAPS daily diary program; it was then used to facilitate a clinical stress-management intervention. The daily diary enabled researchers and clinicians to gather Highly-Repeated Within-Persons (HRWP) data on the situational features, cognitions, affect, and coping behaviors associated with daily life stress, which were then analyzed separately for each participant to identify each individual's unique and distinctive pattern of intra-individual dynamics. Results suggested that individuals differed reliably in the features of psychological situations that triggered stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. HRWP analysis of daily diary data enhanced the efficacy of clinical intervention, and clients' self-regulatory capabilities and life satisfaction were shown to increase over the course of the intervention. We discuss how our program of research fits into the larger goals of translational science and current NIMH clinical research priorities. PMID:23072471

  20. Aortic coarctation and carotid artery aneurysm in a patient with Hardikar syndrome: Cardiovascular implications for affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kaitlin M; Ellis, Alexander R; Raafat, Reem; Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Li, Dong; Schrier Vergano, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    Hardikar syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome first characterized in 1992 by Hardikar et al. to describe two individuals with cholestasis, cleft lip/palate, retinal pigmentation, intestinal abnormalities, and genitourinary anomalies. Between 1992 and 2002, four individuals with Hardikar syndrome were reported in the literature. The fourth individual [Maluf et al. (2002), Transplantation 74:1058-1061; Poley and Proud (2008) Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2473-2479], who had progressive cholestatic liver disease ultimately requiring liver transplantation, has continued to be followed at our institution. Recently, at the age of 14 years, during an evaluation for refractory hypertension, she was found to have developed coarctation of the aorta that was treated with aortic angioplasty and stenting, dramatically improving her hypertension. Further vascular investigation also revealed a small aneurysm of her carotid artery requiring neurosurgical evaluation and anticoagulant therapy. To our knowledge, these vascular anomalies have not been reported in Hardikar syndrome and the high association of congenital heart disease in the individuals with Hardikar syndrome has not been further addressed. Herein, we discuss this additional clinical information, speculate briefly on possible molecular etiologies, and discuss potential cardiac surveillance recommendations. We hope that broadening the known phenotype of this very rare disorder will further aid clinicians in their management and surveillance for these individuals.

  1. One day at a time: The impact of daily satisfaction with spouse responses on pain, negative affect and catastrophizing among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Susan; Delongis, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The majority of research on pain catastrophizing has focused on its negative consequences for adjustment to chronic pain, with few investigations of factors that influence catastrophizing or its detrimental effects. Using a daily process methodology, the current study examined, first, the extent to which a supportive social environment plays a role in reduced catastrophizing, and second, the extent to which support might protect against the detrimental effects of catastrophizing on well-being. Sixty-nine married individuals with rheumatoid arthritis took part in an initial background interview, followed by twice daily telephone interviews (regarding pain intensity, negative affect, catastrophizing and satisfaction with spouse responses) for 1 week. Multi-level modeling indicated several pathways through which satisfaction with spouse responses disrupts the vicious cycle of pain, negative affect and catastrophizing. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing was associated with increases in pain and negative affect. However, when individuals reported increases in satisfaction with spouse responses they were less likely to experience increases in negative affect due to catastrophizing. Satisfaction with spouse responses also reduced the likelihood of feeling overwhelmed and helpless in dealing with daily pain. The relationship between pain and catastrophizing was attenuated in the context of increases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Negative affect was associated with increases in catastrophizing, but only when individuals reported decreases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Overall, findings were consistent with a model in which satisfaction with spouse responses serves as a coping resource, and suggests the importance of involving close others in treatments to reduce pain and catastrophizing.

  2. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Individuals Whose Lives Have Been Affected by Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Elizabeth; Baillie, Andrew; Huxter, Malcolm; Price, Melanie; Sinclair, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. Method: Participants (N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1 site, by a single…

  3. Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth-reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth.

    PubMed

    Gélin, Uriel; Wilson, Michelle E; Cripps, Jemma; Coulson, Graeme; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction can lead to a trade-off with growth, particularly when individuals reproduce before completing body growth. Kangaroos have indeterminate growth and may always face this trade-off. We combined an experimental manipulation of reproductive effort and multi-year monitoring of a large sample size of marked individuals in two populations of eastern grey kangaroos to test the predictions (1) that reproduction decreases skeletal growth and mass gain and (2) that mass loss leads to reproductive failure. We also tested if sex-allocation strategies influenced these trade-offs. Experimental reproductive suppression revealed negative effects of reproduction on mass gain and leg growth from 1 year to the next. Unmanipulated females, however, showed a positive correlation between number of days lactating and leg growth over periods of 2 years and longer, suggesting that over the long term, reproductive costs were masked by individual heterogeneity in resource acquisition. Mass gain was necessary for reproductive success the subsequent year. Although mothers of daughters generally lost more mass than females nursing sons, mothers in poor condition experienced greater mass gain and arm growth if they had daughters than if they had sons. The strong links between individual mass changes and reproduction suggest that reproductive tactics are strongly resource-dependent.

  4. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  5. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  6. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed.

  7. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. PMID:21905039

  8. Foot Placement and Arm Position Affect the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test Time of Individuals with Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Patrick W. H.; Ng, Shamay S. M.; Chung, Raymond C. K.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of two foot placements (normal or posterior placement) and three arm positions (hands on the thighs, arms crossed over chest, and augmented arm position with elbow extended) on the five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test times of individuals with chronic stroke. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. University-based rehabilitation clinic. Participants. A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke (N = 45). Methods. The times in completing the FTSTS with two foot placements and the three arm positions were recorded by stopwatch. Results. Posterior foot placement led to significantly shorter FTSTS times when compared with normal foot placement in all the 3 arm positions (P ≤ 0.001). In addition, hands on thigh position led to significantly longer FTSTS times than the augmented arm position (P = 0.014). Conclusion. Our results showed that foot placement and arm position could influence the FTSTS times of individuals with chronic stroke. Standardizing the foot placement and arm position in the test procedure is essential, if FTSTS test is intended to be used repeatedly on the same subject. PMID:25032220

  9. Effects of daily pain intensity, positive affect, and individual differences in pain acceptance on work goal interference and progress.

    PubMed

    Mun, Chung Jung; Karoly, Paul; Okun, Morris A

    2015-11-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of morning pain intensity and morning positive and negative affect on pain's interference with afternoon work goal pursuit and with evening work goal progress in a community sample of 132 adults who completed a 21-day diary. The moderating effects of pain acceptance and pain catastrophizing on the associations between morning pain intensity and afternoon work goal interference were also tested. Results revealed that the positive relationship between morning pain intensity and pain's interference with work goal pursuit was significantly moderated by pain acceptance, but not by pain catastrophizing. Both morning pain intensity and positive affect exerted significant indirect effects on evening work goal progress through the perception of pain's interference with work goal pursuit in the afternoon. Furthermore, the mediated effect of morning pain on evening work goal progress was significant when pain acceptance was at the grand mean and 1 SD below the grand mean, but not when pain acceptance was 1 SD above the grand mean. Thus, it appears that high pain acceptance significantly attenuates pain's capacity to disrupt work goal pursuit. Moreover, morning positive affect appears to operate as a protective factor. Additional interpretations and potential explanations for some inconsistent outcomes are discussed along with limitations, clinical implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  10. Can the type of organisational structure affect individual well-being in health and social welfare occupations?

    PubMed

    Zotti, A M; Omarini, G; Ragazzoni, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the perceived stress and individual resources of people involved in health and social welfare occupations, and evaluate whether belonging to different organisational structures leads to different reactions. To this end, we used the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Team Climate Inventory. The sample consisted of 327 subjects (67% females) with a mean age of 35.9 +/- 8.8 years; most had a middle or high school diploma (63%), and they had been employed in the same place for about four years (47.5 +/- 7.3 months): 103 worked for health and social welfare cooperatives, and 224 for a local health authority. The results showed average burnout values and coping strategies prevalently aimed at directly solving the stressing situation in both working contexts. In comparison with the variables expressing the perceived organisational climate, sociodemographic characteristics did not seem to have a determining influence on the perception of individual stress. Comparison of the subjects employed in the two settings showed that organisational vision and a sense of belonging significantly determined subjective well-being, with the healthcare workers showed greater individual ill-being and a worse vision (i.e. an unclear perception of hospital choices and objectives). Our findings confirm that subjective well-being in high-touch occupations may be determined by the organisational culture: a mutual aid culture such as that of a cooperative has a protective effect despite the fact that the employment situation of the workers is more precarious and flexible than that of workers employed in highly structured environments such as that of a hospital.

  11. From soil to brain: zinc deficiency increases the neurotoxicity of Lathyrus sativus and may affect the susceptibility for the motorneurone disease neurolathyrism.

    PubMed

    Lambein, F; Haque, R; Khan, J K; Kebede, N; Kuo, Y H

    1994-04-01

    Zinc deficiency and oversupply of iron to the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) induce increases in the content of the neurotoxin beta-L-ODAP (3-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid) in the ripe seeds. The transport of zinc to the shoots is enhanced by the addition of beta-L-ODAP. The neurotoxin of L. sativus is proposed to function as a carrier molecule for zinc ions. Soils, depleted in micronutrients from flooding by monsoon rains (Indian subcontinent) or otherwise poor in available zinc and with high iron content (Ethiopian vertisols), may be responsible for higher incidence of human lathyrism, one of the oldest neurotoxic diseases known to man. A role for brain zinc deficiency in the susceptibility for lathyrism is postulated. PMID:8053001

  12. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    PubMed

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success.

  13. How will predicted land-use change affect waterfowl spring stopover ecology? Inferences from an individual-based model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, William; Kesler, Dylan C.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, overexploitation and climate change pose familiar and new challenges to conserving natural populations throughout the world. One approach conservation planners may use to evaluate the effects of these challenges on wildlife populations is scenario planning.We developed an individual-based model to evaluate the effects of future land use and land cover changes on spring-migrating dabbling ducks in North America. We assessed the effects of three Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) on dabbling duck stopover duration, movement distances and mortality. We specifically focused on migration stopover duration because previous research has demonstrated that individuals arriving earlier on the nesting grounds exhibit increased reproductive fitness.Compared to present conditions, all three scenarios increased stopover duration and movement distances of agent ducks.Although all three scenarios presented migrating ducks with increased amounts of wetland habitat, scenarios also contained substantially less cropland, which decreased overall carrying capacity of the study area.Synthesis and applications. Land-use change may increase waterfowl spring migration stopover duration in the midcontinent region of North America due to reduced landscape energetic carrying capacity. Climate change will alter spatial patterns of crop distributions with corn and rice production areas shifting to different regions. Thus, conservation planners will have to address population-level energetic implications of shifting agricultural food resources and increased uncertainty in yearly precipitation patterns within the next 50 years.

  14. Stereotyping based on voice in the presence of individuating information: vocal femininity affects perceived competence but not warmth.

    PubMed

    Sei Jin Ko; Judd, Charles M; Stapel, Diederik A

    2009-02-01

    In two experiments the authors examined the effect of vocal cues on warmth and competence judgments when other competing information was concurrently available. In Experiment 1, using male and female speakers posing as job applicants, the authors investigated how applicants' vocal cues and résumé information impacted judgments of competence and warmth. Results showed competence was solely affected by vocal femininity-applicants with masculine voices were rated as more competent than applicants with feminine voices, regardless of applicant gender or résumé information. Warmth was predominantly affected by résumés-applicants with feminine résumés were rated as warmer than applicants with masculine résumés. In Experiment 2, the potent effect of vocal femininity on competence was replicated even under conditions where the competing background information was directly diagnostic of warmth and competence. Furthermore, the authors found that the impact of vocal femininity on competence was largely due to the overlap between perceptions of vocal femininity and babyishness.

  15. Identification of a Sudden Cardiac Death Susceptibility Locus at 2q24.2 through Genome-Wide Association in European Ancestry Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Reinier, Kyndaron; Teodorescu, Carmen; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Kaikkonen, Kari S.; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Boucher, Gabrielle; Lagacé, Caroline; Moes, Anna; Zhao, XiaoQing; Kolodgie, Frank; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Marsman, Roos F.; Pazoki, Raha; Bardai, Abdennasser; Koster, Rudolph W.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Bhatnagar, Pallav; Post, Wendy; Hilton, Gina; Prineas, Ronald J.; Li, Man; Köttgen, Anna; Ehret, Georg; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Kao, W. H. Linda; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Siscovick, David S.; Burke, Greg L.; Marbán, Eduardo; Spooner, Peter M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Jui, Jonathan; Gunson, Karen; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Virmani, Renu; Stricker, Bruno H. C. h.; Tan, Hanno L.; Albert, Christine M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Rioux, John D.; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) continues to be one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, with an annual incidence estimated at 250,000–300,000 in the United States and with the vast majority occurring in the setting of coronary disease. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis in 1,283 SCD cases and >20,000 control individuals of European ancestry from 5 studies, with follow-up genotyping in up to 3,119 SCD cases and 11,146 controls from 11 European ancestry studies, and identify the BAZ2B locus as associated with SCD (P = 1.8×10−10). The risk allele, while ancestral, has a frequency of ∼1.4%, suggesting strong negative selection and increases risk for SCD by 1.92–fold per allele (95% CI 1.57–2.34). We also tested the role of 49 SNPs previously implicated in modulating electrocardiographic traits (QRS, QT, and RR intervals). Consistent with epidemiological studies showing increased risk of SCD with prolonged QRS/QT intervals, the interval-prolonging alleles are in aggregate associated with increased risk for SCD (P = 0.006). PMID:21738491

  16. Unemotional on all counts: Evidence of reduced affective responses in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits across emotion systems and valences.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lombardo, Michael V; Kyranides, Melina Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify atypical neurophysiological activity associated with deficient affective processing in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits (CU). Fifty-six participants (M age = 20.52; 46% male) divided in two groups, differentiated on levels of CU traits, were invited to participate in the experimental phase of the study. Medial prefrontal cortex activity, measured with functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and facial electro-myography activity were recorded during videos depicting violent, comedy and neutral scenes. Individuals high on CU traits showed similar medial prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) activity to positive and negative films, while the pre-frontal cortical responses of low CU individuals were more pronounced to positive than negative materials. High CU participants also showed reduced facial electromyography at the corrugator muscle in response to violent films, which was not differentiated from their responses to comedy films. These findings suggest that individuals high on CU traits show reduced but not absent (i.e., flat) affect to emotional material. Deficits in processing positive and negative valent material, measured with different neuro-physiological modalities, might be essential to understand CU traits.

  17. Individual differences in recovery time from attentional capture.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K

    2011-03-01

    Working memory capacity reflects a core ability of the individual that affects performance on many cognitive tasks. Recent work has suggested that an important covariate of memory capacity is attentional control, and specifically that low-capacity individuals are more susceptible to attentional capture by distractors than high-capacity individuals are, with the latter being able to resist capture. Here, we tested an alternative account according to which all individuals are equally susceptible to attentional capture, but high-capacity individuals recover more quickly than low-capacity individuals. Using psychophysical and electrophysiological methods, we measured recovery time from attentional capture. In two experiments, we found that high- and low-capacity individuals showed equivalent attentional capture effects in the initial moments following capture, but that low-capacity individuals took much longer to recover than high-capacity individuals did. These results suggest that the poor attentional control associated with low capacity is due to slow disengagement from distractors. PMID:21310945

  18. Individual Differences in Reactivity to Social Stress Predict Susceptibility and Resilience to a Depressive Phenotype: Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susan K.; Walker, Hayley E.; Valentino, Rita J.; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2010-01-01

    Previous social stress exposure is a common risk factor for affective disorders. However, factors that determine vulnerability or resiliency to social stress-induced psychopathologies remain unclear. Using a rodent model of social stress, the present study was designed to identify putative neurobiological substrates that contribute to social stress-induced psychopathology and factors that influence or predict vulnerability. The resident-intruder model of defeat was used as a social stressor in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. The average latency to assume a subordinate posture (signaling defeat) over seven daily defeat exposures was calculated and examined with respect to endpoints of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, components of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system, and behaviors that are relevant to human depression. In the present studies, a bimodal distribution emerged in an otherwise homogeneous population of Sprague Dawley rats such that 42% of rats exhibited short defeat latencies (<300 sec), whereas 58% of rats resisted defeat and exhibited longer latencies (>300 sec). These two phenotypes were associated with distinct endocrine and behavioral profiles as well as differences in components of the CRF system. Notably, the short-latency subpopulation exhibited hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation and behavior similar to that observed in melancholic depression. Examination of components of the CRF system suggested that proactive behavior in resisting defeat exhibited by long-latency rats was associated with decreased efficacy of CRF. Together, these data suggest that inherent differences in stress reactivity, perhaps as a result of differences in CRF regulation, may predict long-term consequences of social stress and vulnerability to depressive-like symptoms. PMID:20160137

  19. How have nuclear weapons affected the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. Individual study report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddie, R.D.

    1991-04-05

    As mankind enters the final decade of the 20th century, it faces a world of unprecedented political and military change. Events in Central Europe and in the Soviet Union over the past two years have been truly remarkable and have forced the United States to reevaluate its nation's security strategy. Some feel the potential for a war with the Soviets has diminished. Others feel that the Soviets' capability is the same now as it has been in the past. How can the United States take advantage of the new relationship with the Soviet Union. If the US strategy needs to be changed, the historical perspective of the US-USSR relationship becomes extremely important. Nuclear weapons have been a significant part of the super power relationship since 1945. In fact many feel the Soviets are in a super power status now only as a result of their military and its huge nuclear arsenal. The following analysis describes how nuclear weapons became a part of the United States' national security strategy and how that policy affected the US-USSR relationship. The analysis starts with the end of World War II. It traces important events and confrontations between the two nations, pointing out the significant implications made by nuclear weapons. The conclusion presents this questions, Has the Soviet military threat changed and if so, how should the United States change its strategic forces to take advantage of the new relationship developing between the two super powers, both politically and economically.

  20. Relationship between Individual External Doses, Ambient Dose Rates and Individuals’ Activity-Patterns in Affected Areas in Fukushima following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Ishii, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant on March 11, 2011, released radioactive material into the atmosphere and contaminated the land in Fukushima and several neighboring prefectures. Five years after the nuclear disaster, the radiation levels have greatly decreased due to physical decay, weathering, and decontamination operations in Fukushima. The populations of 12 communities were forced to evacuate after the accident; as of March 2016, the evacuation order has been lifted in only a limited area, and permanent habitation is still prohibited in most of the areas. In order for the government to lift the evacuation order and for individuals to return to their original residential areas, it is important to assess current and future realistic individual external doses. Here, we used personal dosimeters along with the Global Positioning System and Geographic Information System to understand realistic individual external doses and to relate individual external doses, ambient doses, and activity-patterns of individuals in the affected areas in Fukushima. The results showed that the additional individual external doses were well correlated to the additional ambient doses based on the airborne monitoring survey. The results of linear regression analysis suggested that the additional individual external doses were on average about one-fifth that of the additional ambient doses. The reduction factors, which are defined as the ratios of the additional individual external doses to the additional ambient doses, were calculated to be on average 0.14 and 0.32 for time spent at home and outdoors, respectively. Analysis of the contribution of various activity patterns to the total individual external dose demonstrated good agreement with the average fraction of time spent daily in each activity, but the contribution due to being outdoors varied widely. These results are a valuable contribution to understanding realistic individual external doses and the corresponding

  1. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment Methods and ApplicationsTask 6.3: Applying Genetic and Epigenetic Data to Inform Susceptibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    Susceptibility is defined as the capacity to be affected; an individual can be at greater or less risk relative to population median risk because of susceptibility factors such as life stage, sex, genetics, socioeconomic status, prior exposure to chemicals, and non-chemical stres...

  2. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Chen, Chenyi; Harenski, Carla; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, PCL-R ≥ 30), intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21 and 29), and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20) psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula (aINS), anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical

  3. Factors affecting growth and antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori: effect of pH and urea on the survival of a wild-type strain and a urease-deficient mutant.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, J E; Larsson, H

    1996-06-01

    This study investigated how pH and the presence of urea affect the survival and growth of Helicobacter pylori and whether these factors affect susceptibility to antibiotics in vitro. The viability of a wild-type strain and a urease-deficient mutant of H. pylori was studied after incubation for 1 h in buffers at different pH values at 37 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Viable counts were not affected at pH 5 and pH 7. In buffer at pH 3, there were no viable organisms, but urea (6.25 mM) protected the wild-type strain, which survived well. At pH 9, urea further reduced the viability of H. pylori and flurofamide almost abolished the effect of urea on the wild-type strain. Neither urea nor flurofamide affected the viability of the urease-deficient mutant under the same conditions. Growth was also pH dependent and was enhanced in shake-cultures. At pH 5, urea supported growth of the wild-type strain, but at pH 7 a toxic effect on the bacteria was observed. Growth of H. pylori at pH 5.9 was poor, and susceptibility to amoxycillin, erythromycin and clarithromycin was markedly less than at pH 7.2 and 7.9. The bactericidal activities of metronidazole and tetracycline were similar at the different pH values studied. At neutral pH the killing rates of amoxycillin and clarithromycin were growth rate dependent. Susceptibility to metronidazole was enhanced in stationary cultures. The interaction obtained between the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, and amoxycillin at pH 7 was of additive type. These results suggest that pH and growth conditions may be important in the antibacterial efficacy of different antibiotics in vivo and also provide a possible explanation for the potentiating effect of omeprazole with antibiotics in the treatment of H. pylori infections.

  4. HLA-DQ primarily confers protection and HLA-DR susceptibility in type I (Insulin-dependent) diabetes studied in population-based affected families and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kockum, I. Univ. of Lund Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm ); Wassmuth, R. ); Holmberg, E. ); Michelsen, B. ); Lernmark, A. Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm )

    1993-07-01

    The association between HLA-DR and -DQ and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a defined high-incidence area was analyzed in a total of 58 population-based patients, representing 77% of IDDM patients with age at onset below 16 years, and in 92 unrelated parents in control families without IDDM. HLA haplotypes were confirmed by analyzing first-degree relatives in both groups. Seven different methods were used to analyze risk: (1) odds ratio, (2) absolute risk, (3) haplotype relative risk, (4) transcomplementation relative risk, (5) relative predisposing effects, (6) stratification analysis, and (7) test of predisposing allele on haplotype. DQB1*0302 indicated somewhat higher risk than did DR4, while DR3 had a higher risk than DQB1*0201; however, the 95% confidence intervals of the risk estimates overlapped. The positive association between IDDM and the DQB1*0201-DQA1*0501-DR3 haplotype seems to be due to DR3 or to an unknown linked gene. More important, DQA1*0301 was present among 93% of the patients, and this allele in various transcomplementation combinations with DQBL alleles showed closer association to IDDM than did any other alleles. The strong negative association of the DQB1*0602 allele also in the presence of either DR4 or DQBI*0302 or both suggests that, in a high-risk population for IDDM, HLA-DQ primarily confers protection, perhaps by induction of tolerance. Consistent with known functions, HLA-DR may primarily confer susceptibility, perhaps by induction of autoreactive T lymphocytes. 67 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Susceptibility to acidification of groundwater-dependent wetlands affected by water level declines, and potential risk to an early-breeding amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Serrano, L; Díaz-Paniagua, C; Gómez-Rodríguez, C; Florencio, M; Marchand, M-A; Roelofs, J G M; Lucassen, E C H E T

    2016-11-15

    Eggs of the Western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) reached a 100% mortality in all 29 clutches deposited at a pH below 5.0 in a temporary pond of the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) throughout the wet season of 2006-2007. A similar trend was detected in a neighbouring pond. The proximity of these two ponds to a groundwater pumping area (<1.5km), prompted us to elucidate the possible links between the reduction in pond hydroperiod over past decades (1989-2008) and the decrease of groundwater pH-buffering capacity. The average hydroperiod had decreased by 4months since 1998-99 in the pond where the extensive egg mortality had occurred. The total alkalinity, and the Mg(2+)concentration had also significantly declined in the shallow water-table since 1998-99, from an average of 8.56 to 0.32meql(-1), and of 3.57 to 1.15meql(-1), respectively. This decline of the shallow groundwater buffering capacity could turn this pond more susceptible to the inorganic acidity associated with pyrite oxidation as the sediment S content was often above 0.03%. The initial ratio of S/Ca+Mg in the summer dry sediment was a good predictor of pore-water pH on re-wetting after desiccation (r(2)=0.802, p<0.01). Therefore, this ratio can give some anticipation to mitigate the impact of acidity on toad hatching before these temporary ponds are reflooded on the next wet season. Our results suggest that the long-term damage to pond water levels can trigger a potential risk of soil acidification in the presence of iron-sulphide minerals. PMID:27476729

  6. Consuming functional foods enriched with plant sterol or stanol esters for 85 weeks does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Schiepers, Olga J G; de Groot, Renate H M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Jolles, Jelle; de Jong, Ariënne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum; Mensink, Ronald P

    2009-07-01

    Recent animal and human studies have shown that plant sterols and stanols, which are used as functional food ingredients to lower increased LDL cholesterol concentrations, pass the blood-brain barrier. Whether this affects neurocognitive functioning and mental well-being in humans has, to our knowledge, never been investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of long-term plant sterol or stanol consumption on neurocognitive functioning and mood in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial. To this end, hypercholesterolemic individuals, aged 43-69 y, receiving stable statin treatment were randomly assigned to an 85-wk supplementation with margarines enriched with plant sterol esters (2.5 g/d), plant stanol esters (2.5 g/d), or placebo. At baseline and at the end of the intervention period, all participants underwent a cognitive assessment. In addition, subjective cognitive functioning and mood were assessed by means of questionnaires (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire and depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90, respectively). Long-term supplementation with plant sterol or stanol esters did not affect cognitive performance (memory, simple information processing speed, complex information processing speed, Letter-Digit Substitution test performance), subjective cognitive functioning, or mood. In conclusion, the present results indicate that long-term use of plant sterols or stanols at recommended intakes of 2.5 g/d does not affect neurocognitive functioning or mood in hypercholesterolemic individuals receiving statin treatment.

  7. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  8. A new twist to a traditional approach to environmental monitoring: differentiation of oil sands process-affected waters and natural systems by comparison of individual organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlett, A.; Lengger, S.; West, C.; Rowland, S.

    2013-12-01

    Review panels of both the Canadian Federal and Alberta Provincial governments have recommended a complete overhaul of existing monitoring programs of the Athabasca oil sands industry and have called for a greater understanding of the potential impacts of mining activities to allow for future sustainable development. Due to the no release policy, it is critical that leakages of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) from tailings ponds can be differentiated from natural waters flowing through the McMurray formation into the Athabasca river system. Environmental monitoring of oil contamination usually entails profiling of known compounds, e.g. the US EPA list of priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, but until now a similar approach has not been possible for OSPW due to its extreme complexity. It has been estimated that the number of carboxylic acids, historically referred to as ';naphthenic acids' (NA) in OSPW, to be in excess of 10000 compounds. Until recently, individual structures of these NA were unknown but analyses by tandem gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) have now begun to reveal the individual structures of alicyclic, aromatic and sulphur-containing acids within OSPWs stored in tailings ponds. Now that some individual structures present in OSPW are known and standards are available, a methodological approach similar to traditional oil monitoring can be developed using individual diamondoid NA and recently discovered diacids and applied to tailings pond OSPW and environmental waters. One obstacle to understanding whether the NA present in environmental groundwater samples are associated with particular tailings ponds is the lack of knowledge of the variability of OSPW within and between ponds. In the current study, GCxGC-MS analyses have been applied to statistically compare OSPWs of two industries, both temporally and spatially, using specific, known compounds as well as associated isomers. Although variation within individual ponds was

  9. Genetic variants in or near ADH1B and ADH1C affect susceptibility to alcohol dependence in a British and Irish population.

    PubMed

    Way, Michael; McQuillin, Andrew; Saini, Jit; Ruparelia, Kush; Lydall, Gregory J; Guerrini, Irene; Ball, David; Smith, Iain; Quadri, Giorgia; Thomson, Allan D; Kasiakogia-Worlley, Katherine; Cherian, Raquin; Gunwardena, Priyanthi; Rao, Harish; Kottalgi, Girija; Patel, Shamir; Hillman, Audrey; Douglas, Ewen; Qureshi, Sherhzad Y; Reynolds, Gerry; Jauhar, Sameer; O'Kane, Aideen; Dedman, Alex; Sharp, Sally; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Dar, Karim; Curtis, David; Morgan, Marsha Y; Gurling, Hugh M D

    2015-05-01

    Certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes confer a significant protective effect against alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) in East Asian populations. Recently, attention has focused on the role of these SNPs in determining ADS risk in European populations. To further elucidate these associations, SNPs of interest in ADH1B, ADH1C and the ADH1B/1C intergenic region were genotyped in a British and Irish population (ADS cases n = 1076: controls n = 1027) to assess their relative contribution to ADS risk. A highly significant, protective association was observed between the minor allele of rs1229984 in ADH1B and ADS risk [allelic P = 8.4 × 10(-6) , odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95 percent confidence interval, 0.14, 0.49]. Significant associations were also observed between ADS risk and the ADH1B/1C intergenic variant, rs1789891 [allelic P = 7.2 × 10(-5) , OR = 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)] and three non-synonymous SNPs rs698, rs1693482 and rs283413 in ADH1C. However, these associations were not completely independent; thus, while the ADH1B rs1229984 minor allele association was independent of those of the intergenic variant rs1789891 and the three ADH1C variants, the three ADH1C variants were not individually independent. In conclusion, the rare ADH1B rs1229984 mutation provides significant protection against ADS in this British and Irish population; other variants in the ADH gene cluster also alter ADS risk, although the strong linkage disequilibrium between SNPs at this location precluded clear identification of the variant(s) driving the associations.

  10. Linking landslide susceptibility to sediment yield in the Romanian Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Bǎlteanu, Dan; Chendeş, Viorel; Sima, Mihaela; Enciu, Petru; Poesen, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies revealed the importance of seismic activity in explaining regional patterns of catchment sediment yield (SY). This relation is often explained by the fact that seismic activity induces landslides that contribute to SY. Nevertheless, only a few studies focused on the effects of landslides on SY and even fewer studies have explored the potential of landslide susceptibility as a predictor for SY. The objective of this study is therefore to explore the potential of landslide susceptibility maps to explain the spatial variation of SY in the Romanian Carpathians, a region with moderate to high seismicity. 133 catchments, covering 63% of Romania, for which SY was measured during a period of at least 10 years and for which SY was not significantly affected by upstream reservoirs, were compiled and selected. 78 of these catchments were 'less disturbed', being covered for at least 50% by forest and semi-natural areas and confined to the Carpathian mountains. Landslide susceptibility in each catchment was assessed, using an earlier published state of the art landslide susceptibility map of Romania. Mean landslide susceptibility for each catchment shows a highly significant correlation with SY (r² = 0.44). This indicates that landslides are an important contributor to SY in Romania and suggests that regional and national landslide susceptibility maps can indeed be a useful tool to predict SY. Nevertheless, the susceptibility map did not explain much more of the observed variance in SY than some other individual catchment characteristics such as seismicity (r² = 0.40) and lithology (r² = 0.33). Also taking into account the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility within the catchment did not significantly improve the observed correlations. Surprisingly, topography showed a nonsignificant correlation with SY, which can be attributed to the overwhelming effect of seismicity and lithology. Overall, our results suggest that seismicity is indeed a highly

  11. A comparison of African American and white college students' affective and attitudinal reactions to lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Eisenman, Russell

    2005-11-01

    African American (n = 70) university students were compared with White students (n = 140) on their affective (homophobia) and attitudinal (homonegativity) reactions to lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. The results initially suggested that African Americans had modestly higher homophobia and homonegativity scores than Whites. However, those ethnic differences vanished after controlling for frequency of church attendance, religious commitment, and socioeconomic status. For both ethnic groups, gender and religiosity variables significantly predicted homophobia and homonegativity. Men in both ethnic groups had significantly higher homophobia and homonegativity scores than their female counterparts. Lastly, additional regression analyses revealed that one aspect of African American culture--family practices--significantly predicted homophobia, but not homonegativity, above the predictive ability of religiosity. Implications of the results are discussed.

  12. Exploring the effects of individual customer incivility encounters on employee incivility: the moderating roles of entity (in)civility and negative affectivity.

    PubMed

    Walker, David D; van Jaarsveld, Danielle D; Skarlicki, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Incivility between customers and employees is common in many service organizations. These encounters can have negative outcomes for employees, customers, and the organization. To date, researchers have tended to study incivility as an aggregated and accumulated phenomenon (entity perspective). In the present study, we examined incivility as it occurs during a specific service encounter (event perspective) alongside the entity perspective. Using a mixed-method multilevel field study of customer service interactions, we show that individual customer incivility encounters (i.e., events) trigger employee incivility as a function of the employee's overall accumulated impression of the (in)civility in his or her customer interactions, such that the effects are more pronounced among employees who generally perceive their customer interactions to be more versus less civil. We also find that these interactive effects occur only among employees who are lower (vs. higher) in negative affectivity. Our results show that, in order to expand the understanding of customer incivility, it is important to study the incivility encounter, the social context in which negative customer interactions occur, and individual differences.

  13. Variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ravit; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Rubin, Baruch; Dudai, Nativ

    2011-05-11

    The aroma in sweet basil is a factor affecting the commercial value of the crop. In previous studies leaf age was considered to be a factor that influences the composition of essential oil (EO). In this study it was hypothesized that a single observation of the EO content in leaves from different positions on the main stem (young vs old) could predict the developmental changes in the plant during its life cycle. Plants harvested at week 16 demonstrated an exponential increase (R(2) = 0.92) in EO concentration in leaves on the main stem and lateral shoots, indicating higher EO concentrations in younger than in older leaves. Eugenol and methyleugenol predominated (28-77%) in the extract. Eugenol levels were higher in younger leaves (∼53%), and methyl-eugenol levels predominated in older leaves (∼68%). Linalool was lower in mature leaves than in younger leaves. This suggested that eugenol converted into methyleugenol and linalool decreased as leaf mature. However, in weekly monitored plants, the levels of these compounds in the EO had limited variation in the maturing leaf regardless of its position on the stem. This proposed that the EO composition in an individual leaf is mostly affected by the leaf position on the stem and not by its maturation process. Because leaf position is related to plant development, it is probable that the plant's physiological age at the time of leaf formation from the primordial tissue is the factor affecting the EO composition. It was concluded that interpretation of scientific observations should be carried out with caution and that hypotheses should be tested utilizing multifaceted approaches.

  14. Generalized results of individualized exposure doses reconstruction for the subjects of Ukrainian State Register of persons, affected due to Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Likhtarov, I A; Kovgan, L M; Masiuk, S V; Ivanova, O M; Chepurny, M I; Boyko, Z N; Gerasymenko, V B; Tereshchenko, S A; Kravchenko, I G; Kortushin, G I; Marcenjyk, O D; Gubina, I G

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the department of dosimetry of NRCRM has been working for to supply the Ukrainian State Register (SRU) of persons affected due to Chernobyl accident by exposure doses estimations. As of now, the individualization of doses has been performed for nine raions located in Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Rivne and Chernihiv oblasts. The structure of raion-specific models used for the reconstruction of individualized doses was described in detail in the previous 19-th issue of this journal (2014). The choice conditions for persons from the SRU using which for each raion there was formed a contingent of persons for whom the dose could be reconstructed. During the period of 2007-2015, the individualized dose was reconstructed for 244226 persons in 9 raions, representing ~ 58% of all registered in the SRU inhabitants of the raions. The calculation results were transferred to the SRU in formats adapted to the common database structure of the SRU. For each person who satisfied the conditions of selection there were estimated: (1) possible absorbed internal exposure dose of the thyroid by radioiodine in 1986 (assuming that the person in 1986 lived in the same village and was enlisted in the SRU); (2) annual doses of external, internal and total exposure of the whole body for a period of observation in the SRU; (3) total exposure dose of whole body accumulated during the period of observation in the SRU; (4) the total cumulative dose of feasible exposure during the period since 1986 till the decision to be registered in the SRU. There are presented the generalized results of the SRU subjects distribution for different raions in dependence on intervals of doses accumulated at different periods after the accident. The raion matrix tables show the dynamics of accumulation of doses by the SRU subjects both for their stay on the account and for the period of their possible residence registration in the settlement since 1986. The directions for further research to be implemented for

  15. Alate susceptibility in ants

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  16. Alate susceptibility in ants.

    PubMed

    Ho, Eddie K H; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogens are predicted to pose a particular threat to eusocial insects because infections can spread rapidly in colonies with high densities of closely related individuals. In ants, there are two major castes: workers and reproductives. Sterile workers receive no direct benefit from investing in immunity, but can gain indirect fitness benefits if their immunity aids the survival of their fertile siblings. Virgin reproductives (alates), on the other hand, may be able to increase their investment in reproduction, rather than in immunity, because of the protection they receive from workers. Thus, we expect colonies to have highly immune workers, but relatively more susceptible alates. We examined the survival of workers, gynes, and males of nine ant species collected in Peru and Canada when exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. For the seven species in which treatment with B. bassiana increased ant mortality relative to controls, we found workers were significantly less susceptible compared with both alate sexes. Female and male alates did not differ significantly in their immunocompetence. Our results suggest that, as with other nonreproductive tasks in ant colonies like foraging and nest maintenance, workers have primary responsibility for colony immunity, allowing alates to specialize on reproduction. We highlight the importance of colony-level selection on individual immunity in ants and other eusocial organisms. PMID:25540683

  17. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services.

    PubMed

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV-serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  18. Perspectives of healthcare providers and HIV-affected individuals and couples during the development of a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit in Kenya: stigma, fears, and recommendations for the delivery of services

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Leddy, Anna; Breitnauer, Brooke; Darbes, Lynae; Brown, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is important to many HIV-affected individuals and couples and healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for providing resources to help them safely conceive while minimizing the risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In order to fulfill their reproductive goals, HIV-affected individuals and their partners need access to information regarding safer methods of conception. The objective of this qualitative study was to develop a Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit that can be used to train HCPs and counsel HIV-affected individuals and couples in HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya. We conducted a two-phased qualitative study among HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples from eight HIV care and treatment sites in Kisumu, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) to assess the perspectives of HCPs and HIV-affected individuals and couples in order to develop and refine the content of the Toolkit. Subsequently, IDIs were conducted among HCPs who were trained using the Toolkit and FGDs among HIV-affected individuals and couples who were counseled with the Toolkit. HIV-related stigma, fears, and recommendations for delivery of safer conception counseling were assessed during the discussions. One hundred and six individuals participated in FGDs and IDIs; 29 HCPs, 49 HIV-affected women and men, and 14 HIV–serodiscordant couples. Participants indicated that a safer conception counseling and training program for HCPs is needed and that routine provision of safer conception counseling may promote maternal and child health by enhancing reproductive autonomy among HIV-affected couples. They also reported that the Toolkit may help dispel the stigma and fears associated with reproduction in HIV-affected couples, while supporting them in achieving their reproductive goals. Additional research is needed to evaluate the Safer Conception Toolkit in order to support its implementation and use in HIV care and

  19. A mouse model for ulcerative colitis based on NOD-scid IL2R γnull mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from affected individuals.

    PubMed

    Palamides, Pia; Jodeleit, Henrika; Föhlinger, Michael; Beigel, Florian; Herbach, Nadja; Mueller, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Siebeck, Matthias; Gropp, Roswitha

    2016-09-01

    Animal models reflective of ulcerative colitis (UC) remain a major challenge, and yet are crucial to understand mechanisms underlying the onset of disease and inflammatory characteristics of relapses and remission. Mouse models in which colitis-like symptoms are induced through challenge with toxins such as oxazolone, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) have been instrumental in understanding the inflammatory processes of UC. However, these neither reflect the heterogeneous symptoms observed in the UC-affected population nor can they be used to test the efficacy of inhibitors developed against human targets where high sequence and structural similarity of the respective ligands is lacking. In an attempt to overcome these problems, we have developed a mouse model that relies on NOD-scid IL2R γ(null) mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from UC-affected individuals. Upon challenge with ethanol, mice developed colitis-like symptoms and changes in the colon architecture, characterized by influx of inflammatory cells, edema, crypt loss, crypt abscesses and epithelial hyperplasia, as previously observed in immune-competent mice. TARC, TGFβ1 and HGF expression increased in distal parts of the colon. Analysis of human leucocytes isolated from mouse spleen revealed an increase in frequencies of CD1a+, CD64+, CD163+ and TSLPR+ CD14+ monocytes, and antigen-experienced CD44+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in response to ethanol. Analysis of human leucocytes from the colon of challenged mice identified CD14+ monocytes and CD11b+ monocytes as the predominant populations. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis from distal parts of the colon indicated that IFNγ might be one of the cytokines driving inflammation. Treatment with infliximab ameliorated symptoms and pathological manifestations, whereas pitrakinra had no therapeutic benefit. Thus, this model is partially reflective of the human disease and might help

  20. A mouse model for ulcerative colitis based on NOD-scid IL2R γnull mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from affected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Palamides, Pia; Jodeleit, Henrika; Föhlinger, Michael; Beigel, Florian; Herbach, Nadja; Mueller, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Siebeck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animal models reflective of ulcerative colitis (UC) remain a major challenge, and yet are crucial to understand mechanisms underlying the onset of disease and inflammatory characteristics of relapses and remission. Mouse models in which colitis-like symptoms are induced through challenge with toxins such as oxazolone, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) have been instrumental in understanding the inflammatory processes of UC. However, these neither reflect the heterogeneous symptoms observed in the UC-affected population nor can they be used to test the efficacy of inhibitors developed against human targets where high sequence and structural similarity of the respective ligands is lacking. In an attempt to overcome these problems, we have developed a mouse model that relies on NOD-scid IL2R γnull mice reconstituted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from UC-affected individuals. Upon challenge with ethanol, mice developed colitis-like symptoms and changes in the colon architecture, characterized by influx of inflammatory cells, edema, crypt loss, crypt abscesses and epithelial hyperplasia, as previously observed in immune-competent mice. TARC, TGFβ1 and HGF expression increased in distal parts of the colon. Analysis of human leucocytes isolated from mouse spleen revealed an increase in frequencies of CD1a+, CD64+, CD163+ and TSLPR+ CD14+ monocytes, and antigen-experienced CD44+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in response to ethanol. Analysis of human leucocytes from the colon of challenged mice identified CD14+ monocytes and CD11b+ monocytes as the predominant populations. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis from distal parts of the colon indicated that IFNγ might be one of the cytokines driving inflammation. Treatment with infliximab ameliorated symptoms and pathological manifestations, whereas pitrakinra had no therapeutic benefit. Thus, this model is partially reflective of the human disease and might

  1. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  2. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M; Collip, Dina; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual's fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0-11 years) and late (12-18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life stress

  3. The effects of inbreeding on disease susceptibility: Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection of guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Smallbone, Willow; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Jo

    2016-08-01

    Inbreeding can threaten population persistence by reducing disease resistance through the accelerated loss of gene diversity (i.e. heterozygosity). Such inbreeding depression can affect many different fitness-related traits, including survival, reproductive success, and parasite susceptibility. Empirically quantifying the effects of inbreeding on parasite resistance is therefore important for ex-situ conservation of vertebrates. The present study evaluates the disease susceptibility of individuals bred under three different breeding regimes (inbred, crossed with full siblings; control, randomly crossed mating; and fully outbred). Specifically, we examined the relationship between inbreeding coefficient (F-coefficient) and susceptibility to Gyrodactylus turnbulli infection in a live bearing vertebrate, the guppy Poecilia reticulata. Host-breeding regime significantly affected the trajectories of parasite population growth on individual fish. Inbred fish showed significantly higher mean parasite intensity than fish from the control and outbred breeding regimes, and in addition, inbred fish were slower in purging their gyrodactylid infections. We discuss the role of inbreeding on the various arms of the immune system, and argue that the increased disease susceptibility of inbred individuals could contribute to the extinction vortex. This is one of the first studies to quantify the effects of inbreeding and breeding regime on disease susceptibility in a captive bred vertebrate of wild origin, and it highlights the risks faced by small (captive-bred) populations when exposed to their native parasites.

  4. Early-Life Stress Affects Stress-Related Prefrontal Dopamine Activity in Healthy Adults, but Not in Individuals with Psychotic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kasanova, Zuzana; Hernaus, Dennis; Vaessen, Thomas; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse; Winz, Oliver; Heinzel, Alexander; Pruessner, Jens; Mottaghy, Felix M.

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress may have a lasting impact on the developmental programming of the dopamine (DA) system implicated in psychosis. Early adversity could promote resilience by calibrating the prefrontal stress-regulatory dopaminergic neurotransmission to improve the individual’s fit with the predicted stressful environment. Aberrant reactivity to such match between proximal and distal environments may, however, enhance psychosis disease risk. We explored the combined effects of childhood adversity and adult stress by exposing 12 unmedicated individuals with a diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and 12 healthy controls (HC) to psychosocial stress during an [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography. Childhood trauma divided into early (ages 0–11 years) and late (12–18 years) was assessed retrospectively using a questionnaire. A significant group x childhood trauma interaction on the spatial extent of stress-related [18F]fallypride displacement was observed in the mPFC for early (b = -8.45, t(1,23) = -3.35, p = .004) and late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). In healthy individuals, the spatial extent of mPFC DA activity under acute psychosocial stress was positively associated with the severity of early (b = 7.23, t(11) = 3.06, p = .016) as well as late childhood trauma (b = -7.86, t(1,23) = -2.48, p = .023). Additionally, a trend-level main effect of early childhood trauma on subjective stress response emerged within this group (b = -.7, t(11) = -2, p = .07), where higher early trauma correlated with lower subjective stress response to the task. In the NAPD group, childhood trauma was not associated with the spatial extent of the tracer displacement in mPFC (b = -1.22, t(11) = -0.67), nor was there a main effect of trauma on the subjective perception of stress within this group (b = .004, t(11) = .01, p = .99). These findings reveal a potential mechanism of neuroadaptation of prefrontal DA transmission to early life

  5. On considering the influence of recovered individuals in disease propagations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. L. S.; Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2016-05-01

    Consider diseases transmitted through personal contacts, for which recovery usually confers complete and long-lasting immunity, like some of the common viral infections of childhood. Here, an epidemic model based on differential equations is proposed to evaluate the influence of the recovered (immune) individuals on the spread of such diseases. Indeed, immune individuals can affect the infection rate of susceptible individuals and the recovery rate of sick individuals. The predictive ability of the proposed model is assessed from records concerning the incidence of varicella in three European countries, in a pre-vaccination era.

  6. Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Kashima, Simone; Bonfim-Silva, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rochele; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; Bordin, José Orlando; Júnior, Dante Mário Langhi; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2011-10-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Kn(b) allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Kn(b) and KAM(+)) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon.

  7. Association between Knops blood group polymorphisms and susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Kashima, Simone; Bonfim-Silva, Ricardo; Azevedo, Rochele; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; Bordin, José Orlando; Júnior, Dante Mário Langhi; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2011-01-01

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1) gene polymorphisms that are associated with Knops blood group antigens may influence the binding of Plasmodium parasites to erythrocytes, thereby affecting susceptibility to malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and allele and haplotype frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Knops blood group antigens and examine their association with susceptibility to malaria in an endemic area of Brazil. One hundred and twenty-six individuals from the Brazilian Amazon were studied. The CR1-genomic fragment was amplified by PCR and six SNPs and haplotypes were identified after DNA sequence analysis. Allele and haplotype frequencies revealed that the Knb allele and H8 haplotype were possibly associated with susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. The odds ratios were reasonably high, suggesting a potentially important association between two Knops blood antigens (Knb and KAM+) that confer susceptibility to P. falciparum in individuals from the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22215954

  8. Genetic predisposition to chikungunya--a blood group study in chikungunya affected families.

    PubMed

    Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Sarojamma, Vemula; Ramakrishna, Vadde

    2009-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungunya in disease affected 100 families by doing blood group (ABO) tests by focusing on individuals who were likely to have a risk of chikungunya and identified the blood group involved in susceptibility/resistance to chikungunya. In the present study, based on blood group antigens, the individuals were kept in four groups - A (108), B (98), AB (20) and O (243). The result obtained was showed all Rh positive blood group individuals are susceptible to chikungunya fever. Among ABO group, the blood group O +ve individuals are more susceptible to chikungunya than other blood groups. No blood group with Rh negative was affected with chikungunya, it indicates Rh -ve more resistance to chikungunya.

  9. Spatial pattern formation of microbes at the soil microscale affect soil C and N turnover in an individual-based microbial community model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Christina; Evans, Sarah; Dieckmann, Ulf; Widder, Stefanie

    2016-04-01

    At the μm-scale, soil is a highly structured and complex environment, both in physical as well as in biological terms, characterized by non-linear interactions between microbes, substrates and minerals. As known from mathematics and theoretical ecology, spatial structure significantly affects the system's behaviour by enabling synergistic dynamics, facilitating diversity, and leading to emergent phenomena such as self-organisation and self-regulation. Such phenomena, however, are rarely considered when investigating mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover. Soil organic matter is the largest terrestrial reservoir for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and plays a pivotal role in global biogeochemical cycles. Still, the underlying mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter buildup and turnover remain elusive. We explored mechanisms of microbial soil organic matter turnover using an individual-based, stoichiometrically and spatially explicit computer model, which simulates the microbial de-composer system at the soil microscale (i.e. on a grid of 100 x 100 soil microsites). Soil organic matter dynamics in our model emerge as the result of interactions among individual microbes with certain functional traits (f.e. enzyme production rates, growth rates, cell stoichiometry) at the microscale. By degrading complex substrates, and releasing labile substances microbes in our model continusly shape their environment, which in turn feeds back to spatiotemporal dynamics of the microbial community. In order to test the effect of microbial functional traits and organic matter input rate on soil organic matter turnover and C and N storage, we ran the model into steady state using continuous inputs of fresh organic material. Surprisingly, certain parameter settings that induce resource limitation of microbes lead to regular spatial pattern formation (f.e. moving spiral waves) of microbes and substrate at the μm-scale at steady-state. The occurrence of these

  10. Particulate Matter–Induced Health Effects: Who Is Susceptible?

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Jason D.; Stanek, Lindsay Wichers; Luben, Thomas J.; Johns, Douglas O.; Buckley, Barbara J.; Brown, James S.; Ross, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological, controlled human exposure, and toxicological studies have demonstrated a variety of health effects in response to particulate matter (PM) exposure with some of these studies indicating that populations with certain characteristics may be disproportionately affected. Objective To identify populations potentially at greatest risk for PM-related health effects, we evaluated epidemiological studies that examined various characteristics that may influence susceptibility, while using results from controlled human exposure and toxicological studies as supporting evidence. Additionally, we formulated a definition of susceptibility, building from the varied and inconsistent definitions of susceptibility and vulnerability used throughout the literature. Data synthesis We evaluated recent epidemiological studies to identify characteristics of populations potentially susceptible to PM-related health effects. Additionally, we evaluated controlled human exposure and toxicological studies to provide supporting evidence. We conducted a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies that presented stratified results (e.g., < 65 vs. ≥ 65 years of age), controlled human exposure studies that examined individuals with underlying disease, and toxicological studies that used animal models of disease. We evaluated results for consistency across studies, coherence across disciplines, and biological plausibility to assess the potential for increased susceptibility to PM-related health effects in a specific population or life stage. Conclusions We identified a diverse group of characteristics that can lead to increased risk of PM-related health effects, including life stage (i.e., children and older adults), preexisting cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, genetic polymorphisms, and low-socioeconomic status. In addition, we crafted a comprehensive definition of susceptibility that can be used to encompass all populations potentially at increased risk of

  11. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  12. Mathematical Model for Dengue Epidemics with Differential Susceptibility and Asymptomatic Patients Using Computer Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldarriaga Vargas, Clarita

    When there are diseases affecting large populations where the social, economic and cultural diversity is significant within the same region, the biological parameters that determine the behavior of the dispersion disease analysis are affected by the selection of different individuals. Therefore and because of the variety and magnitude of the communities at risk of contracting dengue disease around all over the world, suggest defining differentiated populations with individual contributions in the results of the dispersion dengue disease analysis. In this paper those conditions were taken in account when several epidemiologic models were analyzed. Initially a stability analysis was done for a SEIR mathematical model of Dengue disease without differential susceptibility. Both free disease and endemic equilibrium states were found in terms of the basic reproduction number and were defined in the Theorem (3.1). Then a DSEIR model was solved when a new susceptible group was introduced to consider the effects of important biological parameters of non-homogeneous populations in the spreading analysis. The results were compiled in the Theorem (3.2). Finally Theorems (3.3) and (3.4) resumed the basic reproduction numbers for three and n different susceptible groups respectively, giving an idea of how differential susceptibility affects the equilibrium states. The computations were done using an algorithmic method implemented in Maple 11, a general-purpose computer algebra system.

  13. Identifying influential and susceptible members of social networks.

    PubMed

    Aral, Sinan; Walker, Dylan

    2012-07-20

    Identifying social influence in networks is critical to understanding how behaviors spread. We present a method that uses in vivo randomized experimentation to identify influence and susceptibility in networks while avoiding the biases inherent in traditional estimates of social contagion. Estimation in a representative sample of 1.3 million Facebook users showed that younger users are more susceptible to influence than older users, men are more influential than women, women influence men more than they influence other women, and married individuals are the least susceptible to influence in the decision to adopt the product offered. Analysis of influence and susceptibility together with network structure revealed that influential individuals are less susceptible to influence than noninfluential individuals and that they cluster in the network while susceptible individuals do not, which suggests that influential people with influential friends may be instrumental in the spread of this product in the network.

  14. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. Objectives The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. Results The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries’ severity (P < 0.05). Conclusions Path analysis of occupational injuries based on the SEM reveals that individual and organizational factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents’ severity in large construction industries. PMID:27800465

  15. Classroom Discussion and Individual Problem-Solving in the Teaching of History: Do Different Instructional Approaches Affect Interest in Different Ways?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Favero, Laura; Boscolo, Pietro; Vidotto, Giulio; Vicentini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 100 Italian eighth graders were divided into two groups to compare the effects of two instructional interventions--the first based on problem-solving through discussion, the second on individual problem-solving--on students' learning of two historical topics (World War I and the economic boom), interest and self-perception of…

  16. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. PMID:27155949

  17. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections.

  18. Susceptibility indexing method for irrigation water management planning: applications to K. Menderes river basin, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Pusatli, O Tolga; Camur, M Zeki; Yazicigil, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    A susceptibility indexing method was developed based on vulnerability and quality indices. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VIxQI. This method incorporates both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data for a comprehensive index mapping. The DRASTIC index methodology was used for the hydrogeological data evaluations. The quality index calculation procedure based on a water quality classification scheme was introduced to evaluate hydrochemical data. The suggested susceptibility indexing method was applied to the Küçük Menderes river basin located in western Turkey. The susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is located along the river channel between Kiraz and Tire towns, in the Selçuk area and along the Fertek stream channel to the north of Torbali town. The results indicate that the incorporation of both hydrogeological and hydrochemical datasets enables more realistic evaluations than those of an individual dataset to estimate the groundwater contamination susceptibility of an aquifer. The numerical procedure applied could be extended further by including other parameters such as retardation, potential contaminant sources, etc. that affect the water quality in a given basin.

  19. A Comparison of the Orthogonal and the Oblique Factor Structures of Correlation Matrixes of Individual Items and of Composites of Items (Subtests) Derived from a Standardized Affective Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, William B.; Bachelor, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of data from standard affective measures showed both an orthogonally rotated and an obliquely rotated factor solution yielded psychological dimensions that correspond to instrument's scales. Study Attitudes and Methods Survey was studied, using data on a total of 483 eleventh graders. Both solutions afforded comparable inferences about…

  20. Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Maeve A.; O’Connell, Niamh E.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Dairy cow lameness is a major problem for the industry, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease causing painful lesions, generally on the heels of the rear feet, and is an important cause of lameness. There appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to this disease. Particular physical, physiological and behavioural factors might influence individual susceptibility, but further work is required to clarify the influence of these factors and to determine how this information could be used to develop breeding and management strategies to reduce DD prevalence. Abstract Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease that primarily affects the skin on the heels of cattle. It is a major cause of lameness in dairy cows and a significant problem for the dairy industry in many countries, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. A wide range of infection levels has been found on infected farms, prompting investigations into both farm level and animal level risk factors for DD occurrence. There also appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to the disease. The identification of factors affecting individual variation in susceptibility to DD might allow changes in breeding policies or herd management which could be used to reduce DD prevalence. Factors mentioned in the literature as possibly influencing individual variation in susceptibility to DD include physical factors such as hoof conformation and properties of the skin, physiological factors such as the efficacy of the immune response, and behavioural factors such as standing half in cubicles. Further work is required to determine the influence of these factors, identify the genetic basis of variation, clarify the level of heritability of DD susceptibility and to determine how this is correlated with production and health traits currently used in breeding programmes. PMID:26479371

  1. Osteoarthritis in Young, Active, and Athletic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Amoako, Adae O; Pujalte, George Guntur A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most devastating chronic conditions that affect people around the world. Although the usual population associated with the condition is the elderly, who are mostly inactive, athletes and younger individuals are also susceptible. Depending on the population, the etiology may differ; injuries, occupational activities, and obesity appear to be the most common causes of OA in young and athletic populations. Diagnosing OA in athletes and young individuals is sometimes challenging because of their increased pain tolerance. However, the treatment of OA in these populations does not differ from its management in the general population. Several considerations need to be taken into account when choosing a treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to address OA in athletes and younger individuals and to discuss its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24899825

  2. Deterministic SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) models applied to varicella outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, J Ospina; Palacio, D Hincapié

    2008-05-01

    Deterministic SIR models were applied to simulate Susceptible-Infected-Removed and to estimate the threshold condition for varicella outbreaks in children, reported in Medellín, Colombia. The expected numbers of susceptible, infected and removed individuals were compared with observed cases from notification of varicella outbreaks to the local Board of Health and from survey data. The threshold condition was estimated by the basic reproductive ratio and by the relative removal rate, through which measures for preventing and curtailing the outbreaks were identified. The model demonstrated a reasonable fit to the observations, except in two of the six outbreaks which probably reflected under-registration of cases. In order to have prevented these outbreaks, between 4.4% and 52.9% of the susceptible population should have been vaccinated assuming an 85% vaccine effectiveness. Similarly, isolation of affected children should have been increased to between 4.3% and 44.8% per week.

  3. Genetic variations in the PSMA3, PSMA6 and PSMC6 genes are associated with type 1 diabetes in Latvians and with expression level of number of UPS-related and T1DM-susceptible genes in HapMap individuals.

    PubMed

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Osina, Kristine; Dokane, Kristine; Sokolovska, Jelizaveta; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a key player of proteostasis network in the body, was implicated in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteasome subunits may potentially affect system efficiency. However, data in this field are still limited. To fulfil this gap, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PSMB5 (rs11543947), PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genes were genotyped on susceptibility to T1DM in Latvians. The rs11543947 was found to be neutral and other loci manifested disease susceptibility, with rs1048990 and rs2348071 being the most significantly associated (P < 0.001; OR 2.042 [1.376-3.032] and OR 2.096 [1.415-3.107], respectively). Risk effect was associated with female phenotype for rs2277460 and family history for rs2277460, rs2295826 and rs2295827. Five-locus genotypes being at risk simultaneously at any two or more loci showed strong (P < 0.0001) T1DM association. The T1DM protective effects (P < 0.001) were shown for five-locus genotype and haplotype homozygous on common alleles and composed of common alleles, respectively. Using SNPexp data set, correlations have been revealed between the rs1048990, rs2295826, rs2295827 and rs2348071 T1DM risk genotypes and expression levels of 14 genes related to the UPS and 42 T1DM-susceptible genes encoding proteins involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antiviral response, insulin signalling, glucose-energy metabolism and other pathways implicated in T1DM pathogenesis. Genotype-phenotype and genotype-genotype clusterings support genotyping results. Our results provide evidence on new T1DM-susceptible loci in the PSMA3, PSMA6 and PSMC6 proteasome genes and give a new insight into the T1DM pathogenesis.

  4. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.E.; Rose, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Being deluded after being excluded? How emotion regulation deficits in paranoia-prone individuals affect state paranoia during experimentally induced social stress.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Stefan; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania M

    2012-06-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) has become a relevant construct to understanding paranoia. While the ER strategy called expressive suppression (e.g., poker face) may foster state paranoia by increasing arousal, another strategy called reappraisal (e.g., changing the perspective on situations) may reduce negative emotions and state paranoia when adaptively used. However, if reappraisal fails, this could increase paranoia. The aim of this study was to test the proposed effects of the ER strategies on state paranoia in the socially stressful situation of being excluded in paranoia-prone individuals. We conducted an experimental online study with N=116 participants who were randomized to a social inclusion or an exclusion condition using a virtual Cyberball ball-tossing game. They completed questionnaires on paranoia proneness and habitual ER strategies. Before and after the Cyberball task, participants rated their level of state paranoia. The impact of habitual ER strategies, paranoia proneness, and social stress on changes in state paranoia was investigated using linear regression analysis. The three-way interaction of social stress, paranoia proneness, and habitual reappraisal use significantly predicted state paranoia, t(114)=2.62, p=0.010. The decomposition of the interaction term revealed that in the social stress condition, the impact of reappraisal on state paranoia was moderated by the level paranoia proneness. Specifically, in high paranoia-prone individuals the use of reappraisal predicted higher state paranoia. The findings regarding habitual use of suppression were not significant. Although reappraisal is generally considered a functional strategy, its use in distressing social situations seems to be impaired in persons with higher paranoia proneness. A working model of emotion dysregulation in delusions is presented and possible implications for cognitive therapy of psychosis are discussed.

  6. Human Polyomavirus JC monitoring and noncoding control region analysis in dynamic cohorts of individuals affected by immune-mediated diseases under treatment with biologics: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) onset, caused by Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) in patients affected by immune-mediated diseases during biological treatment, raised concerns about the safety profile of these agents. Therefore, the aims of this study were the JCPyV reactivation monitoring and the noncoding control region (NCCR) and viral protein 1 (VP1) analysis in patients affected by different immune-mediated diseases and treated with biologics. Methods We performed JCPyV-specific quantitative PCR of biological samples collected at moment of recruitment (t0) and every 4 months (t1, t2, t3, t4). Subsequently, rearrangements’ analysis of NCCR and VP1 was carried out. Data were analyzed using χ2 test. Results Results showed that at t0 patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases presented a JCPyV load in the urine significantly higher (p≤0.05) than in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn’s disease (CD). It can also be observed a significant association between JC viruria and JCPyV antibodies after 1 year of natalizumab (p=0.04) in MS patients. Finally, NCCR analysis showed the presence of an archetype-like sequence in all urine samples, whereas a rearranged NCCR Type IR was found in colon-rectal biopsies collected from 2 CD patients after 16 months of infliximab. Furthermore, sequences isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 2 MS patients with JCPyV antibody at t0 and t3, showed a NCCR Type IIR with a duplication of a 98 bp unit and a 66 bp insert, resulting in a boxB deletion and 37 T to G transversion into the Spi-B binding site. In all patients, a prevalence of genotypes 1A and 1B, the predominant JCPyV genotypes in Europe, was observed. Conclusions It has been important to understand whether the specific inflammatory scenario in different immune-mediated diseases could affect JCPyV reactivation from latency, in particular from kidneys. Moreover, for a more accurate PML risk stratification

  7. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  8. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis.

    PubMed

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0(DSS)), or non-supplemented tap water (F0(Ctrl)) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0(DSS) males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0(DSS) mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0(Ctrl) males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  9. Does a short-term increase in testosterone affect the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression? - An approach using an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study hormonal effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we describe an approach based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study short-term effects of hormones on behavior. The control of territorial aggression has been traditionally linked to testosterone. Males of some vertebrate species show an increase in testosterone during territorial interactions and implantation studies suggest that such an increase in testosterone enhances the intensity and persistence of aggression. Here, we tested whether a short-term maximum release of testosterone - based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope - affects the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression in male black redstarts, a bird species in which testosterone does not increase during territorial encounters. An injection with gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) induced a physiological peak in plasma testosterone that was specific for each individual (=individual reactive scope). However, such short-term surges in an individual's testosterone concentration did not affect the intensity or persistence of aggression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated (1) that a species that naturally does not increase testosterone during male-male encounters would not benefit from such an increase in terms of being more aggressive, (2) that behavioral studies using GnRH-injections represent a promising approach to study species differences in androgen responsiveness, and (3) that injections of releasing or tropic hormones in general may be a suitable approach to study short-term influences of hormones on behavior. These injections effectively mimic the potential short-term changes in hormones that can occur in the real life of individuals and enable us to study the effects of hormonal changes on behavior or other traits within an ecological and evolutionary framework.

  10. Properties of magnetoelectric susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Junyi; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Bichurin, M. I.

    2006-03-01

    The magnetoelectric (ME) susceptibility is the principle property of ME materials, determining the connection between polarization (or electric induction) and an external magnetic field. Since measurement of the ME susceptibility over a wide frequency range [1] and the design of new ME devices require more information about the ME susceptibility, the present work has focused on this property in detail. First, we consider the ME susceptibility as a complex parameter with both real and the imaginary parts, advancing a methodology for measurement of these values. Second, we have analyzed the ME susceptibility, for example a trilayer laminate composite of Terfenol-D/PZT, Terfenol-D, and found a maximum value of ˜3.5x10-7s/m in the electromechanical resonance range. In addition, we have studied the internal structure of the ME susceptibility: i.e., its dependencies on phase volume fractions, layer thickness, and choice of materials couple. Our results for the ME susceptibility will allow it to be more correctly used both as a fundamental materials property and also in potential ME device applications. [1] M.I. Bichurin, V.M. Petrov,Yu.V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 66, 134404 (2002).

  11. Identification of a novel susceptibility locus at 13q34 and refinement of the 20p12.2 region as a multi-signal locus associated with bladder cancer risk in individuals of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Middlebrooks, Candace D; Banday, A Rouf; Ye, Yuanqing; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Koutros, Stella; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Rafnar, Thorunn; Bishop, Timothy; Furberg, Helena; Matullo, Giuseppe; Golka, Klaus; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Taylor, Jack A; Fletcher, Tony; Siddiq, Afshan; Cortessis, Victoria K; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark P; Jacobs, Eric J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Chung, Charles C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Galesloot, Tessel E; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari; Kiltie, Anne E; Harland, Mark; Teo, Mark; Offit, Kenneth; Vijai, Joseph; Bajorin, Dean; Kopp, Ryan; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Castelao, Jose Esteban; Calaza, Manuel; Martinez, Maria Elena; Cordeiro, Patricia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Kumar, Rajiv; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth C; Tjønneland, Anne; Brennan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Stern, Marianna C; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Jeppson, Rebecca P; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Turman, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M; Zhang, Liren; Gong, Yilei; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdett, Laurie; Wheeler, William A; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Monawar Hosain, G M; Schwenn, Molly; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Christopher A; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Chanock, Stephen J; Silverman, Debra T; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-03-15

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P < 1 × 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 × 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 × 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P ≤ 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.

  12. Identification of a novel susceptibility locus at 13q34 and refinement of the 20p12.2 region as a multi-signal locus associated with bladder cancer risk in individuals of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Middlebrooks, Candace D; Banday, A Rouf; Ye, Yuanqing; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Koutros, Stella; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Rafnar, Thorunn; Bishop, Timothy; Furberg, Helena; Matullo, Giuseppe; Golka, Klaus; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Taylor, Jack A; Fletcher, Tony; Siddiq, Afshan; Cortessis, Victoria K; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark P; Jacobs, Eric J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Chung, Charles C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Galesloot, Tessel E; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari; Kiltie, Anne E; Harland, Mark; Teo, Mark; Offit, Kenneth; Vijai, Joseph; Bajorin, Dean; Kopp, Ryan; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Castelao, Jose Esteban; Calaza, Manuel; Martinez, Maria Elena; Cordeiro, Patricia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Kumar, Rajiv; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth C; Tjønneland, Anne; Brennan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Stern, Marianna C; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Jeppson, Rebecca P; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Turman, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M; Zhang, Liren; Gong, Yilei; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdett, Laurie; Wheeler, William A; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Monawar Hosain, G M; Schwenn, Molly; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Christopher A; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Chanock, Stephen J; Silverman, Debra T; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-03-15

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P < 1 × 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 × 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 × 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P ≤ 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer. PMID:26732427

  13. The variability of times to detect growth from individual Clostridium botulinum type E endospores is differentially affected by high pressure treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Christian A.; Schnabel, Juliane; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2014-10-01

    High pressure thermal (HPT) processing is a candidate technology for the production of safe and stable food. However, little is known about the effect of HPT or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments at ambient temperature on the variability of times to detect growth from individual spores. We investigated this effect by treating Clostridium botulinum type E spores with HHP (200-600 MPa, 20°C) and HPT (600 MPa, 80°C and 800 MPa, 60°C). Our results indicate that the mean detection times increase and the frequency distribution shifts toward longer times when HHP treatment intensity is increased. HPT treatments result in a highly scattered distribution. In contrast, pressure levels ≤300 MPa decrease detection times and heterogeneity of their distribution, which could lead to an increase in the potential risk originating from C. botulinum type E spores. Data provided here could help to refine risk assessment regarding this important food intoxicator.

  14. Individual-based model of young-of-the-year striped bass population dynamics. II. Factors affecting recruitment in the Potomac River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, J.H. ); Rose, K.A. ); Rutherford, E.S.; Houde, E.D. )

    1993-05-01

    An individual-based model of the population dynamics of young-of-the-year striped bass Morone saxatilis in the Potomac River, Maryland, was used to test the hypothesis that historically high recruitment variability can be explained by changes in environmental and biological factors that result in relatively small changes in growth and mortality rates of striped bass larvae. The four factors examined were (1) size distribution of female parents, (2) zooplankton prey density during the development of striped bass larvae, (3) density of completing larval white perch M. americana, and (4) temperature during larval development. Simulation results suggest that variations in female size and in prey for larvae alone could cause 10-fold variability in recruitment. But no single factor alone caused changes in vital rates of age-0 fish that could account for the 145-fold variability in the Potomac River index of juvenile recruitment. However, combined positive or negative effects of two or more factors resulted in more than a 150-fold simulated recruitment variability, suggesting that combinations of factors can account for the high observed annual variability in striped bass recruitment success. Higher cumulative mortality of feeding larvae and younger life stages than of juveniles was common to all simulations. supporting the contention that striped bass year-class strength is determined prior to metamorphosis. 76 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. The Role of Abcb5 Alleles in Susceptibility to Haloperidol-Induced Toxicity in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Zhang, Haili; Dill, David L.; Clark, J. David; Tu, Susan; Yablonovitch, Arielle L.; Tan, Meng How; Zhang, Rui; Rujescu, Dan; Wu, Manhong; Tessarollo, Lino; Vieira, Wilfred; Gottesman, Michael M.; Deng, Suhua; Eberlin, Livia S.; Zare, Richard N.; Billard, Jean-Martin; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Li, Jin Billy; Peltz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background We know very little about the genetic factors affecting susceptibility to drug-induced central nervous system (CNS) toxicities, and this has limited our ability to optimally utilize existing drugs or to develop new drugs for CNS disorders. For example, haloperidol is a potent dopamine antagonist that is used to treat psychotic disorders, but 50% of treated patients develop characteristic extrapyramidal symptoms caused by haloperidol-induced toxicity (HIT), which limits its clinical utility. We do not have any information about the genetic factors affecting this drug-induced toxicity. HIT in humans is directly mirrored in a murine genetic model, where inbred mouse strains are differentially susceptible to HIT. Therefore, we genetically analyzed this murine model and performed a translational human genetic association study. Methods and Findings A whole genome SNP database and computational genetic mapping were used to analyze the murine genetic model of HIT. Guided by the mouse genetic analysis, we demonstrate that genetic variation within an ABC-drug efflux transporter (Abcb5) affected susceptibility to HIT. In situ hybridization results reveal that Abcb5 is expressed in brain capillaries, and by cerebellar Purkinje cells. We also analyzed chromosome substitution strains, imaged haloperidol abundance in brain tissue sections and directly measured haloperidol (and its metabolite) levels in brain, and characterized Abcb5 knockout mice. Our results demonstrate that Abcb5 is part of the blood-brain barrier; it affects susceptibility to HIT by altering the brain concentration of haloperidol. Moreover, a genetic association study in a haloperidol-treated human cohort indicates that human ABCB5 alleles had a time-dependent effect on susceptibility to individual and combined measures of HIT. Abcb5 alleles are pharmacogenetic factors that affect susceptibility to HIT, but it is likely that additional pharmacogenetic susceptibility factors will be discovered

  16. Differential expression profiles of microRNA in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with white nose syndrome affected and unaffected individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, D.D.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Hitt, N.P.; King, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    First documented in New York State in 2006, white nose syndrome (WNS) quickly became the leading cause of mortality in hibernating bat species in the United States. WNS is caused by a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. Clinical signs of this pathogen are expressed as a dusty white fungus predominately around the nose and on the wings of affected bats. Relatively new biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are being targeted as markers to predict the syndrome prior to the clinical manifestation. The primary objective of this study was to identify miRNAs that could serve as biomarkers and proxies of little brown bat health. Bats were collected from hibernacula that had tested positive and negative for WNS. Genetic sequencing was completed using the Ion Torrent platform. A number of miRNAs were identified from the liver as putative biomarkers of WNS. However, given the small sample size for each treatment, this data set has only coarsely identified miRNAs indicative of WNS, and further validation is required.

  17. T1R2 and T1R3 subunits are individually unnecessary for normal affective licking responses to Polycose: implications for saccharide taste receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Treesukosol, Yada; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2009-04-01

    The T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are expressed in taste receptor cells and form a heterodimer binding with compounds described as sweet by humans. We examined whether Polycose taste might be mediated through this heterodimer by testing T1R2 knockout (KO) and T1R3 KO mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls in a series of brief-access taste tests (25-min sessions with 5-s trials). Sucrose, Na-saccharin, and Polycose were each tested for three consecutive sessions with order of presentation varied among subgroups in a Latin-Square manner. Both KO groups displayed blunted licking responses and initiated significantly fewer trials of sucrose and Na-saccharin across a range of concentrations. KO mice tested after Polycose exposure demonstrated some degree of concentration-dependent licking of sucrose, likely attributable to learning related to prior postingestive experience. These results are consistent with prior findings in the literature, implicating the T1R2+3 heterodimer as the principal taste receptor for sweet-tasting ligands, and also provide support for the potential of postingestive experience to influence responding in the KO mice. In contrast, T1R2 KO and T1R3 KO mice displayed concentration-dependent licking responses to Polycose that tracked those of their WT controls and in some cases licked midrange concentrations more; the number of Polycose trials initiated overall did not differ between KO and WT mice. Thus, the T1R2 and T1R3 proteins are individually unnecessary for normal concentration-dependent licking of Polycose to be expressed in a brief-access test. Whether at least one of these T1R protein subunits is necessary for normal Polycose responsiveness remains untested. Alternatively, there may be a novel taste receptor(s) that mediates polysaccharide taste. PMID:19158407

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Affecting Factors among Individuals Aged 30 and over in Balçova District of İzmir

    PubMed Central

    Soysal, Ahmet; Şimşek, Hatice; Doğanay, Sinem; Günay, Türkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to an increase twice as much in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and four times as much in diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence since the second half of the 20th century. Aims: This study aims to determine and discuss the prevalence of the MetS and co- factors among individuals at the age of 30 and over in Balcova district of İzmir province according to the American National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and InternationalDiabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data obtained from the Balcova Heart Project in İzmir were used in the study. The dependent variable of the study is MetS existence. The independent variables were socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, and marital status), self-perceived economic status, physical activity, smoking status, healthy nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Results: The prevalence of MetS was 36.9% according to the diagnostic criteria of IDF, while it was 27.4% according to ATP III criteria. According to the both criteria, increasing age, low education, poor economic status perception, physical inactivity, and obesity increase the risk of MetS. Apart from the IDF criteria, being female and a current smoker increase the risk of the MetS in the NCEP-ATP III. Conclusion: Compared to educational studies of MetS as of today, which are community and health-oriented studies, it is challenging that the prevalence of MetS was found to be high for both criteria in our study. Therefore, in particular, primary health care doctors must be prompted to protect the public against DM and CVD in particular. PMID:27308078

  19. No Consistent Difference in Gray Matter Volume between Individuals with Fibromyalgia and Age-Matched Healthy Subjects when Controlling for Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C.; Harris, Richard E.; Sundgren, Pia C.; Welsh, Robert C.; Fernandes, Carlo R.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Williams, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is thought to involve abnormalities in central pain processing. Recent studies involving small samples have suggested alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) in brains of FM patients. Our objective was to verify these findings in a somewhat larger sample using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), while controlling for presence of affective disorders (AD). T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scans were obtained on 29 FM patients with AD, 29 FM patients without AD, and 29 age-matched healthy controls (HC) using a 3T scanner. Segmentation, spatial normalization, and volumetric modulation were performed using an automated protocol within SPM5. Smoothed gray matter segments were entered into a voxel-wise one-way ANOVA, and a search for significant clusters was performed using thresholding methods published in previous studies (whole-brain threshold of p<.05 correcting for multiple comparisons; region-of-interest (ROI) threshold of p≤.001 uncorrected, or p<.05 small-volume corrected). The whole-brain analysis did not reveal any significant clusters. ROI-based analysis revealed a significant difference in left anterior insula GMV among the three groups (xyz={−28, 21, 9}; p=.026, corrected). However, on post-hoc testing, FM patients without AD did not differ significantly from HC with respect to mean GMV extracted from this cluster. A significant negative correlation was found between mean cluster GMV and scores of trait anxiety (State-Trait Personality Inventory, Trait Anxiety scale; rho=−.470, p<.001). No other significant clusters were found on ROI-based analysis. Our results emphasize the importance of correcting for AD when carrying out VBM studies in chronic pain. PMID:19375224

  20. Antifungal susceptibility testing.

    PubMed Central

    Rex, J H; Pfaller, M A; Rinaldi, M G; Polak, A; Galgiani, J N

    1993-01-01

    Unlike antibacterial susceptibility testing, reliable antifungal susceptibility testing is still largely in its infancy. Many methods have been described, but they produce widely discrepant results unless such factors as pH, inoculum size, medium formulation, incubation time, and incubation temperature are carefully controlled. Even when laboratories agree upon a common method, interlaboratory agreement may be poor. As a result of numerous collaborative projects carried out both independently and under the aegis of the Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, the effects of varying these factors have been extensively studied and a standard method which minimizes interlaboratory variability during the testing of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans has been proposed. This review summarizes this work, reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed susceptibility testing standard, and identifies directions for future work. PMID:8269392

  1. Digital Dermatitis in Dairy Cows: A Review of Risk Factors and Potential Sources of Between-Animal Variation in Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Maeve A; O'Connell, Niamh E

    2015-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a bacterial disease that primarily affects the skin on the heels of cattle. It is a major cause of lameness in dairy cows and a significant problem for the dairy industry in many countries, causing reduced animal welfare and economic loss. A wide range of infection levels has been found on infected farms, prompting investigations into both farm level and animal level risk factors for DD occurrence. There also appears to be individual variation between animals in susceptibility to the disease. The identification of factors affecting individual variation in susceptibility to DD might allow changes in breeding policies or herd management which could be used to reduce DD prevalence. Factors mentioned in the literature as possibly influencing individual variation in susceptibility to DD include physical factors such as hoof conformation and properties of the skin, physiological factors such as the efficacy of the immune response, and behavioural factors such as standing half in cubicles. Further work is required to determine the influence of these factors, identify the genetic basis of variation, clarify the level of heritability of DD susceptibility and to determine how this is correlated with production and health traits currently used in breeding programmes. PMID:26479371

  2. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  3. A Complex Network of Interactions between S282 and G283 of Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 5B and the Template Strand Affects Susceptibility to Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Anupriya S.; Damha, Masad J.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Mo, Hongmei; Doehle, Brian; Sagan, Selena M.

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase NS5B is essentially required for viral replication and serves as a prominent drug target. Sofosbuvir is a prodrug of a nucleotide analog that interacts selectively with NS5B and has been approved for HCV treatment in combination with ribavirin. Although the emergence of resistance to sofosbuvir is rarely seen in the clinic, the S282T mutation was shown to decrease susceptibility to this drug. S282T was also shown to confer hypersusceptibility to ribavirin, which is of potential clinical benefit. Here we devised a biochemical approach to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Recent crystallographic data revealed a hydrogen bond between S282 and the 2′-hydroxyl of the bound nucleotide, while the adjacent G283 forms a hydrogen bond with the 2′-hydroxyl of the residue of the template that base pairs with the nucleotide substrate. We show that DNA-like modifications of the template that disrupt hydrogen bonding with G283 cause enzyme pausing with natural nucleotides. However, the specifically introduced DNA residue of the template reestablishes binding and incorporation of sofosbuvir in the context of S282T. Moreover, the DNA-like modifications of the template prevent the incorporation of ribavirin in the context of the wild-type enzyme, whereas the S282T mutant enables the binding and incorporation of ribavirin under the same conditions. Together, these findings provide strong evidence to show that susceptibility to sofosbuvir and ribavirin depends crucially on a network of interdependent hydrogen bonds that involve the adjacent residues S282 and G283 and their interactions with the incoming nucleotide and complementary template residue, respectively. PMID:26824949

  4. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  5. Beyond diathesis stress: differential susceptibility to environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Pluess, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Evolutionary-biological reasoning suggests that individuals should be differentially susceptible to environmental influences, with some people being not just more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, as the prevailing diathesis-stress view of psychopathology (and of many environmental influences) maintains, but also disproportionately susceptible to the beneficial effects of supportive and enriching experiences (or just the absence of adversity). Evidence consistent with the proposition that individuals differ in plasticity is reviewed. The authors document multiple instances in which (a) phenotypic temperamental characteristics, (b) endophenotypic attributes, and (c) specific genes function less like "vulnerability factors" and more like "plasticity factors," thereby rendering some individuals more malleable or susceptible than others to both negative and positive environmental influences. Discussion focuses upon limits of the evidence, statistical criteria for distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis stress, potential mechanisms of influence, and unknowns in the differential-susceptibility equation.

  6. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood-related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data, and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is a component of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations less prepared to avoid flood effects or able to cope with them, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  7. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility alleles in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Britt A.; Wang, Joanne; Taylor, Elise M.; Caillier, Stacy J.; Herbert, Joseph; Khan, Omar A.; Cross, Anne H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine F.; Cree, Bruce C.A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease characterized by complex genetics and multifaceted gene-environment interactions. Compared to whites, African Americans have a lower risk for developing MS, but African Americans with MS have a greater risk of disability. These differences between African Americans and whites may represent differences in genetic susceptibility and/or environmental factors. SNPs from 12 candidate genes have recently been identified and validated with MS risk in white populations. We performed a replication study using 918 cases and 656 unrelated controls to test whether these candidate genes are also associated with MS risk in African Americans. CD6, CLEC16a, EVI5, GPC5, and TYK2 contained SNPs that are associated with MS risk in the African American dataset. EVI5 showed the strongest association outside the MHC (rs10735781, OR = 1.233, 95% CI = 1.06–1.43, P value = 0.006). In addition, RGS1 appears to affect age of onset whereas TNFRSF1A appears to be associated with disease progression. None of the tested variants showed results that were statistically in-consistent with the effects established in whites. The results are consistent with shared disease genetic mechanisms among individuals of European and African ancestry. PMID:19865102

  8. Genetic Based Plant Resistance and Susceptibility Traits to Herbivory Influence Needle and Root Litter Nutrient Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Chapman, Samantha K.; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C; Koch, George W

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that leaf and root litter decomposition have similar drivers and that nutrient release from these substrates is synchronized. Few studies have examined these assumptions, and none has examined how plant genetics (i.e., plant susceptibility to herbivory) could affect these relationships. Here we examine the effects of herbivore susceptibility and resistance on needle and fine root litter decomposition of pi on pine, Pinus edulis. The study population consists of individual trees that are either susceptible or resistant to herbivory by the pi on needle scale, Matsucoccus acalyptus, or the stem-boring moth, Dioryctria albovittella. Genetic analyses and experimental removals and additions of these insects have identified trees that are naturally resistant and susceptible to these insects. These herbivores increase the chemical quality of litter inputs and alter soil microclimate, both of which are important decomposition drivers. Our research leads to four major conclusions: Herbivore susceptibility and resistance effects on 1) needle litter mass loss and phosphorus (P) retention in moth susceptible and resistant litter are governed by microclimate, 2) root litter nitrogen (N) and P retention, and needle litter N retention are governed by litter chemical quality, 3) net nutrient release from litter can reverse over time, 4) root and needle litter mass loss and nutrient release are determined by location (above- vs. belowground), suggesting that the regulators of needle and root decomposition differ at the local scale. Understanding of decomposition and nutrient retention in ecosystems requires consideration of herbivore effects on above- and belowground processes and how these effects may be governed by plant genotype. Because an underlying genetic component to herbivory is common to most ecosystems of the world and herbivory may increase in climatic change scenarios, it is important to evaluate the role of plant genetics in affecting carbon and

  9. Individual intake of free-choice mineral mix by grazing beef cows may be less than typical formulation assumptions and form of selenium in mineral mix affects blood Se concentrations of cows and their suckling calves.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer D; Burris, Walter R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the individual ad libitum intake of mineral mix by beef cows managed under a year-long, fall-calving, forage-based production regimen and (2) if Se form in the mineral mix affected the blood Se concentrations of cows and suckling calves. Twenty-four late-gestation (6 to 8 months) Angus-cross cows (2.7 ± 0.8 years; body weight [BW] = 585 ± 58 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned (n = 8) to a mineral supplement treatment (TRT) containing 35 ppm Se as either inorganic (ISe; sodium selenite), organic (OSe; Sel-Plex®), or a 1:1 combination of ISe/OSe (MIX). Cows commonly grazed a 10.1-ha predominately tall fescue pasture and had individual ad libitum access to TRT using in-pasture Calan gates. Cows calved from August to November and calves had common ad libitum access to creep feed and a mineral supplement that lacked Se. Cow jugular blood was taken at 28-day intervals (13 periods) and calf blood was taken with cows from birth through weaning. Individual cow mineral mix (mean = 54.0 ± 7.0 g/day, range = 97.3 to 27.9 ± 7.4 g/day) and Se (mean = 1.82 ± 0.25 mg/day, range = 3.31 to 0.95 ± 0.25 mg/day) intakes were affected by period (P < 0.0001), but not by cow Se TRT (P > 0.30). Cow blood Se (0.109 to 0.229 ± 0.01 μg/mL) was affected (P < 0.002) by period, Se form, and their interaction, with ISe < MIX for periods 8 and 11, ISe < OSe for all periods except period 1, and MIX < OSe for periods 2 to 4, 7, 8, 10, and 12. Calf blood Se (in micrograms Se per milliliter) was correlated with cow blood Se and affected (P < 0.0001) by cow Se TRT, with ISe (0.07 to 0.11) < MIX (0.10 to 0.15) = OSe (0.16 to 0.19). These data reveal that (1) mean supplemental ad libitum cow mineral intake was 36% less than the typical formulation intake expectations (85 g/day) and, correspondingly, mean supplemental Se intake was 33% less than that allowed by the FDA and (2) cow Se TRT differentially affected both cow and calf blood

  10. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project began in 2005 as a 3-year pilot study to identify inherited genetic susceptibility to prostate and breast cancer. CGEMS has developed into a successful research program of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variants that affect a person’s risk of developing cancer.

  11. Susceptibility of children to sapovirus infections, Nicaragua, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel; Svensson, Lennart

    2012-11-01

    We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua.

  12. Susceptibility of Children to Sapovirus Infections, Nicaragua, 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua. PMID:23092588

  13. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... who later transitioned into this syndrome. References & Resources Epilepsy Information http://www.epilepsy.com Thiele EA, Weiner HL (2010) Epilepsy in TSC, In, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Genes, Clinical ...

  14. Rubella susceptibility predicts measles susceptibility: implications for postpartum immunization.

    PubMed

    Libman, M D; Behr, M A; Martel, N; Ward, B J

    2000-12-01

    Measles and mumps antibody titers were measured in 262 pregnant women who were either positive (n=128) or negative (n=134) for rubella antibodies. Susceptibility to measles and mumps was detected in 4.6% (12/262) and 7.6% (14/184) of the women, respectively. Of the rubella-susceptible group, 8.2% were also measles susceptible, whereas only 0.8% of the rubella-immune women were measles susceptible. Susceptibility to mumps was evenly divided between rubella-susceptible (7.8%) and rubella-immune (7.4%) groups.

  15. Genetic susceptibility to teratogens: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Cassina, Matteo; Salviati, Leonardo; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Clementi, Maurizio

    2012-09-01

    There is evidence that the susceptibility to the teratogenic effect of drugs within human populations varies extremely from one individual to another, even after identical exposures. One of the factors that may explain these interindividual differences is the genetic makeup in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the respective drugs. In fact, both maternal and embryonic/fetal genotypes can affect placental transport, absorption, metabolism, distribution and receptor binding of an agent, influencing its teratogenicity. We have reviewed the literature and commented on the reported correlations between genetic factors and drug-induced birth defects. There is still a clear lack of knowledge regarding this issue and the available data are often conflicting. However, the identification of specific polymorphisms associated with predisposition to teratogenesis may allow in the future the development of personalized non-teratogenic therapies for pregnant women.

  16. Endocrine correlates of susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Motion sickness releases ACTH, epinerphrine, and norepinephrine. The endocrine responses to motion sickness, adaptive responses leading to the resolution of the syndrome, and the way in which antimotion-sickness drugs influence the endocrine responses were studied. Susceptible or insusceptible subjects were administered antimotion-sickness drugs prior to stressful stimulation. Insusceptible subjects displayed more pronounced elevations of ACTH, epinephrine, and norepinephrine after stressful motion. Predrug levels of ACTH were higher in insusceptible subjects (p less than 0.01). Acute blockade of hormone responses to stressful motion or alteration of levels of ACTH by drugs were not correlated with individual susceptibility. No correlation was apparent between epinephrine and ACTH release. These endocrine differences may represent neurochemical markers for susceptibility to motion, stress, or general adaptability, and it may be that the chronic modulation of their levels might be more effective in preventing motion sickness than the acute blockage or stimulation of specific receptors.

  17. Whose health is affected by income inequality? A multilevel interaction analysis of contemporaneous and lagged effects of state income inequality on individual self-rated health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    The empirical relationship between income inequality and health has been much debated and discussed. Recent reviews suggest that the current evidence is mixed, with the relationship between state income inequality and health in the United States (US) being perhaps the most robust. In this paper, we examine the multilevel interactions between state income inequality, individual poor self-rated health, and a range of individual demographic and socioeconomic markers in the US. We use the pooled data from the 1995 and 1997 Current Population Surveys, and the data on state income inequality (represented using Gini coefficient) from the 1990, 1980, and 1970 US Censuses. Utilizing a cross-sectional multilevel design of 201,221 adults nested within 50 US states we calibrated two-level binomial hierarchical mixed models (with states specified as a random effect). Our analyses suggest that for a 0.05 change in the state income inequality, the odds ratio (OR) of reporting poor health was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) in a conditional model that included individual age, sex, race, marital status, education, income, and health insurance coverage as well as state median income. With few exceptions, we did not find strong statistical support for differential effects of state income inequality across different population groups. For instance, the relationship between state income inequality and poor health was steeper for whites compared to blacks (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.20-1.48) and for individuals with incomes greater than $75,000 compared to less affluent individuals (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.26-2.15). Our findings, however, primarily suggests an overall (as opposed to differential) contextual effect of state income inequality on individual self-rated poor health. To the extent that contemporaneous state income inequality differentially affects population sub-groups, our analyses suggest that the adverse impact of inequality is somewhat stronger for the relatively advantaged socioeconomic

  18. Flavivirus susceptibility in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Black, William C; Bennett, Kristine E; Gorrochótegui-Escalante, Norma; Barillas-Mury, Carolina V; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Muñoz, María; Farfán-Alé, José A; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J

    2002-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of yellow fever (YF) and dengue fever (DF) flaviviruses worldwide. In this review we focus on past and present research on genetic components and environmental factors in Aedes aegypti that appear to control flavivirus transmission. We review genetic relationships among Ae. aegypti populations throughout the world and discuss how variation in vector competence is correlated with overall genetic differences among populations. We describe current research into how genetic and environmental factors jointly affect distribution of vector competence in natural populations. Based on this information, we propose a population genetic model for vector competence and discuss our recent progress in testing this model. We end with a discussion of approaches being taken to identify the genes that may control flavivirus susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

  19. Assessment of susceptibility to measles and rubella.

    PubMed

    Preblud, S R; Gross, F; Halsey, N A; Hinman, A R; Herrmann, K L; Koplan, J P

    1982-02-26

    We conducted a serological and questionnaire study of 755 US Merchant Marine Academy cadets (aged 16 to 29 years) and their parents to determine the cadets' susceptibility rate to measles and rubella and to see if there was any difference in the accuracy of cadet and parental histories of previous infection and vaccination. Approximately 4% of the cadets were susceptibility. We also determined the costs and the effectiveness of three alternative strategies for vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults: (1) vaccinating all persons regardless of past history; (2) serologically screening all persons and vaccinating only those who were susceptible; and (3) vaccinating all individuals who do not have physician-documented proof of proper vaccination, past infection (measles only), or serological immunity. The cost savings among the three alternatives are dependent on the proportion of potential vaccinees with records available for review and must be balanced against the proportion of susceptible persons protected by each alternative. We also found that a combined vaccination program for both measles and rubella is less costly than a program aimed at providing immunity to only one of the two diseases. PMID:7057602

  20. Altered coriolis stress susceptibility in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lockette, W; Shepard, N; Lyos, A; Boismier, T; Mers, A

    1991-08-01

    Patients with hypertension frequently have vague complaints of dizziness and many other symptoms experienced by healthy individuals with motion sickness. We examined vestibular function in patients with essential hypertension, and we determined whether patients with essential hypertension are more prone to motion sickness using Coriolis stress testing. Vestibular function and Coriolis stress susceptibility were measured in 12 normotensive (NT) and seven asymptomatic patients with mild essential hypertension (HT). The Coriolis stress susceptibility index (CSSI) was calculated from the number of head movements in the four cardinal directions an individual could complete while being rotated in a computerized chair at increasing velocity before they developed motion sickness. The patients with hypertension had normal vestibular function and normal vestibuloocular responses as measured by standard techniques. Subjects with hypertension had significantly decreased Coriolis stress susceptibility scores compared to normotensive subjects (NT, 29.70 +/- 4.8; v HT, 5.48 +/- 2.0, P less than .001) and significantly decreased suppression of postrotatory nystagmus (NT, 44.5% +/- 3.8; v HT, 19.1% +/- 6.9, P less than .05). Medical treatment of hypertension did not result in an increased tolerance to provocative stimuli for motion sickness. It is suggested from our data that an increased susceptibility to motion sickness and abnormal vestibular responses to normal motion may account for many of the vague symptoms of "dizziness" reported by a large number of hypertensive patients.

  1. Toward Modelling Topsoil Magnetic Susceptibility for Demining Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, J. A.; Dearing, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Landmine Monitor estimates that landmines cause up to 20,000 fatalities and casualties worldwide every year, in over 100 countries affected by landmine contamination. Although detection technologies have become more sophisticated, the metal detector still remains the most widely employed detection system in landmine affected regions. With increased use of minimum metal mines, the performance and sensitivity of metal detectors are increasingly challenged. In addition to mine constituents, depth of burial and orientation, soil properties significantly affect metal detection capabilities. Soils with high magnetic susceptibility, in particular those dominated by viscous components, interfere with the response signal in both frequency and time domain metal detection systems. Using Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) as a pilot region, we created an expert system to predict topsoil susceptibility from environmental information within a SOTER data base. Initially, the knowledge base is constructed from published relationships of environmental parameters and magnetic susceptibility and knowledge of experts in the field of soil magnetism. The knowledge base is underpinned by environmental conditions that are known to enhance or reduce magnetic susceptibility in topsoils. Where semi-quantitative data exists, transfer-functions are used to provide first approximations of susceptibility classes and offer a basis for a probability score for the susceptibility class. As a first approximation, susceptibility values are categorized into five continuous classes delimited by published magnetic susceptibility ranges in topsoils. The predicted susceptibility maps result in regional contrasts, delineated by the spatial scale of the environmental information. Further development of the model using a Baysean rule-based system with fuzzy boundaries is anticipated. Validation of the model is proposed using archived soil survey samples from BiH. In addition to providing essential data for

  2. The influence of individual susceptibility in pyrethroid exposure.

    PubMed

    Leng, G; Lewalter, J; Röhrig, B; Idel, H

    1999-06-30

    The aim of this study was to find a suitable biomarker for pyrethroid adverse effects. It was shown that there is a correlation between the half-life time (t(1/2)) of pyrethroids in plasma and the clinical findings. We hypothized that this finding indicates an interindividual different amount of total esterase activity or even a polymorphism. By in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that pyrethroids are cleaved by carboxylesterases. After it turned out that carboxylesterase activity in human plasma is too low for detection, a method for specific determination of carboxylesterase activity in human isolated lymphocytes was developed. As a substrate for carboxylesterase activity, cyfluthrin was added to the lymphocyte suspension. As a proof for cyfluthrin degradation by carboxylesterases the produced hydrocyanic acid was determined by GC/MS. First hints for interindividual differences in carboxylesterase activity in lymphocytes were found. PMID:10414789

  3. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Concepción M; Olza, Josune; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  4. Populations of a Susceptible Amphibian Species Can Grow despite the Presence of a Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Ursina; Borgula, Adrian; Schmidt, Benedikt R.

    2012-01-01

    Disease can be an important driver of host population dynamics and epizootics can cause severe host population declines. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the pathogen causing amphibian chytridiomycosis, may occur epizootically or enzootically and can harm amphibian populations in many ways. While effects of Bd epizootics are well documented, the effects of enzootic Bd have rarely been described. We used a state-space model that accounts for observation error to test whether population trends of a species highly susceptible to Bd, the midwife toad Alytes obstetricans, are negatively affected by the enzootic presence of the pathogen. Unexpectedly, Bd had no negative effect on population growth rates from 2002–2008. This suggests that negative effects of disease on individuals do not necessarily translate into negative effects at the population level. Populations of amphibian species that are susceptible to the emerging disease chytridiomycosis can persist despite the enzootic presence of the pathogen under current environmental conditions. PMID:22496836

  5. Variation at the fragile X locus does not influence susceptibility to bipolar disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Craddock, N.; Daniels, J.; McGuffin, P.

    1994-06-15

    Over the last 20 years several pedigrees have been reported which are suggestive of linkage between susceptibility to bipolar disorder and markers on chromosome Xq28. Other workers have failed to replicate these reports and the methodology of the positive reports has been criticized. Recently there have been several reports of an association between fragile X (FRA(X)) and affective disorder within families and in unrelated individuals compared with controls. Such reports could be consistent with the Xq28 marker reports because FRA(X) maps to Xq27.3. We report a study at the FRA(X) CGG repeat locus in 79 unrelated Caucasian bipolar probands without fragile X syndrome and 77 unrelated controls. We found no evidence that variation at this locus confers susceptibility to bipolar disorder. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  7. Electron spin susceptibility of superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Levitov, L.S.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Eliashberg, G.M.

    1985-03-10

    The effect of spin polarization due to the Meissner currents on the electron spin susceptibility of a superconductor is studied. This effect accounts for a susceptibility considerably stronger than that of a normal metal. The spin distribution is discussed.

  8. The role of ancestry in TB susceptibility of an admixed South African population.

    PubMed

    Daya, Michelle; van der Merwe, Lize; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo; Hoal, Eileen G

    2014-07-01

    Genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) has been well established and this, taken together with variation in susceptibility observed between different geographic and ethnic populations, implies that susceptibility to TB may in part be affected by ethnicity. In a previous genome-wide TB case-control study (642 cases and 91 controls) of the admixed South African Coloured (SAC) population, we found a positive correlation between African San ancestry and TB susceptibility, and negative correlations with European and Asian ancestries. Since genome-wide data was available for only a small number of controls in the previous study, we endeavored to validate this finding by genotyping a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) in additional individuals, yielding a data set of 918 cases and 507 controls. Ancestry proportions were estimated using the AIMs for each of the source populations of the SAC (African San, African non-San, European, South Asian and East Asian). Using logistic regression models to test for association between TB and ancestry, we confirmed the substantial effect of ancestry on TB susceptibility. We also investigated the effect of adjusting for ancestry in candidate gene TB association studies of the SAC. We report a polymorphism that is no longer significantly associated with TB after adjustment for ancestry, a polymorphism that is significantly associated with TB only after adjustment for ancestry, and a polymorphism where the association significance remains unchanged. By comparing the allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in the source populations of the SAC, we demonstrate that association results are likely to be affected by adjustment for ancestry if allele frequencies differ markedly in the source populations of the SAC.

  9. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Ballart, Cristina; Guerrero, Irene; Castells, Xavier; Barón, Sergio; Castillejo, Soledad; Alcover, M Magdalena; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus , the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled). Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category), wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park), general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR): 0.41) and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59). In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40) and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08). Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  10. Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Bruce J; Boyce, W Thomas; Belsky, Jay; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

    2011-02-01

    Two extant evolutionary models, biological sensitivity to context theory (BSCT) and differential susceptibility theory (DST), converge on the hypothesis that some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environmental conditions. These models contrast with the currently dominant perspective on personal vulnerability and environmental risk: diathesis stress/dual risk. We review challenges to this perspective based on emerging theory and data from the evolutionary, developmental, and health sciences. These challenges signify the need for a paradigm shift in conceptualizing Person x Environment interactions in development. In this context we advance an evolutionary--neurodevelopmental theory, based on DST and BSCT, of the role of neurobiological susceptibility to the environment in regulating environmental effects on adaptation, development, and health. We then outline current thinking about neurogenomic and endophenotypic mechanisms that may underpin neurobiological susceptibility, summarize extant empirical research on differential susceptibility, and evaluate the evolutionary bases and implications of BSCT and DST. Finally, we discuss applied issues including methodological and statistical considerations in conducting differential susceptibility research; issues of ecological, cultural, and racial--ethnic variation in neurobiological susceptibility; and implications of differential susceptibility for designing social programs. We conclude that the differential susceptibility paradigm has far-reaching implications for understanding whether and how much child and adult development responds, for better and for worse, to the gamut of species-typical environmental conditions.

  11. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN.

  12. Quantitative susceptibility mapping: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Haacke, E Mark; Liu, Saifeng; Buch, Sagar; Zheng, Weili; Wu, Dongmei; Ye, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a new technique for quantifying magnetic susceptibility. It has already found various applications in quantifying in vivo iron content, calcifications and changes in venous oxygen saturation. The accuracy of susceptibility mapping is dependent on several factors. In this review, we evaluate the entire process of QSM from data acquisition to individual data processing steps. We also show preliminary results of several new concepts introduced in this review in an attempt to improve the quality and accuracy for certain steps. The uncertainties in estimating susceptibility differences using susceptibility maps, phase images, and T2* maps are analyzed and compared. Finally, example clinical applications are presented. We conclude that QSM holds great promise in quantifying iron and becoming a standard clinical tool. PMID:25267705

  13. Mitochondrial Genetics & Obesity: Evolutionary Adaptation & Contemporary Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for a variety of metabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Although in its simplest terms, obesity may be thought of as a consequence of excessive caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle, it is also evident that individual propensity for weight gain can vary. The etiology of individual susceptibility to obesity appears to be complex – involving a combination of environmental – genetic interactions. Herein, we suggest that the mitochondrion plays a major role in influencing individual susceptibility to this disease via mitochondrial – nuclear interaction processes, and that environmentally influenced selection events for mitochondrial function that conveyed increased reproductive and survival success during the global establishment of human populations during prehistoric times can influence individual susceptibility to weight gain and obesity. PMID:24075923

  14. Gene Expression-Genotype Analysis Implicates GSDMA, GSDMB, and LRRC3C as Contributors to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Söderman, Jan; Berglind, Linda; Almer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biological foundation of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, susceptibility locus rs2872507, we have investigated the expression of 13 genes using ileal and colonic biopsies from patients with IBD (inflamed and noninflamed mucosa) or from individuals without IBD (noninflamed mucosa). The susceptibility allele was consistently associated with reduced expression of GSDMB (P = 4.1 × 10−3–7.2 × 10−10). The susceptibility allele was also associated with the increased expression of GSDMA (P = 1.6 × 10−4) and LRRC3C (P = 7.8 × 10−6) in colon tissue from individuals without IBD and with the reduced expression of PGAP3 (IBD; P = 2.0 × 10−3) and ZPBP2 (Crohn's disease; P = 7.7 × 10−4) in noninflamed ileum. Inflammation resulted in the reduced colonic expression of ERBB2, GRB7, MIEN1, and PGAP3 (P = 1.0 × 10−4–1.0 × 10−9) and the increased colonic expression of IKZF3 and CSF3 (P = 2.4 × 10−7–3.5 × 10−8). Based on our results and published findings on GSDMA, GSDMB, LRRC3C, and related proteins, we propose that this locus in part affects IBD susceptibility via effects on apoptosis and cell proliferation and believe this hypothesis warrants further experimental investigation. PMID:26484354

  15. IL18 Gene Variants Influence the Susceptibility to Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Leon Rodriguez, Daniel A; Carmona, F David; Echeverría, Luis Eduardo; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disorder caused by the infection with the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. According to the World Health Organization, more than six million people are currently infected in endemic regions. Genetic factors have been proposed to influence predisposition to infection and development of severe clinical phenotypes like chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Interleukin 18 (IL18) encodes a proinflammatory cytokine that has been proposed to be involved in controlling T. cruzi infection. In this study, we analyzed the possible role of six IL18 gene variants (rs5744258, rs360722, rs2043055, rs187238, rs1946518 and rs360719), which cover most of the variation within the locus, in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi and/or CCC. In total, 1,171 individuals from a Colombian region endemic for Chagas disease, classified as seronegative (n = 595), seropositive asymptomatic (n = 175) and CCC (n = 401), were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Significant associations with T. cruzi infection were observed when comparing seronegative and seropositive individuals for rs187238 (P = 2.18E-03, OR = 0.77), rs360719 (P = 1.49E-03, OR = 0.76), rs2043055 (P = 2.52E-03, OR = 1.29), and rs1946518 (P = 0.0162, OR = 1.22). However, dependence analyses suggested that the association was mainly driven by the polymorphism rs360719. This variant is located within the promoter region of the IL18 gene, and it has been described that it creates a binding site for the transcription factor OCT-1 affecting IL-18 expression levels. In addition, no evidence of association was observed between any of the analyzed IL18 gene polymorphisms and the development of CCC. In summary, our data suggest that genetic variation within the promoter region of IL18 is directly involved in the susceptibility to infection by T. cruzi, which provides novel insight into disease pathophysiology and adds new perspectives to achieve a more effective disease control.

  16. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be use