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Sample records for affect ion transport

  1. Colonic epithelial ion transport is not affected in patients with diverticulosis

    PubMed Central

    Osbak, Philip S; Bindslev, Niels; Poulsen, Steen S; Kaltoft, Nicolai; Tilotta, Maria C; Hansen, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Background Colonic diverticular disease is a bothersome condition with an unresolved pathogenesis. It is unknown whether a neuroepithelial dysfunction is present. The aim of the study was two-fold; (1) to investigate colonic epithelial ion transport in patients with diverticulosis and (2) to adapt a miniaturized Modified Ussing Air-Suction (MUAS) chamber for colonic endoscopic biopsies. Methods Biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid part of the colon. 86 patients were included. All patients were referred for colonoscopy on suspicion of neoplasia and they were without pathological findings at colonoscopy (controls) except for diverticulosis in 22 (D-patients). Biopsies were mounted in MUAS chambers with an exposed area of 5 mm2. Electrical responses to various stimulators and inhibitors of ion transport were investigated together with histological examination. The MUAS chamber was easy to use and reproducible data were obtained. Results Median basal short circuit current (SCC) was 43.8 μA·cm-2 (0.8 – 199) for controls and 59.3 μA·cm-2 (3.0 – 177.2) for D-patients. Slope conductance was 77.0 mS·cm-2 (18.6 – 204.0) equal to 13 Ω·cm2 for controls and 96.6 mS·cm-2 (8.4 – 191.4) equal to 10.3 Ω·cm2 for D-patients. Stimulation with serotonin, theophylline, forskolin and carbachol induced increases in SCC in a range of 4.9 – 18.6 μA·cm-2, while inhibition with indomethacin, bumetanide, ouabain and amiloride decreased SCC in a range of 6.5 – 27.4 μA·cm-2, and all with no significant differences between controls and D-patients. Histological examinations showed intact epithelium and lamina propria before and after mounting for both types of patients. Conclusion We conclude that epithelial ion transport is not significantly altered in patients with diverticulosis and that the MUAS chamber can be adapted for studies of human colonic endoscopic biopsies. PMID:17888183

  2. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  3. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  4. Change in Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Ions in Nerium oleander (Rosebay) as Affected by Different Nitrogen Sources and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Shima, Kazuto; Lambers, Hans; Chiba, Kyozo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Nerium oleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl− transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl− cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl− in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl− in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants. PMID:18772147

  5. Chronic anabolic-androgenic steroid treatment affects brain GABA(A) receptor-gated chloride ion transport.

    PubMed

    Bitran, D; Hilvers, R J; Frye, C A; Erskine, M S

    1996-01-01

    Previous research in this laboratory has shown that chronic treatment of adult male rats with an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) produced anxiolytic behavior and increased the functional response of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors. The experiments reported here were aimed at further characterizing the effect of chronic AAS exposure on cerebral cortical GABA(A) receptors. Adult male rats were injected with dianabol (1,4-androstadien-17alpha-methyl-17beta-ol-3-one; 10 mg/kg/day, SC) for 4 weeks. A significant decrease in ventral prostate gland weight was found after 2 weeks of dianabol, and returned to control levels 3 and 10 days after steroid discontinuation. Testicular weights decreased throughout the treatment period but reached statistical significance only during the withdrawal period. Serum 3alpha-androstanediol level was marginally increased afer 2 weeks of dianabol injection, and was significantly decreased at 3 and 10 days after withdrawal. GABA-stimulated 36chloride (Cl-) influx in cortical synaptoneurosomes was increased in animals treated with dianabol for 2 and 4 weeks, and remained elevated 3 days after dianabol withdrawal, returning to control levels at withdrawal day 10. The increase in receptor efficacy was associated with a transient increase in receptor sensitivity (inverse of EC50), apparent after 2 weeks of AAS treatment and at withdrawal day 3. In a follow-up experiment, metabolites of dianabol were tested for the in vitro efficacy in potentiating GABA-stimulated Cl- transport. Only 3alpha-androstanedial and androsterone were found to have potent stimulatory effects. The 3beta-reduced metabolites were inactive, as were metabolites that contained a methyl group at the 17alpha position. These results point to significant facilitative effects of dianabol treatment on brain GABA(A) receptors via the metabolic formation of neuroactive steroids. PMID:8632710

  6. Secondary ion collection and transport system for ion microprobe

    DOEpatents

    Ward, James W.; Schlanger, Herbert; McNulty, Jr., Hugh; Parker, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary ion collection and transport system, for use with an ion microprobe, which is very compact and occupies only a small working distance, thereby enabling the primary ion beam to have a short focal length and high resolution. Ions sputtered from the target surface by the primary beam's impact are collected between two arcuate members having radii of curvature and applied voltages that cause only ions within a specified energy band to be collected. The collected ions are accelerated and focused in a transport section consisting of a plurality of spaced conductive members which are coaxial with and distributed along the desired ion path. Relatively high voltages are applied to alternate transport sections to produce accelerating electric fields sufficient to transport the ions through the section to an ion mass analyzer, while lower voltages are applied to the other transport sections to focus the ions and bring their velocity to a level compatible with the analyzing apparatus.

  7. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  8. Targeting ion transport in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oosterwijk, E.; Gillies, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolism of cancer cells differs substantially from normal cells, including ion transport. Although this phenomenon has been long recognized, ion transporters have not been viewed as suitable therapeutic targets. However, the acidic pH values present in tumours which are well outside of normal limits are now becoming recognized as an important therapeutic target. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is fundamental to tumour pH regulation. CAIX is commonly expressed in cancer, but lowly expressed in normal tissues and that presents an attractive target. Here, we discuss the possibilities of exploiting the acidic, hypoxic tumour environment as possible target for therapy. Additionally, clinical experience with CAIX targeting in cancer patients is discussed. PMID:24493755

  9. Influence of ion streaming instabilities on transport near plasma boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalrud, Scott D.

    2016-04-01

    Plasma boundary layers are susceptible to electrostatic instabilities driven by ion flows in presheaths and, when present, these instabilities can influence transport. In plasmas with a single species of positive ion, ion-acoustic instabilities are expected under conditions of low pressure and large electron-to-ion temperature ratio ({{T}e}/{{T}i}\\gg 1 ). In plasmas with two species of positive ions, ion-ion two-stream instabilities can also be excited. The stability phase-space is characterized using the Penrose criterion and approximate linear dispersion relations. Predictions for how these instabilities affect ion and electron transport in presheaths, including rapid thermalization due to instability-enhanced collisions and an instability-enhanced ion-ion friction force, are briefly reviewed. Recent experimental tests of these predictions are discussed along with research needs required for further validation. The calculated stability boundaries provide a guide to determine the experimental conditions at which these effects can be expected.

  10. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  11. Nondiffusive transport regimes for suprathermal ions in turbulent plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovet, A.; Fasoli, A.; Ricci, P.; Furno, I.; Gustafson, K.

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the transport of suprathermal ions in the presence of turbulence is important for fusion plasmas in the burning regime that will characterize reactors, and for space plasmas to understand the physics of particle acceleration. Here, three-dimensional measurements of a suprathermal ion beam in the toroidal plasma device TORPEX are presented. These measurements demonstrate, in a turbulent plasma, the existence of subdiffusive and superdiffusive transport of suprathermal ions, depending on their energy. This result stems from the unprecedented combination of uniquely resolved measurements and first-principles numerical simulations that reveal the mechanisms responsible for the nondiffusive transport. The transport regime is determined by the interaction of the suprathermal ion orbits with the turbulent plasma dynamics, and is strongly affected by the ratio of the suprathermal ion energy to the background plasma temperature.

  12. How Hofmeister ion interactions affect protein stability.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, R L

    1996-01-01

    Model compound studies in the literature show how Hofmeister ion interactions affect protein stability. Although model compound results are typically obtained as salting-out constants, they can be used to find out how the interactions affect protein stability. The null point in the Hofmeister series, which divides protein denaturants from stabilizers, arises from opposite interactions with different classes of groups: Hofmeister ions salt out nonpolar groups and salt in the peptide group. Theories of how Hofmeister ion interactions work need to begin by explaining the mechanisms of these two classes of interactions. Salting-out nonpolar groups has been explained by the cavity model, but its use is controversial. When applied to model compound data, the cavity model 1) uses surface tension increments to predict the observed values of the salting-out constants, within a factor of 3, and 2) predicts that the salting-out constant should increase with the number of carbon atoms in the aliphatic side chain of an amino acid, as observed. The mechanism of interaction between Hofmeister ions and the peptide group is not well understood, and it is controversial whether this interaction is ion-specific, or whether it is nonspecific and the apparent specificity resides in interactions with nearby nonpolar groups. A nonspecific salting-in interaction is known to occur between simple ions and dipolar molecules; it depends on ionic strength, not on position in the Hofmeister series. A theory by Kirkwood predicts the strength of this interaction and indicates that it depends on the first power of the ionic strength. Ions interact with proteins in various ways besides the Hofmeister ion interactions discussed here, especially by charge interactions. Much of what is known about these interactions comes from studies by Serge Timasheff and his co-workers. A general model, suitable for analyzing diverse ion-protein interactions, is provided by the two-domain model of Record and co

  13. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  14. Monte Carlo Ion Transport Analysis Code.

    2009-04-15

    Version: 00 TRIPOS is a versatile Monte Carlo ion transport analysis code. It has been applied to the treatment of both surface and bulk radiation effects. The media considered is composed of multilayer polyatomic materials.

  15. Interfacial transport in lithium-ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaofei, Wang; Liquan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Physical models of ion diffusion at different interfaces are reviewed. The use of impedance spectroscopy (IS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques are also discussed. The diffusion of ions is fundamental to the operation of lithium-ion batteries, taking place not only within the grains but also across different interfaces. Interfacial ion transport usually contributes to the majority of the resistance in lithium-ion batteries. A greater understanding of the interfacial diffusion of ions is crucial to improving battery performance. Project supported by the Beijing S&T Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 11234013) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900).

  16. Traveling ion channel density waves affected by a conservation law.

    PubMed

    Peter, Ronny; Zimmermann, Walter

    2006-07-01

    A model of mobile, charged ion channels embedded in a biomembrane is investigated. The ion channels fluctuate between an opened and a closed state according to a simple two-state reaction scheme whereas the total number of ion channels is a conserved quantity. Local transport mechanisms suggest that the ion channel densities are governed by electrodiffusionlike equations that have to be supplemented by a cable-type equation describing the dynamics of the transmembrane voltage. It is shown that the homogeneous distribution of ion channels may become unstable to either a stationary or an oscillatory instability. The nonlinear behavior immediately above threshold of an oscillatory bifurcation occurring at finite wave number is analyzed in terms of amplitude equations. Due to the conservation law imposed on ion channels, large-scale modes couple to the finite-wave-number instability and have thus to be included in the asymptotic analysis near the onset of pattern formation. A modified Ginzburg-Landau equation extended by long-wavelength stationary excitations is established, and it is highlighted how the global conservation law affects the stability of traveling ion channel density waves.

  17. Ion current rectification inversion in conic nanopores: nonequilibrium ion transport biased by ion selectivity and spatial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu; Wang, Lin; Xue, Jianming; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2013-01-28

    We show both theoretically and experimentally that the ion-selectivity of a conic nanopore, as defined by a normalized density of the surface charge, significantly affects ion current rectification across the pore. For weakly selective negatively charged pores, intra-pore ion transport controls the current and internal ion enrichment/depletion at positive/reverse biased voltage (current enters/leaves through the tip, respectively), which is responsible for current rectification. For strongly selective negatively charged pores under positive bias, the current can be reduced by external field focusing and concentration depletion at the tip at low ionic strengths and high voltages, respectively. These external phenomena produce a rectification inversion for highly selective pores at high (low) voltage (ionic strength). With an asymptotic analysis of the intra-pore and external ion transport, we derive simple scaling laws to quantitatively capture empirical and numerical data for ion current rectification and rectification inversion of conic nanopores.

  18. Measurements of classical transport of fast ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Leneman, D.; Vincena, S.

    2005-05-15

    To study the fast-ion transport in a well controlled background plasma, a 3-cm diameter rf ion gun launches a pulsed, {approx}300 eV ribbon shaped argon ion beam parallel to or at 15 deg. to the magnetic field in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at UCLA. The parallel energy of the beam is measured by a two-grid energy analyzer at two axial locations (z=0.32 m and z=6.4 m) from the ion gun in LAPD. The calculated ion beam slowing-down time is consistent to within 10% with the prediction of classical Coulomb collision theory using the LAPD plasma parameters measured by a Langmuir probe. To measure cross-field transport, the beam is launched at 15 deg. to the magnetic field. The beam then is focused periodically by the magnetic field to avoid geometrical spreading. The radial beam profile measurements are performed at different axial locations where the ion beam is periodically focused. The measured cross-field transport is in agreement to within 15% with the analytical classical collision theory and the solution to the Fokker-Planck kinetic equation. Collisions with neutrals have a negligible effect on the beam transport measurement but do attenuate the beam current.

  19. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  20. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  1. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  2. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  3. Nonperturbative methods in HZE ion transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1993-01-01

    A nonperturbative analytic solution of the high charge and energy (HZE) Green's function is used to implement a computer code for laboratory ion beam transport. The code is established to operate on the Langley Research Center nuclear fragmentation model used in engineering applications. Computational procedures are established to generate linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for a specified ion beam and target for comparison with experimental measurements. The code is highly efficient and compares well with the perturbation approximations.

  4. Ion transport in circulatory and/or septic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Sayeed, M.M.

    1987-05-01

    This review surveys investigations of membrane ion transport in animals in hemorrhagic, endotoxic, or bacteremic shock. The focus of the review is on ion transport studies in the skeletal muscle and liver. Skeletal muscle Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ transport alterations have been shown during the induction of shock via hemorrhage, endotoxin, or live Gram-negative bacteria in the rodent, canine, and primate species. These alterations include impairment of active cellular K/sup +/ accumulation, increased permeability to /sup 24/Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/, and membrane depolarization. The ion transport alterations in the skeletal muscle are compatible with movement of extracellular fluid into the intracellular compartment. Such fluid movements can potentially lead to decreases in circulating plasma volume and thus to circulatory deficits in shock. Studies in the liver of rats subjected to hemorrhagic or endotoxic shock indicated the failure of electrogenic Na/sup +/ pump. Although the hepatic cellular membrane permeability to Na/sup +/ relative to permeability to K/sup +/ appeared unaltered in hemorrhagic shock, endotoxic shock caused an increase in permeability to Na/sup +/. Hepatic cellular /sup 45/Ca/sup +/ regulation also appeared to be adversely affected during endotoxic shock. Alterations in hepatic Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ transport and Ca/sup +/ regulation could contribute to impairment in hepatic glucose production during shock. Although mechanisms of altered membrane ion transport during shock states remain unknown, such changes could occur prior to any substantial loss of cellular metabolic energy.

  5. Ion Transport in Hydrodictyon africanum

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    The concentrations of K, Na, and Cl in the cytoplasm and vacuole, the tracer fluxes of these ions into and out of the cenocyte, and the electrical potential difference between bathing solution and vacuole and cytoplasm, have been measured in Hydrodictyon africanum. If the ions were acted on solely by passive electrochemical forces, a net efflux of K and Cl and a net influx of Na would be expected. Tracer fluxes indicate a net influx of K and Cl and efflux of Na in the light; these net fluxes are consequently active, with an obligate link to metabolism. The effects of darkness and low temperature indicate that most of the tracer K and Cl influx and Na efflux are linked to metabolism, while the corresponding tracer fluxes in the direction of the free energy gradient are not. Ouabain specifically inhibits the metabolically linked portions of tracer K influx and Na efflux. Alterations in the external K concentration have similar effects on metabolically mediated K influx and Na efflux. It would appear that K influx and Na efflux are linked, at least in the light. PMID:6034760

  6. Transport of Light Ions in Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Tai, H.; Shinn, J. L.; Chun, S. Y.; Tripathi, R. K.; Sihver, L.

    1998-01-01

    A recent set of light ion experiments are analyzed using the Green's function method of solving the Boltzmann equation for ions of high charge and energy (the GRNTRN transport code) and the NUCFRG2 fragmentation database generator code. Although the NUCFRG2 code reasonably represents the fragmentation of heavy ions, the effects of light ion fragmentation requires a more detailed nuclear model including shell structure and short range correlations appearing as tightly bound clusters in the light ion nucleus. The most recent NTJCFRG2 code is augmented with a quasielastic alpha knockout model and semiempirical adjustments (up to 30 percent in charge removal) in the fragmentation process allowing reasonable agreement with the experiments to be obtained. A final resolution of the appropriate cross sections must await the full development of a coupled channel reaction model in which shell structure and clustering can be accurately evaluated.

  7. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  8. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Mani Sarathy, S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model's predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018.

  9. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement.

  10. Kinetics of ion transport through supramolecular channels in single crystals.

    PubMed

    Assouma, Cyrille D; Crochet, Aurélien; Chérémond, Yvens; Giese, Bernd; Fromm, Katharina M

    2013-04-22

    Single-crystal to single-crystal transformations are possible by ion-exchange and transport reactions through supramolecular channels that are composed of crown ether molecules and use trihalide ions as scaffolds. Kinetic measurements of ion transport at different temperatures provide activation energy data and show that a very fast exchange of K(+) ions with Na(+) ions occurs.

  11. Hall transport of divalent metal ion modified DNA lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Lee, Keun Woo; Kim, Si Joon; Yoo, Sanghyun; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Jung, Joohye; Jung, Tae Soo; Bashar, Saima; Kim, Hyun Jae; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the Hall transport characteristics of double-crossover divalent metal ion (Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Co2+)-modified DNA (M-DNA) lattices grown on silica via substrate-assisted growth. The electronic characteristics of the M-DNA lattices are investigated by varying the concentration of the metal ions and then conducting Hall measurements, including resistivity, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and magneto resistance. The tendency of the resistivity and Hall mobility was to initially decrease as the ion concentration increased, until reaching the saturation concentration (Cs) of each metal ion, and then to increase as the ion concentration increased further. On the other hand, the carrier concentration revealed the opposite tendency as the resistivity and Hall mobility. The specific binding (≤Cs) and the nonspecific aggregates (>Cs) of the ions into the DNA lattices were significantly affected by the Hall characteristics. The numerical ranges of the Hall parameters revealed that the M-DNA lattices with metal ions had semiconductor-like characteristics. Consequently, the distinct characteristics of the electrical transport through M-DNA lattices will provide useful information on the practical use of such structures in physical devices and chemical sensors.

  12. Hall transport of divalent metal ion modified DNA lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Lee, Keun Woo; Yoo, Sanghyun; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Bashar, Saima; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Si Joon; Jung, Joohye; Jung, Tae Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2015-06-29

    We investigate the Hall transport characteristics of double-crossover divalent metal ion (Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+})-modified DNA (M-DNA) lattices grown on silica via substrate-assisted growth. The electronic characteristics of the M-DNA lattices are investigated by varying the concentration of the metal ions and then conducting Hall measurements, including resistivity, Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and magneto resistance. The tendency of the resistivity and Hall mobility was to initially decrease as the ion concentration increased, until reaching the saturation concentration (C{sub s}) of each metal ion, and then to increase as the ion concentration increased further. On the other hand, the carrier concentration revealed the opposite tendency as the resistivity and Hall mobility. The specific binding (≤C{sub s}) and the nonspecific aggregates (>C{sub s}) of the ions into the DNA lattices were significantly affected by the Hall characteristics. The numerical ranges of the Hall parameters revealed that the M-DNA lattices with metal ions had semiconductor-like characteristics. Consequently, the distinct characteristics of the electrical transport through M-DNA lattices will provide useful information on the practical use of such structures in physical devices and chemical sensors.

  13. Electrochemical control of ion transport through a mesoporous carbon membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Surwade, Sumedh P; Chai, Songhai; Choi, Jai-Pil; Wang, Xiqing; Lee, Jeseung; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The transport of fluids through nanometer scale channels typically on the order of 1 -100 nm often exhibit unique properties compared to the bulk fluid. These phenomena occur because the channel dimensions and molecular size become comparable to the range of several important forces including electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Small changes in properties such as the electric double layer or surface charge can significantly affect molecular transport through the channels. Based on these emerging properties, a variety of nanofluidic devices such as nanofluidic transistors, nanofluidic diodes or lab-on-a-chip devices have been developed3-7 with a diverse range of applications including water purification, biomolecular sensing, DNA separation, and rectified ion transport. Nanofluidic devices are typically fabricated using expensive lithography techniques or sacrificial templates. Here we report a carbon-based, three-dimensional nanofluidic transport membrane that enables gated, or on/off, control of the transport of organic molecular species and metal ions using an applied electrical potential. In the absence of an applied potential, both cationic and anionic molecules freely diffuse across the membrane via a concentration gradient. However, when an electrochemical potential is applied, the transport of ions through the membrane is inhibited.

  14. Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

  15. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  16. Fast Ion Transport by Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiwisch, Adam; Heidbrink, William; Boehmer, Heinrich; McWilliams, Roger; Carter, Troy; Gekelman, Walter; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; Compernolle, Bart; Vincena, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Energetic Lithium test ions (500 <= Efast/Ti <= 1000) are launched in a Helium plasma in the presence of current-produced magnetic flux ropes at the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. Perturbing flux ropes are introduced via a hot, biased LaB6 cathode in the main chamber. Ion beam broadening up to fifty percent above background levels is observed in the radial direction after passing through the flux rope region (Te,max = 7 eV, Bperp = 7G, ΔV = 160 V). Density, temperature, and magnetic fluctuation profiles are also obtained. A noise model has been developed to assess the quality of ion signals during the flux rope discharge period. The enhancement to transport may be a result of increased Coulomb scattering, magnetic fluctuations, or electric fields. Further analysis to determine the primary mechanism is ongoing.

  17. Actuation and ion transportation of polyelectrolyte gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2010-04-01

    Consisting of charged network swollen with ionic solution, polyelectrolyte gels are known for their salient characters including ion exchange and stimuli responsiveness. The active properties of polyelectrolyte gels are mostly due to the migration of solvent molecules and solute ions, and their interactions with the fixed charges on the network. In this paper, we extend the recently developed nonlinear field theory of polyelectrolyte gels by assuming that the kinetic process is limited by the rate of the transportation of mobile species. To study the coupled mechanical deformation, ion migration, and electric field, we further specialize the model to the case of a laterally constrained gel sheet. By solving the field equations in two limiting cases: the equilibrium state and the steady state, we calculate the mechanical responses of the gel to the applied electric field, and study the dependency on various parameters. The results recover the behavior observed in experiments in which polyelectrolyte gels are used as actuators, such as the ionic polymer metal composite. In addition, the model reveals the mechanism of the selectivity in ion transportation. Although by assuming specific material laws, the reduced system resembles those in most existing models in the literature, the theory can be easily generalized by using more realistic free-energy functions and kinetic laws. The adaptability of the theory makes it suitable for studying many similar material systems and phenomena.

  18. Solenoid Transport of an Intense Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. E.; Henestroza, E.; Roy, P. K.; Waldron, W. L.; Armijo, J.; Baca, D.; Seidl, P. A.; Haber, I.; Sharp, W. M.; Vay, J. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2006-10-01

    Future WDM and HEDP experiments may use solenoids for transverse focusing of low energy, space-charge dominated ion beams during acceleration. An experiment to transport a 10 μs long, singly charged potassium ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV and current of 45 mA through a solenoid lattice (STX) has been commissioned at LBNL. The beam should establish a Brillouin-flow condition, particle rotation at the Larmor frequency, with fields greater than 2T. The principal objectives of the STX are to match and transport the space-charge dominated ion beam and to study mechanisms that would degrade beam quality such as focusing-field aberrations, beam halo, spacing of lattice elements, and electron-cloud and gas effects. A qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results are presented, which include time resolved transverse phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes throughout the focusing lattice, beam current density and beam-induced gas desorption, ionization and electron effects. (This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. under DE-AC02-05H11231)

  19. Turbulent transport of fast ions in the Large Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shu; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T.; Vincena, S.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Popovich, P.; Friedman, B.; Jenko, F.

    2010-09-15

    Strong drift wave turbulence is observed in the Large Plasma Device [H. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] on density gradients produced by a plate limiter. Energetic lithium ions orbit through the turbulent region. Scans with a collimated ion analyzer and with Langmuir probes give detailed profiles of the fast ion spatial distribution and the fluctuating fields. The fast ion transport decreases rapidly with increasing fast ion gyroradius. Unlike the diffusive transport caused by Coulomb collisions, in this case the turbulent transport is nondiffusive. Analysis and simulation suggest that such nondiffusive transport is due to the interaction of the fast ions with stationary two-dimensional electrostatic turbulence.

  20. In-situ Investigation of Vanadium Ion Transport in Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Qingtao; Li, Liyu; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Bin; Chen, Baowei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-06-27

    We will show a new method to differentiate the vanadium transport from concentration gradient and that from electric field. Flow batteries with vanadium and iron redox couples as the electro-active species were employed to investigate the transport behavior of vanadium ions in the presence of electric field. It was shown that electric field accelerated the positive-to-negative and reduced the negative-to-positive vanadium ions transport in charge process and affected the vanadium ions transport in an opposite way in discharge process. In addition, a method was designed to differentiate the concentration gradient-driven vanadium ions diffusion and electric field-driven vanadium ions migration. Simplified mathematical model was established to simulate the vanadium ions transport in real charge-discharge operation of flow battery. The concentration gradient diffusion coefficients and electric-migration coefficients of V2+, V3+, VO2+, and VO2+ across Nafion membrane were obtained by fitting the experimental data.

  1. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  2. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  3. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  4. High current ion beam transport using solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, R.; Spaedtke, P.

    2008-02-15

    In the framework of the future project FAIR several upgrade programs and construction of new facilities are in progress such as the U{sup 4+} upgrade for the existing high current injector and the new 70 MeV proton injector. For both injectors solenoids in the low energy beam transport section are foreseen to inject the beam into the following rf accelerator. The paper presents beam quality measurements of high current ion beams behind a solenoid using a slit-grid emittance measurement device, viewing targets, and a pepper pot measurement device at the high current test bench at GSI.

  5. Transport coefficients of He(+) ions in helium.

    PubMed

    Viehland, Larry A; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R; Wright, Timothy G

    2016-02-21

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of (4)He(+) in (4)He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X(2)Σu (+) and A(2)Σg (+) states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of (4)He(+) in (4)He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:26896985

  6. Transport coefficients of He+ ions in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehland, Larry A.; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-02-01

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of 4He+ in 4He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X2Σu+ and A2Σg+ states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of 4He+ in 4He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects.

  7. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  8. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  9. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  10. Fundamental Aspects of Ion Transport in Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Narayanan, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Solid electrolytes (also termed as superionic solids or fast ion conductors) are characterized by high electrical conductivity, comparable to concentrated liquid electrolytes or even molten salt electrolytes, made possible by rapid transport of ions in the crystalline lattice.

  11. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-06-02

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied.

  12. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  13. Analysis of the theory of high energy ion transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures for the approximation of the transport of high-energy ions are discussed on the basis of available data on ion nuclear reactions. A straightahead approximation appears appropriate for space applications. The assumption that the secondary-ion-fragment velocity is equal to that of the fragmenting nucleus is inferior to straightahead theory but is of sufficient accuracy if the primary ions display a broad energy spectrum. An iterative scheme for the solution of the inhomogenous integral transport equations holds promise for practical calculation. A model calculation shows that multiple charged ion fragments penetrate to greater depths in comparison with the free path of a primary heavy ion.

  14. Heavy ion transport in the straight ahead approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    An as yet unsolved problem in space radiation protection is the necessary relation between the external cosmic ray heavy ion fluence and the resultant environment within the spacecraft. Such a relation involves the transport of such ions through extended materials. Presented is a derivation of the solution of the transport equation for heavy ions in the straight ahead approximation for directed beam applications. An iterative scheme for the solution of the inhomogeneous integral transport equations is applied to a neon ion beam in water. The iterative scheme requires transport coefficients as input, which are determined from the available data on ion nuclear reactions. The iteration converged for the neon beam in water. Thus this iterative scheme appears to be a suitable approximation of heavy ion transport.

  15. Evidence for fast-ion transport by microturbulence.

    PubMed

    Heidbrink, W W; Park, J M; Murakami, M; Petty, C C; Holcomb, C; Van Zeeland, M A

    2009-10-23

    Cross-field diffusion of energetic ions by microturbulence is measured during neutral-beam injection into the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-ion D(alpha), neutron, and motional Stark effect measurements diagnose the fast-ion distribution function. As expected for transport by plasma turbulence, anomalies relative to the classical prediction are greatest in high temperature plasmas, at low fast-ion energy, and at larger minor radius. Theoretical estimates of fast-ion diffusion are comparable to experimental levels.

  16. Membrane transport of several ions during peritoneal dialysis: mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Galach, Magda; Waniewski, Jacek

    2012-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis utilizes a complex mass exchange device created by natural permselective membranes of the visceral and abdominal muscle tissues. In mathematical modeling of solute transport during peritoneal dialysis, each solute is typically considered as a neutral, independent particle. However, such mathematical models cannot predict transport parameters for small ions. Therefore, the impact of the electrostatic interactions between ions on the estimated transport parameters needs to be investigated. In this study, transport of sodium, chloride, and a third ion through a permselective membrane with characteristics of the peritoneal transport barrier was described using two models: a model with the Nernst-Planck (NP) equations for a set of interacting ions and a model with combined diffusive and convective transport of each ion separately (DC). Transport parameters for the NP model were calculated using the pore theory, while the parameters for the DC model were estimated by fitting the model to the predictions from the NP model. Solute concentration profiles in the membrane obtained by computer simulations based on these two models were similar, whereas the transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters and sieving coefficients) were generally different. The presence of the third ion could substantially modify the values of diffusive mass parameter for sodium and chloride ions estimated using the DC model compared with those predicted by NP. The extent of this modification depended on the molecular mass and concentration of the third ion, and the rate of volumetric flow. Closed formulas for the transport parameters of the DC model in terms of the NP model parameters, ion concentration profiles in the membrane, and volumetric flow across the membrane were derived. Their reliable approximations, which include only boundary ion concentrations instead of spatial intramembrane concentration profiles, were formulated. The precision of this approximation

  17. Transport of ions across peritoneal membrane.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nurul; Bulla, Nisar A; Islam, Shahina

    2004-12-15

    The electrical conductance of ions across the peritoneal membrane of young buffalo (approximately 18-24 months old) has been recorded. Aqueous solutions of NaF, NaNO3, NaCl, Na2SO4, KF, KNO3, KCl, K2SO4, MgCl2, CaCl2, CrCl3, MnCl2, FeCl3, CoCl2, and CuCl2 were used. The conductance values have been found to increase with increase in concentration as well as with temperature (15 to 35 degrees C) in these cases. The slope of plots of specific conductance, kappa, versus concentration exhibits a decrease in its values at relatively higher concentrations compared to those in extremely dilute solutions. Also, such slopes keep on increasing with increase in temperature. In addition, the conductance also attains a maximum limiting value at higher concentrations in the said cases. This may be attributed to a progressive accumulation of ionic species within the membrane. The kappa values of electrolytes follow the sequence for the anions: SO4(2-)>Cl->NO3->F- while that for the cations: K+>Na+>Ca2+>Mn2+>Co2+>Cu2+>Mg2+>Cr3+>Fe3+. In addition, the diffusion of ions depends upon the charge on the membrane and its porosity. The membrane porosity in relation to the size of the hydrated species diffusing through the membrane appears to determine the above sequence. As the diffusional paths in the membrane become more difficult in aqueous solutions, the mobility of large hydrated ions gets impeded by the membrane framework and the interaction with the fixed charge groups on the membrane matrix. Consequently, the membrane pores reduce the conductance of small ions, which are much hydrated. An increase in conductance with increase in temperature may be due to the state of hydration, which implies that the energy of activation for the ionic transport across the membrane follows the sequence of crystallographic radii of ions accordingly. The Eyring's equation, kappa=(RT/Nh)exp[-DeltaH*/RT]exp[DeltaS*/R], has been found suitable for explaining the temperature dependence of conductance in

  18. Coupled ion Binding and Structural Transitions Along the Transport Cycle of Glutamate Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Verdon, Gregory; Oh, SeCheol; Serio, Ryan N.; Boudker, Olga

    2014-05-19

    Membrane transporters that clear the neurotransmitter glutamate from synapses are driven by symport of sodium ions and counter-transport of a potassium ion. Previous crystal structures of a homologous archaeal sodium and aspartate symporter showed that a dedicated transport domain carries the substrate and ions across the membrane. We report new crystal structures of this homologue in ligand-free and ions-only bound outward- and inward-facing conformations. We then show that after ligand release, the apo transport domain adopts a compact and occluded conformation that can traverse the membrane, completing the transport cycle. Sodium binding primes the transport domain to accept its substrate and triggers extracellular gate opening, which prevents inward domain translocation until substrate binding takes place. Moreover, we describe a new cation-binding site ideally suited to bind a counter-transported ion. We suggest that potassium binding at this site stabilizes the translocation-competent conformation of the unloaded transport domain in mammalian homologues.

  19. Ion transport through electrolyte/polyelectrolyte multi-layers.

    PubMed

    Femmer, Robert; Mani, Ali; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport of multi-ionic solutions through layered electrolyte and polyelectrolyte structures are relevant in a large variety of technical systems such as micro and nanofluidic devices, sensors, batteries and large desalination process systems. We report a new direct numerical simulation model coined EnPEn: it allows to solve a set of first principle equations to predict for multiple ions their concentration and electrical potential profiles in electro-chemically complex architectures of n layered electrolytes E and n polyelectrolytes PE. EnPEn can robustly capture ion transport in sub-millimeter architectures with submicron polyelectrolyte layers. We proof the strength of EnPEn for three yet unsolved architectures: (a) selective Na over Ca transport in surface modified ion selective membranes, (b) ion transport and water splitting in bipolar membranes and (c) transport of weak electrolytes.

  20. Ion transport through electrolyte/polyelectrolyte multi-layers

    PubMed Central

    Femmer, Robert; Mani, Ali; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport of multi-ionic solutions through layered electrolyte and polyelectrolyte structures are relevant in a large variety of technical systems such as micro and nanofluidic devices, sensors, batteries and large desalination process systems. We report a new direct numerical simulation model coined EnPEn: it allows to solve a set of first principle equations to predict for multiple ions their concentration and electrical potential profiles in electro-chemically complex architectures of n layered electrolytes E and n polyelectrolytes PE. EnPEn can robustly capture ion transport in sub-millimeter architectures with submicron polyelectrolyte layers. We proof the strength of EnPEn for three yet unsolved architectures: (a) selective Na over Ca transport in surface modified ion selective membranes, (b) ion transport and water splitting in bipolar membranes and (c) transport of weak electrolytes. PMID:26111456

  1. Radial ion transport in a nonaxisymmetric magnetic mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.L.

    1989-02-01

    An experimental study of radial ion transport in a nonaxisymmetric magnetic mirror is presented. It is found that the ion confinement time perpendicular to the magnetic field is an order of magnitude shorter than predicted by classical and neoclassical theories, and that radial transport can be the dominant ion loss mechanism. Transport experiments are performed in hydrogen, helium and argon plasmas by measuring equilibrium radial profiles of plasma density, ionization source, end loss current, electric field, electron temperature and ion temperature. The radial profiles of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient (D/perpendicular/) are presented, and range from a radial average of approx. =5 /times/ 10/sup 3/ cm/sup 2//sec for hydrogen to approx. =2 /times/ 10/sup 4/ cm/sup 2//sec for argon. These coefficients are a factor of ten larger than the maximum possible classical and neoclassical diffusion coefficients in all three gases. The effect of low frequency RF power in the ion cyclotron range on the radial ion transport rate is also investigated. RF power increases the ion perpendicular transport, which then becomes the dominant loss mechanism. With sufficient RF power, the ion perpendicular loss rate exceeds the ionization source, with a resultant loss of plasma equilibrium. Application of RF power increases the radial transport rate of plasmas with resonant ions, which are also heated by the RF waves, as well as plasmas whose ion cyclotron resonance is not inside the confinement region. The increased transport rate during application of RF power shows up as an increased D/perpendicular/. This indicates that the radial ion transport is due to a direct interaction between the ions and the RF field, rather than to radial profile changes or enhanced ambipolar potential which are other RF effects. The effect of RF power on plasma potential is also studied. 64 refs., 57 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Metal ions affecting the neurological system.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hana R; Roney, Nickolette; Abadin, Henry G

    2011-01-01

    Several individual metals including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, and mercury were demonstrated to affect the neurological system. Metals are ubiquitous in the environment. Environmental and occupational exposure to one metal is likely to be accompanied by exposure to other metals, as well. It is, therefore, expected that interactions or "joint toxic actions" may occur in populations exposed to mixtures of metals or to mixtures of metals with other chemicals. Some metals seem to have a protective role against neurotoxicity of other metals, yet other interactions may result in increased neurotoxicity. For example, zinc and copper provided a protective role in cases of lead-induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, arsenic and lead co-exposure resulted in synergistic effects. Similarly, information is available in the current literature on interactions of metals with some organic chemicals such as ethanol, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides. In depth understanding of the toxicity and the mechanism of action (including toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics) of individual chemicals is important for predicting the outcomes of interactions in mixtures. Therefore, plausible mechanisms of action are also described.

  3. Chapter Five - Ubiquitination of Ion Channels and Transporters.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, S M; Zhang, S

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters play essential roles in excitable cells including cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells, neurons, and endocrine cells. Their dysfunction underlies the pathology of various diseases. Thus, the tight regulation of these transmembrane proteins is essential for cell physiology. While the ubiquitin system is involved in many aspects of cellular processes, this chapter focuses on the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ion channels and transporters. Ubiquitination of ion channels and transporters is multifaceted and occurs at various cellular compartments such as the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. While various molecules are involved in the ubiquitination of ion channels and transporters, E3 ubiquitin ligases play a central role in selectively targeting substrates for ubiquitination and will be a major focus in this chapter. To date, the Nedd4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases and their regulations of ion channels and transporters have been extensively studied. In this chapter, we will first review Nedd4/Nedd4-2 and their regulations. We will then discuss how E3 ubiquitin ligases, especially Nedd4-2, regulate various ion channels and transporters including epithelial Na(+) channels, voltage-gated Na(+) channels, KCNQ and hERG K(+) channels, Cl(-) channels such as CFTR, transporters such as Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and gap junctions. Furthermore, diseases caused by improper ubiquitination of ion channels and transporters will be discussed to highlight the process of ubiquitination and its biological as well as clinical significance. PMID:27378758

  4. Chapter Five - Ubiquitination of Ion Channels and Transporters.

    PubMed

    Lamothe, S M; Zhang, S

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters play essential roles in excitable cells including cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells, neurons, and endocrine cells. Their dysfunction underlies the pathology of various diseases. Thus, the tight regulation of these transmembrane proteins is essential for cell physiology. While the ubiquitin system is involved in many aspects of cellular processes, this chapter focuses on the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ion channels and transporters. Ubiquitination of ion channels and transporters is multifaceted and occurs at various cellular compartments such as the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. While various molecules are involved in the ubiquitination of ion channels and transporters, E3 ubiquitin ligases play a central role in selectively targeting substrates for ubiquitination and will be a major focus in this chapter. To date, the Nedd4 family of E3 ubiquitin ligases and their regulations of ion channels and transporters have been extensively studied. In this chapter, we will first review Nedd4/Nedd4-2 and their regulations. We will then discuss how E3 ubiquitin ligases, especially Nedd4-2, regulate various ion channels and transporters including epithelial Na(+) channels, voltage-gated Na(+) channels, KCNQ and hERG K(+) channels, Cl(-) channels such as CFTR, transporters such as Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and gap junctions. Furthermore, diseases caused by improper ubiquitination of ion channels and transporters will be discussed to highlight the process of ubiquitination and its biological as well as clinical significance.

  5. Neutron Transport Models and Methods for HZETRN and Coupling to Low Energy Light Ion Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, S.R.; Slaba, T.C.; Heinbockel, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure estimates inside space vehicles, surface habitats, and high altitude aircraft exposed to space radiation are highly influenced by secondary neutron production. The deterministic transport code HZETRN has been identified as a reliable and efficient tool for such studies, but improvements to the underlying transport models and numerical methods are still necessary. In this paper, the forward-backward (FB) and directionally coupled forward-backward (DC) neutron transport models are derived, numerical methods for the FB model are reviewed, and a computationally efficient numerical solution is presented for the DC model. Both models are compared to the Monte Carlo codes HETCHEDS and FLUKA, and the DC model is shown to agree closely with the Monte Carlo results. Finally, it is found in the development of either model that the decoupling of low energy neutrons from the light ion (A<4) transport procedure adversely affects low energy light ion fluence spectra and exposure quantities. A first order correction is presented to resolve the problem, and it is shown to be both accurate and efficient.

  6. Evidence for Fast-Ion Transport by Microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Park, Jin Myung; Murakami, Masanori; Petty, C C.; Holcomb, C T; Van Zeeland, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Cross-field diffusion of energetic ions by microturbulence is measured during neutral-beam injection into the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-ion D-alpha, neutron, and motional Stark effect measurements diagnose the fastion distribution function. As expected for transport by plasma turbulence, anomalies relative to the classical prediction are greatest in high temperature plasmas, at low fast-ion energy, and at larger minor radius. Theoretical estimates of fast-ion diffusion are comparable to experimental levels.

  7. Transport-limited water splitting at ion-selective interfaces during concentration polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Christoffer P.; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    We present an analytical model of salt- and water-ion transport across an ion-selective interface based on an assumption of local equilibrium of the water-dissociation reaction. The model yields current-voltage characteristics and curves of water-ion current versus salt-ion current, which are in qualitative agreement with experimental results published in the literature. The analytical results are furthermore in agreement with direct numerical simulations. As part of the analysis, we find approximate solutions to the classical problem of pure salt transport across an ion-selective interface. These solutions provide closed-form expressions for the current-voltage characteristics, which include the overlimiting current due to the development of an extended space-charge region. Finally, we discuss how the addition of an acid or a base affects the transport properties of the system and thus provide predictions accessible to further experimental tests of the model.

  8. Angiotensin II and renal tubular ion transport.

    PubMed

    Valles, Patricia; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel

    2005-08-29

    Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, also participates in the regulation of renal sodium and water excretion, not only via a myriad of effects on renal hemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate, and regulation of aldosterone secretion, but also via direct effects on renal tubule transport. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates H+ secretion and HCO3- reabsorption in both proximal and distal tubules and regulates H+-ATPase activity in intercalated cells of the collecting tubule. Different results regarding the effect of angiotensin II on bicarbonate reabsorption and proton secretion have been reported at the functional level, depending on the angiotensin II concentration and tubule segment studied. It is likely that interstitial angiotensin II is more important in regulating hemodynamic and transport functions than circulating angiotensin II. In proximal tubules, stimulation of bicarbonate reabsorption, Na+/H+-exchange, and Na+/HCO3- cotransport has been found using low concentrations (<10(-9) M), while inhibition of bicarbonate reabsorption has been documented using concentrations higher than 10(-8) M. Evidence for the regulation of H+-ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro by trafficking/exocytosis has been provided. An additional level of H+-ATPase regulation via protein synthesis may be important as well. Recently, we have shown that both aldosterone and angiotensin II provide such a mechanism of regulation in vivo at the level of the medullary collecting tubule. Interestingly, in this part of the nephron, the effects of aldosterone and angiotensin II are not sodium dependent, whereas in the cortical collecting duct, both aldosterone and angiotensin II, by contrast, affect H+ secretion by sodium-dependent mechanisms.

  9. Fast and efficient transport of large ion clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamsap, M. R.; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J.; Champenois, C.; Guyomarc'h, D.; Houssin, M.; Knoop, M.

    2015-10-01

    The manipulation of trapped charged particles by electric fields is an accurate, robust, and reliable technique for many applications or experiments in high-precision spectroscopy. The transfer of an ion sample between multiple traps allows the use of a tailored environment in quantum information, cold chemistry, or frequency metrology experiments. In this article, we experimentally study the transport of ion clouds of up to 80 000 ions over a distance of 20 mm inside a linear radio-frequency trap. Ion transport is controlled by a transfer function, which is designed taking into account the local electric potentials. We observe that the ion response is very sensitive to the details of the description of the electric potential. Nevertheless, we show that fast transport—with a total duration of 100 μ s —results in transport efficiencies attaining values higher than 90% of the ion number, even with large ion clouds. For clouds smaller than 2000 ions, a 100% transfer efficiency is observed. Transport induced heating, which depends on the transport duration, is also analyzed.

  10. Experiment to measure fast ion transport by magnetic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiwisch, Adam; Heidbrink, William; Boehmer, Heinz; McWilliams, Roger; Carter, Troy; Gekelman, Walter; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; van Compernolle, Bart; Vincena, Steve

    2013-10-01

    Fast ion transport in a linear magnetic field is studied at the upgraded Large Plasma Device. Recent developments allow for the generation of turbulent magnetic flux ropes, produced by a hot LaB6 cathode situated in the main chamber.1 A large-gyroradius, energetic lithium ion beam (300 <= Efast /Ti <= 1000) is passed through the turbulent region and collected by a collimated analyzer downstream, yielding a detailed plane profile of the fast ion distribution.2 Magnetic fluctuations, density, and temperature profiles are also obtained via probes. Enhanced fast-ion transport is clearly observed in the form of beam broadening. Early analysis shows broadband ion saturation current and magnetic fluctuations attributed to the flux ropes. A follow up experiment is currently under way to address whether the increased transport is primarily attributed to magnetic fields, associated electric fields, or increased Coulomb scattering.

  11. Evidence for Fast-Ion Transport by Microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Park, J. M.; Murakami, M.; Petty, C. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Holcomb, C.

    2009-10-23

    Cross-field diffusion of energetic ions by microturbulence is measured during neutral-beam injection into the DIII-D tokamak. Fast-ion D{sub {alpha}}, neutron, and motional Stark effect measurements diagnose the fast-ion distribution function. As expected for transport by plasma turbulence, anomalies relative to the classical prediction are greatest in high temperature plasmas, at low fast-ion energy, and at larger minor radius. Theoretical estimates of fast-ion diffusion are comparable to experimental levels.

  12. The Transport of Ions Across Plant Cell Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is one of a series of articles designed to help science teachers keep current on ideas in specific areas of biology. This article provides information about ion transport in plant cells. (PB)

  13. Energetic ion transport by microturbulence is insignificant in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Staebler, G. M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Waltz, R. E.; Austin, M. E.; Bass, E. M.; Budny, R. V.; Gorelenkova, M.; Grierson, B. A.; McCune, D. C.; Yuan, X.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Holcomb, C. T.; McKee, G. R.; and others

    2013-05-15

    Energetic ion transport due to microturbulence is investigated in magnetohydrodynamic-quiescent plasmas by way of neutral beam injection in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)]. A range of on-axis and off-axis beam injection scenarios are employed to vary relevant parameters such as the character of the background microturbulence and the value of E{sub b}/T{sub e}, where E{sub b} is the energetic ion energy and T{sub e} the electron temperature. In all cases, it is found that any transport enhancement due to microturbulence is too small to observe experimentally. These transport effects are modeled using numerical and analytic expectations that calculate the energetic ion diffusivity due to microturbulence. It is determined that energetic ion transport due to coherent fluctuations (e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes) is a considerably larger effect and should therefore be considered more important for ITER.

  14. Energetic ion transport by microturbulence is insignificant in tokamaksa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, D. C.; Austin, M. E.; Bass, E. M.; Budny, R. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Holcomb, C. T.; Gorelenkova, M.; Grierson, B. A.; McCune, D. C.; McKee, G. R.; Muscatello, C. M.; Park, J. M.; Petty, C. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Staebler, G. M.; Suzuki, T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Waltz, R. E.; Wang, G.; White, A. E.; Yan, Z.; Yuan, X.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2013-05-01

    Energetic ion transport due to microturbulence is investigated in magnetohydrodynamic-quiescent plasmas by way of neutral beam injection in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)]. A range of on-axis and off-axis beam injection scenarios are employed to vary relevant parameters such as the character of the background microturbulence and the value of Eb/Te, where Eb is the energetic ion energy and Te the electron temperature. In all cases, it is found that any transport enhancement due to microturbulence is too small to observe experimentally. These transport effects are modeled using numerical and analytic expectations that calculate the energetic ion diffusivity due to microturbulence. It is determined that energetic ion transport due to coherent fluctuations (e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes) is a considerably larger effect and should therefore be considered more important for ITER.

  15. SIMULATION OF CHAMBER TRANSPORT FOR HEAVY-ION FUSION DRIVERS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2004-05-20

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs.

  16. The Ion Surfing Transport Method for Beam Thermalization Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Brodeur, Maxime; Bollen, Georg; Morrissey, David; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    Projectile fragments can be thermalized in buffer gas to supply rare ions to low energy experiments. We present here studies of ``ion surfing'' [1], a new method for transporting ions through gas-filled devices that use a RF gradient to repel the ions from the walls. Instead of relying on a fixed potential gradient to guide the thermal ions through the length of the cell, the ions are transported by a traveling wave superimposed on the RF field. The travelling wave is formed by an oscillating sinusoidal field applied to repeating sets of four electrodes. The field on each subsequent electrode is offset by 90 degrees in phase. Transport efficiency and velocity measurements were performed for rubidium and potassium ions over a wide range of conditions. With the optimal parameters currently attainable, >90% efficient transport over 10 cm at 80 mbar was observed for Rb and K ions with max velocities of 75 m/s and 50 m/s, respectively. The measurements were conducted in preparation for the cyclotron gas cell at the National Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. We will present the results of the latest measurements and comparisons to detailed simulations. [4pt] [1] G. Bollen, Int. J. Mass Spect. 299 (2011) 131

  17. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    is incredible freedom in designing the block copolymer architecture in order to optimize the mechanical and other properties of the membrane without sacrificing conductivity. The derived scaling relationships are shown to be general for many block copolymer and ionic liquid chemistries. In certain cases, the mechanism of ion conduction in the ionic liquid is affected by block copolymer nanoconfinement. The introduction of excess neutral imidazole to [Im][TFSI] leads to enhanced proton conductivity as well as a high H+ transference number due to facilitated proton hopping between imidazole molecules. We show that there is increased proton hopping when the nonstoichiometric ionic liquid is confined to lamellar block copolymer nanodomains, which we hypothesize is due to changes in the hydrogen bond structure of the ionic liquid under confinement. This, in combination with unique ion aggregation behavior, leads to a lower activation energy for macroscopic ion transport compared to that in a corresponding homopolymer/ionic liquid mixture. Through this work, we further the understanding of the relationship between membrane composition, structure, and ion transport. The findings presented herein portend the rational design of nanostructured membranes having improved mechanical properties and conductivity.

  18. Computer Simulations of Ion Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes.

    PubMed

    Mogurampelly, Santosh; Borodin, Oleg; Ganesan, Venkat

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and optimizing ion transport in polymer membranes have been the subject of active research for more than three decades. We present an overview of the progress and challenges involved with the modeling and simulation aspects of the ion transport properties of polymer membranes. We are concerned mainly with atomistic and coarser level simulation studies and discuss some salient work in the context of pure binary and single ion conducting polymer electrolytes, polymer nanocomposites, block copolymers, and ionic liquid-based hybrid electrolytes. We conclude with an outlook highlighting future directions.

  19. Diffusional transport of ions in plasticized anion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Pandey, Ashok K; Sharma, Manoj K; Panicker, L V; Sodaye, Suparna; Suresh, G; Ramagiri, Shobha V; Bellare, Jayesh R; Goswami, A

    2011-05-19

    Diffusional transport properties of hydrophobic anion-exchange membranes were studied using the polymer inclusion membrane (PIM). This class of membranes is extensively used in the chemical sensor and membrane based separation processes. The samples of PIM were prepared by physical containment of the trioctylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336) in the plasticized matrix of cellulose triacetate (CTA). The plasticizers 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether, dioctyl phthalate, and tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate having different dielectric constant and viscosity were used to vary local environment of the membrane matrix. The morphological structure of the PIM was obtained by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For TEM, platinum nanoparticles (Pt nps) were formed in the PIM sample. The formation of Pt nps involved in situ reduction of PtCl(6)(2-) ions with BH(4)(-) ions in the membrane matrix. Since both the species are anions, Pt nps thus formed can provide information on spatial distribution of anion-exchanging molecules (Aliquat-336) in the membrane. The glass transitions in the membrane samples were measured to study the effects of plasticizer on physical structure of the membrane. The self-diffusion coefficients (D) of the I(-) ions and water in these membranes were obtained by analyzing the experimentally measured exchange rate profiles of (131)I(-) with (nat)I(-) and tritiated water with H(2)O, respectively, between the membrane and equilibrating solution using an analytical solution of Fick's second law. The values of D(I(-)) in membrane samples with a fixed proportion of CTA, plasticizer, and Aliquat-336 were found to vary significantly depending upon the nature of the plasticizer used. The comparison of values of D with properties of the plasticizers indicated that both dielectric constant and viscosity of the plasticizer affect the self-diffusion mobility of I(-) ions in the membrane. The value of D(I(-)) in the PIM samples did not vary

  20. Ion transport controlled by nanoparticle-functionalized membranes.

    PubMed

    Barry, Edward; McBride, Sean P; Jaeger, Heinrich M; Lin, Xiao-Min

    2014-12-17

    From proton exchange membranes in fuel cells to ion channels in biological membranes, the well-specified control of ionic interactions in confined geometries profoundly influences the transport and selectivity of porous materials. Here we outline a versatile new approach to control a membrane's electrostatic interactions with ions by depositing ligand-coated nanoparticles around the pore entrances. Leveraging the flexibility and control by which ligated nanoparticles can be synthesized, we demonstrate how ligand terminal groups such as methyl, carboxyl and amine can be used to tune the membrane charge density and control ion transport. Further functionality, exploiting the ligands as binding sites, is demonstrated for sulfonate groups resulting in an enhancement of the membrane charge density. We then extend these results to smaller dimensions by systematically varying the underlying pore diameter. As a whole, these results outline a previously unexplored method for the nanoparticle functionalization of membranes using ligated nanoparticles to control ion transport.

  1. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  2. Ion mixing, hydration, and transport in aqueous ionic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Voth, Gregory A.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-05-14

    The enhancement effect on the ion mobility of fluoride (and that of chloride) in a polycationic system, as the chloride content increases, is shown to also exist in other more simple ionic systems with cations such as the cesium ion and an organic ammonium ion. As the chloride content increases, in addition to the finding that there is more unbound water associated with the cation, we also observe that the average lifetime of a hydrogen bond decreases. This change to the hydrogen bonds is correlated to significant changes to both the structural and dynamical properties of water. The more disordered water structure and faster water dynamics are hypothesized to be also responsible for the enhanced ion mobilities. Furthermore, when either the chloride content or hydration level is changed, the self-diffusion constant of each co-ion changes by almost the same factor, implying the existence of a single universal transport mechanism that determines ion mobilities.

  3. Parallel Transport Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    de Clercq, Ludwig E; Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2016-02-26

    We demonstrate single-qubit operations by transporting a beryllium ion with a controlled velocity through a stationary laser beam. We use these to perform coherent sequences of quantum operations, and to perform parallel quantum logic gates on two ions in different processing zones of a multiplexed ion trap chip using a single recycled laser beam. For the latter, we demonstrate individually addressed single-qubit gates by local control of the speed of each ion. The fidelities we observe are consistent with operations performed using standard methods involving static ions and pulsed laser fields. This work therefore provides a path to scalable ion trap quantum computing with reduced requirements on the optical control complexity. PMID:26967401

  4. Ion Transport in Mercury's Magnetosphere during the MESSENGER Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schriver, David; Travnicek, Pavel; Paral, Jan; Slavin, James A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Baker, Daniel N.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Heavy ions including sodium (Na+) are known to populate Mercury's magnetosphere and were observed in situ during the first MESSENGER flyby on January 14, 2008 [1]. A study has been undertaken to examine the transport, distribution, and energization of ions during solar wind conditions corresponding approximately to those that occurred during the MESSENGER flyby. Three-dimensional global hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetosphere, which provide a realistic self-consistent electric and magnetic field configuration at the time of the flyby [2], are used to trace heavy-ion particle trajectories throughout the system. Because electrons are included only as a massless fluid in the hybrid simulations, electron transport can be examined as well using this technique. To examine solar-wind sputtering as a source for ion ejection from the planet, heavy ions are launched outward from regions near the planet where hybrid simulations show strong particle precipitation, and their trajectories are followed until they either hit the planet or are picked up by the solar wind and lost downstream. The heavy ions can be transported throughout the magnetosphere of Mercury and become accelerated by non-adiabatic processes in the magnetotail current sheet, as well as near reconnection regions. Ions will also be launched from the magnetosheath and other regions to model planetary ion sources as a result of photon-stimulated desorption from the dayside surface of Mercury. The simulated heavy-ion distribution and the energy profile of such ions in Mercury's magnetosphere provide a basis for comparison with MESSENGER flyby data. References [1] Zurbuchen T. H. et al. (2008) Science, in press. [2] Travnicek P. et al. (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05104, doi:10.1029/2006GL028518.

  5. Gyrokinetic simulations of ion and impurity transport

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Mila, C.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R.E.

    2005-02-01

    A systematic study of turbulent particle and energy transport in both pure and multicomponent plasmas is presented. In this study, gyrokinetic results from the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] are supplemented with those from the GLF23 [R. E. Waltz, G. M. Staebler, W. Dorland et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2482 (1997)] transport model, as well as from quasilinear theory. Various results are obtained. The production of a particle pinch driven by temperature gradients (a thermal pinch) is demonstrated, and further shown to be weakened by finite electron collisionality. Helium transport and the effects of helium density gradient and concentration in a deuterium plasma are examined. Interestingly, it is found that the simple D-v (diffusion versus convective velocity) model of impurity flow is consistent with results obtained from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. Also studied is the transport in a 50-50 deuterium-tritium plasma, where a symmetry breaking is observed indicating the potential for fuel separation in a burning plasma. Quasilinear theory together with linear simulations shows that the symmetry breaking which enhances the tritium confinement arises largely from finite-Larmor-radius effects. To justify the numerical methods used in the paper, a variety of linear benchmarks and nonlinear grid refinement studies are detailed.

  6. The straggling Green's function method for ion transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Steven Andrew

    For many years work has been conducted on developing a concise theory and method for HZE ion transport capable of being validated in the laboratory. Previous attempts have ignored dispersion and energy downshift associated with nuclear fragmentation and energy and range straggling. Here we present a Green's function approach to ion transport that incorporates these missing elements. This work forms the basis for a new version of GRNTRN, a Green's function transport code. Comparisons of GRNTRN predictions and laboratory results for an 56Fe ion beam with average energy at the target of one GeV/amu or more are presented for various targets. Quantities compared are the energy deposited spectra for an Aluminum target and Graphite-Epoxy mix target, the fraction of primary beam surviving and track average LET for these and various other targets.

  7. Neoclassical electron and ion transport in toroidally rotating plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1997-06-01

    Neoclassical transport processes of electrons and ions are investigated in detail for toroidally rotating axisymmetric plasmas with large flow velocities on the order of the ion thermal speed. The Onsager relations for the flow-dependent neoclassical transport coefficients are derived from the symmetry properties of the drift kinetic equation with the self-adjoint collision operator. The complete neoclassical transport matrix with the Onsager symmetry is obtained for the rotating plasma consisting of electrons and single-species ions in the Pfirsch{endash}Schl{umlt u}ter and banana regimes. It is found that the inward banana fluxes of particles and toroidal momentum are driven by the parallel electric field, which are phenomena coupled through the Onsager symmetric off-diagonal coefficients to the parallel currents caused by the radial thermodynamic forces conjugate to the inward fluxes, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Functional properties of ion channels and transporters in tumour vascularization

    PubMed Central

    Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Munaron, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization is crucial for solid tumour growth and invasion, providing metabolic support and sustaining metastatic dissemination. It is now accepted that ion channels and transporters play a significant role in driving the cancer growth at all stages. They may represent novel therapeutic, diagnostic and prognostic targets for anti-cancer therapies. On the other hand, although the expression and role of ion channels and transporters in the vascular endothelium is well recognized and subject of recent reviews, only recently has their involvement in tumour vascularization been recognized. Here, we review the current literature on ion channels and transporters directly involved in the angiogenic process. Particular interest will be focused on tumour angiogenesis in vivo as well as in the different steps that drive this process in vitro, such as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, adhesion and tubulogenesis. Moreover, we compare the ‘transportome’ system of tumour vascular network with the physiological one. PMID:24493751

  9. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  10. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  11. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  12. Transport Properties of Negative Ions in HBR Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Vladimir; Ivanovic, Nenad; Radmilovic-Radjenovic, Marija; Raspopovic, Zoran; Bojarov, Aleksandar; Petrovic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    Low temperature plasma in halogenated gases is standard environment for dry etching of semiconductors. Amount of negative ions in HBr plasmas determines electronegativity so modeling etching devices requires data for anion transport properties. In this work we present cross section set for Br- ions in HBr assembled by using Denpoh-Nanbu theory. The threshold energy values were calculated by known heats of formation. The calculated total cross section accounts for ion-induced-dipole and ion-permanent-dipole interaction by using the local-dipole model. The total cross section was corrected to fit the reduced mobility obtained by SACM (Statistical Adiabatic Channel Model) approximation. Existing cross section measurements were used to scale calculated cross sections. Finally, we used Monte Carlo method to determine transport parameters for Br- as a function of reduced electric fields that can be used in fluid and hybrid plasma models.

  13. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  14. Test ion transport in a collisional, field-reversed configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, T.; McWilliams, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Bolte, N.; Garate, E. P.; Morehouse, M.; Slepchenkov, M.; Wessel, F.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion of test-ions in a flux-coil generated, collisional, field-reversed configuration is measured via time-resolved tomographic reconstruction of Ar+ optical emission in the predominantly nitrogen plasma. Azimuthal test ion diffusion across magnetic field lines is found to be classical during the stable period of the discharge. Test ion radial confinement is enhanced by a radial electric field, reducing the observed outward radial transport rate below predictions based solely on classical cross-field diffusion rates. Test ion diffusion is ˜500 m2 s-1 during the stable period of the discharge. The electric field inferred from plasma potential measurements and from equilibrium calculations is consistent with the observed reduction in argon transport.

  15. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  16. Transport of secondary electrons and reactive species in ion tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2015-08-01

    The transport of reactive species brought about by ions traversing tissue-like medium is analysed analytically. Secondary electrons ejected by ions are capable of ionizing other molecules; the transport of these generations of electrons is studied using the random walk approximation until these electrons remain ballistic. Then, the distribution of solvated electrons produced as a result of interaction of low-energy electrons with water molecules is obtained. The radial distribution of energy loss by ions and secondary electrons to the medium yields the initial radial dose distribution, which can be used as initial conditions for the predicted shock waves. The formation, diffusion, and chemical evolution of hydroxyl radicals in liquid water are studied as well. COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy.

  17. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-15

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  18. The role of space charge compensation for ion beam extraction and ion beam transport (invited).

    PubMed

    Spädtke, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Depending on the specific type of ion source, the ion beam is extracted either from an electrode surface or from a plasma. There is always an interface between the (almost) space charge compensated ion source plasma, and the extraction region in which the full space charge is influencing the ion beam itself. After extraction, the ion beam is to be transported towards an accelerating structure in most cases. For lower intensities, this transport can be done without space charge compensation. However, if space charge is not negligible, the positive charge of the ion beam will attract electrons, which will compensate the space charge, at least partially. The final degree of Space Charge Compensation (SCC) will depend on different properties, like the ratio of generation rate of secondary particles and their loss rate, or the fact whether the ion beam is pulsed or continuous. In sections of the beam line, where the ion beam is drifting, a pure electrostatic plasma will develop, whereas in magnetic elements, these space charge compensating electrons become magnetized. The transport section will provide a series of different plasma conditions with different properties. Different measurement tools to investigate the degree of space charge compensation will be described, as well as computational methods for the simulation of ion beams with partial space charge compensation.

  19. Radial ion transport measurements in a nonaxisymmetric magnetic mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.L.; Petty, C.C.; Post, R.S. )

    1990-09-01

    Experimental radial ion transport rates and diffusion coefficients are presented for the Constance-B magnetic mirror (Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 58}, 1853 (1987)). The transport experiments are performed by measuring steady state equilibrium radial profiles of plasma density, ionization source, end loss current, electric field, electron temperature, and ion temperature. A charge coupled device (CCD) camera system (Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 60}, 2835 (1989)) is used to measure the two-dimensional radial density, source, and electron temperature profiles. End loss diagnostics including movable Faraday cups, electrostatic end loss analyzers, and an ion time-of-flight analyzer (Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 59}, 601 (1988)) are used to measure radial profiles of potential and ion temperature. The ion confinement time perpendicular to the magnetic field is found to be an order of magnitude shorter than predicted by classical and neoclassical transport theories. The radial profiles of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient ({ital D}{sub {perpendicular}}) are presented for hydrogen, helium, and argon plasmas. The coefficients are a factor of 10 larger than the maximum classical and neoclassical coefficients in all three plasmas. Plasma fluctuations resulting from whistler mode microinstability (Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 59}, 1821 (1987)) as well as nonaxisymmetric potentials are suggested as possible explanations for the experimentally measured radial transport rate.

  20. Ion transport through macrocapillaries - Oscillations due to charge patch formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, D. D.; Lyle, L. A. M.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present results on ion transport through large bore capillaries (macrocapillaries) that probe both the geometric and ion-guided aspects of this ion delivery mechanism. We have demonstrated that guiding in macrocapillaries exhibits position- and angle-dependent transmission properties which are directly related to the capillary material (either metal or insulator) and geometry. Specifically, we have passed 1 keV Rb+ ions through glass and metal macrocapillaries, and have observed oscillations for the transmitted ion current passing through the insulating capillaries. Straightforward calculations show that these oscillations can be attributed to beam deflections from charge patches that form on the interior walls of the capillary. The absence of these oscillations in the metal capillary data serve as further confirmation of the role of charge patch formation.

  1. Electrokinetic ion transport in confined micro-nanochannel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junyao; Liu, Chong; Xu, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a confined micronanochannel is presented to concentrate ions in a restricted zone. A general model exploiting the Poisson-Nernst-Plank equations coupled with the Navier-Stokes equation is employed to simulate the electrokinetic ion transport. The influences of the micronanochannel dimension and the surface charge density on the potential distribution, the ion concentration, and the fluid flow are investigated. The numerical results show that the potential drop depends mainly on the nanochannel, instead of the confined channel. Both decreasing the width and increasing the length enhance the ion enrichment performance. For a given nanochannel, ultimate value of ion concentration may be determined by the potential at the center point of the nanochannel. The study also shows that the enrichment stability can be improved by increasing the micronanochannel width, decreasing the micronanochannel length and reducing the surface charge density. PMID:26995194

  2. Ion transport in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, Myung E.; Aluru, N. R.

    2014-02-28

    Graphene nanopore is a promising device for single molecule sensing, including DNA bases, as its single atom thickness provides high spatial resolution. To attain high sensitivity, the size of the molecule should be comparable to the pore diameter. However, when the pore diameter approaches the size of the molecule, ion properties and dynamics may deviate from the bulk values and continuum analysis may not be accurate. In this paper, we investigate the static and dynamic properties of ions with and without an external voltage drop in sub-5-nm graphene nanopores using molecular dynamics simulations. Ion concentration in graphene nanopores sharply drops from the bulk concentration when the pore radius is smaller than 0.9 nm. Ion mobility in the pore is also smaller than bulk ion mobility due to the layered liquid structure in the pore-axial direction. Our results show that a continuum analysis can be appropriate when the pore radius is larger than 0.9 nm if pore conductivity is properly defined. Since many applications of graphene nanopores, such as DNA and protein sensing, involve ion transport, the results presented here will be useful not only in understanding the behavior of ion transport but also in designing bio-molecular sensors.

  3. DIRECT COMPARISON OF KINETIC AND LOCAL EQUILIBRIUM FORMULATIONS FOR SOLUTE TRANSPORT AFFECTED BY SURFACE REACTIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, Jean M.; Rubin, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    Modeling transport of reacting solutes in porous media often requires a choice between models based on the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) and models involving reaction kinetics. Direct comparison of the mathematical formulations for these two types of transport models can aid in this choice. For cases of transport affected by surface reaction, such a comparison is made possible by a new derivation procedure. This procedure yields a kinetics-based formulation that is the sum of the LEA formulation and one or more kinetically influenced terms. The dimensionless form of the new kinetics-based formulation facilitates identification of critical parameter groupings which control the approach to transport behavior consistent with LEA model predictions. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that criteria for LEA applicability can be expressed conveniently in terms of these parameter groupings. The derivation procedure is demonstrated for examples of surface reactions including first-order reversible sorption, Langmuir-type kinetics and binary, homovalent ion exchange.

  4. Effects of dietary lectins on ion transport in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Karl; Sun, J; Schreiber, R; König, Jens

    2004-08-01

    Phytohemagglutinins are widely distributed in common food items. They constitute a heterogeneous group of proteins, which are often resistant to proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. Upon binding to the luminal membrane of intestinal cells, they can interfere with digestive, protective or secretory functions of the intestine. Phytohemagglutinins present in red kidney beans and jackbeans have been shown to induce diarrhea and hypersecretion in human airways, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We examined how agglutinins from wheat germ (WGA), soy bean (SBA), red kidney beans (Pha-E, Pha-L), and jackbeans (Con-A) affect ion transport in mouse airways and large intestine using Ussing chamber techniques. We found that Pha-E, Pha-L, and Con-A but not WGA and SBA inhibit electrogenic Na(+) absorption dose dependently in both colon and trachea. The inhibitory effects of Con-A on Na(+) absorption were suppressed by the sugar mannose, by inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC). Thus, nutritional phytohemagglutinins block salt absorption in a PLC- and PKC-dependent manner, probably by inhibition of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). This effect may be therapeutically useful in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. PMID:15237102

  5. Alpha characterization inside pipes using ion-transport technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, S.P.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Williams, K.G.; Vaccarella, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many DOE facilities have several miles of waste pipe systems that are internally contaminated with various and often undetermined radio nuclides. Unfortunately, currently acceptable alpha detection technologies are inefficient, time consuming, and do not address the problems presented by small diameter or curved pipes. In general, the problem of detecting alpha contamination on the inside surface of pipes is complicated by the fact that alphas do not penetrate the pipe walls. Unlike their conventional counterparts, alpha detectors based on ion transport technology sense alpha particles by collecting the ions created in ambient air as the particle loses its kinetic energy. The ions inside the pipe are transported by a fan-generated air current to an electrode inside the detector, which is attached to one end of the pipe. The collected charge at the electrode is proportional to the number of ions created inside the pipe, which in turn is proportional to the number of alphas emitted. Typically, monitoring for alpha contamination inside pipes or ductwork involves disrupting the operation to access as much surface area as possible for standard alpha monitoring. The detector based on ion transport technology effectively minimizes such disruption and in many circumstances will allow for in situ monitoring of a system that might otherwise not be practically accessible to standard methods.

  6. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Makitka, III, Alexander; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2012-04-03

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  7. Excess surface area in bioelectrochemical systems causes ion transport limitations

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: 1) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200 mM increased current linearly up to a total of +273% vs. 0 mM NaCl under advective conditions, 2) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200 mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and 3) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steady-state current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential at the electrode surface. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant. PMID:25421463

  8. Neutral dynamics and ion energy transport in MST plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zichuan; Nornberg, Mark; den Hartog, Daniel; Kumar, Santosh; Anderson, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Neutral dynamics can have a significant effect on ion energy transport through charge exchange collisions. Whereas previously charge exchange was considered a direct loss mechanism in MST plasmas, new analysis indicates that significant thermal charge exchange neutrals are reionized. Further, the temperatures of the neutral species in the core of the plasma are suspected to be much higher than room temperature, which has a large effect on ion energy losses due to charge exchange. The DEGAS2 Monte Carlo simulation code is applied to the MST reversed field pinch experiment to estimate the density and temperature profile of the neutral species. The result is then used to further examine the effect of the neutral species on ion energy transport in improved confinement plasmas. This enables the development of a model that accounts for collisional equilibration between species, classical convective and conductive energy transport, and energy loss due to charge exchange collisions. The goal is to quantify classical, stochastic, and anomalous ion heating and transport in RFP plasmas. Work supported by the US DOE. DEGAS2 is provided by PPPL and STRAHL is provided by Ralph Dux of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik.

  9. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    PubMed

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  10. Magnetic and Transport Properties of Mn-ion implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, V.; Ogawa, M.; Han, X.; Wang, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic and transport properties of Mn-ion implanted Si. Both temperature dependent and field dependent measurements of the samples using a SQUID magnometer reveal ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. Magnetotransport measurements show a large positive magnetoresistance up to 4.5 T with no signs of saturation.

  11. Excess Surface Area in Bioelectrochemical Systems Causes ion Transport Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200mM increased current linearly up to a total of þ273% vs. 0mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steadystate current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant.

  12. Prospects of ion beam extraction and transport simulations (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, Peter; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Stetson, J. W.; Celona, L.

    2008-02-15

    Beam profile measurements using viewing targets and emittance measurements with pepper pot devices have established new insights about the ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In our measurements we have compared two different ECRISs of CAPRICE type, one source was equipped with a standard 1.0 T hexapole magnet, whereas for the other ion source a stronger hexapole magnet with a flux density of 1.2 T has been installed. The resulting ion beam profile for each individual charge state produced by different focal strengths of an optical element can be used to estimate the emittance, but it also shows the negative influence of the hexapole on the extracted ion beam. A hexapole correction would be desirable to improve further beam transport. A possible correction scheme will be discussed. All experimental observations can be reproduced by computer simulation if a magnetic plasma is assumed. When the Larmor radius for ions becomes small, collisions are negligible for the path of ions within the plasma. Low energy electrons are highly movable along the magnetic field lines and can compensate the ion space charge within the plasma chamber.

  13. Reduced Fast Ion Transport Model For The Tokamak Transport Code TRANSP

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta,, Mario; Gorelenkova, Marina; White, Roscoe

    2014-02-28

    Fast ion transport models presently implemented in the tokamak transport code TRANSP [R. J. Hawryluk, in Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions, CEC Brussels, 1 , 19 (1980)] are not capturing important aspects of the physics associated with resonant transport caused by instabilities such as Toroidal Alfv en Eigenmodes (TAEs). This work describes the implementation of a fast ion transport model consistent with the basic mechanisms of resonant mode-particle interaction. The model is formulated in terms of a probability distribution function for the particle's steps in phase space, which is consistent with the MonteCarlo approach used in TRANSP. The proposed model is based on the analysis of fast ion response to TAE modes through the ORBIT code [R. B. White et al., Phys. Fluids 27 , 2455 (1984)], but it can be generalized to higher frequency modes (e.g. Compressional and Global Alfv en Eigenmodes) and to other numerical codes or theories.

  14. Isothermal titration calorimetry of ion-coupled membrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Boudker, Olga; Oh, SeCheol

    2015-04-01

    Binding of ligands, ranging from proteins to ions, to membrane proteins is associated with absorption or release of heat that can be detected by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Such measurements not only provide binding affinities but also afford direct access to thermodynamic parameters of binding--enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity. These parameters can be interpreted in a structural context, allow discrimination between different binding mechanisms and guide drug design. In this review, we introduce advantages and limitations of ITC as a methodology to study molecular interactions of membrane proteins. We further describe case studies where ITC was used to analyze thermodynamic linkage between ions and substrates in ion-coupled transporters. Similar type of linkage analysis will likely be applicable to a wide range of transporters, channels, and receptors.

  15. Radial transport of storm time ring current ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Radial transport of energetic ions for the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms is investigated with data from the medium energy particle analyzer (MEPA) on the Charge Composition Explorer spacecraft, which monitored protons, helium ions, and the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen group, which is mostly dominated by oxygen ions. From a study of four geomagnetic storms, we show that the flux increase of these ions in the inner ring current region can be accounted for by an inward displacement of the ring current population by 0.5 to 3.5 R(E). There is a general trend that a larger inward displacement occurs at higher L shells than at lower ones. These results are in agreement with previous findings. The radially injected population consists of the prestorm population modified by substorm injections which occur on a much shorter time scale than that for a storm main phase. It is also found that the inward displacement is relatively independent of ion mass and energy, suggesting that the radial transport of these energetic ions is effected primarily by convective motion from a large electric field or by diffusion resulting from magnetic field fluctuations.

  16. Ion and water transport in charge-modified graphene nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ying-Hua; Li, Kun; Chen, Wei-Yu; Si, Wei; Tan, Qi-Yan; Chen, Yun-Fei

    2015-10-01

    Porous graphene has a high mechanical strength and an atomic-layer thickness that makes it a promising material for material separation and biomolecule sensing. Electrostatic interactions between charges in aqueous solutions are a type of strong long-range interaction that may greatly influence fluid transport through nanopores. In this study, molecular dynamic simulations were conducted to investigate ion and water transport through 1.05-nm diameter monolayer graphene nanopores, with their edges charge-modified. Our results indicated that these nanopores are selective to counterions when they are charged. As the charge amount increases, the total ionic currents show an increase-decrease profile while the co-ion currents monotonically decrease. The co-ion rejection can reach 76.5% and 90.2% when the nanopores are negatively and positively charged, respectively. The Cl- ion current increases and reaches a plateau, and the Na+ current decreases as the charge amount increases in systems in which Na+ ions act as counterions. In addition, charge modification can enhance water transport through nanopores. This is mainly due to the ion selectivity of the nanopores. Notably, positive charges on the pore edges facilitate water transport much more strongly than negative charges. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB707601 and 2011CB707605), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50925519), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, Funding of Jiangsu Provincial Innovation Program for Graduate Education, China (Grant No. CXZZ13_0087), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Southeast University (Grant No. YBJJ 1322).

  17. Self-pinched transport of intense ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, P.F.; Neri, J.M.; Stephanakis, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    Electron beams with substantial net currents have been routinely propagated in the self-pinched mode for the past two decades. However, as the physics of gas breakdown and beam neutralization is different for ion beams, previous predictions indicated insufficient net current for pinching so that ion beam self-pinched transport (SPT) was assumed impossible. Nevertheless, recent numerical simulations using the IPROP code have suggested that ion SPT is possible. These results have prompted initial experiments to investigate SPT of ion beams. A 100-kA, 1.2-MeV, 3-cm-radius proton beam, generated on the Gamble II pulsed-power accelerator at NRL, has been injected into helium in the 30- to 250-mTorr regime to study this phenomenon. Evidence of self-pinched ion beam transport was observed in the 35- to 80-mTorr SPT pressure window predicted by IPROP. Measured signals from a time- and space-resolved scattered proton diagnostic and a time-integrated Li(Cu) nuclear activation diagnostic, both of which measure protons striking a 10-cm diameter target 50 cm into the transport region, are significantly larger in this pressure window than expected for ballistic transport. These results are consistent with significant self-magnetic fields and self-pinching of the ion beam. On the other hand, time-integrated signals from these same two diagnostics are consistent with ballistic transport at pressures above and below the SPT window. Interferometric electron line-density measurements, acquired during beam injection into the helium gas, show insignificant ionization below 35 mTorr, a rapidly rising ionization fraction with pressure in the SPT window, and a plateau in ionization fraction at about 2% for pressures above 80 mTorr. These and other results are consistent with the physical picture for SPT. IPROP simulations, which closely model the Gamble II experimental conditions, produce results that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results. The advantages of SPT for

  18. Functions of Ion Transport Peptide and Ion Transport Peptide-Like in the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ion transport peptide (ITP) and ITP-like (ITPL) are highly conserved neuropeptides in insects and crustaceans. We investigated the alternatively spliced variants of ITP/ITPL in Tribolium castaneum to understand their functions. We identified three alternatively spliced transcripts named itp, itpl-...

  19. Carrier-mediated ion transport in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Laprade, R; Grenier, F; Pagé-Dansereau, M; Dansereau, J

    1984-08-01

    The electrical properties predicted by a widely accepted model for carrier-mediated ion transport in lipid bilayers are described. The different steps leading to ion transport and their associated rate constants are reaction at the interface between an ion in the aqueous phase and a carrier in the membrane (kRi), followed by translocation of the ion-carrier complex across the membrane interior (kis) and its dissociation at the other interface (kDi) after which the free carrier crosses back the membrane interior (ks). Results on glyceryl monooleate (GMO) membranes for a family of homologue carriers, the macrotetralide actin antibiotics (nonactin, monactin, dinactin, trinactin, and tetranactin) and a variety of ions (Na+, Cs+, Rb+, K+, NH4+, and Tl+) are presented. Internally consistent data obtained from steady-state electrical measurements (zero-current potential and conductance, current-voltage relationship) allow us to obtain the equilibrium permeability ratios for the different ions and show that for a given carrier kRi is relatively invariant from one ion to the other, except for Tl+ (larger), which implies that the ionic selectivity is controlled by the dissociation of the complex. The values of the individual rate constants obtained from current relaxation experiments are also presented and confirm the findings from steady-state measurements, as well as the isostericity concept for complexes of different ions with the same carrier (kis invariant). These also allow us to determine the aqueous phase membrane and torus membrane partition coefficients. Finally, the observed increase in kis from nonactin to tetranactin and, for all homologues, from GMO-decane to solvent-free GMO membranes, together with the concomitant decrease in kDi, can be explained in terms of modifications of electrostatic energy profiles induced by variations in carrier size and membrane thickness.

  20. Testing ion-neutral interaction potentials using calculated ion transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    Hogan, M J

    2006-10-28

    Several commonly measured ion transport coefficients were investigated in order to determine their sensitivity for testing and comparing proposed ion-neutral interaction potentials. A variety of positive ions, negative ions, neutrals, and temperatures were included in order to draw as general a conclusion as possible. All transport coefficients considered were found to be sufficiently sensitive to be used to clearly distinguish between less and more accurate interaction potentials. It was also found that the longitudinal diffusion coefficient is the most sensitive test, followed by both the transverse diffusion coefficient and the ratio of the longitudinal diffusion coefficient to mobility, followed by the ratio of the transverse diffusion coefficient to mobility and that the mobility is the least sensitive test. When presently achievable levels of experimental error were also taken into account, however, there was no significant difference in the sensitivities. PMID:17092091

  1. Mechanism of unassisted ion transport across membrane bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.

    1996-01-01

    To establish how charged species move from water to the nonpolar membrane interior and to determine the energetic and structural effects accompanying this process, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of Na+ and Cl- across a lipid bilayer located between two water lamellae. The total length of molecular dynamics trajectories generated for each ion was 10 ns. Our simulations demonstrate that permeation of ions into the membrane is accompanied by the formation of deep, asymmetric thinning defects in the bilayer, whereby polar lipid head groups and water penetrate the nonpolar membrane interior. Once the ion crosses the midplane of the bilayer the deformation "switches sides"; the initial defect slowly relaxes, and a defect forms in the outgoing side of the bilayer. As a result, the ion remains well solvated during the process; the total number of oxygen atoms from water and lipid head groups in the first solvation shell remains constant. A similar membrane deformation is formed when the ion is instantaneously inserted into the interior of the bilayer. The formation of defects considerably lowers the free energy barrier to transfer of the ion across the bilayer and, consequently, increases the permeabilities of the membrane to ions, compared to the rigid, planar structure, by approximately 14 orders of magnitude. Our results have implications for drug delivery using liposomes and peptide insertion into membranes.

  2. Mechanism of unassisted ion transport across membrane bilayers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M A; Pohorille, A

    1996-07-17

    To establish how charged species move from water to the nonpolar membrane interior and to determine the energetic and structural effects accompanying this process, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of Na+ and Cl- across a lipid bilayer located between two water lamellae. The total length of molecular dynamics trajectories generated for each ion was 10 ns. Our simulations demonstrate that permeation of ions into the membrane is accompanied by the formation of deep, asymmetric thinning defects in the bilayer, whereby polar lipid head groups and water penetrate the nonpolar membrane interior. Once the ion crosses the midplane of the bilayer the deformation "switches sides"; the initial defect slowly relaxes, and a defect forms in the outgoing side of the bilayer. As a result, the ion remains well solvated during the process; the total number of oxygen atoms from water and lipid head groups in the first solvation shell remains constant. A similar membrane deformation is formed when the ion is instantaneously inserted into the interior of the bilayer. The formation of defects considerably lowers the free energy barrier to transfer of the ion across the bilayer and, consequently, increases the permeabilities of the membrane to ions, compared to the rigid, planar structure, by approximately 14 orders of magnitude. Our results have implications for drug delivery using liposomes and peptide insertion into membranes.

  3. Physics of gas breakdown for ion beam transport in gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, C. L.; Poukey, J. W.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Rose, D. V.; Hubbard, R. F.; Lampe, M.; Neri, J. M.; Ottinger, P. F.; Slinker, S. P.; Stephanakis, S. J.

    1993-05-01

    Detailed analysis, experiments, and computer simulations are producing a new understanding of gas breakdown during intense ion beam transport in neutral gas. Charge neutralization of beam micro-clumps is shown to limit the net clump potentials to a non-zero value (pi)(sub min), which can lead to divergence growth and axial energy spreading. At pressures approximately greater than 1 Torr, plasma shielding should substantially reduce this effect. Current neutralization has been studied in experiments on the GAMBLE 2 accelerator. The importance of fast electrons (knockons and runaways) has been established in IPROP simulations, which are in agreement with the experiments. For light ion fusion parameters with pressures approximately greater than 1 Torr, very small net current fractions (much less than 1%) appear feasible, permitting ballistic transport in gas. Self-pinched requires higher net current fractions (greater than or equal to 2%) and preliminary IPROP code results indicate that this appears achievable for small-radius intense beams in lower pressure gases (approximately less than 1 Torr). Several self-pinched transport concepts look promising. The importance of these results for both light ion fusion and heavy ion fusion is discussed.

  4. Models of self-pinched ion beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, P.F.; Rose, D.V. |; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.

    1998-12-31

    Ion-beam-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires the efficient transport of intense, focused ion beams over distances of many meters to an ICF target. The self-pinch transport (SPT) scheme utilizes the incomplete current neutralization of an ion beam propagating in a low pressure background gas to radially confine the beam. Experiments and theoretical investigations are presently underway to assess the feasibility of this beam transport mechanism. Simulations of SPT are being carried out using the 3-D hybrid particle-in-cell code, IPROP. For this work, an intense ion beam is injected into different background gas pressures of argon and helium in order to determine the optimum gas pressure for SPT. In addition, simulations will be carried out that examine the effect on beam confinement of changing the ratio of the beam injection radius to the gas chamber wall radius, using different beam injection angles, and changing the beam current rise time. Along with the PIC simulations, several analytic models are being investigated and further developed for understanding the important physics of SPT and scaling for various applications. Available results are presented.

  5. Characterization of Rat Meibomian Gland Ion and Fluid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Davis, Richard M.; Aita, Megumi; Burns, Kimberlie A.; Clapp, Phillip W.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Chua, Michael; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Schlegel, Richard; Randell, Scott H.; C. Boucher, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We establish novel primary rat meibomian gland (MG) cell culture systems and explore the ion transport activities of the rat MG. Methods Freshly excised rat MG tissues were characterized as follows: (1) mRNA expression of selected epithelial ion channels/transporters were measured by RT-PCR, (2) localization of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mRNAs was performed by in situ hybridization, and (3) protein expression and localization of βENaC, the Na+/K+/Cl− cotransporter (NKCC), and the Na+/K+ ATPase were evaluated by immunofluorescence. Primary isolated rat MG cells were cocultured with 3T3 feeder cells and a Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) for expansion. Passaged rat MG cells were cultured as planar sheets under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions for gene expression and electrophysiologic studies. Passaged rat MG cells also were cultured in matrigel matrices to form spheroids, which were examined ultrastructurally by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and functionally using swelling assays. Results Expression of multiple ion channel/transporter genes was detected in rat MG tissues. β-ENaC mRNA and protein were localized more to MG peripheral acinar cells than central acinar cells or ductular epithelial cells. Electrophysiologic studies of rat MG cell planar cultures demonstrated functional sodium, chloride, and potassium channels, and cotransporters activities. Transmission electron microscopic analyses of rat MG spheroids revealed highly differentiated MG cells with abundant lysosomal lamellar bodies. Rat MG spheroids culture-based measurements demonstrated active volume regulation by ion channels. Conclusions This study demonstrates the presence and function of ion channels and volume transport by rat MG. Two novel primary MG cell culture models that may be useful for MG research were established. PMID:27127933

  6. Imaging ion and molecular transport at subcellular resolution by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Subhash; Morrison, George H.

    1995-05-01

    The transport of K+, Na+, and Ca2+ were imaged in individual cells with a Cameca IMS-3f ion microscope. Strict cryogenic frozen freeze-dry sample preparations were employed. Ion redistribution artifacts in conventional chemical preparations are discussed. Cryogenically prepared freeze-fractured freeze-dried cultured cells allowed the three-dimensional ion microscopic imaging of elements. As smaller structures in calcium images can be resolved with the 0.5 [mu]m spatial resolution, correlative techniques are needed to confirm their identity. The potentials of reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy are discussed for microfeature recognition in freeze-fractured freeze-dried cells. The feasibility of using frozen freeze-dried cells for imaging molecular transport at subcellular resolution was tested. Ion microscopy successfully imaged the transport of the isotopically tagged (13C, 15N) amino acid, -arginine. The labeled amino acid was imaged at mass 28 with a Cs+ primary ion beam as the 28(13C15N)- species. After a 4 h exposure of LLC-PK1 kidney cells to 4 mM labeled arginine, the amino acid was localized throughout the cell with a preferential incorporation into the nucleus and nucleolus. An example is also shown of the ion microscopic imaging of sodium borocaptate, an experimental therapeutic drug for brain tumors, in cryogenically prepared frozen freeze-dried Swiss 3T3 cells.

  7. Mechanochemically synthesized fluorides: local structures and ion transport.

    PubMed

    Preishuber-Pflügl, Florian; Wilkening, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The performance of new sensors or advanced electrochemical energy storage devices strongly depends on the active materials chosen to realize such systems. In particular, their morphology may greatly influence their overall macroscopic properties. Frequently, limitations in classical ways of chemical preparation routes hamper the development of materials with tailored properties. Fortunately, such hurdles can be overcome by mechanochemical synthesis. The versatility of mechanosynthesis allows the provision of compounds that are not available through common synthesis routes. The mechanical treatment of two or three starting materials in high-energy ball mills enables the synthesis not only of new compounds but also of nanocrystalline materials with unusual properties such as enhanced ion dynamics. Fast ion transport is of crucial importance in electrochemical energy storage. It is worth noting that mechanosynthesis also provides access to metastable phases that cannot be synthesized by conventional solid state synthesis. Ceramic synthesis routes often yield the thermally, i.e., thermodynamically, stable products rather than metastable compounds. In this perspective we report the mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorine ion conductors that serve as model substances to understand the relationship between local structures and ion dynamics. While ion transport properties were complementarily probed via conductivity spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic relaxation, local structures of the phases prepared were investigated by high-resolution (19)F NMR spectroscopy carried out by fast magic angle spinning. The combination of nuclear and non-nuclear techniques also helped us to shed light on the mechanisms controlling mechanochemical reactions in general. PMID:27172256

  8. Mechanochemically synthesized fluorides: local structures and ion transport.

    PubMed

    Preishuber-Pflügl, Florian; Wilkening, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The performance of new sensors or advanced electrochemical energy storage devices strongly depends on the active materials chosen to realize such systems. In particular, their morphology may greatly influence their overall macroscopic properties. Frequently, limitations in classical ways of chemical preparation routes hamper the development of materials with tailored properties. Fortunately, such hurdles can be overcome by mechanochemical synthesis. The versatility of mechanosynthesis allows the provision of compounds that are not available through common synthesis routes. The mechanical treatment of two or three starting materials in high-energy ball mills enables the synthesis not only of new compounds but also of nanocrystalline materials with unusual properties such as enhanced ion dynamics. Fast ion transport is of crucial importance in electrochemical energy storage. It is worth noting that mechanosynthesis also provides access to metastable phases that cannot be synthesized by conventional solid state synthesis. Ceramic synthesis routes often yield the thermally, i.e., thermodynamically, stable products rather than metastable compounds. In this perspective we report the mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorine ion conductors that serve as model substances to understand the relationship between local structures and ion dynamics. While ion transport properties were complementarily probed via conductivity spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic relaxation, local structures of the phases prepared were investigated by high-resolution (19)F NMR spectroscopy carried out by fast magic angle spinning. The combination of nuclear and non-nuclear techniques also helped us to shed light on the mechanisms controlling mechanochemical reactions in general.

  9. Regional differences in rat conjunctival ion transport activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R.; Rogers, Troy D.; Stutts, M. Jackson; Randell, Scott H.; Grubb, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Active ion transport and coupled osmotic water flow are essential to maintain ocular surface health. We investigated regional differences in the ion transport activities of the rat conjunctivas and compared these activities with those of cornea and lacrimal gland. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (Slc5a1), transmembrane protein 16 (Tmem16a, b, f, and g), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr), and mucin (Muc4, 5ac, and 5b) mRNA expression was characterized by RT-PCR. ENaC proteins were measured by Western blot. Prespecified regions (palpebral, fornical, and bulbar) of freshly isolated conjunctival tissues and cell cultures were studied electrophysiologically with Ussing chambers. The transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) of the ocular surface was also measured in vivo. The effect of amiloride and UTP on the tear volume was evaluated in lacrimal gland excised rats. All selected genes were detected but with different expression patterns. We detected αENaC protein in all tissues, βENaC in palpebral and fornical conjunctiva, and γENaC in all tissues except lacrimal glands. Electrophysiological studies of conjunctival tissues and cell cultures identified functional ENaC, SLC5A1, CFTR, and TMEM16. Fornical conjunctiva exhibited the most active ion transport under basal conditions amongst conjunctival regions. PD measurements confirmed functional ENaC-mediated Na+ transport on the ocular surface. Amiloride and UTP increased tear volume in lacrimal gland excised rats. This study demonstrated that the different regions of the conjunctiva exhibited a spectrum of ion transport activities. Understanding the specific functions of distinct regions of the conjunctiva may foster a better understanding of the physiology maintaining hydration of the ocular surface. PMID:22814399

  10. Internal Transport Barrier Driven by Redistribution of Energetic Ions

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Wong; W.W. Heidbrink; E. Ruskov; C.C. Petty; C.M. Greenfield; R. Nazikian; R. Budny

    2004-11-12

    Alfven instabilities excited by energetic ions are used as a means to reduce the central magnetic shear in a tokamak via redistribution of energetic ions. When the central magnetic shear is low enough, ballooning modes become stable for any plasma pressure gradient and an internal transport barrier (ITB) with a steep pressure gradient can exist. This mechanism can sustain a steady-state ITB as demonstrated by experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak. It can also produce a shear in toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. Possible application of this technique to use the energetic alpha particles for improvement of burning plasma performance is discussed.

  11. Mechanisms for ion species segregation in the Schunk-Zimmerman multispecies ion-transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Nelson

    2015-11-01

    The Schunk-Zimmerman model of multispecies ion transport is based on diffusion in local gradients of concentration, pressure, and temperature. It represents barodiffusion as well as loss of low-Z ions across a high-Z interface. We demonstrate these phenomena in simple planar simulations of shock waves and low-Z/high-Z interfaces in multicomponent plasmas, and assess the possibility that the model may explain long-standing observations that have been interpreted as evidence for ion species segregation in inertial-fusion capsule implosions. Research supported by US DOE under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  12. The antiepileptic drug phenytoin affects sodium transport in toad epithelium.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Mennickent, Sigrid; Norris, Beryl; Cárdenas, Hernan

    2006-01-01

    The effects of phenytoin on isolated Pleurodema thaul toad skin were investigated. Low (micromolar) concentrations of the antiepileptic agent applied to the outside surface of the toad epithelium increased the electrical parameters (short-circuit current and potential difference) by over 40%, reflecting stimulation of Na(+) transport, whereas higher (millimolar concentrations, outside and inside surface) decreased both electric parameters, the effect being greater at the inside surface (40% and 80% decrease, respectively). The amiloride test showed that the stimulatory effect was accompanied by an increase and the inhibitory effect by a decrease in the sodium electromotive force (ENa). It is concluded that the drug interaction with membrane lipid bilayers might result in a distortion of the lipid-protein interface contributing to disturbance of Na(+) epithelial channel activity. After applying the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase blocker ouabain and replacing the Na(+) ions in the outer Ringer's solution by choline, it was concluded that both active and passive transport are involved in sodium absorption, although active transport predominates. PMID:16314149

  13. Properties of the stochastic energization-relaxation channel model for vectorial ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Muneyuki, E; Fukami, T A

    2000-01-01

    A model for the primary active transport by an ion pump protein is proposed. The model, the "energization-relaxation channel model," describes an ion pump as a multiion channel that undergoes stochastic transitions between two conformational states by external energy supply. When the potential profile along ion transport pathway is asymmetrical, a net ion flux is induced by the transitions. In this model, the coupling of the conformational change and ion transport is stochastic and loose. The model qualitatively reproduces known properties of active transport such as the effect of ion concentration gradient and membrane potential on the rate of transport and the inhibition of ion transport at high ion concentration. We further examined the effect of various parameters on the ion transport properties of this model. The efficiency of the coupling was almost 100% under some conditions. PMID:10692306

  14. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  15. The rapid inward diffusion of cold ions in tokamaks and their effect on ion transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, A. A.

    1990-06-01

    The observed increase with density of the density asymmetry caused by the centrifugal force of toroidal motion in the PDX tokamak [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (IAEA, Vienna, 1981), Vol. 1, p. 665], which is contrary to conventional theory, is explained by the presence of an excess of low-energy ions with 10%-15% concentration. The prime source being recycling, it is shown that low-energy ions undergo rapid inward diffusion (too rapid to thermalize with the outward diffusing energetic ions) because of the combined effects of large νPA, electrostatic diffusion, and negative Er and ∂Ti/∂r. The presence of the low-energy ions alters dramatically the predictions of neoclassical theory and many hydrogen and impurity ion transport phenomena now have simple explanations.

  16. The rapid inward diffusion of cold ions in tokamaks and their effect on ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.A. )

    1990-06-01

    The observed increase with density of the density asymmetry caused by the centrifugal force of toroidal motion in the PDX tokamak ({ital Plasma} {ital Physics} {ital and} {ital Controlled} {ital Nuclear} {ital Fusion} {ital Research} (IAEA, Vienna, 1981), Vol. 1, p. 665), which is contrary to conventional theory, is explained by the presence of an excess of low-energy ions with 10%--15% concentration. The prime source being recycling, it is shown that low-energy ions undergo rapid inward diffusion (too rapid to thermalize with the outward diffusing energetic ions) because of the combined effects of large {nu}{sub PA}, electrostatic diffusion, and negative {ital E}{sub {ital r}} and {partial derivative}{ital T}{sub {ital i}}/{partial derivative}{ital r}. The presence of the low-energy ions alters dramatically the predictions of neoclassical theory and many hydrogen and impurity ion transport phenomena now have simple explanations.

  17. The rapid inward diffusion of cold ions in tokamaks and their effect on ion transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, A. A.

    1989-10-01

    The observed increase with density of the density asymmetry caused by the centrifugal force of toroidal motion in PDX, which is contrary to conventional theory, is explained by the presence of an excess of low energy ions with 10 to 15 percent concentration. The prime source being recycling, it is shown that low energy ions undergo rapid inward diffusion (too rapid to thermalize with the outward diffusion energetic ions) due to the combined effects of large nu (sub PA), electrostatic diffusion, and negative E(sub r) and partial derivative of T(sub i)/(partial derivative) of r. The presence of the low energy ions alters dramatically the predictions of neoclassical theory and many hydrogen and impurity ion transport phenomena now have simple explanations.

  18. Ion binding and permeation at the GABA transporter GAT1.

    PubMed

    Mager, S; Kleinberger-Doron, N; Keshet, G I; Davidson, N; Kanner, B I; Lester, H A

    1996-09-01

    This study addresses the binding of ions and the permeation of substrates during function of the GABA transporter GAT1. GAT1 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied electrophysiologically as well as with [3H]GABA flux; GAT1 was also expressed in mammalian cells and studied with [3H]GABA and [3H]tiagabine binding. Voltage jumps, Na+ and Cl- concentration jumps, and exposure to high-affinity blockers (NO-05-711 and SKF-100330A) all produce capacitive charge movements. Occlusive interactions among these three types of perturbations show that they all measure the same population of charges. The concentration dependences of the charge movements reveal (1) that two Na+ ions interact with the transporter even in the absence of GABA, and (2) that Cl- facilitates the binding of Na+. Comparison between the charge movements and the transport-associated current shows that this initial Na(+)-transporter interaction limits the overall transport rate when [GABA] is saturating. However, two classes of manipulation--treatment with high-affinity uptake blockers and the W68L mutation-"lock" Na+ onto the transporter by slowing or preventing the subsequent events that release the substrates to the intracellular medium. The Na+ substitutes Li+ and Cs+ do not support charge movements, but they can permeate the transporter in an uncoupled manner. Our results (1) support the hypothesis that efficient removal of synaptic transmitter by the GABA transporter GAT1 depends on the previous binding of Na+ and Cl-, and (2) indicate the important role of the conserved putative transmembrane domain 1 in interactions with the permeant substrates. PMID:8757253

  19. Shear flow effects on ion thermal transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Dong, J.Q.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1995-03-01

    From various laboratory and numerical experiments, there is clear evidence that under certain conditions the presence of sheared flows in a tokamak plasma can significantly reduce the ion thermal transport. In the presence of plasma fluctuations driven by the ion temperature gradient, the flows of energy and momentum parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are coupled with each other. This coupling manifests itself as significant off-diagonal coupling coefficients that give rise to new terms for anomalous transport. The authors derive from the gyrokinetic equation a set of velocity moment equations that describe the interaction among plasma turbulent fluctuations, the temperature gradient, the toroidal velocity shear, and the poloidal flow in a tokamak plasma. Four coupled equations for the amplitudes of the state variables radially extended over the transport region by toroidicity induced coupling are derived. The equations show bifurcations from the low confinement mode without sheared flows to high confinement mode with substantially reduced transport due to strong shear flows. Also discussed is the reduced version with three state variables. In the presence of sheared flows, the radially extended coupled toroidal modes driven by the ion temperature gradient disintegrate into smaller, less elongated vortices. Such a transition to smaller spatial correlation lengths changes the transport from Bohm-like to gyrobohm-like. The properties of these equations are analyzed. The conditions for the improved confined regime are obtained as a function of the momentum-energy deposition rates and profiles. The appearance of a transport barrier is a consequence of the present theory.

  20. Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Affect Electrolyte Transport in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Dependence on Cyclooxygenase and Cell Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Nüsing, Rolf M.; Schweer, Horst; Fleming, Ingrid; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wegmann, Markus

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on ion transport in the polarized renal distal tubular cell line, MDCK C7. Of the four EET regioisomers (5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET) studied, only apical, but not basolateral, application of 5,6-EET increased short circuit current (Isc) with kinetics similar to those of arachidonic acid. The ion transport was blocked by preincubation with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or with the chloride channel blocker NPPB. Further, both a Cl−-free bath solution and the Ca2+ antagonist verapamil blocked 5,6-EET-induced ion transport. Although the presence of the PGE2 receptors EP2, EP3, and EP4 was demonstrated, apically added PGE2 was ineffective and basolaterally added PGE2 caused a different kinetics in ion transport compared to 5,6-EET. Moreover, PGE2 sythesis in MDCK C7 cells was unaffected by 5,6-EET treatment. GC/MS/MS analysis of cell supernatants revealed the presence of the biologically inactive 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1 in 5,6-EET-treated cells, but not in control cells. Indomethacin suppressed the formation of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1. 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 the precursor of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1, caused a similar ion transport as 5,6-EET. Cytochrome P450 enzymes homolog to human CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2J2 protein were detected immunologically in the MDCK C7 cells. Our findings suggest that 5,6-EET affects Cl-transport in renal distal tubular cells independent of PGE2 but by a mechanism, dependent on its conversion to 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 by cyclooxygenase. We suggest a role for this P450 epoxygenase product in the regulation of electrolyte transport, especially as a saluretic compound acting from the luminal side of tubular cells in the mammalian kidney. PMID:17494091

  1. STOPPING AND BARYON TRANSPORT IN HEAVY ION REACTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VIDEBAEK, F.

    2005-02-05

    In this report I will give an experimental overview on nuclear stopping in hadron collisions, and relate observations to understanding of baryon transport. Baryon number transport is not only evidenced via net-proton distributions but also by the enhancement of strange baryons near mid-rapidity. Although the focus is on high-energy data obtained from pp and heavy ions from RHIC, relevant data from SPS and ISR will be considered. A discussion how the available data at higher energy relates and gives information on baryon junction, quark-diquark breaking will be made.

  2. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-08-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3-D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision H-/H+ and of charge exchange H-/H0 are handled at each time step by a Monte-Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided if they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of «volume production» (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  3. Modeling of ion transport through a porous separator in vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Wei, L.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we develop a two-dimensional, transient model to investigate the mechanisms of ion-transport through a porous separator in VRFBs and their effects on battery performance. Commercial-available separators with pore sizes of around 45 nm are particularly investigated and effects of key separator design parameters and operation modes are explored. We reveal that: i) the transport mechanism of vanadium-ion crossover through available separators is predominated by convection; ii) reducing the pore size below 15 nm effectively minimizes the convection-driven vanadium-ion crossover, while further reduction in migration- and diffusion-driven vanadium-ion crossover can be achieved only when the pore size is reduced to the level close to the sizes of vanadium ions; and iii) operation modes that can affect the pressure at the separator/electrode interface, such as the electrolyte flow rate, exert a significant influence on the vanadium-ion crossover rate through the available separators, indicating that it is critically important to equalize the pressure on each half-cell of a power pack in practical applications.

  4. Ion transport and ferrocene incorporation in electroactive fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, J.J.; Wijayawardhana, C.A.; Evans, T.A.; Melaragno, P.R.; Ailin-Pyzik, I.B.

    1996-09-19

    Thick (10 {mu}m) C{sub 60} films are prepared by sublimation at 575{degree}C for 5 min on a pyrolytic carbon film electrode. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the fullerene film consists of crystallites of random size and orientation. Raman spectroscopy shows peaks characteristic of C{sub 60} films at 273, 495, 773, 1464, and l571 cm{sup -1}. The electrochemistry of these thick films is consistent with a reduction mechanism that is dominated by ion transport. In the proposed mechanism, swelling of the film and direct intercalation of cations compete as modes of ion transport. During swelling, ferrocene (Fc) diffuses into the C{sub 60} film and can be trapped after film reoxidation. When Fc is present, a greater percentage of the film is reduced. The stability of the film with respect to successive redox cycles is also increased. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Transport of radioactive ions in soil by electrokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    An electrokinetic approach is being evaluated for in situ soil remediation at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The work discussed in this paper involves the development of a new method to monitor the movement of the radioactive ions within the soil during the electrokinetic process. A closed cell and a gamma counter were used to provide iii situ measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results show that for an applied potential of 200 V over approximately 200 hr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}60 were transported a distance of 4 to 5 in. The monitoring technique demonstrated the feasibility of using electrokinetics for soil separation applications.

  6. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    DOEpatents

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Minford, Eric; Waldron, William Emil

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  7. Fast ion transport induced by saturated infernal mode

    SciTech Connect

    Marchenko, V. S.

    2014-05-15

    Tokamak discharges with extended weak-shear central core are known to suffer from infernal modes when the core safety factor approaches the mode ratio. These modes can cause an outward convection of the well-passing energetic ions deposited in the core by fusion reactions and/or neutral beam injection. Convection mechanism consists in collisional slowing down of energetic ions trapped in the Doppler-precession resonance with a finite-amplitude infernal mode. Convection velocity can reach a few m/s in modern spherical tori. Possible relation of this transport with the enhanced fast ion losses in the presence of “long lived modes” in the MAST tokamak [I. T. Chapman et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 045007 (2010)] is discussed.

  8. Ion transport and dehydration in sub-nanoscale pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Subin; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Zwolak, Michael

    Ions in solution develop tightly bound layers of water - hydration layers - which stabilize disassociation and enable ionic currents to flow. Sub-nanometer pores in a membrane enable ions to pass provided that they shed their hydration shell. This process has an associated large energy penalty that is predicted to give rise to ''quantized'' steps in the ionic conductance. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, we demonstrate that the ionic current begins to show nonlinear behavior as the radius of the pore is reduced to the sub-nanometer scale. This nonlinear behavior is seen as a sharp rise in the pore resistance and excess noise in the current. Our work sheds light on basic mechanism of ion transport through sub-nanoscale pores. S. Sahu acknowledges support by UMD/CNST Cooperative Research Agreement, Award 70NANB10H193 through University of Maryland.

  9. Regulation of lysosomal ion homeostasis by channels and transporters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jian; Zhu, Michael X

    2016-08-01

    Lysosomes are the major organelles that carry out degradation functions. They integrate and digest materials compartmentalized by endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagy. In addition to more than 60 hydrolases residing in the lysosomes, there are also ion channels and transporters that mediate the flux or transport of H(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) across the lysosomal membranes. Defects in ionic exchange can lead to abnormal lysosome morphology, defective vesicle trafficking, impaired autophagy, and diseases such as neurodegeneration and lysosomal storage disorders. The latter are characterized by incomplete lysosomal digestion and accumulation of toxic materials inside enlarged intracellular vacuoles. In addition to degradation, recent studies have revealed the roles of lysosomes in metabolic pathways through kinases such as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transcriptional regulation through calcium signaling molecules such as transcription factor EB (TFEB) and calcineurin. Owing to the development of new approaches including genetically encoded fluorescence probes and whole endolysosomal patch clamp recording techniques, studies on lysosomal ion channels have made remarkable progress in recent years. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of lysosome-resident ion channels and transporters, discuss their roles in maintaining lysosomal function, and evaluate how their dysfunction can result in disease. PMID:27430889

  10. Transport properties of highly ordered heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, V; Freger, V; Linder, C; Oren, Y

    2008-08-01

    Model "ordered" heterogeneous ion exchange membranes are made with ion exchange particles heaving ion exchange capacity in the range 3 to 2.5 meq/gr (dry basis) and diameters ranging from 37 to 7 microm and 2 component room-temperature vulcanizing silicon rubber as a polymeric matrix, by applying an electric field normal to the membrane surface during preparation. These membranes were shown to have an improved ionic conductivity compared with "nonordered" membranes based on the same ion exchange content (for instance, at 10% resin content "nonordered" membranes show <10(-5) mS/cm while "ordered" membranes have conductivity of 1 mS/cm). The transport properties of ordered membranes were compared with those of nonordered membranes, through the current-voltage characteristics. Limiting currents measured for the ordered membranes were significantly higher than those of the nonordered membranes with the same resin concentration. In addition, higher limiting currents were observed in ordered membranes as the resin particles became smaller. Energy dispersion spectrometry analyses revealed that the concentration of cation exchange groups on the membrane surface was higher for ordered membrane as compared to that of nonordered membranes. This implies that the local current density for the conducting domains at the surface of the nonordered membranes is higher, leading to higher concentration polarization and, eventually, to lower average limiting current densities. The effect of ordering the particles on the membrane conductivity and transport properties was studied, and the advantages of the ordered membranes are discussed.

  11. Neutron imaging of ion transport in mesoporous carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ketki; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Walker, Lakeisha M H; Voisin, Sophie; Mayes, Richard T; Kiggans, Jim O; Yiacoumi, Sotira; DePaoli, David W; Dai, Sheng; Tsouris, Costas

    2013-07-28

    Neutron imaging is presented as a tool for quantifying the diffusion of ions inside porous materials, such as carbon electrodes used in the desalination process via capacitive deionization and in electrochemical energy-storage devices. Monolithic mesoporous carbon electrodes of ∼10 nm pore size were synthesized based on a soft-template method. The electrodes were used with an aqueous solution of gadolinium nitrate in an electrochemical flow-through cell designed for neutron imaging studies. Sequences of neutron images were obtained under various conditions of applied potential between the electrodes. The images revealed information on the direction and magnitude of ion transport within the electrodes. From the time-dependent concentration profiles inside the electrodes, the average value of the effective diffusion coefficient for gadolinium ions was estimated to be 2.09 ± 0.17 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) at 0 V and 1.42 ± 0.06 × 10(-10) m(2) s(-1) at 1.2 V. The values of the effective diffusion coefficient obtained from neutron imaging experiments can be used to evaluate model predictions of the ion transport rate in capacitive deionization and electrochemical energy-storage devices.

  12. An improved Green's function for ion beam transport.

    PubMed

    Tweed, J; Wilson, J W; Tripathi, R K

    2004-01-01

    Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for high charge and energy (HZE) ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions.

  13. Transport of intense beams of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, M.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Spadtke, P.; Tinschert, K.

    2005-10-01

    The new generation of ion sources delivers beams with intensities of several mA. This requires a careful design of the analysing system and the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) from the source to the subsequent systems. At INFN-LNS, high intensity proton sources (TRIPS [L. Celona, G. Ciavola, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1423 (2004)], PM-TRIPS [G. Ciavola, L. Celona, S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1453 (2004)]) as well as ECR ion sources for the production of highly charged high-intensity heavy ion beams are developed (SERSE [S. Gammino, G. Ciavola, L. Celona et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(11) 4090 (2001), and references therein], GyroSERSE [S. Gammino et al ., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(5) 1637 (2004)], MS-ECRIS [G. Ciavola et al ., (2005), 11th Int. Conf. on Ion Sources, Caen, (in press)]). In this paper, we present ion-optical design studies of various LEBT systems for ion-sources devoted to the production of intense beams. Calculations were performed using the computer codes GIOS [H. Wollnik, J. Brezina and M. Berz, NIM A 258 (1987)], GICO [M. Berz, H.C. Hoffmann, and H. Wollnik, NIM A 258 (1987)], and TRANSPORT [K.L. Brown, F. Rothacker and D.C. Carey, SLAC-R-95-462, Fermilab-Pub-95/069, UC-414 (1995)]. Simulations take into account the expected phase space growth of the beam emittance due to space-charge effects and image aberrations introduced by the magnetic elements.

  14. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  15. Ion Surfing: A new ion transport method for cryogenic gas catchers, simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Amanda; Bollen, Georg; Brodeur, Maxime; Morrissey, Dave; Pang, Gregory

    2011-10-01

    Gas cells are the tool of choice to thermalize fast rare ion beams produced at projectile fragmentation facilities. After passing through solid degraders, the residual kinetic energy of the ions is dissipated through collisions with the gas atoms and ionization. Previously, ions were directed through a gas cell along a descending electrostatic potential gradient called a ``drag field.'' Some cells apply a drag field over electrodes with alternating (RF) fields to prevent the rare ions from colliding with the walls. ``Ion surfing'' is a new method proposed by Bollen which replaces the drag field with a traveling wave superimposed with RF on numerous, thin electrodes. Large potential differences are no longer required for transport over long distances, and the traveling wave can transport ions at a greater speed. This method is being tested for the new cryogenic linear gas cell of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. We will present the concept and simulation results. Work supported by the National Science Foundation and Department of Energy.

  16. Biophysical model of ion transport across human respiratory epithelia allows quantification of ion permeabilities.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Boucher, Richard C; Elston, Timothy C

    2013-02-01

    Lung health and normal mucus clearance depend on adequate hydration of airway surfaces. Because transepithelial osmotic gradients drive water flows, sufficient hydration of the airway surface liquid depends on a balance between ion secretion and absorption by respiratory epithelia. In vitro experiments using cultures of primary human nasal epithelia and human bronchial epithelia have established many of the biophysical processes involved in airway surface liquid homeostasis. Most experimental studies, however, have focused on the apical membrane, despite the fact that ion transport across respiratory epithelia involves both cellular and paracellular pathways. In fact, the ion permeabilities of the basolateral membrane and paracellular pathway remain largely unknown. Here we use a biophysical model for water and ion transport to quantify ion permeabilities of all pathways (apical, basolateral, paracellular) in human nasal epithelia cultures using experimental (Ussing Chamber and microelectrode) data reported in the literature. We derive analytical formulas for the steady-state short-circuit current and membrane potential, which are for polarized epithelia the equivalent of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation for single isolated cells. These relations allow parameter estimation to be performed efficiently. By providing a method to quantify all the ion permeabilities of respiratory epithelia, the model may aid us in understanding the physiology that regulates normal airway surface hydration.

  17. Peptide Orientation Affects Selectivity in Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Andrew J.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Kangas, Lars J.; Smith, Richard D.; Mechtler, Karl; Mitulovic, Goran; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J.

    2010-06-15

    Here we demonstrate that separation of proteolytic peptides, having the same net charge and one basic residue, is affected by their specific orientation toward the stationary phase in ion-exchange chromatography. In electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) with an anion-exchange material, the C-terminus of the peptides is, on average, oriented toward the stationary phase. In cation exchange, the average peptide orientation is the opposite. Data with synthetic peptides, serving as orientation probes, indicate that in tryptic/Lys-C peptides the C-terminal carboxyl group appears to be in a zwitterionic bond with the side chain of the C-terminal Lys/Arg residue. In effect, the side chain is then less basic than the N-terminus, accounting for the specific orientation of tryptic and Lys-C peptides. Analyses of larger sets of peptides, generated from lysates by either Lys-N, Lys-C, or trypsin, reveal that specific peptide orientation affects the ability of harged side chains, such as phosphate residues, to influence retention. Phosphorylated residues that are remote in the sequence from the binding site affect retention less than those that are closer. When a peptide contains multiple charged sites, then orientation is observed to be less rigid and retention tends to be governed by the peptide’s net charge rather than its sequence. These general observations could be of value in confirming a peptide’s identification and, in particular, phosphosite assignments in proteomics analyses. More generally, orientation accounts for the ability of chromatography to separate peptides of the same compositionbut different sequence.

  18. Final Report - Ion Production and Transport in Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source Mass Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2014-05-14

    This document is the final report on a project that focused in the general theme of atmospheric-pressure ion production and transport for mass spectrometry. Within that general theme there were two main projects: the fundamental study of the transport of elemental ions through the vacuum interface of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS), and fundamental studies of the ionization mechanisms in ambient desorption/ionization (ADI) sources for molecular mass spectrometry. In both cases the goal was to generate fundamental understanding of key instrumental processes that would lead to the development of instruments that were more sensitive and more consistent in their performance. The emphasis on consistency derives from the need for instruments that have the same sensitivity, regardless of sample type. In the jargon of analytical chemistry, such instruments are said to be free from matrix effects. In the ICPMS work each stage of ion production and of ion transport from the atmospheric pressure to the high-vacuum mass analyzer was studied. Factors controlling ion transport efficiency and consistency were identified at each stage of pressure reduction. In the ADI work the interactions between an electrospray plume and a fluorescent sample on a surface were examined microscopically. A new mechanism for analyte ion production in desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was proposed. Optical spectroscopy was used to track the production of reactive species in plasmas used as ADI sources. Experiments with mixed-gas plasmas demonstrated that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to a helium ADI plasma could boost the sensitivity for some analytes by over an order of magnitude.

  19. A Green's function method for heavy ion beam transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.; Schimmerling, W.; Shavers, M. R.; Miller, J.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Badavi, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    The use of Green's function has played a fundamental role in transport calculations for high-charge high-energy (HZE) ions. Two recent developments have greatly advanced the practical aspects of implementation of these methods. The first was the formulation of a closed-form solution as a multiple fragmentation perturbation series. The second was the effective summation of the closed-form solution through nonperturbative techniques. The nonperturbative methods have been recently extended to an inhomogeneous, two-layer transport media to simulate the lead scattering foil present in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL) biomedical beam line used for cancer therapy. Such inhomogeneous codes are necessary for astronaut shielding in space. The transport codes utilize the Langley Research Center atomic and nuclear database. Transport code and database evaluation are performed by comparison with experiments performed at the LBL Bevalac facility using 670 A MeV 20Ne and 600 A MeV 56Fe ion beams. The comparison with a time-of-flight and delta E detector measurement for the 20Ne beam and the plastic nuclear track detectors for 56Fe show agreement up to 35%-40% in water and aluminium targets, respectively.

  20. A Green's function method for heavy ion beam transport.

    PubMed

    Shinn, J L; Wilson, J W; Schimmerling, W; Shavers, M R; Miller, J; Benton, E V; Frank, A L; Badavi, F F

    1995-08-01

    The use of Green's function has played a fundamental role in transport calculations for high-charge high-energy (HZE) ions. Two recent developments have greatly advanced the practical aspects of implementation of these methods. The first was the formulation of a closed-form solution as a multiple fragmentation perturbation series. The second was the effective summation of the closed-form solution through nonperturbative techniques. The nonperturbative methods have been recently extended to an inhomogeneous, two-layer transport media to simulate the lead scattering foil present in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL) biomedical beam line used for cancer therapy. Such inhomogeneous codes are necessary for astronaut shielding in space. The transport codes utilize the Langley Research Center atomic and nuclear database. Transport code and database evaluation are performed by comparison with experiments performed at the LBL Bevalac facility using 670 A MeV 20Ne and 600 A MeV 56Fe ion beams. The comparison with a time-of-flight and delta E detector measurement for the 20Ne beam and the plastic nuclear track detectors for 56Fe show agreement up to 35%-40% in water and aluminium targets, respectively. PMID:7480630

  1. Test particle study of ion transport in drift type turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.

    2013-12-15

    Ion transport regimes in drift type turbulence are determined in the frame of a realistic model for the turbulence spectrum based on numerical simulations. The model includes the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity, turbulence anisotropy, and dominant waves. The effects of the zonal flow modes are also analyzed. A semi-analytical method that is able to describe trajectory stochastic trapping or eddying is used for obtaining the transport coefficients as function of the parameters of the turbulence. Analytical approximations of the transport coefficients are derived from the results. They show the transition from Bohm to gyro-Bohm scaling as plasma size increases in very good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  2. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-02-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The H-/D- trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision with H+/D+ and of charge exchange with H0/D0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have been allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of volume production (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  3. Transport of energetic ions by low-n magnetic perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1992-10-01

    The stochastic transport of MeV ions induced by low-n magnetic perturbations is studied, focussing chiefly on the stochastic mechanism operative for passing particles in low frequency perturbations. Beginning with a single-harmonic form for the perturbing field, it iii first shown numerically and analytically that the stochastic threshold of energetic particles can be much lower than that of the magnetic field, contrary to earlier expectations, so that MHD perturbations could cause appreciable loss of energetic ions without destroying the bulk confinement. The analytic theory is then extended in a number of directions, to darity the relation of the present stochaistic mechanism to instances already found, to allow for more complex perturbations, and to consider the more general relationship between the stochasticity of magnetic fields, and that of particles of differing energies (and pitch angles) moving in those fields. It is shown that the stochastic threshold is in general a nonmonotonic function of energy, whose form can to some extent be tailored to achieve desired goals (e.g., burn control or ash removal) by a judicious choice of the perturbation. Illustrative perturbations are exhibited which are stochastic for low but not for high-energy ions, for high but not for low-energy ions, and for intermediate-energy ions, but not for low or high energy. The second possibility is the behavior needed for burn control; the third provides a possible mechanism for ash removal.

  4. Stormtime transport of ring current and radiation belt ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Margaret W.; Schulz, Michael; Lyons, L. R.; Gorney, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This is an investigation of stormtime particle transport that leads to formation of the ring current. Our method is to trace the guiding-center motion of representative ions (having selected first adiabatic invariants mu) in response to model substorm-associated impulses in the convection electric field. We compare our simulation results qualitatively with existing analytically tractable idealizations of particle transport (direct convective access and radial diffusion) in order to assess the limits of validity of these approximations. For mu approximately less than 10 MeV/G (E approximately less than 10 keV at L equivalent to 3) the ion drift period on the final (ring-current) drift shell of interest (L equivalent to 3) exceeds the duration of the main phase of our model storm, and we find that the transport of ions to this drift shell is appropriately idealized as direct convective access, typically from open drift paths. Ion transport to a final closed drift path from an open (plasma-sheet) drift trajectory is possible for those portions of that drift path that lie outside the mean stormtime separatrix between closed and open drift trajectories, For mu approximately 10-25 MeV/G (110 keV approximately less than E approximately less than 280 keV at L equivalent to 3) the drift period at L equivalent to 3 is comparable to the postulated 3-hr duration of the storm, and the mode of transport is transitional between direct convective access and transport that resembles radial diffusion. (This particle population is transitional between the ring current and radiation belt). For mu approximately greater than 25 MeV/G (radiation-belt ions having E approximately greater than 280 keV at L equivalent to 3) the ion drift period is considerably shorter than the main phase of a typical storm, and ions gain access to the ring-current region essentially via radial diffusion. By computing the mean and mean-square cumulative changes in 1/L among (in this case) 12 representative

  5. Ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources and the subsequent low energy beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklehner, Daniel

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are capable of delivering high currents of Highly Charged Ions (HCIs) to heavy ion accelerators (e.g.: to the future FRIB). The use of a sextupole magnet for confinement of the plasma inside the source imposes a unique triangular structure on the beam. This, together with the multitude of ion species that are extracted at the same time and the high axial magnetic field at the plasma aperture, resulting from additional confining solenoids, make the simulation and design of ECRIS extraction systems particularly challenging. The first objective of this thesis was to refine and test a semi-empirical simulation model of the formation and extraction of HCIs from ECR ion sources as well as their transport through the subsequent Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system. To this end, a set of utility functions was written to simplify performing the simulations. In the LEBT system, another interesting, yet so far unanswered, question arises: The influence of space-charge effects on the beam and the level of space-charge compensation in the ECRIS beam line. This interesting topic quickly became the second main objective of the thesis. A Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) was built and systematic measurements of the neutralization level in ECRIS LEBT systems were done for the first time as part of this thesis (this intensity and pressure regime was previously not well explored). The measured neutralization levels for typical ECRIS beams were found to be between 0% and 50% and agreed reasonably well with a simple formula developed by Gabovich et al. for highly neutralized proton and H- beams after it was re-derived and extended in this thesis for low neutralization and multiple species. Preliminary tests of the refined and integrated simulation model for the ECR ion sources VENUS and SuSI and their respective low energy beam transport systems include comparisons of measured beam currents, cross sections and emittances with the

  6. Effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of Ti3C2 MXene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    MXenes are found to be promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate the possibility of using these novel low dimensional materials for metal-ion batteries. Herein, we use density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the electronic transport properties of the MXene, Ti3C2. Oxygen, hydroxyl and fluorine terminated species are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. We found that the ion adsorption results in reduced electronic transport in the pristine MXene: depending on the type of the ions and the bias voltage, the current in the system can be reduced by more than 30%. On the other hand, transport properties of the oxygen terminated sample can be improved by the ion adsorption: for both types of ions the current in the system can be increased by more than a factor of 4. However, the electronic transport is less affected by the ions in fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. These two samples show enhanced electronic transport as compared to the pristine MXene. The obtained results are explained in terms of electron localization in the system.

  7. Evidence for ion transport and molecular ion dominance in the Venus ionotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.; Brace, L. H.; Cloutier, P. A.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Hartle, R. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Knudsen, W. C.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    We present analyses from the five Pioneer Venus Orbiter plasma experiments and the plasma wave experiment when a patch of plasma with enhanced densities was encountered in the near-Venus ionotail during atmospheric entry at an altitude of approximately 1100 km in the nightside ionosphere. Our analyses of the thermal and superthermal ion measurements in this plasma feature provides the first evidence that at times molecular ions in the 28-32 amu mass range are dominant over atomic mass species thus yielding evidence for a transport mechanism that reaches into the lower ionosphere. Analysis of plasma analyzer (OPA) observations at this time indicates the presence of ions measured in the rest frame of the spacecraft at approximately 27 and 37 volt energy per unit charge steps. In the rest frame of the planet these superthermal ions are flowing from the dawn direction at speeds (assuming they are O2(+)) of approximately 8 km/s and with a flow component downward (perpendicular to the ecliptic plane) at speeds of approximately 2 km/s. OPA analyses also determine the ion number flux, energy, flow angles, and angular distributions. Plasma wave bursts appear to indicate that plasma density decreases within and on the equatorward edge of the patch of enhanced plasma densities are associated with ion acoustic waves and relative ion streaming.

  8. Simulation of ion beam transport through the 400 Kv ion implanter at Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naab, F. U.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S.

    2013-04-01

    The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory houses a 400 kV ion implanter. An application that simulates the ion beam trajectories through the implanter from the ion source to the target was developed using the SIMION® code. The goals were to have a tool to develop an intuitive understanding of abstract physics phenomena and diagnose ion trajectories. Using this application, new implanter users of different fields in science quickly understand how the machine works and quickly learn to operate it. In this article we describe the implanter simulation application and compare the parameters of the implanter components obtained from the simulations with the measured ones. The overall agreement between the simulated and measured values of magnetic fields and electric potentials is ˜10%.

  9. An Improved Green's Function for Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, J.; Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for the high charge and energy (HZE) by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions.

  10. Asymmetric ion transport through ion-channel-mimetic solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-12-17

    Both scientists and engineers are interested in the design and fabrication of synthetic nanofluidic architectures that mimic the gating functions of biological ion channels. The effort to build such structures requires interdisciplinary efforts at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology. Biological ion channels and synthetic nanofluidic devices have some structural and chemical similarities, and therefore, they share some common features in regulating the traverse ionic flow. In the past decade, researchers have identified two asymmetric ion transport phenomena in synthetic nanofluidic structures, the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. The rectified ionic current is a diode-like current-voltage response that occurs when switching the voltage bias. This phenomenon indicates a preferential direction of transport in the nanofluidic system. The net diffusion current occurs as a direct product of charge selectivity and is generated from the asymmetric diffusion through charged nanofluidic channels. These new ion transport phenomena and the elaborate structures that occur in biology have inspired us to build functional nanofluidic devices for both fundamental research and practical applications. In this Account, we review our recent progress in the design and fabrication of biomimetic solid-state nanofluidic devices with asymmetric ion transport behavior. We demonstrate the origin of the rectified ionic current and the net diffusion current. We also identify several influential factors and discuss how to build these asymmetric features into nanofluidic systems by controlling (1) nanopore geometry, (2) surface charge distribution, (3) chemical composition, (4) channel wall wettability, (5) environmental pH, (6) electrolyte concentration gradient, and (7) ion mobility. In the case of the first four features, we build these asymmetric features directly into the nanofluidic structures. With the final three, we construct

  11. Ion transport and softening in a polymerized ionic liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronika; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Minutolo, Joseph A.; Sangoro, Joshua R.; et al

    2014-11-13

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this paper, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach. Experimental data for the kinetics of charging and steady state current–voltage relations can be explained by taking into account the dissociation of ions under an applied electric field (known as themore » Wien effect). Onsager's theory of the Wien effect coupled with the Poisson–Nernst–Planck formalism for the charge transport is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The agreement between the theory and experiments allows us to predict structural properties of the PolyIL films. We have observed significant softening of the PolyIL films beyond certain threshold voltages and formation of holes under a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tip, through which an electric field was applied. Finally, the observed softening is explained by the theory of depression in glass transition temperature resulting from enhanced dissociation of ions with an increase in applied electric field.« less

  12. Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riz, D.; Paméla, J.

    1996-07-01

    NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H-/H+) and charge exchanges (H-/H0). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter.

  13. Osmoregulation in zebrafish: ion transport mechanisms and functional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Guh, Ying-Jey; Lin, Chia-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2015-01-01

    Fish, like mammals, have to maintain their body fluid ionic and osmotic homeostasis through sophisticated iono-/osmoregulation mechanisms, which are conducted mainly by ionocytes of the gill (the skin in embryonic stages), instead of the renal tubular cells in mammals. Given the advantages in terms of genetic database availability and manipulation, zebrafish is an emerging model for research into regulatory and integrative physiology. At least five types of ionocytes, HR, NaR, NCC, SLC26, and KS cells, have been identified to carry out Na+ uptake/H+ secretion/NH4+ excretion, Ca2+ uptake, Na+/Cl- uptake, K+ secretion, and Cl- uptake/HCO3- secretion, respectively, through distinct sets of transporters. Several hormones, namely isotocin, prolactin, cortisol, stanniocalcin-1, calcitonin, endothelin-1, vitamin D, parathyorid hormone 1, catecholamines, and the renin-angiotensin-system, have been demonstrated to positively or negatively regulate ion transport through specific receptors at different ionocytes stages, at either the transcriptional/translational or posttranslational level. The knowledge obtained using zebrafish answered many long-term contentious or unknown issues in the field of fish iono-/osmoregulation. The homology of ion transport pathways and hormone systems also means that the zebrafish model informs studies on mammals or other animal species, thereby providing insights into related fields. PMID:26600749

  14. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  15. Ion transport and softening in a polymerized ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronika; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Minutolo, Joseph A.; Sangoro, Joshua R.; Agapov, Alexander L.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2014-11-13

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this paper, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach. Experimental data for the kinetics of charging and steady state current–voltage relations can be explained by taking into account the dissociation of ions under an applied electric field (known as the Wien effect). Onsager's theory of the Wien effect coupled with the Poisson–Nernst–Planck formalism for the charge transport is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The agreement between the theory and experiments allows us to predict structural properties of the PolyIL films. We have observed significant softening of the PolyIL films beyond certain threshold voltages and formation of holes under a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tip, through which an electric field was applied. Finally, the observed softening is explained by the theory of depression in glass transition temperature resulting from enhanced dissociation of ions with an increase in applied electric field.

  16. Collisional bulk ion transport and poloidal rotation driven by neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, Sarah L.; Helander, Per; Catto, Peter J.

    2007-06-15

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) is known to significantly affect radial transport in a tokamak plasma. Furthermore, recent observations have shown poloidal velocities, in the presence of NBI, significantly in excess of the standard neoclassical value. Motivated by this, the additional collisional radial bulk ion fluxes of particles, heat and toroidal angular momentum, and the poloidal velocity, driven by fast ions from NBI have been evaluated for a low-collisionality, pure plasma, with strong toroidal rotation and arbitrary aspect ratio. Higher order velocity space structure of the fast ion distribution function can be significant, whilst the effects of toroidal acceleration caused by strong NBI dominate at large aspect ratio. The driven poloidal velocity depends strongly on system parameters, becoming larger at higher beam density and lower beam energy.

  17. Energetic O+ and H+ Ions in the Plasma Sheet: Implications for the Transport of Ionospheric Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohtani, S.; Nose, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    The present study statistically examines the characteristics of energetic ions in the plasma sheet using the Geotail/Energetic Particle and Ion Composition data. An emphasis is placed on the O+ ions, and the characteristics of the H+ ions are used as references. The following is a summary of the results. (1) The average O+ energy is lower during solar maximum and higher during solar minimum. A similar tendency is also found for the average H+ energy, but only for geomagnetically active times; (2) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities are several times higher during solar maximum than during solar minimum; (3) The average H+ and O+ energies and the O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities all increase with geomagnetic activity. The differences among different solar phases not only persist but also increase with increasing geomagnetic activity; (4) Whereas the average H+ energy increases toward Earth, the average O+ energy decreases toward Earth. The average energy increases toward dusk for both the H+ and O+ ions; (5) The O+ -to -H+ ratios of number and energy densities increase toward Earth during all solar phases, but most clearly during solar maximum. These results suggest that the solar illumination enhances the ionospheric outflow more effectively with increasing geomagnetic activity and that a significant portion of the O+ ions is transported directly from the ionosphere to the near ]Earth region rather than through the distant tail.

  18. 8 GeV H- ions: Transport and injection

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Bryant, H.; Drozhdin, A.; Hill, C.; Kostin, M.; Macek, R.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Rees, G.H.; Tang, Z.; Yoon, P.; /Fermilab /New Mexico U. /Los Alamos /Rutherford /Rochester U.

    2005-05-01

    Fermilab is working on the design of an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac called the Proton Driver. The energy of H{sup -} beam will be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This brings up a number of technical challenges to transport and injection of H{sup -} ions. This paper will focus on the subjects of stripping losses (including stripping by blackbody radiation, field and residual gas) and carbon foil stripping efficiency, along with a brief discussion on other issues such as Stark states lifetime of hydrogen atoms, single and multiple Coulomb scattering, foil heating and stress, radiation activation, collimation and jitter correction, etc.

  19. Ion plateau transport near the tokamak magnetic axis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-04-01

    Conventional neoclassical transport theory does not pertain near the magnetic axis, where orbital variation of the minor radius and the poloidal field markedly change the nature of guiding-center trajectories. Instead of the conventional tokamak banana-shaped trajectories, near-axis orbits, called potato orbits, are radially wider and lead to distinctive kinetic considerations. Here it is shown that there is a plateau regime for the near-axis case; the corresponding potato-plateau ion thermal conductivity is computed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Tau phosphorylation affects its axonal transport and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Teresa; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Noble, Wendy; Nyenya, Fanon; Anderton, Brian H.; Hanger, Diane P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated forms of microtubule-associated protein tau accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the effects of specific phosphorylated tau residues on its function, wild type or phosphomutant tau was expressed in cells. Elevated tau phosphorylation decreased its microtubule binding and bundling, and increased the number of motile tau particles, without affecting axonal transport kinetics. In contrast, reducing tau phosphorylation enhanced the amount of tau bound to microtubules and inhibited axonal transport of tau. To determine whether differential tau clearance is responsible for the increase in phosphomimic tau, we inhibited autophagy in neurons which resulted in a 3-fold accumulation of phosphomimic tau compared with wild type tau, and endogenous tau was unaffected. In autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but not in neurons, proteasomal degradation of phosphomutant tau was also reduced compared with wild type tau. Therefore, autophagic and proteasomal pathways are involved in tau degradation, with autophagy appearing to be the primary route for clearing phosphorylated tau in neurons. Defective autophagy might contribute to the accumulaton of tau in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23601672

  1. Nanoionics: ion transport and electrochemical storage in confined systems.

    PubMed

    Maier, J

    2005-11-01

    The past two decades have shown that the exploration of properties on the nanoscale can lead to substantially new insights regarding fundamental issues, but also to novel technological perspectives. Simultaneously it became so fashionable to decorate activities with the prefix 'nano' that it has become devalued through overuse. Regardless of fashion and prejudice, this article shows that the crystallizing field of 'nanoionics' bears the conceptual and technological potential that justifies comparison with the well-acknowledged area of nanoelectronics. Demonstrating this potential implies both emphasizing the indispensability of electrochemical devices that rely on ion transport and complement the world of electronics, and working out the drastic impact of interfaces and size effects on mass transfer, transport and storage. The benefits for technology are expected to lie essentially in the field of room-temperature devices, and in particular in artificial self-sustaining structures to which both nanoelectronics and nanoionics might contribute synergistically. PMID:16379070

  2. Ion radial transport induced by ICRF waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Vaclavik, J.; Hammett, G.W.

    1987-05-01

    The wave-induced fluxes of energetic-trapped ions during ICRF heating of tokamak plasmas are calculated using quasilinear equations. A simple single particle model of this transport mechanism is also given. Both a convective flux proportional to k/sub phi/vertical bar E/sub +/vertical bar/sup 2/ and a diffusive flux proportional to k/sub phi//sup 2/vertical bar E/sub +/vertical bar/sup 2/ are found. Here, k/sub phi/ is the toroidal wave number and E/sub +/ is the left-hand polarized wave field. The convective flux may become significant for large k/sub phi/ if the wave spectrum is asymmetric in k/sub phi/. But for the conditions of most previous experiments, these calculations indicate that radial transport driven directly by the ICRF wave is unimportant.

  3. Simulated kinetic effects of the corona and solar cycle on high altitude ion transport at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, S. M.; Liemohn, M.; Fang, X.; Brain, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-06-01

    We present results from the Mars Test Particle (MTP) simulation as part of a community‒wide model comparison in order to quantify the role of different neutral atmospheric conditions in planetary ion transport and escape. This study examines the effects of individual ion motion by simulating particle trajectories for three cases: solar minimum without the neutral corona, solar minimum with the inclusion of the neutral corona, and solar maximum with the inclusion of the neutral corona. The MTP simulates 1.5 billion test particles through background electric and magnetic fields computed by a global magnetohydrodynamic model. By implementing virtual detectors in the simulation, the MTP has generated velocity space distributions of pickup ions and quantifies the ion acceleration at different spatial locations. The study found that the inclusion of a hot neutral corona greatly affects the total O+ production and subsequent loss, roughly doubling the total escape for solar minimum conditions and directly contributing to high energy sources above 10 keV. The solar cycle influences the amount of O+ flux observed by the virtual detectors, increasing the O+ flux and total escape by an order of magnitude from solar minimum to maximum. Additionally, solar maximum case induces greater mass loading of the magnetic fields, which decreases the gyroradius of the ions and redirects a significant ion population downtail to subsequently escape.

  4. Ion Transport in Isolated Protoplasts from Tobacco Suspension Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Irvin J.; Leonard, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the feasibility of using enzymically isolated protoplasts from suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana glutinosa L. to study ion transport. Transport of K+ (86Rb), 36Cl−, H232PO4− and 45Ca2+ from 1 millimolar salt solutions was determined after separation of intact protoplasts from nonabsorbed tracers by centrifugation through a Ficoll step gradient. Influx of K+, Cl−, and H2PO4− measured over a 30-minute period was reduced (up to 99%) by respiratory inhibitors such as 5 micrograms per milliliter oligomycin, 0.1 millimolar dinitrophenol, 0.1 millimolar cyanide, or N2 gas. In contrast, Ca2+ influx was not tightly coupled to respiratory energy production. The influx of K+ was highest between pH 6.5 and 7.5 whereas the influx of H2PO4− and Cl− was greatest between pH 4.5 and 5.5. Influx of K+ and Cl− was maximal at 35 and 45 C, respectively, and was almost completely inhibited below 10 C. Fusicoccin (0.01 millimolar) stimulated K+ influx by more than 200% but had no effect on the influx of either Cl− or H2PO4−. Apparent H+ efflux, as measured by decrease in solution pH, was enhanced by K+, stimulated further by 0.01 millimolar fusicoccin, and inhibited by 0.1 millimolar dinitrophenol or 5 micrograms per milliliter oligomycin. The measured ionic fluxes into protoplasts were similar to those obtained with intact cultured cells. The results indicate that enzymic removal of the cell wall produced no significant alteration in the transport properties of the protoplast, and that it is feasible to use isolated protoplasts for studies on ion transport. Images PMID:16660675

  5. Ion transport and softening in a polymerized ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bocharova, Vera; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Berdzinski, Stefan; Strehmel, Veronika; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Minutolo, Joseph A.; Sangoro, Joshua R.; Agapov, Alexander L.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2014-12-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this work, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach. Experimental data for the kinetics of charging and steady state current-voltage relations can be explained by taking into account the dissociation of ions under an applied electric field (known as the Wien effect). Onsager's theory of the Wien effect coupled with the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism for the charge transport is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The agreement between the theory and experiments allows us to predict structural properties of the PolyIL films. We have observed significant softening of the PolyIL films beyond certain threshold voltages and formation of holes under a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tip, through which an electric field was applied. The observed softening is explained by the theory of depression in glass transition temperature resulting from enhanced dissociation of ions with an increase in applied electric field.Polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs) are promising materials for various solid state electronic applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, lithium batteries, actuators, field-effect transistors, light emitting electrochemical cells, and electrochromic devices. However, fundamental understanding of interconnection between ionic transport and mechanical properties in PolyILs is far from complete. In this work, local charge transport and structural changes in films of a PolyIL are studied using an integrated experiment-theory based approach

  6. Solute transport with equilibrium aqueous complexation and either sorption or ion exchange: Simulation methodology and applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, F.M.; Voss, C.I.; Rubin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Methodologies that account for specific types of chemical reactions in the simulation of solute transport can be developed so they are compatible with solution algorithms employed in existing transport codes. This enables the simulation of reactive transport in complex multidimensional flow regimes, and provides a means for existing codes to account for some of the fundamental chemical processes that occur among transported solutes. Two equilibrium-controlled reaction systems demonstrate a methodology for accommodating chemical interaction into models of solute transport. One system involves the sorption of a given chemical species, as well as two aqueous complexations in which the sorbing species is a participant. The other reaction set involves binary ion exchange coupled with aqueous complexation involving one of the exchanging species. The methodology accommodates these reaction systems through the addition of nonlinear terms to the transport equations for the sorbing species. Example simulation results show (1) the effect equilibrium chemical parameters have on the spatial distributions of concentration for complexing solutes; (2) that an interrelationship exists between mechanical dispersion and the various reaction processes; (3) that dispersive parameters of the porous media cannot be determined from reactive concentration distributions unless the reaction is accounted for or the influence of the reaction is negligible; (4) how the concentration of a chemical species may be significantly affected by its participation in an aqueous complex with a second species which also sorbs; and (5) that these coupled chemical processes influencing reactive transport can be demonstrated in two-dimensional flow regimes. ?? 1987.

  7. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  8. Modeling Fast Ion Transport in TAE Avalanches in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E D; Bell, R E; Darrow, D; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G; Kubota, S; Levinton, F M; Liu, D; Medley, S S; Podesta, M; Tritz, K

    2009-08-17

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557 ] have found strong bursts of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) activity correlated with abrupt drops in the neutron rate. A fairly complete data set offers the opportunity to benchmark the NOVA [C. Z. Cheng, Phys. Reports 211, 1-51 (1992)] and ORBIT [R. B. White and M. S. Chance, Phys. Fluids 27, 2455 (1984)] codes in the low aspect ratio tokamak (ST) geometry. The internal structure of TAE were modeled with NOVA and good agreement is found with measurements made with an array of five fixed-frequency reflectometers. The fast-ion transport resulting from these bursts of multiple TAE were then modeled with the ORBIT code. The simulations are reasonably consistent with the observed drop in neutron rate. While these results represent our best attempts to find agreement, we believe that further refinements in both the simulation of the TAE structure and in the modeling of the fast ion transport are needed. Benchmarking stability codes against present experiments is an important step in developing the predictive capability needed to plan future experiments.

  9. Investigation of nonthermal particle effects on ionization dynamics in high current density ion beam transport experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, H. K.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Wang, P.; Moses, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Olson, C. L.; Welch, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Light ion inertial fusion experiments require the presence of a moderate density background gas in the transport region to provide charge and current neutralization for a high current density ion beam. In this article, we investigate the effects of nonthermal particles such as beam ions or non-Maxwellian electron distributions on the ionization dynamics of the background gas. In particular, we focus on the case of Li beams being transported in an argon gas. Nonthermal particles as well as thermal electrons are included in time-dependent collisional-radiative calculations to determine time-dependent atomic level populations and charge state distributions in a beam-produced plasma. We also briefly discuss the effects of beam ions and energetic electrons on the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral regions. It is found that the mean charge state of the gas, and hence the electron density, is significantly increased by collisions with energetic particles. This higher ionization significantly impacts the VUV spectral region, where numerous resonance lines occur. On the other hand, the visible spectrum tends to be less affected because the closely spaced excited states are populated by lower energy thermal electrons.

  10. Cross Sections and Transport Properties of BR- Ions in AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Raspopovic, Zoran; Petrovic, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    We have used a combination of a simple semi-analytic theory - Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT) and exact Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to develop Br- in Ar momentum transfer cross section based on the available data for reduced mobility at the temperature T = 300 K over the range 10 Td <= E / N <= 300 Td. At very low energies, we have extrapolated obtained cross sections towards Langevin's cross section. Also, we have extrapolated data to somewhat higher energies based on behavior of similar ions in similar gases and by the addition of the total detachment cross section that was used from the threshold around 7.7 eV. Relatively complete set was derived which can be used in modeling of plasmas by both hybrid, particle in cell (PIC) and fluid codes. A good agreement between calculated and measured ion mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients is an independent proof of the validity of the cross sections that were derived for the negative ion mobility data. In addition to transport coefficients we have also calculated the net rate coefficients of elastic scattering and detachment. Author acknowledge Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Proj. Nos. 171037 and 410011.

  11. The ion transport mechanism of lithium polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongli

    Lithium polymer electrolytes are of great interest for use in polymer-electrolyte rechargeable batteries. However, the lithium transport mechanism in the polymer electrolyte has not been fully understood, due partly to the lack of a means to characterize a key lithium transport property, the transference number, correctly and efficiently. This research pioneered the use of the electrophoretic nuclear magnetic resonance technique to measure the lithium transference number (TsbLi) of polymer electrolytes. The development of this technique is described. It is shown that the technique is strictly valid regardless of the degree of dissociation of the electrolyte and the measurement protocol is relatively straightforward. As a result, the accuracy of the technique is high compared to existing techniques. The lithium transport mechanism in polymer gel electrolytes are investigated systematically with complementary techniques including vibrational spectroscopy (Raman scattering), nuclear magnetic resonance, and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. The characteristic lithium transport behavior as a function of the temperature, the salt concentration, the anion type, and the polymer matrices is established. Perfluoroimide and perfluoromethide lithium salts always lead to a larger lithium transference number compared to conventional lithium salts. In poly(vinylidene fluororide-hexfloropropylene) based gel electrolytes, the perfluoroimide anion, (CFsb3SOsb3)sb2Nsp-, results in a nearly invariant TsbLi over a wide salt concentration range. In contrast, the CFsb3SOsb3sp- anion results in TsbLi decreasing monotonically with increasing salt concentration. In poly(acrylonitrile), which binds with Lisp+, the TsbLi versus LiCFsb3SOsb3 concentration curve is nearly parabolic. A qualitative model is proposed which defines the important molecular interactions underlying the lithium transport behavior and extends the Fuoss and Onsager theory to systems with extensive ion complexation.

  12. Identification of intestinal ion transport defects in microvillus inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, Dmitri V; Ahsan, Md Kaimul; Kumari, Vandana; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D; Reyes-Mugica, Miguel; Kumar, Anoop; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Ameen, Nadia A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of function mutations in the actin motor myosin Vb (Myo5b) lead to microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) and death in newborns and children. MVID results in secretory diarrhea, brush border (BB) defects, villus atrophy, and microvillus inclusions (MVIs) in enterocytes. How loss of Myo5b results in increased stool loss of chloride (Cl(-)) and sodium (Na(+)) is unknown. The present study used Myo5b loss-of-function human MVID intestine, polarized intestinal cell models of secretory crypt (T84) and villus resembling (CaCo2BBe, C2BBe) enterocytes lacking Myo5b in conjunction with immunofluorescence confocal stimulated emission depletion (gSTED) imaging, immunohistochemical staining, transmission electron microscopy, shRNA silencing, immunoblots, and electrophysiological approaches to examine the distribution, expression, and function of the major BB ion transporters NHE3 (Na(+)), CFTR (Cl(-)), and SLC26A3 (DRA) (Cl(-)/HCO3 (-)) that control intestinal fluid transport. We hypothesized that enterocyte maturation defects lead villus atrophy with immature secretory cryptlike enterocytes in the MVID epithelium. We investigated the role of Myo5b in enterocyte maturation. NHE3 and DRA localization and function were markedly reduced on the BB membrane of human MVID enterocytes and Myo5bKD C2BBe cells, while CFTR localization was preserved. Forskolin-stimulated CFTR ion transport in Myo5bKD T84 cells resembled that of control. Loss of Myo5b led to YAP1 nuclear retention, retarded enterocyte maturation, and a cryptlike phenotype. We conclude that preservation of functional CFTR in immature enterocytes, reduced functional expression of NHE3, and DRA contribute to Cl(-) and Na(+) stool loss in MVID diarrhea. PMID:27229121

  13. Radiation protection considerations along a radioactive ion beam transport line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarchiapone, Lucia; Zafiropoulos, Demetre

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the SPES project is to produce accelerated radioactive ion beams for Physics studies at “Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro” (INFN, Italy). This accelerator complex is scheduled to be built by 2016 for an effective operation in 2017. Radioactive species are produced in a uranium carbide target, by the interaction of 200 μA of protons at 40 MeV. All of the ionized species in the 1+ state come out of the target (ISOL method), and pass through a Wien filter for a first selection and an HMRS (high mass resolution spectrometer). Then they are transported by an electrostatic beam line toward a charge state breeder (where the 1+ to n+ multi-ionization takes place) before selection and reacceleration at the already existing superconducting linac. The work concerning dose evaluations, activation calculation, and radiation protection constraints related to the transport of the radioactive ion beam (RIB) from the target to the mass separator will be described in this paper. The FLUKA code has been used as tool for those calculations needing Monte Carlo simulations, in particular for the evaluation of the dose rate due to the presence of the radioactive beam in the selection/interaction points. The time evolution of a radionuclide inventory can be computed online with FLUKA for arbitrary irradiation profiles and decay times. The activity evolution is analytically evaluated through the implementation of the Bateman equations. Furthermore, the generation and transport of decay radiation (limited to gamma, beta- and beta+ emissions) is possible, referring to a dedicated database of decay emissions using mostly information obtained from NNDC, sometimes supplemented with other data and checked for consistency. When the use of Monte Carlo simulations was not feasible, the Bateman equations, or possible simplifications, have been used directly.

  14. Neoclassical transport of energetic minority tail ions generated by ion-cyclotron resonance heating in tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.S. . Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences); Hammett, G.W.; Goldston, R.J. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Neoclassical transport of energetic minority tail ions, which are generated by high powered electromagnetic waves of the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) at the fundamental harmonic resonance, is studied analytically in tokamak geometry. The effect of Coulomb collisions on the tail ion transport is investigated in the present work. The total tail ion transport will be the sum of the present collision-driven transport and the wave-driven transport, which is due to the ICRF-wave scattering of the tail particles as reported in the literature. The transport coefficients have been calculated kinetically, and it is found that the large tail ion viscosity, driven by the localized ICRF-heating and Coulomb slowing-down collisions, induces purely convective particle transport of the tail species, while the energy transport is both convective and diffusive. The rate of radial particle transport is shown to be usually small, but the rate of radial energy transport is larger and may not be negligible compared to the Coulomb slowing-down rate. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Modulation Effects of Curcumin on Erythrocyte Ion-Transporter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhakar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), the yellow biphenolic pigment isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has various medicinal benefits through antioxidation, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular protection, immunomodulation, enhancing of the apoptotic process, and antiangiogenic property. We explored the effects of curcumin in vitro (10−5 M to 10−8 M) and in vivo (340 and 170 mg/kg b.w., oral) on Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA), Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity, and membrane lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH) in control and experimental oxidative stress erythrocytes of Wistar rats. As a result, we found that curcumin potently modulated the membrane transporters activity with protecting membrane lipids against hydro-peroxidation in control as well as oxidatively challenged erythrocytes evidenced by stimulation of NKA, downregulation of NHE, and reduction of ROOH in the membrane. The observed results corroborate membrane transporters activity with susceptibility of erythrocyte membrane towards oxidative damage. Results explain the protective mechanism of curcumin against oxidative stress mediated impairment in ions-transporters activity and health beneficial effects. PMID:26421014

  16. Transport of silver(I) ion through a supported liquid membrane using bathocuproine as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi

    1998-04-01

    The active transport of silver ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing bathocuproine (4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) as a carrier was investigated under various experimental conditions. The magnitude of the permeation velocity of metallic ions through the SLM was in the order Ag{sup +} > Cd{sup 2+} {much_gt} Zn{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} when nitrite ion was used as the pairing ion species that is cotransported with metallic ion. The permeation velocity of silver(I) ions through an SLM was dependent on the concentrations of the silver ion, bathocuproine, and nitrite ion. An equation for the transport of silver ions, consisting of three important factors, i.e., the concentrations of metallic ion, carrier, and pairing ion species, was derived.

  17. Polaronic Transport in Phosphate Glasses Containing Transition Metal Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Mark

    The goal of this dissertation is to characterize the basic transport properties of phosphate glasses containing various amounts of TIs and to identify and explain any electronic phase transitions which may occur. The P2 O5-V2O5-WO3 (PVW) glass system will be analyzed to find the effect of TI concentration on conduction. In addition, the effect of the relative concentrations of network forming ions (SiO2 and P2O5) on transport will be studied in the P2O5-SiO2-Fe2O 3 (PSF) system. Also presented is a numerical study on a tight-binding model adapted for the purposes of modelling Gaussian traps, mimicking TI's, which are arranged in an extended network. The results of this project will contribute to the development of fundamental theories on the electronic transport in glasses containing mixtures of transition oxides as well as those containing multiple network formers without discernible phase separation. The present study on the PVW follows up on previous investigation into the effect on mixed transition ions in oxide glasses. Past research has focused on glasses containing transition metal ions from the 3d row. The inclusion of tungsten, a 5d transition metal, adds a layer of complexity through the mismatch of the energies of the orbitals contributing to localized states. The data have indicated that a transition reminiscent of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs in this system as the concentration of tungsten increases. As opposed to some other MIT-like transitions found in phosphate glass systems, there seems to be no polaron to bipolaron conversion. Instead, the individual localization parameter for tungsten noticeably decreases dramatically at the transition point as well as the adiabaticity. Another distinctive feature of this project is the study of the PSF system, which contains two true network formers, phosphorous pentoxide (P2O 5) and silicon dioxide (SiO2). It is not usually possible to do a reliable investigation of the conduction properties of

  18. Seismic reflection characteristics of naturally-induced subsidence affecting transportation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflections have been used effectively to investigate sinkholes formed from the dissolution of a bedded salt unit found throughout most of Central Kansas. Surface subsidence can have devastating effects on transportation structures. Roads, rails, bridges, and pipelines can even be dramatically affected by minor ground instability. Areas susceptible to surface subsidence can put public safety at risk. Subsurface expressions significantly larger than surface depressions are consistently observed on seismic images recorded over sinkholes in Kansas. Until subsidence reaches the ground surface, failure appears to be controlled by compressional forces evidenced by faults with reverse orientation. Once a surface depression forms or dissolution of the salt slows or stops, subsidence structures are consistent with a tensional stress environment with prevalent normal faults. Detecting areas of rapid subsidence potential, prior to surface failure, is the ultimate goal of any geotechnical survey where the ground surface is susceptible to settling. Seismic reflection images have helped correlate active subsidence to dormant paleofeatures, project horizontal growth of active sinkholes based on subsurface structures, and appraise the risk of catastrophic failure. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  19. A parallel finite element simulator for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Chen, Minxin; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Linbo; Eisenberg, Bob; Lu, Benzhuo

    2013-09-15

    A parallel finite element simulator, ichannel, is developed for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems that consist of protein and membrane. The coordinates of heavy atoms of the protein are taken from the Protein Data Bank and the membrane is represented as a slab. The simulator contains two components: a parallel adaptive finite element solver for a set of Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations that describe the electrodiffusion process of ion transport, and a mesh generation tool chain for ion channel systems, which is an essential component for the finite element computations. The finite element method has advantages in modeling irregular geometries and complex boundary conditions. We have built a tool chain to get the surface and volume mesh for ion channel systems, which consists of a set of mesh generation tools. The adaptive finite element solver in our simulator is implemented using the parallel adaptive finite element package Parallel Hierarchical Grid (PHG) developed by one of the authors, which provides the capability of doing large scale parallel computations with high parallel efficiency and the flexibility of choosing high order elements to achieve high order accuracy. The simulator is applied to a real transmembrane protein, the gramicidin A (gA) channel protein, to calculate the electrostatic potential, ion concentrations and I - V curve, with which both primitive and transformed PNP equations are studied and their numerical performances are compared. To further validate the method, we also apply the simulator to two other ion channel systems, the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and α-Hemolysin (α-HL). The simulation results agree well with Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation results and experimental results. Moreover, because ionic finite size effects can be included in PNP model now, we also perform simulations using a size-modified PNP (SMPNP) model on VDAC and α-HL. It is shown that the size effects in SMPNP can

  20. Conducting polymers as ion transport and solid electrolyte materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmat Gonzalez, Fernando Enrique

    1997-12-01

    The structure-property relationships in a series of poly (1,4-bis(2-heterocycle)-p-phenylenes) (PBHPs) and poly (3,12-bis(2-heterocycle)-p-dialkylfluorenes) (PBHDFs) as well as the use of polypyrrole (PPy) as solid electrolyte for tantalum capacitors have been investigated. PBHPs, where the heterocycle is thiophene or pyrrole, and PBHDFs, where the heterocycle is thiophene or ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), were synthesized electrochemically and their electrochemical properties studied using cyclic voltammetry. The ion transport characteristics of the polymers were investigated using the electrochemical quartz microbalance (EQCM) while the electronic properties of the polymers were studied using optoelectrochemical and in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/electrochemical techniques. The electrochemical and electronic properties of PBHPs and PBHDFs have been found to be highly dependent on the nature of the heterocycle and on the pendant side groups substituents. Alkoxy substitution on the phenylene rings results in a marked decrease in the monomer and polymer oxidation potentials and a decrease in the electronic band gap. Substitution with long-chain alkoxy groups results in the formation of stable paramagnetic charge carriers at intermediate doping levels. Also, metallic-like character was observed at high doping levels. The presence of electron-rich heterocycles (e.g., pyrrol, EDOT) as terminal electropolymerizable units on the multi-ring conjugated monomers leads to stabilization of the cation-radical intermediates allowing the electropolymerization to be carried out at low potentials. The ion transport behavior of these polymers under electrochemical switching was found to be anion dominant. PPy as solid electrolyte for tantalum capacitors was prepared using a combination of chemical and electrochemical methods, antraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQSsp-) was used as the dopant ion. The redox properties of PPy were studied by cyclic voltammetry while

  1. A New Poisson-Nernst-Planck Model with Ion-Water Interactions for Charge Transport in Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model with ion-water interactions for biological charge transport in ion channels. Due to narrow geometries of these membrane proteins, ion-water interaction is critical for both dielectric property of water molecules in channel pore and transport dynamics of mobile ions. We model the ion-water interaction energy based on realistic experimental observations in an efficient mean-field approach. Variation of a total energy functional of the biological system yields a new PNP-type continuum model. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model with ion-water interaction energy has the new features that quantitatively describe dielectric properties of water molecules in narrow pores and are possible to model the selectivity of some ion channels.

  2. A New Poisson-Nernst-Planck Model with Ion-Water Interactions for Charge Transport in Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model with ion-water interactions for biological charge transport in ion channels. Due to narrow geometries of these membrane proteins, ion-water interaction is critical for both dielectric property of water molecules in channel pore and transport dynamics of mobile ions. We model the ion-water interaction energy based on realistic experimental observations in an efficient mean-field approach. Variation of a total energy functional of the biological system yields a new PNP-type continuum model. Numerical simulations show that the proposed model with ion-water interaction energy has the new features that quantitatively describe dielectric properties of water molecules in narrow pores and are possible to model the selectivity of some ion channels. PMID:27480225

  3. Solenoidal Fields for Ion Beam Transport and Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward P.; Leitner, Matthaeus

    2007-11-01

    In this report we calculate time-independent fields of solenoidal magnets that are suitable for ion beam transport and focusing. There are many excellent Electricity and Magnetism textbooks that present the formalism for magnetic field calculations and apply it to simple geometries [1-1], but they do not include enough relevant detail to be used for designing a charged particle transport system. This requires accurate estimates of fringe field aberrations, misaligned and tilted fields, peak fields in wire coils and iron, external fields, and more. Specialized books on magnet design, technology, and numerical computations [1-2] provide such information, and some of that is presented here. The AIP Conference Proceedings of the US Particle Accelerator Schools [1-3] contain extensive discussions of design and technology of magnets for ion beams - except for solenoids. This lack may be due to the fact that solenoids have been used primarily to transport and focus particles of relatively low momenta, e.g. electrons of less than 50 MeV and protons or H- of less than 1.0 MeV, although this situation may be changing with the commercial availability of superconducting solenoids with up to 20T bore field [1-4]. Internal reports from federal laboratories and industry treat solenoid design in detail for specific applications. The present report is intended to be a resource for the design of ion beam drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy [1-5] and Warm Dense Matter experiments [1-6], although it should also be useful for a broader range of applications. The field produced by specified currents and material magnetization can always be evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations numerically, but it is also desirable to have reasonably accurate, simple formulas for conceptual system design and fast-running beam dynamics codes, as well as for general understanding. Most of this report is devoted to such formulas, but an introduction to the Tosca{copyright} code [1-7] and some numerical

  4. Novel aspects of cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Sandra; Diener, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic receptors are not only expressed by excitable tissues, but have been identified in various epithelia. One aim of this study was to investigate the expression of nicotinic receptors and their involvement in the regulation of ion transport across colonic epithelium. Ussing chamber experiments with putative nicotinic agonists and antagonists were performed at rat colon combined with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of nicotinic receptor subunits within the epithelium. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) and nicotine induced a tetrodotoxin-resistant anion secretion leading to an increase in short-circuit current (Isc) across colonic mucosa. The response was suppressed by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium. RT-PCR experiments revealed the expression of α2, α4, α5, α6, α7, α10, and β4 nicotinic receptor subunits in colonic epithelium. Choline, the product of acetylcholine hydrolysis, is known for its affinity to several nicotinic receptor subtypes. As a strong acetylcholinesterase activity was found in colonic epithelium, the effect of choline on Isc was examined. Choline induced a concentration-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant chloride secretion which was, however, resistant against hexamethonium, but was inhibited by atropine. Experiments with inhibitors of muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors revealed that choline-evoked secretion was mainly due to a stimulation of epithelial M3 receptors. Although choline proved to be only a partial agonist, it concentration-dependently desensitized the response to acetylcholine, suggesting that it might act as a modulator of cholinergically induced anion secretion. Thus the cholinergic regulation of colonic ion transport – up to now solely explained by cholinergic submucosal neurons stimulating epithelial muscarinic receptors – is more complex than previously assumed. PMID:26236483

  5. Crystal Structure of a Potassium Ion Transporter TrkH

    SciTech Connect

    Y Cao; X Jin; H Huang; M Getahun Derebe; E Levin; V Kabaleeswaran; Y Pan; M Punta; J Love; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The TrkH/TrkG/KtrB proteins mediate K{sup +} uptake in bacteria and probably evolved from simple K{sup +} channels by multiple gene duplications or fusions. Here we present the crystal structure of a TrkH from Vibrio parahaemolyticus. TrkH is a homodimer, and each protomer contains an ion permeation pathway. A selectivity filter, similar in architecture to those of K{sup +} channels but significantly shorter, is lined by backbone and side-chain oxygen atoms. Functional studies showed that TrkH is selective for permeation of K{sup +} and Rb{sup +} over smaller ions such as Na{sup +} or Li{sup +}. Immediately intracellular to the selectivity filter are an intramembrane loop and an arginine residue, both highly conserved, which constrict the permeation pathway. Substituting the arginine with an alanine significantly increases the rate of K{sup +} flux. These results reveal the molecular basis of K{sup +} selectivity and suggest a novel gating mechanism for this large and important family of membrane transport proteins.

  6. Ion transport through a T-intersection of nanofluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi; Adachi, Takuma; Tatsumi, Naoya

    2008-08-01

    Ion transport through a T-intersection of two silica nanochannels (a main channel, 5-μm long and 30-nm wide, and a subchannel, 5-μm long and 15-nm wide) with a surface charge distribution was investigated based on continuum dynamics calculations. The surface charge within 250nm of the intersection in the main channel and the entire subchannel was positive and that in the main channel outside this intersection region was negative. This nanofluidic system is analogous to a p-n-p transistor. The calculation results revealed that, by adjusting the electric potentials at the ends of the nanochannels, the ionic current could be (1) cut off, (2) regulated in the main channel, (3) diverged into the main and subchannels, (4) turned from the main channel to the subchannel, and (5) merged into the subchannel. A series connection of this nanofluidic system can therefore be used in biotechnological applications for electrophoretic separation and for sorting of ions and biomolecules.

  7. Transport of cadmium(II) ion through a supported liquid membrane containing a bathocuproine

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi )

    1991-12-01

    The active transport of cadmium ions across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a ligand based on a driving force supplied by the concentration gradient of the chloride ion is described. The SLM used is a microporous polypropylene membrane impregnated with a bathocuproine (4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) solution in dibenzyl ether as a carrier. The characteristics of the cadmium ion transport system are examined under various experimental conditions. The active transport of cadmium ions through an SLM is dependent on the concentrations of the cadmium ion, ligand, and chloride ion. An equation for the permeation velocity of cadmium ions, consisting of three important factors for this transport system, is proposed.

  8. Controlling polymer translocation and ion transport via charge correlations.

    PubMed

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2014-11-01

    We develop a correlation-corrected transport theory in order to predict ionic and polymer transport properties of membrane nanopores under physical conditions where mean-field electrostatics breaks down. The experimentally observed low KCl conductivity of open α-hemolysin pores is quantitatively explained by the presence of surface polarization effects. Upon the penetration of a DNA molecule into the pore, these polarization forces combined with the electroneutrality of DNA sets a lower boundary for the ionic current, explaining the weak salt dependence of blocked pore conductivities at dilute ion concentrations. The addition of multivalent counterions to the solution results in the reversal of the polymer charge and the direction of the electroosmotic flow. With trivalent spermidine or quadrivalent spermine molecules, the charge inversion is strong enough to stop the translocation of the polymer and to reverse its motion. This mechanism can be used efficiently in translocation experiments in order to improve the accuracy of DNA sequencing by minimizing the translocation velocity of the polymer. PMID:25310861

  9. Effects of ozone on airway epithelial permeability and ion transport.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, P A; Ranga, V; Stutts, M J

    1991-12-01

    Ozone is a highly reactive form of oxygen produced in the atmosphere by photochemical reactions involving substrates emitted from automobile engines. Outdoor air concentrations as high as 0.4 parts per million (ppm) occur. The respiratory tract extracts about 90% of inhaled ozone. From the chemical reactivity of ozone, it is expected to attack organic molecules located on or near the respiratory surfaces. The airways are covered with a cohesive layer of epithelial cells that forms the boundary between the external environment and the respiratory tissues. One important role of this epithelial layer is its barrier function. Airborne particles that deposit (and dissolve) in the airway surface liquid are not readily absorbed, and soluble tissue components are excluded from the surface liquid. The epithelium also controls the volume and composition of the surface liquid. One important process in this regard is the absorption and secretion of ions and water. We have studied the effects of inhalation of ozone on the barrier function (permeability to dissolved molecules) and the ion transport activity of epithelium using both in vivo and in vitro techniques. All our experiments were performed with male Hartley strain guinea pigs. Conscious, unrestrained animals were exposed to a concentration of ozone of 1 ppm for three hours in controlled environmental chambers in the Health Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research Triangle Park, NC. Such exposures caused a marked increase in the rate of appearance in blood of various water-soluble compounds instilled onto the surface of the trachea, indicating increased permeability of the airway epithelium. This interpretation was supported by electron microscopy, which showed that the tracer molecule horseradish peroxidase was present in the intercellular spaces of tracheal epithelium from ozone-exposed, but not air-exposed (control), animals. However, when the tracheas were excised after ozone

  10. Nanoscale transport of electrons and ions in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Paul Christopher

    The following dissertation discusses the theoretical study of water on the nanoscale, often involved with essential biological molecules such as DNA and proteins. First I introduce the study of water on the nanoscale and how experimentalists approach confinement with nanopores and nanogaps. Then I discuss the theoretical method we choose for understanding this important biological medium on the molecular level, namely classical molecular dynamics. This leads into transport mechanisms that utilize water on the nanoscale, in our case electronic and ionic transport. On the scale of mere nanometers or less electronic transport in water enters the tunneling regime, requiring the use of a quantum treatment. In addition, I discuss the importance of water in ionic transport and its known effects on biological phenomena such as ion selectivity. Water also has great influence over DNA and proteins, which are both introduced in the context of nanopore sequencing. Several techniques for nanopore sequencing are examined and the importance of protein sequencing is explained. In Chapter 2, we study the effect of volumetric constraints on the structure and electronic transport properties of distilled water in a nanopore with embedded electrodes. Combining classical molecular dynamics simulations with quantum scattering theory, we show that the structural motifs water assumes inside the pore can be probed directly by tunneling. In Chapter 3, we propose an improvement to the original sequencing by tunneling method, in which N pairs of electrodes are built in series along a synthetic nanochannel. Each current time series for each nucleobase is cross-correlated together, reducing noise in the signals. We show using random sampling of data from classical molecular dynamics, that indeed the sequencing error is significantly reduced as the number of pairs of electrodes, N, increases. In Chapter 4, we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a

  11. Hydrogen peroxide affects ion channels in lily pollen grain protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Breygina, M A; Abramochkin, D V; Maksimov, N M; Yermakov, I P

    2016-09-01

    Ion homeostasis plays a central role in polarisation and polar growth. In several cell types ion channels are controlled by reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the most important cells in the plant life cycle is the male gametophyte, which grows under the tight control of both ion fluxes and ROS balance. The precise relationship between these two factors in pollen tubes has not been completely elucidated, and in pollen grains it has never been studied to date. In the present study we used a simple model - protoplasts obtained from lily pollen grains at the early germination stage - to reveal the effect of H2 O2 on cation fluxes crucial for pollen germination. Here we present direct evidence for two ROS-sensitive currents on the pollen grain plasma membrane: the hyperpolarisation-activated calcium current, which is strongly enhanced by H2 O2 , and the outward potassium current, which is modestly enhanced by H2 O2 . We used low concentrations of H2 O2 that do not cause an intracellular oxidative burst and do not damage cells, as demonstrated with fluorescent staining. PMID:27115728

  12. Physics of electron and lithium-ion transport in electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musheng, Wu; Bo, Xu; Chuying, Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    The physics of ionic and electrical conduction at electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are briefly summarized here, besides, we review the current research on ionic and electrical conduction in electrode material incorporating experimental and simulation studies. Commercial LIBs have been widely used in portable electronic devices and are now developed for large-scale applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and stationary distributed power stations. However, due to the physical limits of the materials, the overall performance of today’s LIBs does not meet all the requirements for future applications, and the transport problem has been one of the main barriers to further improvement. The electron and Li-ion transport behaviors are important in determining the rate capacity of LIBs. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11234013 and 11264014), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant Nos. 20133ACB21010 and 20142BAB212002), and the Foundation of Jiangxi Education Committee, China (Grant Nos. GJJ14254 and KJLD14024). C. Y. Ouyang is also supported by the “Gan-po talent 555” Project of Jiangxi Province, China.

  13. ZIPCO, a putative metal ion transporter, is crucial for Plasmodium liver-stage development

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Tejram; Boisson, Bertrand; Lacroix, Céline; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Richier, Quentin; Formaglio, Pauline; Thiberge, Sabine; Dobrescu, Irina; Ménard, Robert; Baldacci, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, requires iron for growth, but how it imports iron remains unknown. We characterize here a protein that belongs to the ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like Protein) family of metal ion transport proteins and have named ZIP domain-containing protein (ZIPCO). Inactivation of the ZIPCO-encoding gene in Plasmodium berghei, while not affecting the parasite's ability to multiply in mouse blood and to infect mosquitoes, greatly impairs its capacity to develop inside hepatocytes. Iron/zinc supplementation and depletion experiments suggest that ZIPCO is required for parasite utilization of iron and possibly zinc, consistent with its predicted function as a metal transporter. This is the first report of a ZIP protein having a crucial role in Plasmodium liver-stage development, as well as the first metal ion transporter identified in Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages. Because of the drastic dependence on iron of Plasmodium growth, ZIPCO and related proteins might constitute attractive drug targets to fight against malaria. PMID:25257508

  14. ZIPCO, a putative metal ion transporter, is crucial for Plasmodium liver-stage development.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Tejram; Boisson, Bertrand; Lacroix, Céline; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Richier, Quentin; Formaglio, Pauline; Thiberge, Sabine; Dobrescu, Irina; Ménard, Robert; Baldacci, Patricia

    2014-11-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, requires iron for growth, but how it imports iron remains unknown. We characterize here a protein that belongs to the ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like Protein) family of metal ion transport proteins and have named ZIP domain-containing protein (ZIPCO). Inactivation of the ZIPCO-encoding gene in Plasmodium berghei, while not affecting the parasite's ability to multiply in mouse blood and to infect mosquitoes, greatly impairs its capacity to develop inside hepatocytes. Iron/zinc supplementation and depletion experiments suggest that ZIPCO is required for parasite utilization of iron and possibly zinc, consistent with its predicted function as a metal transporter. This is the first report of a ZIP protein having a crucial role in Plasmodium liver-stage development, as well as the first metal ion transporter identified in Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages. Because of the drastic dependence on iron of Plasmodium growth, ZIPCO and related proteins might constitute attractive drug targets to fight against malaria. PMID:25257508

  15. TRANSPORTER POLYMORPHISMS AFFECT NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY, DISEASES, AND PHARMACOTHERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Sissung, Tristan M.; Troutman, Sarah M.; Campbell, Tessa J; Pressler, Heather M.; Sung, Hyeyoung; Bates, Susan E.; Figg, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Drug transporters mediate the movement of endobiotics and xenobiotics across biological membranes in multiple organs and in most tissues. As such, they are involved in physiology, development of disease, drug pharmacokinetics, and ultimately the clinical response to myriad medications. Genetic variants in transporters cause population-specific differences in drug transport and are responsible for considerable inter-individual variation in physiology and pharmacotherapy. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of how inherited variants in transporters are associated with disease etiology, disease state, and the pharmacological treatment of diseases. Given that there are thousands of published papers related to the interplay between transporter genetics and medicine, this review will provide examples that exemplify the broader focus of the literature. PMID:22284781

  16. Temperature-Dependent Water and Ion Transport Properties of Barley and Sorghum Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    BassiriRad, Hormoz; Radin, John W.; Matsuda, Kaoru

    1991-01-01

    Root temperature strongly affects shoot growth, possibly via “nonhydraulic messengers” from root to shoot. In short-term studies with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings, the optimum root temperatures for leaf expansion were 25° and 35°C, respectively. Hydraulic conductance (Lp) of both intact plants and detached exuding roots of barley increased with increasing root temperature to a high value at 25°C, remaining high with further warming. In sorghum, the Lp of intact plants and of detached roots peaked at 35°C. In both species, root temperature did not affect water potentials of the expanded leaf blade or the growing region despite marked changes in Lp. Extreme temperatures greatly decreased ion flux, particularly K+ and NO3−, to the xylem of detached roots of both species. Removing external K+ did not alter short-term K+ flux to the xylem in sorghum but strongly inhibited flux at high temperature in barley, indicating differences in the sites of temperature effects. Leaf growth responses to root temperature, although apparently “uncoupled” from water transport properties, were correlated with ion fluxes. Studies of putative root messengers must take into account the possible role of ions. PMID:16668404

  17. The importance of dehydration in determining ion transport in narrow pores.

    PubMed

    Richards, Laura A; Schäfer, Andrea I; Richards, Bryce S; Corry, Ben

    2012-06-11

    The transport of hydrated ions through narrow pores is important for a number of processes such as the desalination and filtration of water and the conductance of ions through biological channels. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to systematically examine the transport of anionic drinking water contaminants (fluoride, chloride, nitrate, and nitrite) through pores ranging in effective radius from 2.8 to 6.5 Å to elucidate the role of hydration in excluding these species during nanofiltration. Bulk hydration properties (hydrated size and coordination number) are determined for comparison with the situations inside the pores. Free energy profiles for ion transport through the pores show energy barriers depend on pore size, ion type, and membrane surface charge and that the selectivity sequence can change depending on the pore size. Ion coordination numbers along the trajectory showed that partial dehydration of the transported ion is the main contribution to the energy barriers. Ion transport is greatly hindered when the effective pore radius is smaller than the hydrated radius, as the ion has to lose some associated water molecules to enter the pore. Small energy barriers are still observed when pore sizes are larger than the hydrated radius due to re-orientation of the hydration shell or the loss of more distant water. These results demonstrate the importance of ion dehydration in transport through narrow pores, which increases the current level of mechanistic understanding of membrane-based desalination and transport in biological channels.

  18. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na+ and K+ concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and

  19. Quantitative description of ion transport via plasma membrane of yeast and small cells

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of ion transport via plasma membrane needs identification and quantitative understanding of the involved processes. Brief characterization of main ion transport systems of a yeast cell (Pma1, Ena1, TOK1, Nha1, Trk1, Trk2, non-selective cation conductance) and determining the exact number of molecules of each transporter per a typical cell allow us to predict the corresponding ion flows. In this review a comparison of ion transport in small yeast cell and several animal cell types is provided. The importance of cell volume to surface ratio is emphasized. The role of cell wall and lipid rafts is discussed in respect to required increase in spatial and temporary resolution of measurements. Conclusions are formulated to describe specific features of ion transport in a yeast cell. Potential directions of future research are outlined based on the assumptions. PMID:26113853

  20. Effects of ozone on airway epithelial permeability and ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, P.A.; Ranga, V.; Stutts, M.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Ozone is a highly reactive form of oxygen produced in the atmosphere by photochemical reactions involving substrates emitted from automobile engines. Outdoor air concentrations as high as 0.4 parts per million (ppm) occur. The respiratory tract extracts about 90% of inhaled ozone. From the chemical reactivity of ozone, it is expected to attack organic molecules located on or near the respiratory surfaces. The airways are covered with a cohesive layer of epithelial cells that forms the boundary between the external environment and the respiratory tissues. One important role of this epithelial layer is its barrier function. Airborne particles that deposit (and dissolve) in the airway surface liquid are not readily absorbed, and soluble tissue components are excluded from the surface liquid. The epithelium also controls the volume and composition of the surface liquid. One important process in this regard is the absorption and secretion of ions and water. We have studied the effects of inhalation of ozone on the barrier function (permeability to dissolved molecules) and the ion transport activity of epithelium using both in vivo and in vitro techniques. All our experiments were performed with male Hartley strain guinea pigs. Conscious, unrestrained animals were exposed to a concentration of ozone of 1 ppm for three hours in controlled environmental chambers in the Health Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Research Triangle Park, NC. Such exposures caused a marked increase in the rate of appearance in blood of various water-soluble compounds instilled onto the surface of the trachea, indicating increased permeability of the airway epithelium.

  1. Lateral charge transport from heavy-ion tracks in integrated circuit chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Schwartz, H. R.; Nevill, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    A 256K DRAM has been used to study the lateral transport of charge (electron-hole pairs) induced by direct ionization from heavy-ion tracks in an IC. The qualitative charge transport has been simulated using a two-dimensional numerical code in cylindrical coordinates. The experimental bit-map data clearly show the manifestation of lateral charge transport in the creation of adjacent multiple-bit errors from a single heavy-ion track. The heavy-ion data further demonstrate the occurrence of multiple-bit errors from single ion tracks with sufficient stopping power. The qualitative numerical simulation results suggest that electric-field-funnel-aided (drift) collection accounts for single error generated by an ion passing through a charge-collecting junction, while multiple errors from a single ion track are due to lateral diffusion of ion-generated charge.

  2. Beam-transport study of an isocentric rotating ion gantry with minimum number of quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Márius; Griesmayer, Erich; Seemann, Rolf

    2005-06-01

    A beam-transport study of an isocentric gantry for ion therapy is presented. The gantry is designed with the number of quadrupoles down to the theoretical minimum, which is the feature published for the first time in this paper. This feature has been achieved without compromising the ion-optical functions of the beam-transport system that is capable of handling non-symmetric beams (beams with different emittances in vertical and horizontal plane), pencil-beam scanning, double-achromatic optics and beam-size control. Ion-optical properties of the beam-transport system are described, discussed and illustrated by computer simulations performed by the TRANSPORT-code.

  3. Decoupling Mechanical and Ion Transport Properties in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Lucas D.

    Polymer electrolytes are mixtures of a polar polymer and salt, in which the polymer replaces small molecule solvents and provides a dielectric medium so that ions can dissociate and migrate under the influence of an external electric field. Beginning in the 1970s, research in polymer electrolytes has been primarily motivated by their promise to advance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, such as lithium ion batteries, flexible organic solar cells, and anhydrous fuel cells. In particular, polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) can improve both safety and energy density by eliminating small molecule, volatile solvents and enabling an all-solid-state design of electrochemical cells. The outstanding challenge in the field of polymer electrolytes is to maximize ionic conductivity while simultaneously addressing orthogonal mechanical properties, such as modulus, fracture toughness, or high temperature creep resistance. The crux of the challenge is that flexible, polar polymers best-suited for polymer electrolytes (e.g., poly(ethylene oxide)) offer little in the way of mechanical robustness. Similarly, polymers typically associated with superior mechanical performance (e.g., poly(methyl methacrylate)) slow ion transport due to their glassy polymer matrix. The design strategy is therefore to employ structured electrolytes that exhibit distinct conducting and mechanically robust phases on length scales of tens of nanometers. This thesis reports a remarkably simple, yet versatile synthetic strategy---termed polymerization-induced phase separation, or PIPS---to prepare PEMs exhibiting an unprecedented combination of both high conductivity and high modulus. This performance is enabled by co-continuous, isotropic networks of poly(ethylene oxide)/ionic liquid and highly crosslinked polystyrene. A suite of in situ, time-resolved experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism by which this network morphology forms, and it appears to be tied to the

  4. The Transport of Solar Ions Through the Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, O. W.

    1999-01-01

    This report covers the initial phase of an investigation that was originally selected by NASA Headquarters for funding by a grant but was later transferred to NASA GSFC for continued funding under a new and separate contract. The principal objective of the investigation, led by Dr. O.W. Lennartsson, is to extract information about the solar origin plasma in Earth's magnetosphere, specifically about the entry and transport of this plasma, using energetic (10 eV/e to 18 keV/e) ion composition data from the Lockheed Plasma Composition Experiment on the NASA/ESA International Sun-Earth Explorer One (ISEE 1) satellite. These data were acquired many years ago, from November 1977 through March of 1982, but, because of subsequent failures of similar experiments on several other spacecraft, they are still the only substantial ion composition data available from Earth's magnetotail, beyond 10 R(sub E), in the critically important sub-kev to keV energy range. All of the Lockheed data now exist in a compacted scientific format, suitable for large-scale statistical investigations, which has been archived both at Lockheed Martin in Palo Alto and at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) in Greenbelt. The completion of the archiving, by processing the remaining half of the data, was made possible by separate funding through a temporary NASA program for data restoration and was given priority over the data analysis by a no-cost extension of the subject grant. By chance, the period of performance coincided with an international study of source and loss processes of magnetospheric plasma, sponsored by the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, for which Dr. Lennartsson was invited to serve as one of 12 co-chairs. This study meshed well with the continued analysis of the NASA/Lockheed ISEE ion composition data and provided a natural forum for a broader discussion of the results from this unique experiment. What follows is arranged, for the most

  5. Calcium ions affect the hepatitis B virus core assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yongwook; Gyoo Park, Sung; Yoo, Jun-hi; Jung, Guhung . E-mail: drjung@snu.ac.kr

    2005-02-05

    Previous report showed that cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} induced by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) promotes HBV replication. In this study, in vitro experiments showed that (i) HBV core assembly in vitro was promoted by Ca{sup 2+} through the sucrose density gradient and the analytical ultracentrifuge analysis. Also (ii) transmission electron microscope analysis demonstrated these assembled HBV core particles were the capsids. Ex vivo experiments showed that the treatment of BAPTA-AM and cyclosporine A (CsA) reduced HBV capsids in the transfected HepG2 cells. In addition to that, the treatment of Thapsigargin (TG) increased HBV capsids in the transfected HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we investigated the increased HBV core assembly by HBx. The results show that the increased cytosolic calcium ions by HBx promote the HBV core assembly.

  6. Electro- and Magneto-Modulated Ion Transport through Graphene Oxide Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengzhan; Zheng, Feng; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wu, Dehai; Zhu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The control of ion trans-membrane transport through graphene oxide (GO) membranes is achieved by electric and magnetic fields. Electric field can either increase or decrease the ion transport through GO membranes depending on its direction, and magnetic field can enhance the ion penetration monotonically. When electric field is applied across GO membrane, excellent control of ion fluidic flows can be done. With the magnetic field, the effective anchoring of ions is demonstrated but the modulation of the ion flowing directions does not occur. The mechanism of the electro- and magneto-modulated ion trans-membrane transport is investigated, indicating that the electric fields dominate the ion migration process while the magnetic fields tune the structure of nanocapillaries within GO membranes. Results also show that the ion selectivity of GO membranes can be tuned with the electric fields while the transport of ions can be enhanced synchronously with the magnetic fields. These excellent properties make GO membranes promising in areas such as field-induced mass transport control and membrane separation. PMID:25347969

  7. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid-base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na(+)/[Formula: see text] cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl(-)/[Formula: see text] exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H(+)-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl(-) channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal [Formula: see text] secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood [Formula: see text] levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans. PMID:27313538

  8. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Hu, Marian Y; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid-base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na(+)/[Formula: see text] cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl(-)/[Formula: see text] exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H(+)-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl(-) channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal [Formula: see text] secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood [Formula: see text] levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans.

  9. Temperature Modulates the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Intestinal Ion Transport in Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Marian Y.; Michael, Katharina; Kreiss, Cornelia M.; Stumpp, Meike; Dupont, Sam; Tseng, Yung-Che; Lucassen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    CO2-driven seawater acidification has been demonstrated to enhance intestinal bicarbonate secretion rates in teleosts, leading to an increased release of CaCO3 under simulated ocean acidification scenarios. In this study, we investigated if increasing CO2 levels stimulate the intestinal acid–base regulatory machinery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and whether temperatures at the upper limit of thermal tolerance stimulate or counteract ion regulatory capacities. Juvenile G. morhua were acclimated for 4 weeks to three CO2 levels (550, 1200, and 2200 μatm) covering present and near-future natural variability, at optimum (10°C) and summer maximum temperature (18°C), respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the subcellular localization of ion transporters, including Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), Na+/H+-exchanger 3 (NHE3), Na+/HCO3− cotransporter (NBC1), pendrin-like Cl−/HCO3− exchanger (SLC26a6), V-type H+-ATPase subunit a (VHA), and Cl− channel 3 (CLC3) in epithelial cells of the anterior intestine. At 10°C, proteins and mRNA were generally up-regulated for most transporters in the intestinal epithelium after acclimation to higher CO2 levels. This supports recent findings demonstrating increased intestinal HCO3− secretion rates in response to CO2 induced seawater acidification. At 18°C, mRNA expression and protein concentrations of most ion transporters remained unchanged or were even decreased, suggesting thermal compensation. This response may be energetically favorable to retain blood HCO3− levels to stabilize pHe, but may negatively affect intestinal salt and water resorption of marine teleosts in future oceans. PMID:27313538

  10. Protein-protein interactions among ion channels regulate ion transport in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Boulpaep, E

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ion transport in various organs has long been known to be controlled by extracellular agonists acting via membrane receptors or by intracellular messengers. Evidence is mounting for regulation of transport by direct interaction among membrane proteins or between a membrane transport protein and membrane-attached proteins. The membrane protein CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator) is widely expressed along the length of the nephron, but its role as a chloride channel does not appear to be critical for renal handling of salt and water. It is well established that the inward rectifying K channels (ROMK = Kir 1.1) in the thick ascending limb of Henle and in principal cells of the collecting duct are inhibited by millimolar concentrations of cytosolic Mg-ATP. However, the mechanism of this inhibition has been an enigma. We propose that the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) protein CFTR is a cofactor for Kir 1.1 regulation. Indeed, Mg-ATP sensitivity of Kir 1.1 is completely absent in two different mouse models of cystic fibrosis. In addition, the open-closed state of CFTR appears to provide a molecular gating switch that prevents or facilitates the ATP sensing of Kir 1.1. Does Mg-ATP sensing by the CFTR- Kir 1.1 complex play a role in coupling metabolism to ion transport? Physiological intracellular ATP concentrations in tubule cells are in the millimolar range, a saturating concentration for the gating of Kir 1.1 by Mg-ATP. Therefore, Kir 1.1 channels would be closed and unable to contribute to regulation of potassium secretion unless some other process modulated the CFTR-dependent ATP-sensitivity of Kir 1.1. The third component of the metabolic sensor-effector complex for Kir 1.1 regulation is most likely the AMP-regulated serine-threonine kinase, AMP kinase (AMPK). Changing levels in AMP rather than in ATP constitute the metabolic signal "sensed" by tubule cells. Because AMPK inhibits CFTR by modulating CFTR channel gating, we propose that renal K

  11. Regulation of the divalent metal ion transporter via membrane budding

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, KimberlyD; Foot, Natalie J; Anand, Sushma; Dalton, Hazel E; Chaudhary, Natasha; Collins, Brett M; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for both normal physiology and disease. However, a basic understanding of the targeting of EV cargoes, composition and mechanism of release is lacking. Here we present evidence that the divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) is unexpectedly regulated through release in EVs. This process involves the Nedd4-2 ubiquitin ligase, and the adaptor proteins Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 via different budding mechanisms. We show that mouse gut explants release endogenous DMT1 in EVs. Although we observed no change in the relative amount of DMT1 released in EVs from gut explants in Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 deficient mice, the extent of EVs released was significantly reduced indicating an adaptor role in biogenesis. Furthermore, using Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that both Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 are non-redundant positive regulators of EV release. Our results suggest that DMT1 release from the plasma membrane into EVs may represent a novel mechanism for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which may also be important for the regulation of other membrane proteins. PMID:27462458

  12. Regulation of the divalent metal ion transporter via membrane budding.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, KimberlyD; Foot, Natalie J; Anand, Sushma; Dalton, Hazel E; Chaudhary, Natasha; Collins, Brett M; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for both normal physiology and disease. However, a basic understanding of the targeting of EV cargoes, composition and mechanism of release is lacking. Here we present evidence that the divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) is unexpectedly regulated through release in EVs. This process involves the Nedd4-2 ubiquitin ligase, and the adaptor proteins Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 via different budding mechanisms. We show that mouse gut explants release endogenous DMT1 in EVs. Although we observed no change in the relative amount of DMT1 released in EVs from gut explants in Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 deficient mice, the extent of EVs released was significantly reduced indicating an adaptor role in biogenesis. Furthermore, using Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that both Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 are non-redundant positive regulators of EV release. Our results suggest that DMT1 release from the plasma membrane into EVs may represent a novel mechanism for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which may also be important for the regulation of other membrane proteins. PMID:27462458

  13. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  14. Shielding analysis for a heavy ion beam chamber with plasma channels for ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.; Peterson, R.R.; Yu, S.

    2000-06-28

    Neutronics analysis has been performed to assess the shielding requirements for the insulators and final focusing magnets in a modified HYLIFE-II target chamber that utilizes pre-formed plasma channels for heavy ion beam transport. Using 65 cm thick Flibe jet assemblies provides adequate shielding for the electrical insulator units. Additional shielding is needed in front of the final focusing superconducting quadrupole magnets. A shield with a thickness varying between 45 and 90 cm needs to be provided in front of the quadrupole unit. The final laser mirrors located along the channel axis are in the direct line-of-sight of source neutrons. Neutronics calculations were performed to determine the constraints on the placement of these mirrors to be lifetime components.

  15. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengwa, R. J.; Dhatarwal, Priyanka; Choudhary, Shobhna

    2016-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF4) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10-6 S cm-1 which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  16. Aquaporin-9 and urea transporter-A gene deletions affect urea transmembrane passage in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jelen, Sabina; Gena, Patrizia; Lebeck, Janne; Rojek, Aleksandra; Praetorius, Jeppe; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Fenton, Robert A; Nielsen, Søren; Calamita, Giuseppe; Rützler, Michael

    2012-12-01

    In mammals, the majority of nitrogen from protein degradation is disposed of as urea. Several studies have partly characterized expression of urea transporters (UTs) in hepatocytes, where urea is produced. Nevertheless, the contribution of these proteins to hepatocyte urea permeability (P(urea)) and their role in liver physiology remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to biophysically examine hepatocyte urea transport. We hypothesized that the water, glycerol, and urea channel aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is involved in hepatocyte urea release. Stopped-flow light-scattering measurements determined that the urea channel inhibitors phloretin and dimethylurea reduced urea permeability of hepatocyte basolateral membranes by 70 and 40%, respectively. In basolateral membranes isolated from AQP9(-/-) and UT-A1/3(-/-) single-knockout and AQP9(-/-):UT-A1/3(-/-) double-knockout mice, P(urea) was decreased by 30, 40, and 76%, respectively, compared with AQP9(+/-):UT-A1/3(+/-) mice. However, expression analysis by RT-PCR did not identify known UT-A transcripts in liver. High-protein diet followed by 24-h fasting affected the concentrations of urea and ammonium ions in AQP9(-/-) mouse liver and plasma without generating an apparent tissue-to-plasma urea gradient. We conclude that AQP9 and unidentified UT-A urea channels constitute primary but redundant urea facilitators in murine hepatocytes.

  17. Nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries: surface conductivity vs. bulk ion/electron transport.

    PubMed

    Ellis, B; Subramanya Herle, P; Rho, Y H; Nazar, L F; Dunlap, R; Perry, Laura K; Ryan, D H

    2007-01-01

    Lithium metal phosphates are amongst the most promising cathode materials for high capacity lithium-ion batteries. Owing to their inherently low electronic conductivity, it is essential to optimize their properties to minimize defect concentration and crystallite size (down to the submicron level), control morphology, and to decorate the crystallite surfaces with conductive nanostructures that act as conduits to deliver electrons to the bulk lattice. Here, we discuss factors relating to doping and defects in olivine phosphates LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni) and describe methods by which in situ nanophase composites with conductivities ranging from 10(-4)-10(-2) S cm(-1) can be prepared. These utilize surface reactivity to produce intergranular nitrides, phosphides, and/or phosphocarbides at temperatures as low as 600 degrees C that maximize the accessibility of the bulk for Li de/insertion. Surface modification can only address the transport problem in part, however. A key issue in these materials is also to unravel the factors governing ion and electron transport within the lattice. Lithium de/insertion in the phosphates is accompanied by two-phase transitions owing to poor solubility of the single phase compositions, where low mobility of the phase boundary limits the rate characteristics. Here we discuss concerted mobility of the charge carriers. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy to pinpoint the temperature at which the solid solution forms, we directly probe small polaron hopping in the solid solution Li(x)FePO4 phases formed at elevated temperature, and give evidence for a strong correlation between electron and lithium delocalization events that suggests they are coupled.

  18. How Interfaces Affect the Acidity of the Anilinium Ion.

    PubMed

    Sripradite, Jarukorn; Miller, Susannah A; Johnson, Michael D; Tongraar, Anan; Crans, Debbie C

    2016-03-01

    The acidity of a compound is a fundamental property that dictates molecular speciation and reactivity in solution. Measurements of acidity of simple molecules in interfacial environments are rarely carried out but assumptions often are made that the difference is sufficiently small that the change can be ignored. The effect of oil-surfactant-water interfaces in reverse micellar systems on the pKa value of the anilinium ion was measured using titrations by NMR spectroscopy as the size of the bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse micelles decreased. The pKa was observed to drop from 4.85±0.02 to 4.62±0.02 in water as the reverse micelle decreased from w(0) 10 to 4 (that is down to a reverse micellar radius of about 2 nm). NOSEY experiments demonstrated that the aniline moiety resides within the surfactant interface with the amine/ammonium moiety protruding into the waterpool bridging the interface. The presence of the aniline was found to have modest and variable effect on the size of the reverse micelles as observed using dynamic light scattering. Our experimental results provide information important to theoretical studies, which explore interface phenomena and provide a framework for information on such simple molecules. These studies quantitate the small but significant effect on the pKa values upon placement of an aromatic amine molecule at a hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface. PMID:26878992

  19. Transport implementation of the Bernstein–Vazirani algorithm with ion qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallek, S. D.; Herold, C. D.; McMahon, B. J.; Maller, K. M.; Brown, K. R.; Amini, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    Using trapped ion quantum bits in a scalable microfabricated surface trap, we perform the Bernstein–Vazirani algorithm. Our architecture takes advantage of the ion transport capabilities of such a trap. The algorithm is demonstrated using two- and three-ion chains. For three ions, an improvement is achieved compared to a classical system using the same number of oracle queries. For two ions and one query, we correctly determine an unknown bit string with probability 97.6(8)%. For three ions, we succeed with probability 80.9(3)%.

  20. Kinetically influenced terms for solute transport affected by heterogeneous and homogeneous classical reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends a four-step derivation procedure, previously presented for cases of transport affected by surface reactions, to transport problems involving homogeneous reactions. Derivations for these classes of reactions are used to illustrate the manner in which mathematical differences between reaction classes are reflected in the mathematical derivation procedures required to identify kinetically influenced terms. Simulation results for a case of transport affected by a single solution phase complexation reaction and for a case of transport affected by a precipitation-dissolution reaction are used to demonstrate the nature of departures from equilibrium-controlled transport as well as the use of kinetically influenced terms in determining criteria for the applicability of the local equilibrium assumption. A final derivation for a multireaction problem demonstrates the application of the generalized procedure to a case of transport affected by reactions of several classes. -from Author

  1. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1984-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly.

  2. Uranium transport in Topopah Spring tuff: An ion-microscope investigation

    SciTech Connect

    McKeegan, K.D.; Phinney, D.; Oversby, V.M.; Buchholtz-ten Brink, M.; Smith, D.K.

    1988-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different methods of surface preparation on ion-microscope profiles of uranium concentration (added to the sample by diffusion from an aqueous solution) vs depth in a welded, devitrified, tuffaceous rock from Yucca Mountain. The concentration profiles were used to study transport of uranium in the tuff. Four wafers of rock were prepared from primary drill core material and finished by polishing with increasingly finer abrasive material. Final polishes were made with 400 grit SiC, 600 grit SiC, 0.3 um alumina, and 0.05 um alumina. The polished tuff wafers were exposed for eight hours to a solution of groundwater doped with 2 ppM 235-U. The wafers were then examined by SEM and the ion microscope was used to measure the lateral and depth distributions of 235-U and other isotopes in the wafer. No systematic correlation of the measured 235-U concentration- vs-depth profiles with the degree of surface finish was observed, indicating that the polishing does not affect the measurable transport of U in the tuff. A zone of enhanced 235-U concentration was observed in the upper few microns, which we attribute to sorption onto surfaces of exposed pores. Concentrations of 235-U were elevated above background to depths >15 um, indicating that rapid transport paths exist. When the uranium distribution near the surface of the wafer was modelled by an error function, an upper limit for a slower transport path was defined by an apparent diffusion coefficient of approximately 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup 2}/s. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues affecting intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers on major issues and trends that affect the future of intercity transportation are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity transportation from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends affecting the evolution of intercity transportation technologies.

  4. Polyamines control of cation transport across plant membranes: implications for ion homeostasis and abiotic stress signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are unique polycationic metabolites, controlling a variety of vital functions in plants, including growth and stress responses. Over the last two decades a bulk of data was accumulated providing explicit evidence that polyamines play an essential role in regulating plant membrane transport. The most straightforward example is a blockage of the two major vacuolar cation channels, namely slow (SV) and fast (FV) activating ones, by the micromolar concentrations of polyamines. This effect is direct and fully reversible, with a potency descending in a sequence Spm4+ > Spd3+ > Put2+. On the contrary, effects of polyamines on the plasma membrane (PM) cation and K+-selective channels are hardly dependent on polyamine species, display a relatively low affinity, and are likely to be indirect. Polyamines also affect vacuolar and PM H+ pumps and Ca2+ pump of the PM. On the other hand, catabolization of polyamines generates H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radicals. Export of polyamines to the apoplast and their oxidation there by available amine oxidases results in the induction of a novel ion conductance and confers Ca2+ influx across the PM. This mechanism, initially established for plant responses to pathogen attack (including a hypersensitive response), has been recently shown to mediate plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this review we summarize the effects of polyamines and their catabolites on cation transport in plants and discuss the implications of these effects for ion homeostasis, signaling, and plant adaptive responses to environment. PMID:24795739

  5. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  6. A Study of the Ion Hose Instability in the DARHT-II Downstream Transport Region

    SciTech Connect

    McCarrick, J F

    2004-11-11

    The second axis of the DARHT flash X-ray facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (''DARHT-II'') is a multiple-pulse, 18.4 MeV, 2 kA induction electron linear accelerator [1]. A train of short ({approx}50 ns) pulses are converted via bremsstrahlung to X-rays, which are then used to make radiographic images at various times (nominally four) during a ''hydrotest'' experiment. The train of pulses is created by carving them out of a two microsecond long macropulse, using a fast switching element called a kicker [2]. The unused portion of the macropulse is absorbed in a beam dump. Thus, upstream of the kicker, two microseconds of beam are transported through a vacuum system roughly sixty meters long. These conditions involve length and, specifically, time scales which are new to the transport of high-current beams. A concern under such conditions are the macroscopic interactions between the electron beam and positive ions created by impact ionization of the residual gas in the vacuum system. Over two microseconds, the ion density can develop to a hundredth or even a tenth of a percent of the beam density--small, to be sure, but large enough to have cumulative effects over such a long transport distance. Two such effects will be considered here: the ion hose instability, where transverse forces conspire to pull the electron beam farther and farther off axis, and background gas focusing, where radial forces (with respect to the beam) change the beam envelope during the course of the macropulse. The former effect can cause beam emittance growth (affecting the ability to focus the beam on the target) and eventually catastrophic beam loss; the latter can cause either serious degradation of the statically tuned final focus on the converter target, or a pinching of the beam on the surface of the main dump to the point where the heat flux causes damage. The beam transport upstream of the kicker has two distinct phases. First, the beam is created and accelerated up to 18.4 Me

  7. Phosphate Ions Affect the Water Structure at Functionalized Membrane Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aliyah; Imbrogno, Joseph; Belfort, Georges; Petersen, Poul B

    2016-09-01

    Antifouling surfaces improve function, efficiency, and safety in products such as water filtration membranes, marine vehicle coatings, and medical implants by resisting protein and biofilm adhesion. Understanding the role of water structure at these materials in preventing protein adhesion and biofilm formation is critical to designing more effective coatings. Such fouling experiments are typically performed under biological conditions using isotonic aqueous buffers. Previous studies have explored the structure of pure water at a few different antifouling surfaces, but the effect of electrolytes and ionic strength (I) on the water structure at antifouling surfaces is not well studied. Here sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to characterize the interfacial water structure at poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and two surface-modified PES films in contact with 0.01 M phosphate buffer with high and low salt (Ionic strength, I= 0.166 and 0.025 M, respectively). Unmodified PES, commonly used as a filtration membrane, and modified PES with a hydrophobic alkane (C18) and with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were used. In the low ionic strength phosphate buffer, water was strongly ordered near the surface of the PEG-modified PES film due to exclusion of phosphate ions and the creation of a surface potential resulting from charge separation between phosphate anions and sodium cations. However, in the high ionic strength phosphate buffer, the sodium and potassium chloride (138 and 3 mM, respectively) in the phosphate buffered saline screened this charge and substantially reduced water ordering. A much smaller water ordering and subsequent reduction upon salt addition was observed for the C18-modified PES, and little water structure change was seen for the unmodified PES. The large difference in water structuring with increasing ionic strength between widely used phosphate buffer and phosphate buffered saline at the PEG interface demonstrates the importance of studying

  8. Third-order transport properties of ion-swarms from mobility and diffusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutselos, Andreas D.

    2005-08-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of third order transport properties of ions drifting in gases under the action of an electrostatic field with the use of mobility and ion-diffusion coefficients. The approach is based on a three-temperature treatment of the Boltzmann equation for the ion transport and follows the development of generalized Einstein relations (GER), between diffusion coefficients and mobility. The whole procedure is tested by comparison with numerical and molecular dynamics simulation results for three available alkali ion-noble gas systems. Extension to systems involving internal degrees of freedom and inelastic collisions is shown to follow the development of molecular GER.

  9. Using fluorometry and ion-sensitive microelectrodes to study the functional expression of heterologously-expressed ion channels and transporters in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Musa-Aziz, Raif; Boron, Walter F.; Parker, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The Xenopus laevis oocyte is a model system for the electrophysiological study of exogenous ion transporters. Three main reasons make the oocyte suitable for this purpose: (a) it has a large cell size (~1 mm diameter), (b) it has an established capacity to produce—from microinjected mRNAs or cRNAs—exogenous ion transporters with close-to-physiological post-translational modifications and actions, and (c) its membranes contain endogenous ion-transport activities which are usually smaller in magnitude than the activities of exogenously-expressed ion transporters. The expression of ion-transporters as green-fluorescent-protein fusions allows the fluorometric assay of transporter yield in living oocytes. Monitoring of transporter-mediated movement of ions such as Cl−, H+ (and hence base equivalents like OH−1 and HCO3−), K+, and Na+ is achieved by positioning the tips of ion-sensitive microelectrodes inside the oocyte and/or at the surface of the oocyte plasma membrane. The use of ion-sensitive electrodes is critical for studying net ion-movements mediated by electroneutral transporters. The combined use of fluorometry and electrophysiology expedites transporter study by allowing measurement of transporter yield prior to electrophysiological study and correlation of relative transporter yield with transport rates. PMID:20051266

  10. Bombardment induced ion transport. Part I: Numerical investigation of bombardment induced ion transport through glasses and membranes on the basis of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M; Weitzel, K-M

    2011-12-01

    The bombardment of condensed matter by low energy ion beams induces ion transport through the material. A general theory for bombardment induced ion transport (BIIT) based on numerical solutions of the well known Nernst-Planck-Poisson equations is presented. The theory is applicable to polymer membranes as well as ion-conducting glasses with the implementation of appropriate boundary conditions. The fundamental properties of the theory, i.e. the capability to describe the potential, the field and the concentration/charge density profile within the two classes of materials mentioned above are demonstrated. In particular, the theory is capable of describing experimental observables which will be further elaborated in part II of this miniseries.

  11. Thermal plasma and fast ion transport in electrostatic turbulence in the large plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Shu; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Van Compernolle, B.

    2012-05-15

    The transport of thermal plasma and fast ions in electrostatic microturbulence is studied. Strong density and potential fluctuations ({delta}n/n{approx}{delta}{phi}/kT{sub e}{approx} 0.5, f {approx} 5-50 kHz) are observed in the large plasma device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] in density gradient regions produced by obstacles with slab or cylindrical geometry. Wave characteristics and the associated plasma transport are modified by driving sheared E Multiplication-Sign B drift through biasing the obstacle and by modification of the axial magnetic fields (B{sub z}) and the plasma species. Cross-field plasma transport is suppressed with small bias and large B{sub z} and is enhanced with large bias and small B{sub z}. The transition in thermal plasma confinement is well explained by the cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations. Large gyroradius lithium fast ion beam ({rho}{sub fast}/{rho}{sub s} {approx} 10) orbits through the turbulent region. Scans with a collimated analyzer give detailed profiles of the fast ion spatial-temporal distribution. Fast-ion transport decreases rapidly with increasing fast-ion energy and gyroradius. Background waves with different scale lengths also alter the fast ion transport. Experimental results agree well with gyro-averaging theory. When the fast ion interacts with the wave for most of a wave period, a transition from super-diffusive to sub-diffusive transport is observed, as predicted by diffusion theory. Besides turbulent-wave-induced fast-ion transport, the static radial electric field (E{sub r}) from biasing the obstacle leads to drift of the fast-ion beam centroid. The drift and broadening of the beam due to static E{sub r} are evaluated both analytically and numerically. Simulation results indicate that the E{sub r} induced transport is predominately convective.

  12. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    -like environment around the ion while the second mechanism of ion conduction is attributed to diffusion of the entire polymer chain with coordinated ions. Equilibrated block copolymer electrolytes exhibit a non-monotonic dependence on molecular weight, decreasing with increasing molecular weight in the small molecular weight limit before increasing when molecular weight exceeds about 10 kg mol-1. Conductivity in annealed electrolytes was shown to be affected by two competing factors: the glass transition temperature of the insulating polystyrene block and the width of the conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) channel. In the low molecular weight limit, all ions are in contact with both polystyrene (PS) and PEO segments. The intermixing between PS and PEO segments is restricted to an interfacial zone of width of about 5 nm. The fraction of ions affected by the interfacial zone decreases as the conducting channel width increases. Furthermore, the effect of thermal history on the conductivity of the block copolymer electrolytes was examined. Results suggest that long-range order impedes ion transport, and consequently decreases in conductivity of up to 80% were seen upon annealing. The effect of morphology on ion transport was studied by conducting simultaneous impedance and X-ray scattering experiments as the block copolymer electrolyte transitioned from an ordered lamellar structure to a disordered phase. The ionic conductivity increased discontinuously through the transition from order to disorder. A simple framework for quantifying the magnitude of the discontinuity was presented. Finally, block copolymer electrolytes were examined specifically for use in high energy density solid state lithium/sulfur batteries. Such materials have been shown to form a stable interface with lithium metal anodes, maintain intimate contact upon cycling, and have sufficiently high shear moduli to retard dendrite formation. Having previously satisfied the concerns associated with the lithium metal

  13. Ion transport in complex layered graphene-based membranes with tuneable interlayer spacing

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi; Jiang, Gengping; Garvey, Christopher J.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Simon, George P.; Liu, Jefferson Z.; Li, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the transport properties of ions confined in nanoporous carbon is generally difficult because of the stochastic nature and distribution of multiscale complex and imperfect pore structures within the bulk material. We demonstrate a combined approach of experiment and simulation to describe the structure of complex layered graphene-based membranes, which allows their use as a unique porous platform to gain unprecedented insights into nanoconfined transport phenomena across the entire sub–10-nm scales. By correlation of experimental results with simulation of concentration-driven ion diffusion through the cascading layered graphene structure with sub–10-nm tuneable interlayer spacing, we are able to construct a robust, representative structural model that allows the establishment of a quantitative relationship among the nanoconfined ion transport properties in relation to the complex nanoporous structure of the layered membrane. This correlation reveals the remarkable effect of the structural imperfections of the membranes on ion transport and particularly the scaling behaviors of both diffusive and electrokinetic ion transport in graphene-based cascading nanochannels as a function of channel size from 10 nm down to subnanometer. Our analysis shows that the range of ion transport effects previously observed in simple one-dimensional nanofluidic systems will translate themselves into bulk, complex nanoslit porous systems in a very different manner, and the complex cascading porous circuities can enable new transport phenomena that are unattainable in simple fluidic systems. PMID:26933689

  14. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  15. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract.

  16. Comparisons of theoretically predicted transport from ion temperature gradient instabilities to L-mode tokamak experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Wong, H.V.; Lyster, P.L.; Berk, H.L.; Denton, R.; Miner, W.H.; Valanju, P.

    1991-12-01

    The theoretical transport from kinetic micro-instabilities driven by ion temperature gradients is a sheared slab is compared to experimentally inferred transport in L-mode tokamaks. Low noise gyrokinetic simulation techniques are used to obtain the ion thermal transport coefficient X. This X is much smaller than in experiments, and so cannot explain L-mode confinement. Previous predictions based on fluid models gave much greater X than experiments. Linear and nonlinear comparisons with the fluid model show that it greatly overestimates transport for experimental parameters. In addition, disagreements among previous analytic and simulation calculations of X in the fluid model are reconciled.

  17. Ablation plasma transport using multicusp magnetic field for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Umezawa, M.; Uchino, T.; Ikegami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, N.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a plasma guiding method using multicusp magnetic field to transport the ablation plasma keeping the density for developing laser ion sources. To investigate the effect of guiding using the magnetic field on the ablation plasma, we demonstrated the transport of the laser ablation plasma in the multicusp magnetic field. The magnetic field was formed with eight permanent magnets and arranged to limit the plasma expansion in the radial direction. We investigated the variation of the plasma ion current density and charge distribution during transport in the magnetic field. The results indicate that the plasma is confined in the radial direction during the transport in the multicusp magnetic field.

  18. Sources and transport systems for low energy extreme of ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, A.; Batalin, V.A.; Bugaev, A.S.; Gushenets, V.I.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Johnson, B.M.; Kolomiets, A.A.; Kropachev, G.N.; Kuibeda, R.P.; Kulevoy, T.V.; Masunov, E.S.; Oks, E.M.; Pershin, V.I.; Polozov, S.M.; Poole, H.J.; Seleznev, D.N.; Storozhenko, P.A.; Vizir, A.; Svarovski, A.Ya.; Yakushin, P.; Yushkov, G.Yu.

    2010-06-06

    For the past seven years a joint research and development effort focusing on the design of steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal being to meet the two, energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. However, since the last Fortier is low energy ion implantation, focus of the endeavor has shifted to low energy ion implantation. For boron cluster source development, we started with molecular ions of decaborane (B{sub 10}H{sub 14}), octadecaborane (B{sub 18}H{sub 22}), and presently our focus is on carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ions developing methods for mitigating graphite deposition. Simultaneously, we are developing a pure boron ion source (without a working gas) that can form the basis for a novel, more efficient, plasma immersion source. Our Calutron-Berna ion source was converted into a universal source capable of switching between generating molecular phosphorous P{sub 4}{sup +}, high charge state ions, as well as other types of ions. Additionally, we have developed transport systems capable of transporting a very large variety of ion species, and simulations of a novel gasless/plasmaless ion beam deceleration method were also performed.

  19. Multivariate analysis of the transport in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor for removal of anionic micropollutants from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, A R; Velizarov, S; Crespo, J G; Reis, M A M

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on investigating the effects of biological compartment conditions on the transport of nitrate and perchlorate in an Ion Exchange Membrane Bioreactor (IEMB). In this hybrid process, the transport depends not only on the membrane properties but also on the biological compartment conditions. The experiments were planned according to the Plackett-Burman statistical design in order to cover a broader range of experimental conditions, under which a previously developed mechanistic transport model was not able to predict correctly the transport fluxes of the target pollutants. Using Principal Component Analysis, it was possible to identify not only the concentrations of target (nitrate and perchlorate) and of major driving counter-ion (chloride) but also those of some biomedium components (e.g. ammonia, ethanol and sulphate) as variables that affect the transport rate of micropollutants across the membrane. These conclusions are based on the loadings of the two first principal components that describe 84% of the data variance. The present study also revealed that the hydraulic retention time and the hydrodynamic conditions in the biocompartment have a minor contribution to the micropollutants transport. The results obtained are important for process optimization purposes. PMID:21977639

  20. Improved Monte Carlo method for ion transport in ion-molecule asymmetric systems at high electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousfi, M.; Hennad, A.; Eichwald, O.

    1998-07-01

    An improved Monte Carlo method is developed for the simulation of the ion transport in classical drift tube in the case of ion-molecule asymmetric systems such as O-/O2 or N+/N2. The aim of this new method is to overcome the problem of incident ions which vanish at relative high electric field due to asymmetric charge transfer or electron detachment. These ion removal processes are compensated by a fictitious ion creation which improves the accuracy of the ion distribution function and swarm coefficient calculations. The classical ion-molecule collision processes occurring in weakly ionized gases at room temperature (elastic collisions including energy exchange and thermal motion of background gases and also inelastic collisions) are taken into account. This new method is then validated and the transport and reaction coefficients have been given for a large range of E/N (a part of them for the first time in the literature) in O-/O2 and N+/N2 systems.

  1. White Paper on Ion Beam Transport for ICF: Issues, R&D Need,and Tri-Lab Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    2005-05-04

    To date, most resources for ion beam fusion have been devoted to development of accelerators and target physics; relatively few resources have gone into ion beam transport development. Because of theoretical studies and substantial experience with electron beam transport, the ion beam transport community is now poised to develop and optimize ion beam transport for ICF. Because of this Tri-Lab effort, a path for coordinated development of ion beam transport has been established. The rate of progress along this path will now be determined largely by the availability of resources.

  2. Gated ion transport through dense carbon nanotube membranes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Funke, Hans H; Falconer, John L; Noble, Richard D

    2010-06-23

    Gated ion diffusion is found widely in hydrophobic biological nanopores, upon changes in ligand binding, temperature, transmembrane voltage, and mechanical stress. Because water is the main media for ion diffusion in these hydrophobic biological pores, ion diffusion behavior through these nanochannels is expected to be influenced significantly when water wettability in hydrophobic biological nanopores is sensitive and changes upon small external changes. Here, we report for the first time that ion diffusion through highly hydrophobic nanopores (approximately 3 nm) showed a gated behavior due to change of water wettability on hydrophobic surface upon small temperature change or ultrasound. Dense carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes with both 3-nm CNTs and 3-nm interstitial pores were prepared by a solvent evaporation process and used as a model system to investigate ion diffusion behavior. Ion diffusion through these membranes exhibited a gated behavior. The ion flux was turned on and off, apparently because the water wettability of CNTs changed. At 298 K, ion diffusion through dense CNT membranes stopped after a few hours, but it dramatically increased when the temperature was increased 20 K or the membrane was subjected to ultrasound. Likewise, water adsorption on dense CNT membranes increased dramatically at a water activity of 0.53 when the temperature increased from 293 to 306 K, indicating capillary condensation. Water adsorption isotherms of dense CNT membranes suggest that the adsorbed water forms a discontinuous phase at 293 K, but it probably forms a continuous layer, probably in the interstitial CNT regions, at higher temperatures. When the ion diffusion channel was opened by a temperature increase or ultrasound, ions diffused through the CNT membranes at a rate similar to bulk diffusion in water. This finding may have implications for using CNT membrane for desalination and water treatment. PMID:20504021

  3. Gated ion transport through dense carbon nanotube membranes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Funke, Hans H; Falconer, John L; Noble, Richard D

    2010-06-23

    Gated ion diffusion is found widely in hydrophobic biological nanopores, upon changes in ligand binding, temperature, transmembrane voltage, and mechanical stress. Because water is the main media for ion diffusion in these hydrophobic biological pores, ion diffusion behavior through these nanochannels is expected to be influenced significantly when water wettability in hydrophobic biological nanopores is sensitive and changes upon small external changes. Here, we report for the first time that ion diffusion through highly hydrophobic nanopores (approximately 3 nm) showed a gated behavior due to change of water wettability on hydrophobic surface upon small temperature change or ultrasound. Dense carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes with both 3-nm CNTs and 3-nm interstitial pores were prepared by a solvent evaporation process and used as a model system to investigate ion diffusion behavior. Ion diffusion through these membranes exhibited a gated behavior. The ion flux was turned on and off, apparently because the water wettability of CNTs changed. At 298 K, ion diffusion through dense CNT membranes stopped after a few hours, but it dramatically increased when the temperature was increased 20 K or the membrane was subjected to ultrasound. Likewise, water adsorption on dense CNT membranes increased dramatically at a water activity of 0.53 when the temperature increased from 293 to 306 K, indicating capillary condensation. Water adsorption isotherms of dense CNT membranes suggest that the adsorbed water forms a discontinuous phase at 293 K, but it probably forms a continuous layer, probably in the interstitial CNT regions, at higher temperatures. When the ion diffusion channel was opened by a temperature increase or ultrasound, ions diffused through the CNT membranes at a rate similar to bulk diffusion in water. This finding may have implications for using CNT membrane for desalination and water treatment.

  4. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, J. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bruning, H.; Ter Heijne, A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density.

  5. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  6. Effect of radial plasma transport at the magnetic throat on axial ion beam formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Correlation between radial plasma transport and formation of an axial ion beam has been investigated in a helicon plasma reactor implemented with a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle. The plasma discharge is sustained under a high magnetic field mode and a low magnetic field mode for which the electron energy probability function, the plasma density, the plasma potential, and the electron temperature are measured at the magnetic throat, and the two field modes show different radial parametric behaviors. Although an axial potential drop occurs in the plasma source for both field modes, an ion beam is only observed in the high field mode while not in the low field mode. The transport of energetic ions is characterized downstream of the plasma source using the delimited ion current and nonlocal ion current. A decay of ion beam strength is also observed in the diffusion chamber.

  7. Theory of ion transport with fast acid-base equilibrations in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, J E; Biesheuvel, P M; Bruning, H; Ter Heijne, A

    2014-07-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems recover valuable components and energy in the form of hydrogen or electricity from aqueous organic streams. We derive a one-dimensional steady-state model for ion transport in a bioelectrochemical system, with the ions subject to diffusional and electrical forces. Since most of the ionic species can undergo acid-base reactions, ion transport is combined in our model with infinitely fast ion acid-base equilibrations. The model describes the current-induced ammonia evaporation and recovery at the cathode side of a bioelectrochemical system that runs on an organic stream containing ammonium ions. We identify that the rate of ammonia evaporation depends not only on the current but also on the flow rate of gas in the cathode chamber, the diffusion of ammonia from the cathode back into the anode chamber, through the ion exchange membrane placed in between, and the membrane charge density. PMID:25122405

  8. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  9. Diameter-dependent ion transport through the interior of isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonjoon; Ulissi, Zachary W; Shimizu, Steven F E; Bellisario, Darin O; Ellison, Mark D; Strano, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Nanopores that approach molecular dimensions demonstrate exotic transport behaviour and are theoretically predicted to display discontinuities in the diameter dependence of interior ion transport because of structuring of the internal fluid. No experimental study has been able to probe this diameter dependence in the 0.5-2 nm diameter regime. Here we observe a surprising fivefold enhancement of stochastic ion transport rates for single-walled carbon nanotube centered at a diameter of approximately 1.6 nm. An electrochemical transport model informed from literature simulations is used to understand the phenomenon. We also observe rates that scale with cation type as Li(+)>K(+)>Cs(+)>Na(+) and pore blocking extent as K(+)>Cs(+)>Na(+)>Li(+) potentially reflecting changes in hydration shell size. Across several ion types, the pore-blocking current and inverse dwell time are shown to scale linearly at low electric field. This work opens up new avenues in the study of transport effects at the nanoscale.

  10. Role for Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acid Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Erickson-Levendoski, Elizabeth; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2012-01-01

    Objective The vocal fold epithelium is routinely exposed to gastric contents, including acid and pepsin, during laryngopharyngeal reflux events. The epithelium may possess intrinsic defenses to reflux. The first objective of the current study was to examine whether vocal fold epithelial ion transport is one potential mechanism of defense to gastric contents. The second objective was to determine whether ion transport in response to gastric contents is associated with the secretion of bicarbonate. Study Design Prospective design in excised porcine larynges. Setting Laboratory. Subjects and Methods Porcine vocal folds (N = 56) were exposed on the luminal surface to acid, pepsin, or sham challenges. Ion transport at baseline and following challenge exposure was measured using electrophysiological techniques. To examine specific ion transport mechanisms, vocal folds were pretreated with either a sodium channel blocker or bicarbonate channel blocker. Results Within 60 seconds of acid but not pepsin exposure, there was a significant increase in ion transport. This rapid increase in ion transport was transient and related to bicarbonate secretion. Conclusion The current data suggest that porcine vocal folds immediately increase bicarbonate secretion following exposure to acid. Bicarbonate secretion may act to neutralize acid. These findings contribute to the identification of the mechanisms underlying vocal fold defense to reflux and offer implications for the development of treatments for reflux-induced vocal fold injury. PMID:22086905

  11. Transport of a multiple-ion species plasma in a collisionless regime in a bumpy torus

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, D.E.

    1984-04-01

    The ion neoclassical transport coefficient in a multiple ion species plasma in a bumpy torus are calculated in the low-collisionality regime. The poloidal electric field is calculated self-consistently with collisional electrons. Both pitch angle and energy scattering are included in the collision operator.

  12. Computational study of effect of water finger on ion transport through water-oil interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikkawa, Nobuaki; Wang, Lingjian; Morita, Akihiro

    2016-07-01

    When an ion transports from water to oil through water-oil interface, it accompanies hydrated water molecules and transiently forms a chain of water, called "water finger." We thoroughly investigated the role of the water finger in chloride ion transport through water-dichloromethane interface by using molecular dynamics technique. We developed a proper coordinate w to describe the water finger structure and calculated the free energy landscape and the friction for the ion transport as a function of ion position z and the water finger coordinate w. It is clearly shown that the formation and break of water finger accompanies an activation barrier for the ion transport, which has been overlooked in the conventional free energy curve along the ion position z. The present analysis of the friction does not support the hypothesis of augmented local friction (reduced local diffusion coefficient) at the interface. These results mean that the experimentally observed rate constants of interfacial ion transfer are reduced from the diffusion-limited one because of the activation barrier associated to the water finger, not the anomalous local diffusion. We also found that the nascent ion just after the break of water finger has excessive hydration water than that in the oil phase.

  13. Computational study of effect of water finger on ion transport through water-oil interface.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Nobuaki; Wang, Lingjian; Morita, Akihiro

    2016-07-01

    When an ion transports from water to oil through water-oil interface, it accompanies hydrated water molecules and transiently forms a chain of water, called "water finger." We thoroughly investigated the role of the water finger in chloride ion transport through water-dichloromethane interface by using molecular dynamics technique. We developed a proper coordinate w to describe the water finger structure and calculated the free energy landscape and the friction for the ion transport as a function of ion position z and the water finger coordinate w. It is clearly shown that the formation and break of water finger accompanies an activation barrier for the ion transport, which has been overlooked in the conventional free energy curve along the ion position z. The present analysis of the friction does not support the hypothesis of augmented local friction (reduced local diffusion coefficient) at the interface. These results mean that the experimentally observed rate constants of interfacial ion transfer are reduced from the diffusion-limited one because of the activation barrier associated to the water finger, not the anomalous local diffusion. We also found that the nascent ion just after the break of water finger has excessive hydration water than that in the oil phase. PMID:27394116

  14. Benchmark solutions for the galactic heavy-ion transport equations with energy and spatial coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic heavy ion transport equations in the straightahead approximation with energy and spatial coupling. Analytical representations of the ion fluxes are obtained for a variety of sources with the assumption that the nuclear interaction parameters are energy independent. The method utilizes an analytical LaPlace transform inversion to yield a closed form representation that is computationally efficient. The flux profiles are then used to predict ion dose profiles, which are important for shield design studies.

  15. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine affects sodium transport in toad epithelium.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, Mario; Mennickent, Sigrid; Norris, Beryl; Cardenas, Hernán

    2006-09-01

    The present work investigates the effects of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) on sodium transport in the isolated skin of the toad Pleurodema thaul. A submaximal concentration of the drug (0.2 mM) applied to the outer surface of the epithelium increased the electrical parameters short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) by over 28%, whereas only a higher concentration (1 mM) induced over a 45% decrease in these parameters when applied to the inner surface. The amiloride test showed that the outer surface stimulatory effect was accompanied by an increase and the inner surface inhibitory effect by a decrease in the sodium electromotive force (ENa). Exploration of these effects of CBZ on the outer surface showed that 0.2 mM increased net Na+ (22Na) influx by 20% and 0.6 mM CBZ decreased Na+ mucosa-serosa flux by 19%, a result in agreement with the finding that higher concentrations of CBZ applied to the inner surface not only decreased ENa but also sodium conductance (GNa). PMID:16542818

  16. A study of the physical-chemical mechanisms and variables which affect the transport of inorganic and organic heterogeneous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.A.; Zeltner, W.A.

    1990-07-01

    In order to model transport of dissolved ions in subsurface environments, one should understand how these ions interact with solid phase adsorbents. Our primary goal has been investigating the reaction mechanisms which affect microcontaminant partitioning between aqueous solutions and solid phase adsorbents, using goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) as a model adsorbent. Cylindrical internal reflection -- Fourier transform infrared (CIR-FTIR) spectroscopy has been developed as the primary technique for this study. Wet chemical adsorption studies, acoustophoresis and electrophoretic mobility have been used to obtain supporting information as needed. Phenol and o-nitrophenol did not adsorb to goethite. Benzoate, phthalate and p-hydroxybenzoate all adsorbed via a bidentate mechanism to two adjacent iron atoms, while salicylate and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate formed a chelate complex to single iron atoms. Phosphate adsorption was predominately bidentate.

  17. Electrophoretic Transport of Na(+) and K(+) Ions Within Cyclic Peptide Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Diaz, Jennifer A; Cagin, Tahir

    2016-08-18

    One of the most important applications of cyclic peptide nanotubes (CPNTs) is their potential to be used as artificial ion channels. Natural ion channels are large and complex membrane proteins, which are very expensive, difficult to isolate, and sensible to denaturation; for this reason, artificial ion channels are an important alternative, as they can be produced by simple and inexpensive synthetic chemistry paths, allowing manipulation of properties and enhancement of ion selectivity properties. Artificial ion channels can be used as component in molecular sensors and novel therapeutic agents. Here, the electrophoretic transport of Na(+) and K(+) ions within cyclic peptide nanotubes is investigated by using molecular dynamic simulations. The effect of electric field in the stability of peptide nanotubes was studied by calculating the root mean square deviation curves. Results show that the stability for CPNTs decreases for higher electric fields. Selective transport of cations within the hydrophilic tubes was observed and the negative Cl(-) ions did not enter the peptide nanotubes during the simulation. Radial distribution functions were calculated to describe structural properties and coordination numbers and changes in the first and second hydration shell were observed for the transport of Na(+) and K(+) inside of cyclic peptide nanotubes. However, no effect on coordination number was observed. Diffusion coefficients were calculated from the mean square deviation curves and the Na(+) ion showed higher mobility than the K(+) ion as observed in equivalent experimental studies. The values for diffusion coefficients are comparable with previous calculations in protein channels of equivalent sizes. PMID:27448165

  18. Correlation of Beam Transport Characteristics and Mass Resolving Power to Analyzing Magnet Pole Piece Wear in Axcelis HE Ion Implanters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ron; Schuur, John; Tysinger, Randy

    2008-11-01

    An investigation into odd analyzing magnet tuning behavior on an Axcelis HE ion implanter revealed a correlation to excessive wear on the analyzer magnet pole pieces. Though the lifetime is generally quite good, the pole pieces are internal to the beamline design and are exposed to and sputtered by the ion beam during mass analysis. This erosion of the pole piece surfaces affects beam focus and transport, especially for lower current ion beams. Eventually, automatic beam set-up fails altogether as the system is unable to locate the correct amu peak. It is important to understand and correct any deficiencies in pole piece condition as long-term neglect will eventually lead to process errors. Data is presented to illustrate good and bad pole piece condition and a method is suggested for non-invasive testing.

  19. Unraveling the mechanism of selective ion transport in hydrophobic subnanometer channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Francisco, Joseph S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Recently reported synthetic organic nanopore (SONP) can mimic a key feature of natural ion channels, i.e., selective ion transport. However, the physical mechanism underlying the K+/Na+ selectivity for the SONPs is dramatically different from that of natural ion channels. To achieve a better understanding of the selective ion transport in hydrophobic subnanometer channels in general and SONPs in particular, we perform a series of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the diffusivity of aqua Na+ and K+ ions in two prototype hydrophobic nanochannels: (i) an SONP with radius of 3.2 Å, and (ii) single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with radii of 3–5 Å (these radii are comparable to those of the biological potassium K+ channels). We find that the hydration shell of aqua Na+ ion is smaller than that of aqua K+ ion but notably more structured and less yielding. The aqua ions do not lower the diffusivity of water molecules in CNTs, but in SONP the diffusivity of aqua ions (Na+ in particular) is strongly suppressed due to the rugged inner surface. Moreover, the aqua Na+ ion requires higher formation energy than aqua K+ ion in the hydrophobic nanochannels. As such, we find that the ion (K+ vs. Na+) selectivity of the (8, 8) CNT is ∼20× higher than that of SONP. Hence, the (8, 8) CNT is likely the most efficient artificial K+ channel due in part to its special interior environment in which Na+ can be fully solvated, whereas K+ cannot. This work provides deeper insights into the physical chemistry behind selective ion transport in nanochannels. PMID:26283377

  20. Electron Transport across Magnetic Filter in Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukano, Azusa; Ogasawara, Masatada

    2001-12-01

    Profiles of electron temperature and number density in a negative-ion source are investigated theoretically. Spatial dependence over the magnetic filter region is obtained using the equations of electron flux and electron heat flux that include the effect of interference of forces by the density gradient and temperature gradient. Due to the effect of the magnetic filter, temperature and density of the electron decrease from the source chamber to the extraction chamber, and the decrease depends on the magnitude of the magnetic flux. The effect of the magnetic filter on the production and destruction rates of the negative hydrogen ion is examined. The reaction rate for the dissociative attachment reaction which produces the negative hydrogen ion increases with the decrease of the electron temperature. However, the production rate per one vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule decreases with the decrease of electron density. On the other hand, the destruction probability of the negative ion by the electron detachment reaction decreases significantly by the decrease of the electron density and temperature. The magnetic filter does not enhance the production of the negative hydrogen ion, but it reduces the destruction of the negative ion because of the decrease of the electron density.

  1. Electromagnetic fields and anomalous transports in heavy-ion collisions—a pedagogical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The hot and dense matter generated in heavy-ion collisions may contain domains which are not invariant under P and CP transformations. Moreover, heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely strong magnetic fields as well as electric fields. The interplay between the electromagnetic field and triangle anomaly leads to a number of macroscopic quantum phenomena in these P- and CP-odd domains known as anomalous transports. The purpose of this article is to give a pedagogical review of various properties of the electromagnetic fields, the anomalous transport phenomena, and their experimental signatures in heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Radial transport of energetic ions in the presence of trapped electron mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, J.; Wang, W.; Ethier, S.; Manickam, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-11-15

    The nature of transport of hot ions is studied in the presence of microturbulence generated by the trapped electron mode in a Tokamak using massively parallel, first principle based global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation, and with the help of a passive tracer method. Passing and trapped hot ions are observed to exhibit inverse and inverse square scaling with energy, while those with isotropic pitch distribution are found to exhibit inverse dependence on energy. For all types of hot ions, namely, isotropic, passing, and trapped, the radial transport appears to be subdiffusive for the parameters considered.

  3. Metal ion transport quantified by ICP-MS in intact cells

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Julio A. Landero; Stiner, Cory A.; Radzyukevich, Tatiana L.; Heiny, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of ICP-MS to measure metal ion content in biological tissues offers a highly sensitive means to study metal-dependent physiological processes. Here we describe the application of ICP-MS to measure membrane transport of Rb and K ions by the Na,K-ATPase in mouse skeletal muscles and human red blood cells. The ICP-MS method provides greater precision and statistical power than possible with conventional tracer flux methods. The method is widely applicable to studies of other metal ion transporters and metal-dependent processes in a range of cell types and conditions. PMID:26838181

  4. Electromagnetic fields and anomalous transports in heavy-ion collisions-a pedagogical review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The hot and dense matter generated in heavy-ion collisions may contain domains which are not invariant under P and CP transformations. Moreover, heavy-ion collisions can generate extremely strong magnetic fields as well as electric fields. The interplay between the electromagnetic field and triangle anomaly leads to a number of macroscopic quantum phenomena in these P- and CP-odd domains known as anomalous transports. The purpose of this article is to give a pedagogical review of various properties of the electromagnetic fields, the anomalous transport phenomena, and their experimental signatures in heavy-ion collisions.

  5. Transport of Helium Pickup Ions within the Focusing Cone: Reconciling STEREO Observations with IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. R.; Schwadron, N. A.; Möbius, E.

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations of the pickup helium focusing cone by STEREO/Plasma and Suprathermal Ion Composition indicate an inflow longitude of the interstellar wind that differs from the observations of IBEX by 1\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8+/- 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 4. It has been under debate whether the transport of helium pickup ions with an anisotropic velocity distribution is the cause of this difference. If so, the roughly field-aligned pickup ion streaming relative to the solar wind should create a shift in the pickup ion density relative to the focusing cone. A large pickup ion streaming depends on the size of the mean free path. Therefore, the observed longitudinal shift in the pickup ion density relative to the neutral focusing cone may carry fundamental information about the mean free path experienced by pickup ions inside 1 au. We test this hypothesis using the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Module (EPREM) model by simulating the transport of helium pickup ions within the focusing cone finding a mean free path of {λ }\\parallel =0.19+0.29(-0.19) au. We calculate the average azimuthal velocity of pickup ions and find that the anisotropic distribution reaches ˜8% of the solar wind speed. Lastly, we isolate transport effects within EPREM, finding that pitch-angle scattering, adiabatic focusing, perpendicular diffusion, and particle drift contribute to shifting the focusing cone 20.00%, 69.43%, 10.56%, and \\lt 0.01 % , respectively. Thus we show with the EPREM model that the transport of pickup ions does indeed shift the peak of the focusing cone relative to the progenitor neutral atoms and this shift provides fundamental information on the scattering of pickup ions inside 1 au.

  6. Ab initio transport coefficients of Ar+ ions in Ar for cold plasma jet modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicheportiche, A.; Lepetit, B.; Gadéa, F. X.; Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.; Kalus, R.

    2014-06-01

    Collision cross sections and transport coefficients are calculated for Ar+ ions, in the ground state 2P3/2 and in the metastable state 2P1/2, colliding with their parent gas. Differential and integral collision cross sections are obtained using a numerical integration of the nuclear Schrödinger equation for several published interaction potentials. The Cohen-Schneider semi-empirical model is used for the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction. The corresponding differential collision cross sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code to calculate the ion transport coefficients for each initial ion state over a wide range of reduced electric field. Ion swarm data results are then compared with available experimental data for different proportions of ions in each state. This allows us to identify the most reliable interaction potential which reproduces ion transport coefficients falling within the experimental error bars. Such ion transport data will be used in electrohydrodynamic and chemical kinetic models of the low temperature plasma jet to quantify and to tune the active species production for a better use in biomedical applications.

  7. Ion transport in the upper ionospheres of Mars and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fränz, M.; Dubinin, E.; Nielsen, E.; Angsmann, A.; Woch, J.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.; Fedorov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The upper ionospheres of Mars and Venus are permeated by the magnetic fields induced by the solar wind. It is a long-standing question wether these fields can put the dense ionospheric plasma into motion. If so, the cross-terminator flow of the upper ionosphere could explain a significant part of the ion escape from the planets atmospheres. But it has been technically very challenging to measure the ion flow at energies below 20eV. The only such measurements have been made by the ORPA instrument of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter reporting speeds of 1-5km/s for O+ ions at Venus above 300km altitude at the terminator (Knudsen et al, GRL 1982). Since these observations could never be confirmed by other instruments they have been debated. We here report on new measurements of the cross-terminator ion flow by the ASPERA 3 and 4 experiments onboard Mars and Venus Express with support from the MARSIS radar experiment which confirm O+ flow speeds of around 6km/s with fluxes of 1.2 ṡ 109/cm2s (for Mars). We discuss the implication of these new observation for ion escape and possible extensions of the analysis to dayside observations which might allow us to infer the flow structure imposed by the induced magnetic field.

  8. Effects of orbit squeezing on ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaing, K. C.; Hazeltine, R. D.

    1992-08-01

    It is shown that ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks is reduced in the presence of a strong shear in the radial electric field Er , as is often observed in the edge region. For simplicity, the ordering with ρpi‖d ln Er /dr‖ ≫ 1 but c‖Er‖/Bpvti < 1 is adopted. Here, ρpi is the ion poloidal gyroradius, Bp is the poloidal magnetic field strength, vti is the ion thermal speed, and c is the speed of light. A kinetic transport theory similar to those for bumpy tori and stellarators is developed to show that the ion thermal conductivity χi is reduced by a factor of roughly S-3/2, where S = 1 - (ρpi d ln Er /dr)(cEr Bpvti). The result reflects more than simple orbit squeezing: The fraction of trapped ions is also modified by S.

  9. Real space mapping of Li-ion transport in amorphous Si anodes with nanometer resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, N.; Jesse, S.; Kim, Y.; Adamczyk, L.; Tselev, A.; Ivanov, I.; Dudney, N. J.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2010-09-08

    The electrical bias driven Li-ion motion in silicon anode materials in thin film battery heterostructures is investigated using electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), which is a newly developed scanning probe microscopy based characterization method. ESM utilizes the intrinsic link between bias-controlled Li-ion concentration and molar volume of electrode materials, providing the capability for studies on the sub-20 nm scale, and allows the relationship between Li-ion flow and microstructure to be established. The evolution of Li-ion transport during the battery charging is directly observed.

  10. Role of ion density in growth, transport, and morphology of nanoparticles generated in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Kil Byoung; Choe, Wonho

    2012-08-01

    Spatial distribution, growth, and morphology of the nanoparticle were investigated in the plasmas with relatively low and high ion densities. Our experimental results reveal that cauliflower-shaped amorphous nanoparticles are dominantly distributed throughout the entire plasma in the low ion density plasma while spherical crystalline particles are spread near the plasma edge in the high ion density plasma. Only agglomeration growth step of the nanoparticles was observed without molecular accretion growth step in the high density plasma. Based on the experimental and numerical results, the role of ion density in the growth mechanism and transport of the nanoparticles is discussed.

  11. Role of transportation in the persuasion process: cognitive and affective responses to antidrug narratives.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined transportation effects of first- and third-person narratives as well as the role of transportation in the persuasion process. In particular, the authors evaluated the role of transportation in affecting cognitive and affective responses. Last, they addressed the relation between (a) cognitive and affective responses and (b) antidrug expectancies. Participants were 500 undergraduate students at a large northern university in the United Kingdom who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: first- or third-person narratives on cocaine use. The results demonstrated that there was no difference between first- and third-person narratives in terms of transportation. However, overall, greater transportation was associated with more favorable cognitive responses, and more favorable cognitive response was associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. In terms of affective responses, results indicated the mediating role of sadness and contentment in the association between transportation and anticocaine expectancies. In particular, increased transportation was associated with greater sadness and lower contentment. Lower sadness and contentment were associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. Important theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.

  12. Chamber transport of ''foot'' pulses for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.

    2002-02-20

    Indirect-drive targets for heavy-ion fusion must initially be heated by ''foot'' pulses that precede the main heating pulses by tens of nanoseconds. These pulses typically have a lower energy and perveance than the main pulses, and the fusion-chamber environment is different from that seen by later pulses. The preliminary particle-in-cell simulations of foot pulses here examine the sensitivity of the beam focusing to ion-beam perveance, background-gas density, and pre-neutralization by a plasma near the chamber entry port.

  13. Studies on Molecular and Ion Transport in Silicalite Membranes and Applications as Ion Separator for Redox Flow Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruidong

    Microporous zeolite membranes have been widely studied for molecular separations based on size exclusion or preferential adsorption-diffusion mechanisms. The MFI-type zeolite membranes were also demonstrated for brine water desalination by molecular sieving effect. In this research, the pure silica MFI-type zeolite (i.e. silicalite) membrane has been for the first time demonstrated for selective permeation of hydrated proton (i.e. H3O+) in acidic electrolyte solutions. The silicalite membrane allows for permeation of H 3O+ ions, but is inaccessible to the large hydrated multivalent vanadium ions due to steric effect. The silicalite membrane has been further demonstrated as an effective ion separator in the all-vanadium redox flow battery (RFB).The silicalite is nonionic and its proton conductivity relies on the electric field-driven H3O+ transport through the sub nanometer-sized pores under the RFB operation conditions. The silicalite membrane displayed a significantly reduced self-discharge rate because of its high proton-to-vanadium ion transport selectivity. However, the nonionic nature of the silicalite membrane and very small diffusion channel size render low proton conductivity and is therefore inefficient as ion exchange membranes (IEMs) for practical applications. The proton transport efficiency may be improved by reducing the membrane thickness. However, the zeolite thin films are extremely fragile and must be supported on mechanically strong and rigid porous substrates. In this work, silicalite-Nafion composite membranes were synthesized to achieve a colloidal silicalite skin on the Nafion thin film base. The "colloidal zeolite-ionic polymer" layered composite membrane combines the advantages of high proton-selectivity of the zeolite layer and the mechanical flexibility and low proton transport resistance of the ionic polymer membrane. The composite membrane exhibited higher proton/vanadium ion separation selectivity and lower electrical resistance than

  14. Regulation of Intestinal Glucose Absorption by Ion Channels and Transporters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihong; Tuo, Biguang; Dong, Hui

    2016-01-14

    The absorption of glucose is electrogenic in the small intestinal epithelium. The major route for the transport of dietary glucose from intestinal lumen into enterocytes is the Na⁺/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), although glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) may also play a role. The membrane potential of small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) is important to regulate the activity of SGLT1. The maintenance of membrane potential mainly depends on the activities of cation channels and transporters. While the importance of SGLT1 in glucose absorption has been systemically studied in detail, little is currently known about the regulation of SGLT1 activity by cation channels and transporters. A growing line of evidence suggests that cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]cyt) can regulate the absorption of glucose by adjusting GLUT2 and SGLT1. Moreover, the absorption of glucose and homeostasis of Ca(2+) in IEC are regulated by cation channels and transporters, such as Ca(2+) channels, K⁺ channels, Na⁺/Ca(2+) exchangers, and Na⁺/H⁺ exchangers. In this review, we consider the involvement of these cation channels and transporters in the regulation of glucose uptake in the small intestine. Modulation of them may be a potential strategy for the management of obesity and diabetes.

  15. Ion and Electron Transport in an Nstar-derivative Ion Thruster. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion of electrons and ions to anode surfaces between the magnetic cusps of a NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness ion thruster has been characterized. Ion flux measurements were made at the anode and at the screen grid electrode. The measurements indicated that the average ion current density at the anode and at the screen grid were approximately equal. Additionally, it was found that the electron flux to the anode between cusps is best described by the classical cross-field diffusion coefficient.

  16. Inter-cusp Ion and Electron Transport in a Nstar-derivative Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2001-01-01

    Diffusion of electrons and ions to anode surfaces between the magnetic cusps of a NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness ion thruster has been characterized. Ion flux measurements were made at the anode and at the screen grid electrode. The measurements indicated that the average ion current density at the anode and at the screen grid were approximately equal. Additionally, it was found that the electron flux to the anode between cusps is best described by the classical cross-field diffusion coefficient.

  17. Influence of pressurized anode chamber on ion transports and power generation of UF membrane microbial fuel cells (UF-MFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Yang, Euntae; Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, In S.

    2015-04-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane integrated microbial fuel cell (UF-MFC) has developed to produce high-quality effluents by integrating the membrane filtration process into the MFC system. During UF-MFC operation, however, unexpected power reductions were observed under different pressures that were applied in the anode chamber (22.0% and 25.5% at 0.7 bar and 2.1 bar, respectively). It was hypothesized that those of power reductions might occur due to the limitation of ion transport across the UF membrane- which could be caused by the pressurized anode chamber to filter the anode solution through the UF membrane. A test with a NaCl concentrated cathode solution showed few dissolved ions being transported from the cathode to anode chamber while the pressure was being applied in the anode chamber. This result clearly indicates that the limitation of ion transport from the cathode to the pressurized anode chamber is a significant factor affecting the power density of UF-MFCs, even more so than water permeation through the UF membrane.

  18. Relationship between Microtubule Network Structure and Intracellular Transport in Cultured Endothelial Cells Affected by Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Susumu; Ikezawa, Kenji; Ikeda, Mariko; Tanishita, Kazuo

    Endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner surface of blood vessels are barriers to the transport of various substances into or from vessel walls, and are continuously exposed to shear stress induced by blood flow in vivo. Shear stress affects the cytoskeleton (e.g., microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments), and affects the transport of macromolecules. Here, the relationship between the microtubule network structure and this transport process for albumin uptake within cultured aortic endothelial cells affected by shear stress was studied. Based on fluorescent images of albumin uptake obtained by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), both the microtubule network and albumin uptake in ECs were disrupted by colchicine and were affected by shear stress loading.

  19. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  20. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  1. Modeling Transport of Secondary Ion Fragments into a Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmenhoven, J.; Demarche, J.; Palitsin, V.; Kirkby, K. J.; Webb, R. P.

    The Surrey Ion Beam Centre was awarded the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) grant for "Promoting Cross Disciplinary Research: Engineering and Physical Sciences and Social Sciences" allowing continued research into the characteristics of desorption of secondary ions by the impact of fast primary ions in the ambient pressure at the sub-micron scale. To carry out this research a new beamline has been constructed consisting of a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer combined with the current 2MV Tandem accelerator. This research has already returned many significant results such as the first simultaneous SIMS, PIXE and RBS measurement preformed on an organic sample in vacuum. However, further optimization and validation of the new beamline is still being worked on. This work focuses on the optimization of the end station geometry to allow for high sensitivity ambient pressure measurements. It is concluded that a common geometry can be adopted for a wide variety of smooth samples to ensure optimum sensitivity provided a hard edge of the sample can be found to place the mass spectrometer capillary near.

  2. Target Promiscuity and Heterogeneous Effects of Tarantula Venom Peptides Affecting Na+ and K+ Ion Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Redaelli, Elisa; Cassulini, Rita Restano; Silva, Deyanira Fuentes; Clement, Herlinda; Schiavon, Emanuele; Zamudio, Fernando Z.; Odell, George; Arcangeli, Annarosa; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Alagón, Alejandro; de la Vega, Ricardo C. Rodríguez; Possani, Lourival D.; Wanke, Enzo

    2010-01-01

    Venom-derived peptide modulators of ion channel gating are regarded as essential tools for understanding the molecular motions that occur during the opening and closing of ion channels. In this study, we present the characterization of five spider toxins on 12 human voltage-gated ion channels, following observations about the target promiscuity of some spider toxins and the ongoing revision of their “canonical” gating-modifying mode of action. The peptides were purified de novo from the venom of Grammostola rosea tarantulas, and their sequences were confirmed by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis. Their effects on seven tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channels, the three human ether-à-go-go (hERG)-related K+ channels, and two human Shaker-related K+ channels were extensively characterized by electrophysiological techniques. All the peptides inhibited ion conduction through all the Na+ channels tested, although with distinctive patterns. The peptides also affected the three pharmaceutically relevant hERG isoforms differently. At higher concentrations, all peptides also modified the gating of the Na+ channels by shifting the activation to more positive potentials, whereas more complex effects were recorded on hERG channels. No effects were evident on the two Shaker-related K+ channels at concentrations well above the IC50 value for the affected channels. Given the sequence diversity of the tested peptides, we propose that tarantula toxins should be considered both as multimode and target-promiscuous ion channel modulators; both features should not be ignored when extracting mechanistic interpretations about ion channel gating. Our observations could also aid in future structure-function studies and might help the development of novel ion channel-specific drugs. PMID:19955179

  3. Design and Characterization of a Neutralized-Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, E; Eylon, S; Roy, P; Yu, S S; Anders, A; Bieniosek, F M; Greenway, W G; Logan, B G; MacGill, R A; Shuman, D B; Vanecek, D L; Waldron, W L; Sharp, W M; Houck, T L; Davidson, R C; Efthimion, P C; Gilson, E P; Sefkow, A B; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2004-05-24

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, a converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present the first results from the experiment.

  4. Design and characterization of a neutralized-transport experiment for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Sharp, W.M.; Houck, T.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Sefkow, A.B.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2004-03-14

    In heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the fusion chamber to hit millimeter-sized spots on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams in this final transport is essential for a heavy-ion fusion power plant to be economically competitive. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with particle-in-cell simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX). The experiment consists of three main sections, each with its own physics issues. The injector is designed to generate a very high-brightness, space-charge-dominated potassium beam while still allowing variable perveance by a beam aperturing technique. The magnetic-focusing section, consisting of four pulsed magnetic quadrupoles, permits the study of beam tuning, as well as the effects of phase space dilution due to higher-order nonlinear fields. In the final section, the converging ion beam exiting the magnetic section is transported through a drift region with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we discuss the design and characterization of the three sections in detail and present initial results from the experiment.

  5. Visualization and quantification of transmembrane ion transport into giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Valkenier, Hennie; López Mora, Néstor; Kros, Alexander; Davis, Anthony P

    2015-02-01

    Transmembrane ion transporters (ionophores) are widely investigated as supramolecular agents with potential for biological activity. Tests are usually performed in synthetic membranes that are assembled into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). However transport must be followed through bulk properties of the vesicle suspension, because LUVs are too small for individual study. An alternative approach is described whereby ion transport can be revealed and quantified through direct observation. The method employs giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), which are 20-60 μm in diameter and readily imaged by light microscopy. This allows characterization of individual GUVs containing transporter molecules, followed by studies of transport through fluorescence emission from encapsulated indicators. The method provides new levels of certainty and relevance, given that the GUVs are similar in size to living cells. It has been demonstrated using a highly active anion carrier, and should aid the development of compounds for treating channelopathies such as cystic fibrosis.

  6. Ion temperature profile simulation of JT-60 and TFTR plasmas with ion temperature gradient mode transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, H.; Hirayama, T.; Koide, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Naito, O.; Sato, M.; Fukuda, T.; Sugie, T.; Azumi, M.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Scott, S. D.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Johnson, D. W.; Mansfield, D. K.; Park, H. K.; Stratton, B. C.; Synakowski, E. J.; Taylor, G.; Towner, H. H.

    1994-05-01

    Ion temperature profiles of neutral beam heated plasmas in JT-60 and TFTR have been simulated using models of ion thermal diffusivity, χi, based on ion temperature gradient mode (ηi mode) turbulence and drift wave turbulence (trapped electron mode and circulating electron mode). The ion temperature profiles measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy are compared to predicted Ti profiles calculated from three theoretical models for ion heat transport by Dominguez and Waltz (1987), Lee and Diamond (1986), and Romanelli (1989). All three χi models can reproduce the measured Ti profile over a wide range of parameters in JT-60 L mode plasmas, except for two 1 MA limiter cases. With the use of transport models, which were adjusted to fit JT-60 plasmas, it was found that the Dominguez and Waltz and Romanelli models agree with measured Ti, profiles in TFTR L mode discharges in the region a/4 < r < a/2. The observed central peaking of Ti near the magnetic axis of TFTR L mode plasmas cannot be reproduced. It was found that the Lee and Diamond model does not fit me data as well. The χi models studied cannot consistently reproduce the measured Ti in the peripheral region of either JT-60 or TFTR plasmas. In the high ion temperature (high Ti) plasmas of JT-60 and supershot plasmas of TFTR, the predicted Ti profiles are much broader than the measured profile. In supershot plasmas, the measured central ion temperature greatly exceeds the predicted temperature, although there is reasonable agreement near the edge

  7. Ion transport in polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes: Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Tarek Rafic

    Diffusion of ions across thin membranes, whether polymeric or biological, is diverse and important field in science. In separation science, thin polymer films have potential application in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this dissertation, ion transport on a recently discovered polymer thin films known as polyelectrolyte multilayer films is investigated. Unexpectedly, a polyelectrolyte multilayer membrane behaved unlike classical membranes and a new mechanism termed the "reluctant exchange" was proposed to explain their behavior. Ion transport in these membranes was studied electrochemically, using the rotating disc electrode voltammetry technique, to obtain flux characteristic of at least ten electroactive species The flux through membranes was found to be either a linear or nonlinear function of electrolyte concentration depending on the charge, the resonance form, and the membrane diffusion coefficient of the electroactive ion. The "reluctant exchange" lead to significant transport selectivity between ions, favoring species with lower charge. A triangular relation was established between the electroactive probe ions, the polyelectrolyte ion pair exchangers, and a variety of supporting electrolytes. In certain cases a blocking effect was detected, which was harnessed to study the effectiveness of these films at inhibiting pitting corrosion of stainless steel. Experimental analysis was extended to include in situ Attenuated Total Internal Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy that verified the linear dependence of the population of extrinsic sites and the independence of the concentration of the probe ions on the concentration of the external salt solution. Finally, owing to the difficulty of detecting the hops of active probe ions across the ion pair exchangers, a theoretical approach was proposed to understand the molecular dynamics of the "reluctant exchange" mechanism. A visualization of ion transport across the polyelectrolyte

  8. Controlling FAMA by the Ptolemy II model of ion beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Rađenović, B.; Beličev, P.; Nešković, N.

    2009-08-01

    FAMA is a facility for modification and analysis of materials with ion beams. Due to the wide range of ion beams and energies used in the facility and its future expansion, the need has arisen for faster tuning of ion beams transport control parameters. With this aim, a new approach to modeling ion-beam transport system was developed, based on the Ptolemy II modeling and design framework. A model in Ptolemy II is a hierarchical aggregation of components called actors, which communicate with other actors using tokens, or pieces of data. Each ion optical element is modeled by a composite actor implementing beam matrix transformation function, while tokens carry beam matrix data. A basic library of models of typical ion optical elements is developed, and a complex model of FAMA ion beam transport system is hierarchically integrated with bottom-up approach. The model is extended to include control functions. The developed model is modular, flexible and extensible. The results obtained by simulation on the model demonstrate easy and efficient tuning of beam line control parameters. Fine tuning of control parameters, due to uncertainties inherent to modeling, still has to be performed on-line.

  9. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  10. Ion transport and selectivity in biomimetic nanopores with pH-tunable zwitterionic polyelectrolyte brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhenping; Yeh, Li-Hsien; Zhang, Mingkan; Qian, Shizhi

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by nature, functionalized nanopores with biomimetic structures have attracted growing interests in using them as novel platforms for applications of regulating ion and nanoparticle transport. To improve these emerging applications, we study theoretically for the first time the ion transport and selectivity in short nanopores functionalized with pH tunable, zwitterionic polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes. In addition to background salt ions, the study takes into account the presence of H+ and OH- ions along with the chemistry reactions between functional groups on PE chains and protons. Due to ion concentration polarization, the charge density of PE layers is not homogeneously distributed and depends significantly on the background salt concentration, pH, grafting density of PE chains, and applied voltage bias, thereby resulting in many interesting and unexpected ion transport phenomena in the nanopore. For example, the ion selectivity of the biomimetic nanopore can be regulated from anion-selective (cation-selective) to cation-selective (anion-selective) by diminishing (raising) the solution pH when a sufficiently small grafting density of PE chains, large voltage bias, and low background salt concentration are applied.

  11. Characterizing Critical Gradient Threshold for Alfvén Eigenmode Induced Fast-Ion Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C. S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D indicate a sudden increase in fast-ion transport in the presence of many simultaneous Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) at a threshold in neutral beam power. The threshold is beyond the AE linear stability limit and appears to differ between various fast-ion diagnostics, indicating phase-space dependent transport. Above threshold, transport becomes stiff, resulting in virtually unchanged fast-ion density profiles despite increased beam drive. In the experiment, a beam power scan (2-9 MW) varies AE activity, while the fast-ion pressure profile is modulated using an off-axis neutral beam. Measurements of the fast-ion density evolution are used to infer flux. Fast-ion D α (FIDA) spectroscopy indicates the peak of the modulated fast-ion flux is localized to mid-core radii, corresponding to the radial location of AEs. These measurements facilitate numerical model validation studies, giving greater confidence in predicting the fusion alpha density profiles and losses in future burning plasma devices. Work supported by the US DOE under SC-G903402 & DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  12. Epithelial Ion Transporters: A Physiological Model for Ion Effects on Freshwater Animals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical ions in freshwater animals are regulated in part by uptake from water through ionocytes on the gills or other epithelia. An ionoregulation literature review suggests a mechanism for adverse effects on freshwater animals is ion uptake inhibition associated with either ex...

  13. High current heavy ion beam transport experiment at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Hartwig, E.C.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Pike, C.; Rosenblum, S.S.; Tiefenback, M.; Vanecek, D.; Warwick, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Information on the current limit in a long quadrupole transport channel is required in designing an accelerator driver for an inertial confinement fusion system. Although a current transport limit was proposed by Maschke, quantitative estimates require a detailed knowledge of the stability of the beam. Analytic calculations based on the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution function have identified transversely unstable modes, but particle simulations have shown that some of the K-V instabilities are benign, i.e., particles redistribute themselves in the 4-D transverse phase space, but the rms emittances do not grow. Some preliminary results of beam transport experiments were reported in the 1983 Particle Accelerator Conference in Santa Fe.

  14. A multi-substrate single-file model for ion-coupled transporters.

    PubMed Central

    Su, A; Mager, S; Mayo, S L; Lester, H A

    1996-01-01

    Ion-coupled transporters are simulated by a model that differs from contemporary alternating-access schemes. Beginning with concepts derived from multi-ion pores, the model assumes that substrates (both inorganic ions and small organic molecules) hop a) between the solutions and binding sites and b) between binding sites within a single-file pore. No two substrates can simultaneously occupy the same site. Rate constants for hopping can be increased both a) when substrates in two sites attract each other into a vacant site between them and b) when substrates in adjacent sites repel each other. Hopping rate constants for charged substrates are also modified by the membrane field. For a three-site model, simulated annealing yields parameters to fit steady-state measurements of flux coupling, transport-associated currents, and charge movements for the GABA transporter GAT1. The model then accounts for some GAT1 kinetic data as well. The model also yields parameters that describe the available data for the rat 5-HT transporter and for the rabbit Na(+)-glucose transporter. The simulations show that coupled fluxes and other aspects of ion transport can be explained by a model that includes local substrate-substrate interactions but no explicit global conformational changes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 9 PMID:8789093

  15. Transport of ions in presence of induced electric field and electrostatic turbulence - Source of ions injected into ring current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cladis, J. B.; Francis, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of ions from the polar ionosphere to the inner magnetosphere during stormtime conditions has been computed using a Monte Carlo diffusion code. The effect of the electrostatic turbulence assumed to be present during the substorm expansion phase was simulated by a process that accelerated the ions stochastically perpendicular to the magnetic field with a diffusion coefficient proportional to the energization rate of the ions by the induced electric field. This diffusion process was continued as the ions were convected from the plasma sheet boundary layer to the double-spiral injection boundary. Inward of the injection boundary, the ions were convected adiabatically. By using as input an O(+) flux of 2.8 x 10 to the 8th per sq cm per s (w greater than 10 eV) and an H(+) flux of 5.5 x 10 to the 8th per sq cm per s (w greater than 0.63 eV), the computed distribution functions of the ions in the ring current were found to be in good agreement, over a wide range in L (4 to 8), with measurements made with the ISEE-1 satellite during a storm. This O(+) flux and a large part of the H(+) flux are consistent with the DE satellite measurements of the polar ionospheric outflow during disturbed times.

  16. Time-dependent ion transport in heterogeneous permselective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Yoav; Yossifon, Gilad

    2015-06-01

    The current study extends previous analytical and numerical solutions of chronopotentiometric response of one-dimensional systems consisting of three layers to the more realistic two-dimensional (2D) heterogeneous ion-permselective medium. An analytical solution for the transient concentration-polarization problem, under the local electroneutrality approximation and assumption of ideal permselectivity, was obtained using the Laplace transform and separation of variables technique. Then the 2D electric potential was obtained numerically and was compared to the full Poisson-Nernst-Planck solution. It was then shown that the resultant voltage drop across the system varies between the initial Ohmic response and that of the steady state accounting for concentration polarization. Also, the field-focusing effect in a 2D system is shown to result in a faster depletion of ions at the permselective interface.

  17. Ion channels and drug transporters as targets for anthelmintics

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Infections with parasitic helminths such as schistosomes and soil-transmitted nematodes are hugely prevalent and responsible for a major portion of the global health and economic burdens associated with neglected tropical diseases. In addition, many of these parasites infect livestock and plants used in agriculture, resulting in further impoverishment. Treatment and control of these pathogens rely on anthelmintic drugs, which are few in number, and against which drug resistance can develop rapidly. The neuromuscular system of the parasite, and in particular, the ion channels and associated receptors underlying excitation and signaling, have proven to be outstanding targets for anthelmintics. This review will survey the different ion channels found in helminths, focusing on their unique characteristics and pharmacological sensitivities. It will also briefly review the literature on helminth multidrug efflux that may modulate parasite susceptibility to anthelmintics and may prove useful targets for new or repurposed agents that can enhance parasite drug susceptibility and perhaps overcome drug resistance. PMID:25554739

  18. Time-dependent ion transport in heterogeneous permselective systems.

    PubMed

    Green, Yoav; Yossifon, Gilad

    2015-06-01

    The current study extends previous analytical and numerical solutions of chronopotentiometric response of one-dimensional systems consisting of three layers to the more realistic two-dimensional (2D) heterogeneous ion-permselective medium. An analytical solution for the transient concentration-polarization problem, under the local electroneutrality approximation and assumption of ideal permselectivity, was obtained using the Laplace transform and separation of variables technique. Then the 2D electric potential was obtained numerically and was compared to the full Poisson-Nernst-Planck solution. It was then shown that the resultant voltage drop across the system varies between the initial Ohmic response and that of the steady state accounting for concentration polarization. Also, the field-focusing effect in a 2D system is shown to result in a faster depletion of ions at the permselective interface.

  19. Ion mobility and transport barriers in the tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.; Hazeltine, R.D. ); Zhang, Y.Z. ); Valanju, P.M. )

    1993-12-01

    The character of charged particle motion in an axisymmetric toroidal system with a constant radial electric field is investigated both analytically and numerically. Ion radial mobility caused by the combined effects of the radial electric field and charge exchange is found. A simple moment argument in the banana regime matches the simulation results well. Relation of present work and high confinement (H-mode) experiment is also discussed.

  20. Six tesla analyzing magnet for heavy-ion beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.P.; Bollinger, L.; Erskine, J.; Genens, L.; Hoffman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A superconducting analyzer magnet for particle beam deflection has been designed and is being fabricated for use at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). This six tesla magnet will provide 45/sup 0/ of deflection for the heavy-ion beams from the ATLAS tandem electrostatic accelerator and together with its twin will replace the existing conventional 90/sup 0/ analyzer magnet which will become inadequate when ATLAS is completed.

  1. Ion mobility and transport barriers in the tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, H.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Valanju, P.M.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    1993-06-01

    The character of charged particle motion in an axisymmetric toroidal system with a constant radial electric field is investigated both analytically and numerically. Ion radial mobility caused by the combined effects of the radial electric field and charge exchange is found. A simple moment argument in the banana regime matches the simulation results well. Relation of present work and high confinement (H-mode) experiment is also discussed.

  2. Anomalous Electron Transport Due to Multiple High Frequency Beam Ion Driven Alfven Eigenmode

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelenkov, N. N.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Boozer, A.; Delgardo-Aparicio, L.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; White, R.

    2010-07-13

    We report on the simulations of recently observed correlations of the core electron transport with the sub-thermal ion cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In order to model the electron transport of the guiding center code ORBIT is employed. A spectrum of test functions of multiple core localized Global shear Alfven Eigenmode (GAE) instabilities based on a previously developed theory and experimental observations is used to examine the electron transport properties. The simulations exhibit thermal electron transport induced by electron drift orbit stochasticity in the presence of multiple core localized GAE.

  3. Biochar pyrolyzed at two temperatures affects Escherichia coli transport through a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Carl H; Abit, Sergio M

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of biochar into soils has been proposed as a means to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. An added environmental benefit is that biochar has also been shown to increase soil retention of nutrients, heavy metals, and pesticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether biochar amendments affect the transport of Escherichia coli through a water-saturated soil. We looked at the transport of three E. coli isolates through 10-cm columns packed with a fine sandy soil amended with 2 or 10% (w/w) poultry litter biochar pyrolyzed at 350 or 700°C. For all three isolates, mixing the high-temperature biochar at a rate of 2% into the soil had no impact on transport behavior. When added at a rate of 10%, a reduction of five orders of magnitude in the amount of E. coli transported through the soil was observed for two of the isolates, and a 60% reduction was observed for the third isolate. Mixing the low-temperature biochar into the soil resulted in enhanced transport through the soil for two of the isolates, whereas no significant differences in transport behavior were observed between the low-temperature and high-temperature biochar amendments for one isolate. Our results show that the addition of biochar can affect the retention and transport behavior of E. coli and that biochar application rate, biochar pyrolysis temperature, and bacterial surface characteristics were important factors determining the transport of E. coli through our test soil. PMID:22218181

  4. Nanoparticle permeation induces water penetration, ion transport, and lipid flip-flop.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Yuan, Huajun; Pham, Sydney V; Jameson, Cynthia J; Murad, Sohail

    2012-12-11

    Nanoparticles are generally considered excellent candidates for targeted drug delivery. However, ion leakage and cytotoxicity induced by nanoparticle permeation is a potential problem in such drug delivery schemes because of the toxic effect of many ions. In this study, we have carried out a series of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the water penetration, ion transport, and lipid molecule flip-flop in a protein-free phospholipid bilayer membrane during nanoparticle permeation. The effect of ion concentration gradient, pressure differential across the membrane, nanoparticle size, and permeation velocity have been examined in this work. Some conclusions from our studies include (1) The number of water molecules in the interior of the membrane during the nanoparticle permeation increases with the nanoparticle size and the pressure differential across the membrane but is unaffected by the nanoparticle permeation velocity or the ion concentration gradient. (2) Ion transport is sensitive to the size of nanoparticle as well as the ion concentration gradient between two sides of the membrane; no anion/cation selectivity is observed for small nanoparticle permeation, while anions are preferentially translocated through the membrane when the size of nanoparticle is large enough. (3) Incidences of lipid molecule flip-flop increases with the size of nanoparticle and ion concentration gradient and decreases with the pressure differential and the nanoparticle permeation velocity.

  5. Significance of active ion transport in transalveolar water absorption: a study on isolated rat lung.

    PubMed

    Basset, G; Crone, C; Saumon, G

    1987-03-01

    1. Experiments were performed on isolated rat lungs perfused with Ringer solutions containing red cells. The goal was to clarify the role of active transport of Na+ for the absorption of fluid across the alveolar membrane, and to characterize active and passive pathways. 2. Partially degassed lungs were filled with 5 ml of an isotonic Ringer solution containing 125I-labelled albumin in order to calculate the fluid movement, and 22Na+ or 36Cl- for measurement of ion fluxes. Passive non-electrolyte permeability was determined in all experiments using [3H]mannitol. 3. The average rate of fluid absorption in phosphate-buffered instillates was 134 nl/s (S.E., 18.5; n = 14). With ouabain (10(-4) M) in the perfusate the fluid absorption rate fell to 57 nl/s (S.E., 8.2; n = 18). Amiloride (10(-3)-10(-4) M) in the instillate reduced the absorption to 75 nl/s (S.E., 8.6; n = 16). These results show that fluid absorption depends on transcellular transport of Na+ and that alveolar epithelial cells have a Na+ entry system in the luminal membrane and a Na+-K+ pump in the abluminal membrane. 4. The transcellular ion transport operates in parallel with a paracellular, passive leak that allows mannitol to pass with a permeability surface area product of 1.2 X 10(-4) ml/s, corresponding to a permeability coefficient of 2.4 X 10(-8) cm/s, assuming an alveolar surface area of 5000 cm2. 5. The passive fluxes of Na+ were 9.4 pmol/(cm2s) (S.E., 1.3; n = 25) in the direction from alveoli to perfusate and 8.0 pmol/(cm2s) (S.E., 0.86; n = 6) from perfusate to plasma. The passive fluxes of Cl- in the two directions were not significantly different either. Thus the transalveolar electrical potential difference is too small to affect ion movements measurably. 6. The passive permeability to Na+ was 6.7 X 10(-8) cm/s and to Cl- was 10.2 X 10(-8) cm/s (alveolar surface area assumed to be 5000 cm2). The ratio of the permeabilities is close to the ratio of the diffusion coefficients in free

  6. Pulse exposure of cultured rat neurons to aluminum-maltol affected the axonal transport system.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Y; Nakamura, Y; Miyamae, Y; Hashimoto, R; Takeda, M

    1998-08-01

    Although chronic aluminum neurotoxicity has been well established, the mechanism of the toxicity has not been elucidated yet. In order to simplify the study of the aluminum neurotoxicity, we employed the pulse exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to 250 microM aluminum-maltol for 1 h at the early stage (6 h after plating), which resulted in abnormal distribution of neurofilament L (NFL) and fast axonal transported proteins, whereas the axonal transport of tubulin, actin, and clathrin were not impaired. Otherwise, the pulse exposure of neurons at the late stage (4 days after plating) to the same concentration of aluminum-maltol did not affect the cell morphology and the distribution of NFL. The pulse exposure of cultured neurons to aluminum-maltol at the early stage might affect the axonal transport system of NFL and fast axonal transported proteins. PMID:9756345

  7. The active ion transport properties of canine lingual epithelia in vitro. Implications for gustatory transduction.

    PubMed

    Desimone, J A; Heck, G L; Mierson, S; Desimone, S K

    1984-05-01

    The electrophysiological properties of the dorsal and ventral canine lingual epithelium are studied in vitro. The dorsal epithelium contains a special ion transport system activated by mucosal solutions hyperosmotic in NaCl or LiCl. Hyperosmotic KCl is significantly less effective as an activator of this system. The lingual frenulum does not contain the transport system. In the dorsal surface it is characterized by a rapid increase in inward current and can be quantitated as a second component in the time course of either the open-circuit potential or short-circuit current when the mucosal solution is hyperosmotic in NaCl or LiCl. The increased inward current (hyperosmotic response) can be eliminated by amiloride (10(-4) M). The specific location of this transport system in the dorsal surface and the fact that it operates over the concentration range characteristic of mammalian salt taste suggests a possible link to gustatory transduction. This possibility is tested by recording neural responses in the rat to NaCl and KCl over a concentration range including the hyperosmotic. We demonstrate that amiloride specifically blocks the response to NaCl over the hyperosmotic range while affecting the KCl response significantly less. The results suggest that gustatory transduction for NaCl is mediated by Na entry into the taste cells via the same amiloride-sensitive pathway responsible for the hyperosmotic response in vitro. Further studies of the in vitro system give evidence for paracellular as well as transcellular current paths. The transmural current-voltage relations are linear under both symmetrical and asymmetrical conditions. After ouabain treatment under symmetrical conditions, the short-circuit current decays to zero. The increase in resistance, though significant, is small, which suggests a sizeable shunt pathway for current. Flux measurements show that sodium is absorbed under symmetrical conditions. Mucosal solutions hyperosmotic in various sugars also induce

  8. A Hierarchy of Transport Approximations for High Energy Heavy (HZE) Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Hamidullah, Farhat; Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of high energy heavy (HZE) ions through bulk materials is studied neglecting energy dependence of the nuclear cross sections. A three term perturbation expansion appears to be adequate for most practical applications for which penetration depths are less than 30 g per sq cm of material. The differential energy flux is found for monoenergetic beams and for realistic ion beam spectral distributions. An approximate formalism is given to estimate higher-order terms.

  9. Modeling Root Zone Effects on Preferred Pathways for the Passive Transport of Ions and Water in Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kylie J; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    We extend a model of ion and water transport through a root to describe transport along and through a root exhibiting a complexity of differentiation zones. Attention is focused on convective and diffusive transport, both radially and longitudinally, through different root tissue types (radial differentiation) and root developmental zones (longitudinal differentiation). Model transport parameters are selected to mimic the relative abilities of the different tissues and developmental zones to transport water and ions. For each transport scenario in this extensive simulations study, we quantify the optimal 3D flow path taken by water and ions, in response to internal barriers such as the Casparian strip and suberin lamellae. We present and discuss both transient and steady state results of ion concentrations as well as ion and water fluxes. We find that the peak in passive uptake of ions and water occurs at the start of the differentiation zone. In addition, our results show that the level of transpiration has a significant impact on the distribution of ions within the root as well as the rate of ion and water uptake in the differentiation zone, while not impacting on transport in the elongation zone. From our model results we infer information about the active transport of ions in the different developmental zones. In particular, our results suggest that any uptake measured in the elongation zone under steady state conditions is likely to be due to active transport. PMID:27446144

  10. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–Vmore » curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.« less

  11. Modeling Root Zone Effects on Preferred Pathways for the Passive Transport of Ions and Water in Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kylie J; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    We extend a model of ion and water transport through a root to describe transport along and through a root exhibiting a complexity of differentiation zones. Attention is focused on convective and diffusive transport, both radially and longitudinally, through different root tissue types (radial differentiation) and root developmental zones (longitudinal differentiation). Model transport parameters are selected to mimic the relative abilities of the different tissues and developmental zones to transport water and ions. For each transport scenario in this extensive simulations study, we quantify the optimal 3D flow path taken by water and ions, in response to internal barriers such as the Casparian strip and suberin lamellae. We present and discuss both transient and steady state results of ion concentrations as well as ion and water fluxes. We find that the peak in passive uptake of ions and water occurs at the start of the differentiation zone. In addition, our results show that the level of transpiration has a significant impact on the distribution of ions within the root as well as the rate of ion and water uptake in the differentiation zone, while not impacting on transport in the elongation zone. From our model results we infer information about the active transport of ions in the different developmental zones. In particular, our results suggest that any uptake measured in the elongation zone under steady state conditions is likely to be due to active transport.

  12. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–V curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.

  13. Modeling Root Zone Effects on Preferred Pathways for the Passive Transport of Ions and Water in Plant Roots

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Kylie J.; Miklavcic, Stanley J.

    2016-01-01

    We extend a model of ion and water transport through a root to describe transport along and through a root exhibiting a complexity of differentiation zones. Attention is focused on convective and diffusive transport, both radially and longitudinally, through different root tissue types (radial differentiation) and root developmental zones (longitudinal differentiation). Model transport parameters are selected to mimic the relative abilities of the different tissues and developmental zones to transport water and ions. For each transport scenario in this extensive simulations study, we quantify the optimal 3D flow path taken by water and ions, in response to internal barriers such as the Casparian strip and suberin lamellae. We present and discuss both transient and steady state results of ion concentrations as well as ion and water fluxes. We find that the peak in passive uptake of ions and water occurs at the start of the differentiation zone. In addition, our results show that the level of transpiration has a significant impact on the distribution of ions within the root as well as the rate of ion and water uptake in the differentiation zone, while not impacting on transport in the elongation zone. From our model results we infer information about the active transport of ions in the different developmental zones. In particular, our results suggest that any uptake measured in the elongation zone under steady state conditions is likely to be due to active transport. PMID:27446144

  14. Golgi Anti-apoptotic Proteins Are Highly Conserved Ion Channels That Affect Apoptosis and Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Guia; Saraiva, Nuno; Parsons, Maddy; Byrne, Bernadette; Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Golgi anti-apoptotic proteins (GAAPs) are multitransmembrane proteins that are expressed in the Golgi apparatus and are able to homo-oligomerize. They are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and are present in some prokaryotes and orthopoxviruses. Within eukaryotes, GAAPs regulate the Ca2+ content of intracellular stores, inhibit apoptosis, and promote cell adhesion and migration. Data presented here demonstrate that purified viral GAAPs (vGAAPs) and human Bax inhibitor 1 form ion channels and that vGAAP from camelpox virus is selective for cations. Mutagenesis of vGAAP, including some residues conserved in the recently solved structure of a related bacterial protein, BsYetJ, altered the conductance (E207Q and D219N) and ion selectivity (E207Q) of the channel. Mutation of residue Glu-207 or -178 reduced the effects of GAAP on cell migration and adhesion without affecting protection from apoptosis. In contrast, mutation of Asp-219 abrogated the anti-apoptotic activity of GAAP but not its effects on cell migration and adhesion. These results demonstrate that GAAPs are ion channels and define residues that contribute to the ion-conducting pore and affect apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration independently. PMID:25713081

  15. Transport toward earth of ions sputtered from the moon's surface by the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cladis, J. B.; Francis, W. E.; Vondrak, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The transport of typical ions from the surface of the Moon to the vicinity of Earth was calculated using a test particle approach. It was assumed that the ions were sputtered from the surface by the solar wind, with fluxes in the range determined experimentally by Elphic et al. (1991), and were accelerated initially to 10 eV by the potential of the Moon on its sunlit side. Si(+) and Ca(+) ions were selected for this transport analysis because their masses are within two prominent ion mass groups that have high sputtering yields. In the solar wind the ion trajectories were traced in the following superimposed fields: (1) a steady magnetic field B0 at an angle of 45 deg to the solar wind velocity VSW, (2) the motional electric field Ezero = -V(sub SW x B0, and (3) turbulent magnetic and electric fields generated by hydromagnetic waves with a k-space power spectrum of absolute value of k-5/3 propagating along both directions of the magnetic field B0. Interactions with Earth's bow shock and magnetosphere were included. Case histories of the ions were recorded in the XGSM, YGSM plane and in various planes perpendicular to the E0 x B0 drift direction of the ions between the Moon and Earth. The number density, energy and angular distributions, and directional and omnidirectional fluxes of the ions were constructed from the case histories. It was found that the diffusion of the ions increases rapidly as the amplitude of the turbulence delta Brms increases beyond the value 0.04 B0. Recent measurements of lunar ions upstream of the bow shock by Hilchenbach et al. (1992) generally confirm the predicted behavior of the ions.

  16. Comparison between single- and dual-electrode ion source systems for low-energy ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, M. Jr.; Tokumura, S.; Kasuya, T.; Maeno, S.; Wada, M.

    2012-11-06

    Extraction of ions with energies below 100 eV has been demonstrated using a hot-cathode multi-cusp ion source equipped with extraction electrodes made of thin wires. Two electrode geometries, a single-electrode system, and a dual-electrode system were built and tested. The single-electrode configuration showed high ion beam current densities at shorter distances from the electrode but exhibited rapid attenuation as the distance from the electrode increased. Beam angular spread measurements showed similar beam divergence for both electrode configurations at low plasma densities. At high plasma densities and low extraction potentials, the single-electrode system showed the angular spread twice as large as that of the dual-electrode system. Energy distribution analyses showed a broader energy spread for ion beams extracted from a single-electrode set-up.

  17. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Boehmer, H.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Leneman, D.; Vincena, S.

    2007-01-15

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mA/cm{sup 2} range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 km/s are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  18. Lithium ion sources for investigations of fast ion transport in magnetized plasmas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Boehmer, H; Heidbrink, W W; McWilliams, R; Leneman, D; Vincena, S

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the interaction of ions of intermediate energies with plasma fluctuations, two plasma immersible lithium ion sources, based on solid-state thermionic emitters (Li aluminosilicate) were developed. Compared to discharge based ion sources, they are compact, have zero gas load, small energy dispersion, and can be operated at any angle with respect to an ambient magnetic field of up to 4.0 kG. Beam energies range from 400 eV to 2.0 keV with typical beam current densities in the 1 mAcm(2) range. Because of the low ion mass, beam velocities of 100-300 kms are in the range of Alfven speeds in typical helium plasmas in the large plasma device.

  19. Properties governing the transport of trace organic contaminants through ion-exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Vanoppen, Marjolein; Bakelants, Annelise F A M; Gaublomme, Dorien; Schoutteten, Klaas V K M; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Verliefde, Arne R D

    2015-01-01

    Ion exchange membranes could provide a solution to the selective separation of organic and inorganic components in industrial wastewater. The phenomena governing the transport of organics through the IEM however, are not yet fully understood. Therefore, the transport of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) as a model for a wide variety of organic compounds was studied under different conditions. It was found that in the absence of salt and external potential, the chemical equilibrium is the main driver for TOrC-transport, resulting in the transport of mainly charged TOrCs. When salt is present, the transport of TOrCs is hampered in favor of the NaCl transport, which shows a preferential interaction with the membranes due to its small size, high mobility and concentration. It is hypothesized that electrostatic interactions and electron donor/acceptor interactions are the main drivers for TOrC transport and that transport is mainly diffusion driven. This was confirmed in the experiments with different current densities, where the external potential seemed to have only a minor influence on the transport of TOrCs. It is only when the salt becomes nearly completely depleted that the TOrCs are transported as charge carriers. This shows that it is very difficult to get preferential transport of organic compounds due to the diffusive nature of their transport.

  20. Range and Energy Straggling in Ion Beam Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tai, Hsiang

    2000-01-01

    A first-order approximation to the range and energy straggling of ion beams is given as a normal distribution for which the standard deviation is estimated from the fluctuations in energy loss events. The standard deviation is calculated by assuming scattering from free electrons with a long range cutoff parameter that depends on the mean excitation energy of the medium. The present formalism is derived by extrapolating Payne's formalism to low energy by systematic energy scaling and to greater depths of penetration by a second-order perturbation. Limited comparisons are made with experimental data.

  1. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed.

  2. Facilities, breed and experience affect ease of sheep handling: the livestock transporter's perspective.

    PubMed

    Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors affecting the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors affecting ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock transporter. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors affecting sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock transporters discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. Transporters demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock transporters strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and transport) and breed. Transporters also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817

  3. Coupling of hydrologic transport and chemical reactions in a stream affected by acid mine drainage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic transport to chemical reactions affecting metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. Transport of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. Transport of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most affected by acidic inflows, transport was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie transport and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic transport and thus affect metal concentrations.

  4. Effect of an equilibrium phase transition on multiphase transport in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Meiling; Du Jiaxin; Liu Lianshou

    2006-10-15

    The hadronization scheme for parton transport in relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered in detail. It is pointed out that the traditional scheme for particles being freezed out one by one leads to serious problem on unreasonable long lifetime of partons. A collective phase transition following a supercooling is implemented in a simple way. It turns out that the modified model with a sudden phase transition is able to reproduce the experimental longitudinal distributions of final state particles better than the original one does. The encouraging results indicate that equilibrium phase transition should be taken into proper account in parton transport models for relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  5. Intrinsic slow charge response in the perovskite solar cells: Electron and ion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Huiyin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-10-19

    The intrinsic charge response and hysteresis characteristic in the perovskite solar cell has been investigated by an electrically modulated transient photocurrent technology. An ultraslow charge response process in the timescale of seconds is observed, which can be well explained by the ion migration in the perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} film driven by multiple electric fields derived from the heterojunction depletion charge, the external modulation, and the accumulated ion charge. Furthermore, theoretical calculation of charge transport reveals that the hysteresis behavior is also significantly influenced by the interfacial charge extraction velocity and the carrier transport properties inside the cell.

  6. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  7. Purinergic P2Y receptors in airway epithelia: from ion transport to immune functions.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuan; Ko, Wing-hung

    2014-02-25

    The regulated transport of salt and water is essential to the integrated function of many organ systems, including the respiratory, reproductive, and digestive tracts. Airway epithelial fluid secretion is a passive process that is driven by osmotic forces, which are generated by ion transport. The main determinant of a luminally-directed osmotic gradient is the mucosal transport of chloride ions (Cl(-)) into the lumen. As with many epithelial cells, a number of classic signal transduction cascades are involved in the regulation of ion transport. There are two well-known intracellular signaling systems: an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and an increase in the rate of synthesis of cyclic nucleotides, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Therefore, Cl(-) secretion is primarily activated via the opening of apical Ca(2+)- or cAMP-dependent Cl(-) channels at the apical membrane. The opening of basolateral Ca(2+)- or cAMP-activated K(+) channels, which hyperpolarizes the cell to maintain the driving force for Cl(-) exit through apical Cl(-) channels that are constitutively open, is also important in regulating transepithelial ion transport. P2Y receptors are expressed in the apical and/or basolateral membranes of virtually all polarized epithelia to control the transport of fluid and electrolytes. Human airway epithelial cells express multiple nucleotide receptors. Extracellular nucleotides, such as UTP and ATP, are calcium-mobilizing secretagogues. They are released into the extracellular space from airway epithelial cells and act on the same cell in an autocrine fashion to stimulate transepithelial ion transport. In addition, recent data support the role of P2Y receptors in releasing inflammatory cytokines in the bronchial epithelium and other immune cells.

  8. Thermal Ion Transport on the Moon and the Formation of the Lunar Swirls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John W.; Killen, R. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The bright "swirl" features observed on the lunar surface are generally associated with crustal magnetic anomalies. Prominent explanations that invoke these fields include: magnetic shielding in the form of a mini-magnetosphere, which impedes space weathering by the solar wind; magnetically controlled dust transport; and cometary or asteroidal impacts, that could result in shock magnetization with concomitant formation of the swirls. Here we consider another possibility in which the ambient magnetic and electric fields can transport and channel secondary ions produced by micrometeorite or solar wind ion impacts. We use a simplified model of the fields, which incorporates a two-dipole magnetic field model for Reiner Gamma, and typical solar wind conditions. We will present preliminarily results suggesting that ions created over significant regions of the lunar surface can be transported under the influence of local and interplanetary electromagnetic fields to narrow areas ncar arcas of high crustal magnetic field strength. The flux of these focused ions may be of sufficient intensity to chemically process (or otherwise bleach) the surface leading to the formation of the high albedo component of the lunar swirls. The theory is appealing since through a lensing effect, it is possible that this flux is sufficient to overcome other space weathering processes which would otherwise tend to erase the features. Also, with relatively low energy ions, and consistent with the observed focusing, the ion gyro radii in the local magnetic fields is small enough to resolve the swirls.

  9. Experimental study of ion-beam self-pinched transport for MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Neri, J.M.; Young, F.C.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Ottinger, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Weber, B.V.

    1999-07-01

    A 100-kA, 1.2-MeV proton beam from a pinch-reflex ion diode on the Gamble II accelerator is used to test the concept of self-pinched ion transport. Self-pinched transport (SPT) uses the self-generated magnetic field from the ion beam to radially confine the ion beam. A proton beam is injected through a 3-cm radius aperture covered with a 2-{micro}m thick polycarbonate foil into a 10-cm radius transport region. The transport region is filled with helium at pressures of 30--250 mTorr, vacuum (10{sup {minus}4} Torr), or 1-Torr air. The beam is diagnosed with witness plates, multiple-pinhole-camera imaging onto radiochromic film, time- and space-resolved proton-scattering, and with prompt-{gamma} and nuclear-activation from LiF targets. Witness-plates and the multiple-pinhole-camera are used to determine the size, location, and uniformity of the beam at different distances from the injection aperture. A beam global divergence of 200 mrad is measured at 15 cm. At 50 cm, the beam fills the transport region. At 110 cm and 100- to 200-mTorr helium, there is evidence of beam filamentation. The measured increase in protons is consistent with the physical picture for SPT, and comparisons with IPROP simulations are in qualitative agreement with the measurements.

  10. [Study of transport properties of the polymeric membranous dressing with silver ions].

    PubMed

    Slezak, Andrzej; Kucharzewski, Marek; Grzegorczyn, Sławomir; Slezak, Izabella H

    2005-01-01

    The transport properties of polymeric membraneous dresing silver ion containing Textus Bioactive were studied. This dressing is made of three types of theromoplastic polymeric fibers, formed into two-layers membrane. In first layer occure the polymeric fiber, which the core is hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces contain a silver zeolite. These fibers neighborours with hydrophilic super absorbing polymers. Third type of polymeric fibers occur in the second layer of membrane and is arranged parallel to surface's skin, creating a net preventing stick of membraneous dressing to treated wound. Using of the Kedem-Katchalsky equations the transport model of this membrane and the temporal and concentration characteristics of transport parameters (hydraulic permeability, refection and solute permeability) were determined. Experimental results show that the polymeric membranous dressing contain the silver ions posses non-linear transport properties, which are consequence of structure and physicochemical properties of polymeric membranes.

  11. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  12. Computational studies of transport in ion channels using metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Furini, Simone; Domene, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have played a fundamental role in numerous fields of science by providing insights into the structure and dynamics of complex systems at the atomistic level. However, exhaustive sampling by standard molecular dynamics is in most cases computationally prohibitive, and the time scales accessible remain significantly shorter than many biological processes of interest. In particular, in the study of ion channels, realistic models to describe permeation and gating require accounting for large numbers of particles and accurate interaction potentials, which severely limits the length of the simulations. To overcome such limitations, several advanced methods have been proposed among which is metadynamics. In this algorithm, an external bias potential to accelerate sampling along selected collective variables is introduced. This bias potential discourages visiting regions of the configurational space already explored. In addition, the bias potential provides an estimate of the free energy as a function of the collective variables chosen once the simulation has converged. In this review, recent contributions of metadynamics to the field of ion channels are discussed, including how metadynamics has been used to search for transition states, predict permeation pathways, treat conformational flexibility that underlies the coupling between gating and permeation, or compute free energy of permeation profiles. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov.

  13. Angular neutron transport investigation in the HZETRN free-space ion and nucleon transport and shielding computer program

    SciTech Connect

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Wilson, J.W.

    1997-05-01

    Extension of the high charge and energy (HZE) transport computer program HZETRN for angular transport of neutrons is considered. For this paper, only light ion transport, He{sup 4} and lighter, will be analyzed using a pure solar proton source. The angular transport calculator is the ANISN/PC program which is being controlled by the HZETRN program. The neutron flux values are compared for straight-ahead transport and angular transport in one dimension. The shield material is aluminum and the target material is water. The thickness of these materials is varied; however, only the largest model calculated is reported which is 50 gm/cm{sup 2} of aluminum and 100 gm/cm{sup 2} of water. The flux from the ANISN/PC calculation is about two orders of magnitude lower than the flux from HZETRN for very low energy neutrons. It is only a magnitude lower for the neutrons in the 10 to 20 MeV range in the aluminum and two orders lower in the water. The major reason for this difference is in the transport modes: straight-ahead versus angular. The angular treatment allows a longer path length than the straight-ahead approximation. Another reason is the different cross section sets used by the ANISN/PC-BUGLE-80 mode and the HZETRN mode. The next step is to investigate further the differences between the two codes and isolate the differences to just the angular versus straight-ahead transport mode. Then, create a better coupling between the angular neutron transport and the charged particle transport.

  14. Parametric Dependence Of Fast-ion Transport Events On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Erik; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B.; Bortolon, A.

    2014-03-31

    Neutral-beam heated tokamak plasmas commonly have more than one third of the plasma kinetic energy in the non-thermal energetic beam ion population. This population of fast ions heats the plasma, provides some of the current drive, and can affect the stability (positively or negatively) of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. This population of energetic ions is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, thus there is free-energy available to drive instabilities, which may lead to redistribution of the fast ion population. Understanding under what conditions beam-driven instabilities arise, and the extent of the resulting perturbation to the fast ion population, is important for predicting and eventually demonstrating non-inductive current ramp-up and sustainment in NSTX-U, as well as the performance of future fusion plasma experiments such as ITER. This paper presents an empirical approach towards characterizing the stability boundaries for some common energetic-ion-driven instabilities seen on NSTX.

  15. Electric field-controlled water permeation coupled to ion transport through a nanopore.

    PubMed

    Dzubiella, J; Allen, R J; Hansen, J-P

    2004-03-15

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of a generic hydrophobic nanopore connecting two reservoirs which are initially at different Na(+) concentrations, as in a biological cell. The nanopore is impermeable to water under equilibrium conditions, but the strong electric field caused by the ionic concentration gradient drives water molecules in. The density and structure of water in the pore are highly field dependent. In a typical simulation run, we observe a succession of cation passages through the pore, characterized by approximately bulk mobility. These ion passages reduce the electric field, until the pore empties of water and closes to further ion transport, thus providing a possible mechanism for biological ion channel gating.

  16. Hopping-mediated anion transport through a mannitol-based rosette ion channel.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tanmoy; Dasari, Sathish; Tewari, Debanjan; Prathap, Annamalai; Sureshan, Kana M; Bera, Amal K; Mukherjee, Arnab; Talukdar, Pinaki

    2014-10-01

    Artificial anion selective ion channels with single-file multiple anion-recognition sites are rare. Here, we have designed, by hypothesis, a small molecule that self-organizes to form a barrel rosette ion channel in the lipid membrane environment. Being amphiphilic in nature, this molecule forms nanotubes through intermolecular hydrogen bond formation, while its hydrophobic counterpart is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions in the membrane. The anion selectivity of the channel was investigated by fluorescence-based vesicle assay and planar bilayer conductance measurements. The ion transport by a modified hopping mechanism was demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulation studies. PMID:25203165

  17. Solid-State Chemistry on the Nanoscale: Ion Transport through Interstitial Sites or Vacancies?

    PubMed

    Bothe, Cornelia; Kornowski, Andreas; Tornatzky, Hans; Schmidtke, Christian; Lange, Holger; Maultzsch, Janina; Weller, Horst

    2015-11-16

    How can ion-exchange process occur in nanocrystals without the size and shape changing and why is the ion transport much faster than in classical interdiffusion processes in macrocrystalline solids? We have investigated these processes at the molecular level by means of high-resolution and analytical electron microscopy in temperature-dependent kinetic experiments for several model reactions. The results clearly show a diffusion process that proceeds exclusively through the interstitial lattice positions with a subsequent "kick out" to remove individual ions from lattice sites without the formation of vacancies. This mechanism has not been observed in nanocrystalline systems before.

  18. Electric field-controlled water permeation coupled to ion transport through a nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzubiella, J.; Allen, R. J.; Hansen, J.-P.

    2004-03-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of a generic hydrophobic nanopore connecting two reservoirs which are initially at different Na+ concentrations, as in a biological cell. The nanopore is impermeable to water under equilibrium conditions, but the strong electric field caused by the ionic concentration gradient drives water molecules in. The density and structure of water in the pore are highly field dependent. In a typical simulation run, we observe a succession of cation passages through the pore, characterized by approximately bulk mobility. These ion passages reduce the electric field, until the pore empties of water and closes to further ion transport, thus providing a possible mechanism for biological ion channel gating.

  19. Parallel Simulation of Ion Implantation for Multi-Component Targets Using Boltzmann Transport Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Wei; Guo, Shuang-Fa

    1998-07-01

    A stepwise Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) simulation using non-uniform energy grid momentum matrix and exact nuclear scattering cross-section is successfully parallelized to simulate the ion implantation of multi-component targets. Assuming that the interactions of ion with different target atoms are independent, the scattering of ions with different components can be calculated concurrently by different processors. It is developed on CONVEX SPP-1000 and the software environment of parallel virtual machine (PVM) with a master-slave paradigm. A speedup of 3.3 has been obtained for the simulation of As ions implanted into AZ1350 (C6.2H6O1N0.15S0.06) which is composed of five components. In addition, our new scheme gives better agreement with the experimental results for heavy ion implantation than the conventional method using a uniform energy grid and approximated scattering function.

  20. Measurements of fast-ion transport by mode-particle resonances on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscatello, C. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Harvey, R. W.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Pace, D. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in tokamak plasmas manifest in a variety of ways, characterized by different scale lengths and mode frequencies. MHD activity can cause significant degradation of plasma performance due to transport of particles, energy and current. Among the many different types of MHD, arguably fishbones, sawteeth and Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) are observed to cause the largest fluxes of superthermal ions. DIII-D's expansive suite of diagnostics makes it possible to rigorously characterize these instabilities and study their interaction with fast ions. This review paper first presents an overview of the recent additions to DIII-D's collection of fast-ion diagnostics. The extended diagnostic capabilities are employed in a series of experiments to investigate fast-ion dynamics in the presence of fishbones, sawteeth and AEs. Results from these seemingly unrelated studies are highlighted, and they reveal that mode-particle resonances play the central role in the observed deterioration of fast-ion confinement.

  1. Molecular structure and mechanisms of action of cyclic and linear ion transport antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Duax, W L; Griffin, J F; Langs, D A; Smith, G D; Grochulski, P; Pletnev, V; Ivanov, V

    1996-01-01

    Ionophores are antibiotics that induce ion transport across natural and artificial membranes. The specific function of a given ionophore depends upon its selectivity and the kinetics of ion capture, transport, and release. Systematic studies of complexed and uncomplexed forms of linear and cyclic ionophores provide insight into molecular mechanisms of ion capture and release and the basis for ion selectivity. The cyclic dodecadepsipeptide valinomycin, cyclo[(-L-Val-D-Hyi-D-Val-L-Lac)3-], transports potassium ions across cellular membrane bilayers selectively. The x-ray crystallographic and nmr spectroscopic data concerning the structures of Na+, K+, and Ba+2 complexes are consistent and provide a rationale for the K+ selectivity of valinomycin. Three significantly different conformations of valinomycin are observed in anhydrous crystals, in hydrated crystals grown from dimethylsulfoxide, and in crystals grown from dioxane. Each of these conformations suggests a different mechanism of ion capture. One of the observed conformations has an elliptical structure stabilized by four 4<--1 intramolecular hydrogen bonds and two 5<--1 hydrogen bonds. Ion capture could be readily achieved by disruption of the 5<--1 hydrogen bonds to permit coordination to a potassium ion entering the cavity. The conformation found in crystals obtained from dimethyl sulfoxide is an open flower shape having three petals and three 4<--1 hydrogen bonds. Complexation could proceed by a closing up of the three petals of the flower around the desolvating ion. In the third form, water molecules reside in the central cavity of a bracelet structure having six 4<--1 hydrogen bonds. Two of these bracelets stack over one another with their valine-rich faces surrounding a dioxane molecule. The stacked molecules form a channel approximately 20 A in length, suggesting that under certain circumstances valinomycin might function as a channel. A series of analogues of valinomycin differing in ring composition

  2. Understanding ion and solvent transport in anion exchange membranes under humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarode, Himanshu

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) have been studied for more than a decade for potential applications in low temperature fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. They offer the advantage of faster reaction kinetics under alkaline conditions and ability to perform without costly platinum catalyst. Inherently slow diffusion of hydroxide ions compared to protons is a primary reason for synthesizing and studying the ion transport properties in AEMs. The aim of this thesis is to understand ion transport in novel AEMs using Pulse Gradient stimulated Spin Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique (PGSE NMR), water uptake, ionic conductivity, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) etc. All experiments were performed under humidified conditions (80--95% relative humidity) and fuel cell operating temperatures of 30--90°C. In this work, the NMR tube design was modified for humidifying the entire NMR tube evenly from our previous design. We have developed a new protocol for replacing caustic hydroxide with harmless fluoride or bicarbonate ions for 19F and 13 C NMR diffusion experiments. After performing these NMR experiments, we have obtained in-depth understanding of the morphology linked ion transport in AEMs. We have obtained the highest fluoride self-diffusion coefficient of > 1 x 10-5 cm2/sec ( 55°C) for ETFE-g-PVBTMA membrane which is a result of low tortuosity of 1 obtained for the membrane. This faster fluoride transport combined with low tortuosity of the membrane resulted in > 100mS/cm hydroxide conductivity for the membrane. Polycyclooctene (PCOE) based triblock copolymers are also studied for in-depth understanding of molecular weight, IEC, mechanical and transport properties. Effect of melting temperature of PCOE has favorable effect on increasing ion conductivity and lowering activation energy. Mechanical properties of these types of membranes were studied showing detrimental effect of water plasticization which results in unsuitable mechanical properties

  3. Millimeter microwave effect on ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, S.I.; Ziskin, M.C.

    1995-06-01

    The effects of millimeter microwaves in the frequency range of 54--76 GHz on capacitance and conductance of lipid bilayer membranes (BLM) were studied. Some of the membranes were modified by gramicidin A and amphotericin B or by tetraphenylboron anions (TPhB{sup {minus}}). The millimeter microwaves were pulse-modulated (PW) at repetition rates ranging from 1 to 100 pps, PW at 1,000 pps, or unmodulated continuous waves (CW). The maximum output power at the waveguide outlet was 20 mW. It was found that CW irradiation decreased the unmodified BLM capacitance by 1.2% {+-} 0.5%. At the same time, membrane current induced by TPhB{sup {minus}} transport increased by 5% {+-} 1%. The changes in conductance of ionic channels formed by gramicidin A and amphotericin B were small (0.6% {+-} 0.4%). No resonance-like effects of mm-wave irradiation on membrane capacitance, ionic channel currents, or TPhB{sup {minus}} transport were detected. All changes in membrane capacitance and currents were independent of the modulation employed and were equivalent to heating by approximately 1.1 C.

  4. Fe(2+) substrate transport through ferritin protein cage ion channels influences enzyme activity and biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Behera, Rabindra K; Torres, Rodrigo; Tosha, Takehiko; Bradley, Justin M; Goulding, Celia W; Theil, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Ferritins, complex protein nanocages, form internal iron-oxy minerals (Fe2O3·H2O), by moving cytoplasmic Fe(2+) through intracage ion channels to cage-embedded enzyme (2Fe(2+)/O2 oxidoreductase) sites where ferritin biomineralization is initiated. The products of ferritin enzyme activity are diferric oxy complexes that are mineral precursors. Conserved, carboxylate amino acid side chains of D127 from each of three cage subunits project into ferritin ion channels near the interior ion channel exits and, thus, could direct Fe(2+) movement to the internal enzyme sites. Ferritin D127E was designed and analyzed to probe properties of ion channel size and carboxylate crowding near the internal ion channel opening. Glu side chains are chemically equivalent to, but longer by one -CH2 than Asp, side chains. Ferritin D127E assembled into normal protein cages, but diferric peroxo formation (enzyme activity) was not observed, when measured at 650 nm (DFP λ max). The caged biomineral formation, measured at 350 nm in the middle of the broad, nonspecific Fe(3+)-O absorption band, was slower. Structural differences (protein X-ray crystallography), between ion channels in wild type and ferritin D127E, which correlate with the inhibition of ferritin D127E enzyme activity include: (1) narrower interior ion channel openings/pores; (2) increased numbers of ion channel protein-metal binding sites, and (3) a change in ion channel electrostatics due to carboxylate crowding. The contributions of ion channel size and structure to ferritin activity reflect metal ion transport in ion channels are precisely regulated both in ferritin protein nanocages and membranes of living cells.

  5. Fe2+ Substrate Transport through Ferritin Protein Cage Ion Channels Influences Enzyme Activity and Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Rabindra K.; Torres, Rodrigo; Tosha, Takehiko; Bradley, Justin M.; Goulding, Celia W.; Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Ferritins, complex protein nanocages, form internal iron-oxy minerals (Fe2O3.H2O), by moving cytoplasmic Fe2+ through intracage ion channels to cage-embedded enzyme (2Fe2+/O2 oxidoreductase) sites where ferritin biomineralization is initiated. The products of ferritin enzyme activity are diferric oxy complexes that are mineral precursors. Conserved, carboxylate amino acid side chains of D127 from each of three cage subunits project into ferritin ion channels near the interior ion channel exits and, thus, could direct Fe2+ movement to the internal enzyme sites. Ferritin D127E was designed and analyzed to probe properties of ion channel size and carboxylate crowding near the internal ion channel opening. Glu side chains are chemically equivalent to, but longer by one – CH2 than Asp, side chains. Ferritin D127E assembled into normal protein cages, but diferric peroxo formation (enzyme activity) was not observed, when measured at 650nm (DFP λmax). The caged biomineral formation, measured at 350 nm in the middle of the broad, nonspecific Fe3+-O absorption band, was slower. Structural differences (protein X-ray crystallography), between ion channels in wild type and ferritin D127E, which correlate with the inhibition of ferritin D127E enzyme activity include: 1. narrower interior ion channel openings/pores, 2. increased numbers of ion channel protein-metal binding sites, and 3. a change in ion channel electrostatics due to carboxylate crowding. The contributions of ion channel size and structure to ferritin activity reflect metal ion transport in ion channels are precisely regulated both in ferritin protein nanocages and membranes of living cells. PMID:26202907

  6. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.

    2014-05-15

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q{sub fi}) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes.

  7. [INFLUENCE OF OLEAMIDE OF WATER AND ION TRANSPORT IN THE OSMOREGULATORY ORGANS].

    PubMed

    Shakhmatova, E I; Bogolepova, A E; Dubina, M V; Natochin, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Application of oleamide (final concentration of 10 μM) at the skin basal surface of the frog, Rana temporaria L., augmented the short-circuit current (SCC) from 59.8 ± 2.5 to 78.2 ± 1.4 μA/cm2. Oleamide added to the serous membrane of the frog urinary bladder at a final dose of 1 μM induced more than 30-fold increase of osmotic permeability. The addition of arginine-vasotocin on the background of oleamide action further increased SCC across the isolated frog skin and osmotic permeability of the frog urinary bladder. Intraperitoneal injection of oleamide at a dose of 0.1 mM/100 g BW to water-loaded non-anesthetized Wistar rats decreased diuresis by 22%, enhanced solute-free water reabsorption and urinary sodium excretion by 31% and 55% respectively, but did not affect the renal potassium excretion. The results obtained provide evidence of similarity of oleamide and neurohypophyseal hormones effects on water and ion transport in epithelial cells of osmoregulatory organs in vertebrates. PMID:26983280

  8. The influence of collisional and anomalous radial diffusion on parallel ion transport in edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Helander, P.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-12-31

    The orderings in the kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core of a tokamak do not allow a balance between parallel ion streaming and radial diffusion, and are, therefore, inappropriate in the plasma edge. Different orderings are required in the edge region where radial transport across the steep gradients associated with the scrape-off layer is large enough to balance the rapid parallel flow caused by conditions close to collecting surfaces (such as the Bohm sheath condition). In the present work, we derive and solve novel kinetic equations, allowing for such a balance, and construct distinctive transport laws for impure, collisional, edge plasmas in which the perpendicular transport is (i) due to Coulomb collisions of ions with heavy impurities, or (ii) governed by anomalous diffusion driven by electrostatic turbulence. In both the collisional and anomalous radial transport cases, we find that one single diffusion coefficient determines the radial transport of particles, momentum and heat. The parallel transport laws and parallel thermal force in the scrape-off layer assume an unconventional form, in which the relative ion-impurity flow is driven by a combination of the conventional parallel gradients, and new (i) collisional or (ii) anomalous terms involving products of radial derivatives of the temperature and density with the radial shear of the parallel velocity. Thus, in the presence of anomalous radial diffusion, the parallel ion transport cannot be entirely classical, as usually assumed in numerical edge computations. The underlying physical reason is the appearance of a novel type of parallel thermal force resulting from the combined action of anomalous diffusion and radial temperature and velocity gradients. In highly sheared flows the new terms can modify impurity penetration into the core plasma.

  9. Control of epithelial ion transport by Cl- and PDZ proteins.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, R; Boucherot, A; Mürle, B; Sun, J; Kunzelmann, K

    2004-05-15

    Inhibition of epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated previously. Recent studies suggested a role of cytosolic Cl- for the interaction of CFTR with ENaC, when studied in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study we demonstrate that the Na+ / H+ -exchanger regulator factor (NHERF) controls expression of CFTR in mouse collecting duct cells. Inhibition of NHERF largely attenuates CFTR expression, which is paralleled by enhanced Ca(2+) -dependent Cl- secretion and augmented Na+ absorption by the ENaC. It is further demonstrated that epithelial Na+ absorption and ENaC are inhibited by cytosolic Cl- and that stimulation by secretagogues enhances the intracellular Cl- concentration. Thus, the data provide a clue to the question, how epithelial cells can operate as both absorptive and secretory units: Increase in intracellular Cl- during activation of secretion will inhibit ENaC and switch epithelial transport from salt absorption to Cl- secretion. PMID:15383919

  10. Oocyte aging-induced Neuronatin (NNAT) hypermethylation affects oocyte quality by impairing glucose transport in porcine

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying-Ying; Chen, Li; Wang, Tao; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Zhang, Xia; Miao, Yi-Liang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating many physiological behaviors; however, few studies were focused on the changes of DNA methylation during oocyte aging. Early studies showed that some imprinted genes’ DNA methylation had been changed in aged mouse oocytes. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that oocyte aging would alter DNA methylation pattern of genes and disturb their expression in age oocytes, which affected the developmental potential of oocytes. We compared several different types of genes and found that the expression and DNA methylation of Neuronatin (NNAT) were disturbed in aged oocytes significantly. Additional experiments demonstrated that glucose transport was impaired in aged oocytes and injection of NNAT antibody into fresh oocytes led to the same effects on glucose transport. These results suggest that the expression of NNAT was declined by elevating DNA methylation, which affected oocyte quality by decreasing the ability of glucose transport in aged oocytes. PMID:27782163

  11. Implicit Water Simulations of Non-Equilibrium Charge Transport in Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaioli, U.; van der Straaten, T. A.; Kathawala, G.

    Ion channels are natural nano-channels found in the membranes of all living cells, which exhibit a broad range of specific device-like functions to help regulate cell physiology. The study of charge transport in ion channels is imperative to understand how charge regulation is accomplished at the molecular level if one is to develop nanoscale artificial systems that mimic biological function and detection. Although Molecular Dynamics is the most popular approach to simulate ion channel behavior, the computational cost of representing all water molecules and ions in the system is prohibitive to study the timescales required to resolve ionic current and lead to structure design. A hierarchy of models of decreasing complexity is needed to address simulation of different time and space scales, similar to the set of models developed to study transport in semiconductors. This paper discusses the application of Monte Carlo and Drift-diffusion methods to simulate transport in ion channels, using the ompF porin channel as a prototype.

  12. Specific spacecraft evaluation: Special report. [charged particle transport from a mercury ion thruster to spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle transport from an 8 cm mercury ion thruster to the surfaces of the P 80-1 spacecraft and to the Teal Ruby sensor and the ECOM-501 sensor of that spacecraft were investigated. Laboratory measurements and analyses were used to examine line-of-sight and nonline-of sight particle transport modes. The recirculation of Hg(+) ions in the magnetic field of the earth was analyzed for spacecraft velocity and Earth magnetic field vector configurations which are expected to occur in near Earth, circular, high inclination orbits. For these magnetic field and orbit conditions and for expected ion release distribution functions, in both angles and energies, the recirculation/re-interception of ions on spacecraft surfaces was evaluated. The refraction of weakly energetic ions in the electric fields of the thruster plasma plume and in the electric fields between this plasma plume and the material boundaries of the thruster, the thruster sputter shield, and the various spacecraft surfaces were examined. The neutral particle transport modes of interest were identified as sputtered metal atoms from the thruster beam shield. Results, conclusions, and future considerations are presented.

  13. Time-resolved Four-terminal probe of ion transport in Schefflera leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perigo, Nicole; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-03-01

    Plant growth relies on efficient ion transport. The rate of the ion transport depends on the concentration of each ion in the leaf. A common method is to use two-lead geometry. Here we employ a four-electrode set-up orienting the electrodes either parallel or perpendicular to each other. When the electrodes are parallel, two are at each end, with electric current running along the direction of the veins. When they are perpendicular, there are two along the direction of the veins (tip-tip) and two are perpendicular to the veins (side-side). The parallel set-up is similar to the Franck-Hertz experiment, but instead of using a vacuum tube we use a leaf. By using the parallel set-up, we find that two inner leads can directly control the movement of the ions in the time domain. By switching on/off the control current, a clear time-resolved current change is observed, where the signal decays less than one second. This time scale is similar to that of a typical ECG decay signal. Therefore, our method may be potentially a powerful tool to ion diffusion and transport in many biological and medical systems. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-06ER46304 and Indiana State University.

  14. Parallel transport gates in a mixed-species ion trap processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Home, Jonathan

    Scaled up quantum information processors will require large numbers of parallel gate operations. For ion trap quantum processing, a promising approach is to perform these operations in separated regions of a multi-zone processing chip between which quantum information is transported either by distributed photonic entanglement or by deterministic shuttling of the ions through the array. However scaling the technology for controlling pulsed laser beams which address each of multiple regions appears challenging. I will describe recent work on the control of both beryllium and calcium ions by transporting ions through static laser beams. We have demonstrated both parallel individually addressed operations as well as sequences of operations. Work is in progress towards multi-qubit gates, which requires good control of the ion transport velocity. We have developed a number of techniques for measuring and optimizing velocities in our trap, enabling significant improvements in performance. In addition to direct results, I will give an overview of our multi-species apparatus, including recent results on high fidelity multi-qubit gates. We are grateful for funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation and the ETH Zurich.

  15. Nanostructure-Driven Ion Transport in PCBM-Based Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Che-Nan; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Ren, Fei; Keum, Jong Kahk; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructure-Driven Ion Transport in PCBM-Based Polymer Electrolytes Che-Nan Sun1, Thomas A. Zawodzinski1,2, Fei Ren3, Jong Kahk Keum1 and Jihua Chen1, (1)Oak Ridge National Laboratory, (2)The University of Tennessee, (3)Temple University Polyethylene oxide or PEO is an extensively-examined candidate for solid polymer electrolyte materials of lithium ion batteries, and its composite electrolytes has promising ion conductivities.[1-3] Oxide nanoparticles with sizes of 5-10 nm are often introduced into these polymer-based composite electrolytes in order to suppress their room-temperature crystallite formation.1-9 The size, geometry and surface functionality of the added particles were known to largely affect the structure and performance of the blended electrolytes.5,10 In this study, we examined a functionalized-fullerene-based composite electrolytes, providing details in their self-assembled nanostructures, modulus, hardness, as well as temperature-dependent ion-conducting behaviors. To the best of our knowledge, no fullerene-based, lithium conducting, composite electrolyte has been reported previously. Herein we used a bench-mark fullerene derivative, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as a model fullerene compound and performed impedance spectroscopy, equivalent circuit modeling, nanoscale elemental mapping (in transmission electron microscope), wide-angle X-ray diffraction, as well as nanoindentation to shed light on a 6-fold enhancement in low temperature (less than 50oC) ion conductivity of PEO - lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI)-PCBM electrolytes, along with the underlying changes in nanomorphology , mechanical properties, and crystal structures. Based on a previous density functional theory (DFT) calculation, 11 the interaction energies Ei among PEO polymers is estimated to be 2.58 kcal mol-1 per monomer, the Ei between PCBM and PEO is 3.50 kcal mol-1 per monomer (PCBM is taken as 1 repeat unit), and the Ei among PCBMs themselves

  16. Ion Transporter NKCC1, Modulator of Neurogenesis in Murine Olfactory Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Haering, Claudia; Kanageswaran, Ninthujah; Bouvain, Pascal; Scholz, Paul; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Gisselmann, Günter; Wäring-Bischof, Janine; Hatt, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is one of the most crucial senses for vertebrates regarding foraging and social behavior. Therefore, it is of particular interest to investigate the sense of smell, its function on a molecular level, the signaling proteins involved in the process and the mechanism of required ion transport. In recent years, the precise role of the ion transporter NKCC1 in olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chloride accumulation has been a controversial subject. NKCC1 is expressed in OSNs and is involved in chloride accumulation of dissociated neurons, but it had not been shown to play a role in mouse odorant sensation. Here, we present electro-olfactogram recordings (EOG) demonstrating that NKCC1-deficient mice exhibit significant defects in perception of a complex odorant mixture (Henkel100) in both air-phase and submerged approaches. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) and RT-PCR experiments of NKCC1-deficient and wild type mouse transcriptomes, we confirmed the absence of a highly expressed ion transporter that could compensate for NKCC1. Additional histological investigations demonstrated a reduced number of cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE), resulting in a thinner neuronal layer. Therefore, we conclude that NKCC1 is an important transporter involved in chloride ion accumulation in the olfactory epithelium, but it is also involved in OSN neurogenesis. PMID:25713142

  17. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  18. Ion conductivity and transport by porous coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Horike, Satoshi; Umeyama, Daiki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2013-11-19

    Ion conduction and transport in solids are both interesting and useful and are found in widely distinct materials, from those in battery-related technologies to those in biological systems. Scientists have approached the synthesis of ion-conductive compounds in a variety of ways, in the areas of organic and inorganic chemistry. Recently, based on their ion-conducting behavior, porous coordination polymers (PCPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been recognized for their easy design and the dynamic behavior of the ionic components in the structures. These PCP/MOFs consist of metal ions (or clusters) and organic ligands structured via coordination bonds. They could have highly concentrated mobile ions with dynamic behavior, and their characteristics have inspired the design of a new class of ion conductors and transporters. In this Account, we describe the state-of-the-art of studies of ion conductivity by PCP/MOFs and nonporous coordination polymers (CPs) and offer future perspectives. PCP/MOF structures tend to have high hydrophilicity and guest-accessible voids, and scientists have reported many water-mediated proton (H(+)) conductivities. Chemical modification of organic ligands can change the hydrated H(+) conductivity over a wide range. On the other hand, the designable structures also permit water-free (anhydrous) H(+) conductivity. The incorporation of protic guests such as imidazole and 1,2,4-triazole into the microchannels of PCP/MOFs promotes the dynamic motion of guest molecules, resulting in high H(+) conduction without water. Not only the host-guest systems, but the embedding of protic organic groups on CPs also results in inherent H(+) conductivity. We have observed high H(+) conductivities under anhydrous conditions and in the intermediate temperature region of organic and inorganic conductors. The keys to successful construction are highly mobile ionic species and appropriate intervals of ion-hopping sites in the structures. Lithium (Li

  19. Fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water into the underlying clay till: a field study.

    PubMed

    Abolfazlzadehdoshanbehbazari, Mostafa; Birks, S Jean; Moncur, Michael C; Ulrich, Ania C

    2013-08-01

    The South Tailings Pond (STP) is a ~2300-ha tailing pond operated by Suncor Energy Inc. that has received oil sand process-affected (PA) water and mature fine tailings since 2006. The STP is underlain by a clay till, which is in turn underlain by the Wood Creek Sand Channel (WCSC). The sandy deposits of the WCSC provide greater geotechnical stability but could act as a potential flow pathway for PA water to migrate off site and into the Athabasca River. Preliminary modeling of the STP suggests that PA water from the pond will infiltrate into the underlying sand channel, but the extent and development of this impact is still poorly understood. Suncor Energy Inc. built interception wells and a cut-off-wall to control any potential seepage. Here we present the results of an investigation of the fate and transport of PA water in clay till underlying a 10 m × 10 m infiltration pond that was constructed on the southeastern portion of the STP. The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes ((2)H and (18)O). The distribution of conservative tracers ((18)O and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling inorganic solutes transport.

  20. Fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water into the underlying clay till: A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfazlzadehdoshanbehbazari, Mostafa; Birks, S. Jean; Moncur, Michael C.; Ulrich, Ania C.

    2013-08-01

    The South Tailings Pond (STP) is a ~ 2300-ha tailing pond operated by Suncor Energy Inc. that has received oil sand process-affected (PA) water and mature fine tailings since 2006. The STP is underlain by a clay till, which is in turn underlain by the Wood Creek Sand Channel (WCSC). The sandy deposits of the WCSC provide greater geotechnical stability but could act as a potential flow pathway for PA water to migrate off site and into the Athabasca River. Preliminary modeling of the STP suggests that PA water from the pond will infiltrate into the underlying sand channel, but the extent and development of this impact is still poorly understood. Suncor Energy Inc. built interception wells and a cut-off-wall to control any potential seepage. Here we present the results of an investigation of the fate and transport of PA water in clay till underlying a 10 m × 10 m infiltration pond that was constructed on the southeastern portion of the STP. The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes (2H and 18O). The distribution of conservative tracers (18O and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling inorganic solutes transport.

  1. Fate and transport of oil sand process-affected water into the underlying clay till: a field study.

    PubMed

    Abolfazlzadehdoshanbehbazari, Mostafa; Birks, S Jean; Moncur, Michael C; Ulrich, Ania C

    2013-08-01

    The South Tailings Pond (STP) is a ~2300-ha tailing pond operated by Suncor Energy Inc. that has received oil sand process-affected (PA) water and mature fine tailings since 2006. The STP is underlain by a clay till, which is in turn underlain by the Wood Creek Sand Channel (WCSC). The sandy deposits of the WCSC provide greater geotechnical stability but could act as a potential flow pathway for PA water to migrate off site and into the Athabasca River. Preliminary modeling of the STP suggests that PA water from the pond will infiltrate into the underlying sand channel, but the extent and development of this impact is still poorly understood. Suncor Energy Inc. built interception wells and a cut-off-wall to control any potential seepage. Here we present the results of an investigation of the fate and transport of PA water in clay till underlying a 10 m × 10 m infiltration pond that was constructed on the southeastern portion of the STP. The geochemistry of pore water in the till underlying the infiltration pond was determined prior to filling with process-affected water (2008) and two years after the infiltration pond was filled with PA waters (2010). Pore water was analyzed for metals, cations, anions, and isotopes ((2)H and (18)O). The distribution of conservative tracers ((18)O and chloride) indicated migration of the PA waters to approximately 0.9 m, but the migrations of major ions and metals were significantly delayed relative to this depth. Uptake of Na and Mo and release of Ca, Mg, Mn, Ba, and Sr suggest that adsorption and ion exchange reactions are the foremost attenuation processes controlling inorganic solutes transport. PMID:23752067

  2. Nuclear powered Mars cargo transport mission utilizing advanced ion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Galecki, D.L.; Patterson, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear-powered ion propulsion technology was combined with detailed trajectory analysis to determine propulsion system and trajectory options for an unmanned cargo mission to Mars in support of manned Mars missions. A total of 96 mission scenarios were identified by combining two power levels, two propellants, four values of specific impulse per propellant, three starting altitudes, and two starting velocities. Sixty of these scenarios were selected for a detailed trajectory analysis; a complete propulsion system study was then conducted for 20 of these trajectories. Trip times ranged from 344 days for a xenon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from lunar orbit with escape velocity, to 770 days for an argon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from nuclear start orbit with circular velocity. Trip times for the 3 MW cases studied ranged from 356 to 413 days. Payload masses ranged from 5700 to 12,300 kg for the 300 kW power level, and from 72,200 to 81,500 kg for the 3 MW power level.

  3. Dicationic Surfactants with Glycine Counter Ions for Oligonucleotide Transportation.

    PubMed

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Kozak, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    Gemini surfactants are good candidates to bind, protect, and deliver nucleic acids. Herein, the concept of amino acids (namely glycine) as counter ions of gemini surfactants for gene therapy application was explored. This study was conducted on DNA and RNA oligomers and two quaternary bis-imidazolium salts, having 2,5-dioxahexane and 2,8-dioxanonane spacer groups. The toxicity level of surfactants was assessed by an MTT assay, and their ability to bind nucleic acids was tested through electrophoresis. The nucleic acid conformation was established based on circular dichroism and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The structures of the formed complexes were characterized by small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation. Both studied surfactants appear to be suitable for gene therapy; however, although they vary by only three methylene groups in the spacer, they differ in binding ability and toxicity. The tested oligonucleotides maintained their native conformations upon surfactant addition and the studied lipoplexes formed a variety of structures. In systems based on a 2,5-dioxahexane spacer, a hexagonal phase was observed for DNA-surfactant complexes and a micellar phase was dominant with RNA. For the surfactant with a 2,8-dioxanonane spacer group, the primitive cubic phase prevailed. PMID:27214208

  4. Connexin-deficiency affects expression levels of glial glutamate transporters within the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate transport in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate transporter expression is also affected by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate transporters, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially affect the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate transporter expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate transport. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is affected in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex.

  5. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A.; Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard; Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso; Midttun, Øystein

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  6. Effect of irradiation by argon ions on hydrogen transport through the surface oxide layer of zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evsin, A. E.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Gumarov, A. I.; Kashapov, N. F.; Luchkin, A. G.; Vakhitov, I. R.; Yanilkin, I. V.; Tagirov, L. R.

    2016-09-01

    Effect of zirconium irradiation by 1 keV Ar+ ions on hydrogen transport through the surface oxide layer is studied. It is shown that deuterium trapping under subsequent irradiation of the Ar-treated sample by deuterium atoms of thermal energies in D2 + 30at.% O2 gas mixture is 2 times less than trapping in the untreated sample. Besides, irradiation of the untreated sample by D-atoms provokes desorption of ≈25% of hydrogen contained therein, whereas hydrogen desorption from the ion-treated zirconium surface does not occur. It is proposed that oxygen depletion of the surface oxide layer, caused by ion bombardment, is a reason of mitigation of the hydrogen transport through this layer in both directions.

  7. The ATR noninvasive detection of transported medicinal ions and the performance of newly designed iontophoresis instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Toyotoshi; Watanabe, Yukio; Suzuki, Harue

    2005-02-01

    The attenuated total reflection and near-infrared diffusive-reflection methods are proposed as safe and powerful ways to detect and measure the quantity of medication transported by iontophoresis. Especially, the former method can evaluate the quantity of such negative ions as L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate in the top (horny) layer of epidermis (about 1 μm under the skin surface) using, respectively, characteristic ion's bands. Factors making iontophoresis more effective are discussed from the points of electric currents, duty ratio, frequency of superposing intermittent current, simultaneous supersonic perforation, etc. The use of intermittent direct current superposed by 40 kHz pulsed current and pulse irradiation of supersonic waves accelerated drastically the disappearing rate of transported ions from the horny layer with a life of 10 h to 1 min. This technique may be applied to a new and powerful drug delivery system into topical deep tissues.

  8. Towards a heavy-ion transport capability in the MARS15 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.; Mashnik, S. G.; Rakhno, I. L.; Striganov, S.

    2004-04-01

    In order to meet the challenges of new accelerator and space projects and further improve modelling of radiation effects in microscopic objects, heavy-ion interaction and transport physics have been recently incorporated into the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. A brief description of new modules is given in comparison with experimental data. The MARS Monte Carlo code is widely used in numerous accelerator, detector, shielding and cosmic ray applications. The needs of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Rare Isotope Accelerator and NASA projects have recently induced adding heavy-ion interaction and transport physics to the MARS15 code. The key modules of the new implementation are described below along with their comparisons to experimental data.

  9. Stomatal Spacing Safeguards Stomatal Dynamics by Facilitating Guard Cell Ion Transport Independent of the Epidermal Solute Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna; Blatt, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Stomata enable gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere through the stomatal pore. Control of the pore aperture depends on osmotic solute accumulation by, and its loss from the guard cells surrounding the pore. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal cell, and this spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function, although there are several genera that exhibit stomata in clusters. We made use of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal patterning mutants to explore the impact of clustering on guard cell dynamics, gas exchange, and ion transport of guard cells. These studies showed that stomatal clustering in the Arabidopsis too many mouths (tmm1) mutant suppressed stomatal movements and affected CO2 assimilation and transpiration differentially between dark and light conditions and were associated with alterations in K(+) channel gating. These changes were consistent with the impaired dynamics of tmm1 stomata and were accompanied by a reduced accumulation of K(+) ions in the guard cells. Our findings underline the significance of spacing for stomatal dynamics. While stomatal spacing may be important as a reservoir for K(+) and other ions to facilitate stomatal movements, the effects on channel gating, and by inference on K(+) accumulation, cannot be explained on the basis of a reduced number of epidermal cells facilitating ion supply to the guard cells. PMID:27406168

  10. Stomatal Spacing Safeguards Stomatal Dynamics by Facilitating Guard Cell Ion Transport Independent of the Epidermal Solute Reservoir12[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Stomata enable gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere through the stomatal pore. Control of the pore aperture depends on osmotic solute accumulation by, and its loss from the guard cells surrounding the pore. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal cell, and this spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function, although there are several genera that exhibit stomata in clusters. We made use of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal patterning mutants to explore the impact of clustering on guard cell dynamics, gas exchange, and ion transport of guard cells. These studies showed that stomatal clustering in the Arabidopsis too many mouths (tmm1) mutant suppressed stomatal movements and affected CO2 assimilation and transpiration differentially between dark and light conditions and were associated with alterations in K+ channel gating. These changes were consistent with the impaired dynamics of tmm1 stomata and were accompanied by a reduced accumulation of K+ ions in the guard cells. Our findings underline the significance of spacing for stomatal dynamics. While stomatal spacing may be important as a reservoir for K+ and other ions to facilitate stomatal movements, the effects on channel gating, and by inference on K+ accumulation, cannot be explained on the basis of a reduced number of epidermal cells facilitating ion supply to the guard cells. PMID:27406168

  11. Stomatal Spacing Safeguards Stomatal Dynamics by Facilitating Guard Cell Ion Transport Independent of the Epidermal Solute Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Amtmann, Anna; Blatt, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Stomata enable gaseous exchange between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere through the stomatal pore. Control of the pore aperture depends on osmotic solute accumulation by, and its loss from the guard cells surrounding the pore. Stomata in most plants are separated by at least one epidermal cell, and this spacing is thought to enhance stomatal function, although there are several genera that exhibit stomata in clusters. We made use of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stomatal patterning mutants to explore the impact of clustering on guard cell dynamics, gas exchange, and ion transport of guard cells. These studies showed that stomatal clustering in the Arabidopsis too many mouths (tmm1) mutant suppressed stomatal movements and affected CO2 assimilation and transpiration differentially between dark and light conditions and were associated with alterations in K(+) channel gating. These changes were consistent with the impaired dynamics of tmm1 stomata and were accompanied by a reduced accumulation of K(+) ions in the guard cells. Our findings underline the significance of spacing for stomatal dynamics. While stomatal spacing may be important as a reservoir for K(+) and other ions to facilitate stomatal movements, the effects on channel gating, and by inference on K(+) accumulation, cannot be explained on the basis of a reduced number of epidermal cells facilitating ion supply to the guard cells.

  12. Heat transfer enhancement in a lithium-ion cell through improved material-level thermal transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Vivek; Waghela, Chirag; Wei, Zi; Prasher, Ravi; Nagpure, Shrikant C.; Li, Jianlin; Liu, Fuqiang; Daniel, Claus; Jain, Ankur

    2015-12-01

    While Li-ion cells offer excellent electrochemical performance for several applications including electric vehicles, they also exhibit poor thermal transport characteristics, resulting in reduced performance, overheating and thermal runaway. Inadequate heat removal from Li-ion cells originates from poor thermal conductivity within the cell. This paper identifies the rate-limiting material-level process that dominates overall thermal conduction in a Li-ion cell. Results indicate that thermal characteristics of a Li-ion cell are largely dominated by heat transfer across the cathode-separator interface rather than heat transfer through the materials themselves. This interfacial thermal resistance contributes around 88% of total thermal resistance in the cell. Measured value of interfacial resistance is close to that obtained from theoretical models that account for weak adhesion and large acoustic mismatch between cathode and separator. Further, to address this problem, an amine-based chemical bridging of the interface is carried out. This is shown to result in in four-times lower interfacial thermal resistance without deterioration in electrochemical performance, thereby increasing effective thermal conductivity by three-fold. This improvement is expected to reduce peak temperature rise during operation by 60%. By identifying and addressing the material-level root cause of poor thermal transport in Li-ion cells, this work may contributes towards improved thermal performance of Li-ion cells.

  13. Mutations in the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster affecting ABC transporters that determine eye colouration.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S M; Brooker, M R; Gill, T R; Cox, G B; Howells, A J; Ewart, G D

    1999-07-15

    The white, brown and scarlet genes of Drosophila melanogaster encode proteins which transport guanine or tryptophan (precursors of the red and brown eye colour pigments) and belong to the ABC transporter superfamily. Current models envisage that the white and brown gene products interact to form a guanine specific transporter, while white and scarlet gene products interact to form a tryptophan transporter. In this study, we report the nucleotide sequence of the coding regions of five white alleles isolated from flies with partially pigmented eyes. In all cases, single amino acid changes were identified, highlighting residues with roles in structure and/or function of the transporters. Mutations in w(cf) (G589E) and w(sat) (F590G) occur at the extracellular end of predicted transmembrane helix 5 and correlate with a major decrease in red pigments in the eyes, while brown pigments are near wild-type levels. Therefore, those residues have a more significant role in the guanine transporter than the tryptophan transporter. Mutations identified in w(crr) (H298N) and w(101) (G243S) affect amino acids which are highly conserved among the ABC transporter superfamily within the nucleotide binding domain. Both cause substantial and similar decreases of red and brown pigments indicating that both tryptophan and guanine transport are impaired. The mutation identified in w(Et87) alters an amino acid within an intracellular loop between transmembrane helices 2 and 3 of the predicted structure. Red and brown pigments are reduced to very low levels by this mutation indicating this loop region is important for the function of both guanine and tryptophan transporters. PMID:10407069

  14. A comparison of total reaction cross section models used in particle and heavy ion transport codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihver, Lembit; Lantz, M.; Takechi, M.; Kohama, A.; Ferrari, A.; Cerutti, F.; Sato, T.

    To be able to calculate the nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections with precision is very important for studies of basic nuclear properties, e.g. nuclear structure. This is also of importance for particle and heavy ion transport calculations because, in all particle and heavy ion transport codes, the probability function that a projectile particle will collide within a certain distance x in the matter depends on the total reaction cross sections. Furthermore, the total reaction cross sections will also scale the calculated partial fragmentation cross sections. It is therefore crucial that accurate total reaction cross section models are used in the transport calculations. In this paper, different models for calculating nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections are compared and discussed.

  15. Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) modes with fishbone-like structures are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection into MST reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to large fast ion beta and stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of these instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport and interaction with global tearing modes. Internal magnetic field fluctuations associated with the EP modes are directly observed for the first time by Faraday-effect polarimetry (frequency ~ 90 kHz and amplitude ~ 2 G). Simultaneously measured density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving and asymmetric spatial structure that peaks near the core where fast ions reside and shifts outward as the instability evolves. Furthermore, the EP mode frequencies appear at ~k∥VA , consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growing phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop (~ 15 %) when the EP modes peak, indicating the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced (× 2) with the onset of multiple nonlinearly-interacting EP modes. The fast ions also impact global tearing modes, reducing their amplitudes by up to 65%. This mode reduction is lessened following the EP-bursts, further evidence for fast ion redistribution that weakens the suppression mechanism. Possible tearing mode suppression mechanisms will be discussed. Work supported by US DoE.

  16. Decreased vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in knockout mice affects aging of dopaminergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. S.; Itokawa, K.; Schmitt, A.; Moessner, R.; Sora, I.; Lesch, K. P.; Uhl, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is accumulated and compartmentalized by the dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC3A6) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2). These transporters work at the plasma and vesicular membranes of dopaminergic neurons, respectively, and thus regulate levels of DA in neuronal compartments that include the extravesicular cytoplasmic compartment. DA in this compartment has been hypothesized to contribute to oxidative damage that can reduce the function of dopaminergic neurons in aging brains and may contribute to reductions in dopaminergic neurochemical markers, locomotor behavior and responses to dopaminergic drugs that are found in aged animals. The studies reported here examined aged mice with heterozygous deletions of VMAT2 or of DAT, which each reduce transporter expression to about 50% of levels found in wild-type (WT) mice. Aged mice displayed reduced locomotor responses under a variety of circumstances, including in response to locomotor stimulants, as well as changes in monoamine levels and metabolites in a regionally dependent manner. Several effects of aging were more pronounced in heterozygous VMAT2 knockout (KO) mice, including aging induced reductions in locomotion and reduced locomotor responses to cocaine. By contrast, some effects of aging were reduced or not observed in heterozygous DAT KO mice. These findings support the idea that altered DAT and VMAT2 expression affect age-related changes in dopaminergic function. These effects are most likely mediated by alterations in DA compartmentalization, and might be hypothesized to be more exacerbated by other factors that affect the metabolism of cytosolic DA. PMID:23978383

  17. Selectively accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon anodes via an organogel binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kang, Na-Ri; Ko, Younghoon; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-12-01

    Silicon, a promising high-capacity anode material of lithium ion batteries, suffers from its volume expansion leading to pulverization and low conductivities, showing capacity decay during cycling and low capacities at fast charging and discharging. In addition to popular active-material-modifying strategies, building lithium-ion-rich environments around silicon surface is helpful in enhancing unsatisfactory performances of silicon anodes. In this work, we accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon surface by using an organogel binder to utilize the electroactivity of silicon in a more efficient way. The cyanoethyl polymer (PVA-CN), characterized by high lithium ion transference number as well as appropriate elastic modulus with strong adhesion, enhanced cycle stability of silicon anodes with high coulombic efficiency even at high temperature (60 °C) as well as at fast charging/discharging rates.

  18. Energization and transport of ions of ionospheric origin in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This serves as a final report entitled Energization and Transport of Ions of Ionospheric Origin in the Terrestrial Magnetosphere. The work has been predominantly focused on ion outflows identified in two data sets: (1) Prognoz 7; and (2) Dynamics Explorer. The study analyzed ion densities, temperatures, and flow velocities in the magnetotail. The work performed under this contract consisted of developing a program to load the raw data, compute the background subtraction of a strong sun pulse, and use the net counts to calculate the low order moments of the distribution function. The study confirms the results of ISEE that the the cusp is a major source of plasmasheet plasma and goes beyond this to discuss the use of ion velocities as a way to examine the motions of the magnetotail.

  19. Modeling of Low Frequency MHD Induced Beam Ion Transport In NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    N.N. Gorelenkov; S.S. Medley

    2004-07-16

    Beam ion transport in the presence of low frequency MHD activity in National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) plasma is modeled numerically and analyzed theoretically in order to understand basic underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the observed fast ion redistribution and losses. Numerical modeling of the beam ions flux into the NPA in NSTX shows that after the onset of low frequency MHD activity high energy part of beam ion distribution, E{sub b} > 40keV, is redistributed radially due to stochastic diffusion. Such diffusion is caused by high order harmonics of the transit frequency resonance overlap in the phase space. Large drift orbit radial width induces such high order resonances. Characteristic confinement time is deduced from the measured NPA energy spectrum and is typically {approx} 4msec. Considered MHD activity may induce losses on the order of 10% at the internal magnetic field perturbation {delta}B/B = {Omicron} (10{sup -3}), which is comparable to the prompt orbit losses.

  20. Macroscopic photocontrol of ion-transporting pathways of a nanostructured imidazolium-based photoresponsive liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Soberats, Bartolome; Uchida, Emi; Yoshio, Masafumi; Kagimoto, Junko; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kato, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    The photocontrol of the macroscopic alignment of nanostructured 2D ion-transporting pathways is described. The uniplanar homogeneous alignment of the thermotropic smectic (Sm) liquid-crystalline (LC) phase has been successfully achieved via photoinduced reorientation of the azobenzene groups of the imidazolium-based LC material. The ionic layers of the Sm LC phase are macroscopically oriented perpendicular to the surface of the glass substrate. The oriented films show anisotropic ion conduction in the Sm phase. This is the first example of the macroscopic photoalignment of ion-conductive LC arrays. Reversible switching of homeotropic and homogeneous alignments has also been achieved for the LC material. These materials and the alignment methodology may be useful in the development of ion-based circuits and memory devices. PMID:24958446

  1. Ion transport through membrane-spanning nanopores studied by molecular dynamics simulations and continuum electrostatics calculations.

    PubMed

    Peter, Christine; Hummer, Gerhard

    2005-10-01

    Narrow hydrophobic regions are a common feature of biological channels, with possible roles in ion-channel gating. We study the principles that govern ion transport through narrow hydrophobic membrane pores by molecular dynamics simulation of model membranes formed of hexagonally packed carbon nanotubes. We focus on the factors that determine the energetics of ion translocation through such nonpolar nanopores and compare the resulting free-energy barriers for pores with different diameters corresponding to the gating regions in closed and open forms of potassium channels. Our model system also allows us to compare the results from molecular dynamics simulations directly to continuum electrostatics calculations. Both simulations and continuum calculations show that subnanometer wide pores pose a huge free-energy barrier for ions, but a small increase in the pore diameter to approximately 1 nm nearly eliminates that barrier. We also find that in those wider channels the ion mobility is comparable to that in the bulk phase. By calculating local electrostatic potentials, we show that the long range Coulomb interactions of ions are strongly screened in the wide water-filled channels. Whereas continuum calculations capture the overall energetics reasonably well, the local water structure, which is not accounted for in this model, leads to interesting effects such as the preference of hydrated ions to move along the pore wall rather than through the center of the pore.

  2. THE ROLE OF CROSS-SHOCK POTENTIAL ON PICKUP ION SHOCK ACCELERATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF FOCUSED TRANSPORT THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Pingbing; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2013-10-20

    The focused transport theory is appropriate to describe the injection and acceleration of low-energy particles at shocks as an extension of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). In this investigation, we aim to characterize the role of cross-shock potential (CSP) originated in the charge separation across the shock ramp on pickup ion (PUI) acceleration at various types of shocks with a focused transport model. The simulation results of energy spectrum and spatial density distribution for the cases with and without CSP added in the model are compared. With sufficient acceleration time, the focused transport acceleration finally falls into the DSA regime with the power-law spectral index equal to the solution of the DSA theory. The CSP can affect the shape of the spectrum segment at lower energies, but it does not change the spectral index of the final power-law spectrum at high energies. It is found that the CSP controls the injection efficiency which is the fraction of PUIs reaching the DSA regime. A stronger CSP jump results in a dramatically improved injection efficiency. Our simulation results also show that the injection efficiency of PUIs is mass-dependent, which is lower for species with a higher mass. In addition, the CSP is able to enhance the particle reflection upstream to produce a stronger intensity spike at the shock front. We conclude that the CSP is a non-negligible factor that affects the dynamics of PUIs at shocks.

  3. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1999-07-01

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed.

  4. Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.

  5. Understanding transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions at 100 A and 400 A MeV: Comparison of heavy-ion transport codes under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Tsang, ManYee Betty; Wolter, Hermann; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Aichelin, Joerg; Colonna, Maria; Cozma, Dan; Danielewicz, Pawel; Feng, Zhao-Qing; Le Fèvre, Arnaud; Gaitanos, Theodoros; Hartnack, Christoph; Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Youngman; Ko, Che-Ming; Li, Bao-An; Li, Qing-Feng; Li, Zhu-Xia; Napolitani, Paolo; Ono, Akira; Papa, Massimo; Song, Taesoo; Su, Jun; Tian, Jun-Long; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yong-Jia; Weil, Janus; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Transport simulations are very valuable for extracting physics information from heavy-ion-collision experiments. With the emergence of many different transport codes in recent years, it becomes important to estimate their robustness in extracting physics information from experiments. We report on the results of a transport-code-comparison project. Eighteen commonly used transport codes were included in this comparison: nine Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck-type codes and nine quantum-molecular-dynamics-type codes. These codes have been asked to simulate Au +Au collisions using the same physics input for mean fields and for in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, as well as the same impact parameter, the similar initialization setup, and other calculational parameters at 100 A and 400 A MeV incident energy. Among the codes we compare one-body observables such as rapidity and transverse flow distributions. We also monitor nonobservables such as the initialization of the internal states of colliding nuclei and their stability, the collision rates, and the Pauli blocking. We find that not completely identical initializations may have contributed partly to different evolutions. Different strategies to determine the collision probabilities and to enforce the Pauli blocking also produce considerably different results. There is a substantial spread in the predictions for the observables, which is much smaller at the higher incident energy. We quantify the uncertainties in the collective flow resulting from the simulation alone as about 30% at 100 A MeV and 13% at 400 A MeV, respectively. We propose further steps within the code comparison project to test the different aspects of transport simulations in a box calculation of infinite nuclear matter. This should, in particular, improve the robustness of transport model predictions at lower incident energies, where abundant amounts of data are available.

  6. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  7. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  8. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  9. Effects of orbit squeezing on ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C. ); Hazeltine, R.D. . Inst. for Fusion Studies)

    1992-02-01

    It is shown that ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks is reduced in the presence of a strong shear in the radial electric field E{sub r}, as is often observed in the edge region. For simplicity, the ordering with {rho}{sub pi}{vert bar}d ln E{sub r}/dr{vert bar} {much gt} 1 but c{vert bar}E{sub r}{vert bar}/B{sub p}{upsilon}{sub ti} < 1 is adopted. Here, {rho}{sub pi} is the ion poloidal gyroradius, B{sub p} is the poloidal magnetic field strength, {upsilon}{sub ti} is the ion thermal speed, and c is the speed of light. A kinetic transport theory similar to those for bumpy tori and stellarators is developed to show that the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} is reduced by a factor of roughly S{sup {minus}3/2}, where S = 1 {minus} ({rho}{sub pi}d ln E{sub r}/dr)(cE{sub r}/B{sub {rho}}{upsilon}{sub ti}). The result reflects more than simple orbit squeezing: the fraction of trapped ions is also modified by S.

  10. Effects of orbit squeezing on ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1992-02-01

    It is shown that ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks is reduced in the presence of a strong shear in the radial electric field E{sub r}, as is often observed in the edge region. For simplicity, the ordering with {rho}{sub pi}{vert_bar}d ln E{sub r}/dr{vert_bar} {much_gt} 1 but c{vert_bar}E{sub r}{vert_bar}/B{sub p}{upsilon}{sub ti} < 1 is adopted. Here, {rho}{sub pi} is the ion poloidal gyroradius, B{sub p} is the poloidal magnetic field strength, {upsilon}{sub ti} is the ion thermal speed, and c is the speed of light. A kinetic transport theory similar to those for bumpy tori and stellarators is developed to show that the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub i} is reduced by a factor of roughly S{sup {minus}3/2}, where S = 1 {minus} ({rho}{sub pi}d ln E{sub r}/dr)(cE{sub r}/B{sub {rho}}{upsilon}{sub ti}). The result reflects more than simple orbit squeezing: the fraction of trapped ions is also modified by S.

  11. Effects of orbit squeezing on ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C. ); Hazeltine, R.D. )

    1992-08-01

    It is shown that ion transport in the banana regime in tokamaks is reduced in the presence of a strong shear in the radial electric field {ital E}{sub {ital r}} , as is often observed in the edge region. For simplicity, the ordering with {rho}{sub {ital pi}}{vert bar}{ital d} ln {ital E}{sub {ital r} }/{ital dr}{vert bar} {much gt} 1 but {ital c}{vert bar}{ital E}{sub {ital r}}{vert bar}/{ital B}{sub {ital p}v}{sub {ital ti}} {lt} 1 is adopted. Here, {rho}{sub {ital pi}} is the ion poloidal gyroradius, {ital B}{sub {ital p}} is the poloidal magnetic field strength, {ital v}{sub {ital ti}} is the ion thermal speed, and {ital c} is the speed of light. A kinetic transport theory similar to those for bumpy tori and stellarators is developed to show that the ion thermal conductivity {chi}{sub {ital i}} is reduced by a factor of roughly {ital S}{sup {minus}3/2}, where {ital S} = 1 {minus} ({rho}{sub {ital pi} }{ital d} ln {ital E}{sub {ital r}} /{ital dr})({ital cE}{sub {ital r}} {ital B}{sub {ital pv}}{sub {ital ti}}). The result reflects more than simple orbit squeezing: The fraction of trapped ions is also modified by {ital S}.

  12. Ion transport into cells exposed to monopolar and bipolar nanosecond pulses

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Ibey, Bennet L.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with CHO cells exposed to 60 and 300 ns pulsed electric fields with amplitudes in the range from several kV/cm to tens of kV/cm, showed a decrease of the uptake of calcium ions by more than an order of magnitude when, immediately after a first pulse, a second one of opposite polarity was applied. This effect is assumed to be due to the reversal of the electrophoretic transport of ions through the electroporated membrane during the second phase of the bipolar pulse. This assumption, however, is only valid if electrophoresis is the dominant transport mechanism, rather than diffusion. Comparison of calculated calcium ion currents with experimental results showed that for nanosecond pulses, electrophoresis is at least as important as diffusion. By delaying the second pulse with respect to the first one, the effect of reverse electrophoresis is reduced. Consequently, separating nanosecond pulses of opposite polarity by up to approximately hundred microseconds allows us to vary the uptake of ions from very small values to that obtained with two pulses of the same polarity. The measured calcium ion uptake obtained with bipolar pulses also allowed us to determine the membrane pore recovery time. The calculated recovery time constants are on the order of ten microseconds. PMID:25212701

  13. Ion Binding Energies Determining Functional Transport of ClC Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Guo, Xu; Zou, Xian-Wu; Sang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The ClC-type proteins, a large family of chloride transport proteins ubiquitously expressed in biological organisms, have been extensively studied for decades. Biological function of ClC proteins can be reflected by analyzing the binding situation of Cl- ions. We investigate ion binding properties of ClC-ec1 protein with the atomic molecular dynamics simulation approach. The calculated electrostatic binding energy results indicate that Cl- at the central binding site Scen has more binding stability than the internal binding site Sint. Quantitative comparison between the latest experimental heat release data isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and our calculated results demonstrates that chloride ions prefer to bind at Scen than Sint in the wild-type ClC-ec1 structure and prefer to bind at Sext and Scen than Sint in mutant E148A/E148Q structures. Even though the chloride ions make less contribution to heat release when binding to Sint and are relatively unstable in the Cl- pathway, they are still part contributors for the Cl- functional transport. This work provides a guide rule to estimate the importance of Cl- at the binding sites and how chloride ions have influences on the function of ClC proteins.

  14. Ion transport into cells exposed to monopolar and bipolar nanosecond pulses.

    PubMed

    Schoenbach, Karl H; Pakhomov, Andrei G; Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Ibey, Bennett L

    2015-06-01

    Experiments with CHO cells exposed to 60 and 300 ns pulsed electric fields with amplitudes in the range from several kV/cm to tens of kV/cm showed a decrease of the uptake of calcium ions by more than an order of magnitude when, immediately after a first pulse, a second one of opposite polarity was applied. This effect is assumed to be due to the reversal of the electrophoretic transport of ions through the electroporated membrane during the second phase of the bipolar pulse. This assumption, however, is only valid if electrophoresis is the dominant transport mechanism, rather than diffusion. Comparison of calculated calcium ion currents with experimental results showed that for nanosecond pulses, electrophoresis is at least as important as diffusion. By delaying the second pulse with respect to the first one, the effect of reverse electrophoresis is reduced. Consequently, separating nanosecond pulses of opposite polarity by up to approximately hundred microseconds allows us to vary the uptake of ions from very small values to those obtained with two pulses of the same polarity. The measured calcium ion uptake obtained with bipolar pulses also allowed us to determine the membrane pore recovery time. The calculated recovery time constants are on the order of 10 μs.

  15. Doping of Graphene by Low-Energy Ion Beam Implantation: Structural, Electronic, and Transport Properties.

    PubMed

    Willke, Philip; Amani, Julian A; Sinterhauf, Anna; Thakur, Sangeeta; Kotzott, Thomas; Druga, Thomas; Weikert, Steffen; Maiti, Kalobaran; Hofsäss, Hans; Wenderoth, Martin

    2015-08-12

    We investigate the structural, electronic, and transport properties of substitutional defects in SiC-graphene by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and magnetotransport experiments. Using ion incorporation via ultralow energy ion implantation, the influence of different ion species (boron, nitrogen, and carbon) can directly be compared. While boron and nitrogen atoms lead to an effective doping of the graphene sheet and can reduce or raise the position of the Fermi level, respectively, (12)C(+) carbon ions are used to study possible defect creation by the bombardment. For low-temperature transport, the implantation leads to an increase in resistance and a decrease in mobility in contrast to undoped samples. For undoped samples, we observe in high magnetic fields a positive magnetoresistance that changes to negative for the doped samples, especially for (11)B(+)- and (12)C(+)-ions. We conclude that the conductivity of the graphene sheet is lowered by impurity atoms and especially by lattice defects, because they result in weak localization effects at low temperatures. PMID:26120803

  16. Probabilities of adverse weather affecting transport in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events affecting the European transport system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU transportation system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (Transports, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena affecting the transport system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the transport system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the transportation network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air transportation, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in

  17. Formulated plastic separators for soluble electrode cells. [rubber-ion transport membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The fabrication and milling of membranes comprising a hydrochloric acid-insoluble sheet of a mixture of a rubber and a powdered ion transport material are described. The sheet can be present as a coating upon a flexible and porous substrate. These membranes can be used in oxidation-reduction electrical accumulator cells wherein the reduction of one member of a couple is accompanied by the by the oxidation of the other member of the couple on the other side of the cell and this must be accompanied by a change in chloride ion concentration in both sides.

  18. Ca2+ ion transport through patch-clamped cells exposed to magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Höjevik, P; Sandblom, J; Galt, S; Hamnerius, Y

    1995-01-01

    The total current of Ca2+ ions through patch-clamped cell membranes was measured while exposing clonal insulin-producing beta-cells (RINm5F) to a combination of DC and AC magnetic fields at so-called cyclotron resonance conditions. Previous experimental evidence supports the theory that a resonant interaction between magnetic fields and organisms can exist. This experiment was designed to test one possible site of interaction: channels in the cell membrane. The transport of Ca2+ ions through the protein channels of the plasma membrane did not show any resonant behavior in the frequency range studied. PMID:7748201

  19. Closure and transport theory for high-collisionality electron-ion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.

    2013-04-01

    Systems of algebraic equations for a high-collisionality electron-ion plasma are constructed from the general moment equations with linearized collision operators [J.-Y. Ji and E. D. Held, Phys. Plasmas 13, 102103 (2006) and J.-Y. Ji and E. D. Held, Phys. Plasmas 15, 102101 (2008)]. A systematic geometric method is invented and applied to solve the system of equations to find closure and transport relations. It is known that some closure coefficients of Braginskii [S. I. Braginskii, Reviews of Plasma Physics (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1] are in error up to 65% for some finite values of x (cyclotron frequency × electron-ion collision time) and have significant error in the large-x limit [E. M. Epperlein and M. G. Haines, Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)]. In this work, fitting formulas for electron coefficients are obtained from the 160 moment (Laguerre polynomial) solution, which converges with increasing moments for x ≤100 and from the asymptotic solution for large x-values. The new fitting formulas are practically exact (less than 1% error) for arbitrary x and Z (the ion charge number, checked up to Z = 100). The ion coefficients for equal electron and ion temperatures are moderately modified by including the ion-electron collision operator. When the ion temperature is higher than the electron temperature, the ion-electron collision and the temperature change terms in the moment equations must be kept. The ion coefficient formulas from 3 moment (Laguerre polynomial) calculations, precise to less than 0.4% error from the convergent values, are explicitly written.

  20. How Hydrogen Bonds Affect the Growth of Reverse Micelles around Coordinating Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Baofu; Demars, Thomas; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Ellis, Ross J

    2014-04-17

    Extensive research on hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) have illustrated their critical role in various biological, chemical and physical processes. Given that existing studies are predominantly performed in aqueous conditions, how H-bonds affect both the structure and function of aggregates in organic phase is poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the role of H-bonds on the hierarchical structure of an aggregating amphiphile-oil solution containing a coordinating metal complex by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray techniques. For the first time, we show that H-bonds not only stabilize the metal complex in the hydrophobic environment by coordinating between the Eu(NO3)3 outer-sphere and aggregating amphiphiles, but also affect the growth of such reverse micellar aggregates. The formation of swollen, elongated reverse micelles elevates the extraction of metal ions with increased H-bonds under acidic condition. These new insights into H-bonds are of broad interest to nanosynthesis and biological applications, in addition to metal ion separations.

  1. Soil water repellency affects production and transport of CO2 and CH4 in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and transport of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the transport of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 transport within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which affects the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  2. Selective transport of silver ion through a supported liquid membrane using hexathia-18-crown-6 as carrier.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, M; Azimi, G; Mashhadizadeh, M H; Madaeni, S S

    2001-04-01

    A facile supported liquid membrane (SLM) system for the selective and efficient transport of silver ion is introduced. The SLM used is a thin porous polyvinyldifluoride membrane impregnated with hexathia-18-crown-6 (HT18C6) dissolved in nitrophenyloctyl ether. HT18C6 acts as a specific carrier for the uphill transport of Ag+ ion as its picrate ion paired complex through the SLM. In the presence of thiosulfate ion as a suitable stripping agent in the strip solution, transport of silver occurs almost quantitatively after 4 h. The selectivity and efficiency of silver transport from aqueous solutions containing other Mn+ cations such as Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ ions were investigated. PMID:11990563

  3. Ion and water transport by the flounder urinary bladder: salinity dependence.

    PubMed

    Demarest, J R

    1984-04-01

    Urinary bladders from seawater-acclimated (SW) flounder had a transepithelial resistance (Rt) of congruent to 2,000 omega X cm2 and absorbed Na and Cl at equal rates of about 3 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 in an electrically silent manner; the short-circuit current (Isc) was 0.03 +/- 0.01 mueq X cm-2 X h-1. The transport of Na and Cl was only partially coupled. Removal of Na (or Cl) from the bathing solutions reduced net Cl (or Na) absorption by only 60%, yet there was neither a change in transepithelial potential nor the appearance of a short-circuit current that could be associated with the net Cl (or Na) transport that remained. Bladders from freshwater-acclimated (FW) flounder had a fivefold lower Rt and exhibited the same partially coupled and equal Na and Cl transport, but the ion transport rates were twice as large as those of SW bladders and the bladders exhibited a significant Isc of 0.51 +/- 0.08 mueq X cm-2 X h-1. The rate of fluid transport was much lower in FW than in SW bladders, reflecting a sixfold decrease in hydraulic conductivity (Lp). In both SW and FW bladders a large portion of the serosal-to-mucosal ion movement appears to be through nonconductive pathways.

  4. Observation of Critical-Gradient Behavior in Alfvén-Eigenmode-Induced Fast-Ion Transport.

    PubMed

    Collins, C S; Heidbrink, W W; Austin, M E; Kramer, G J; Pace, D C; Petty, C C; Stagner, L; Van Zeeland, M A; White, R B; Zhu, Y B

    2016-03-01

    Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show that fast-ion transport suddenly becomes stiff above a critical threshold in the presence of many overlapping small-amplitude Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs). The threshold is phase-space dependent and occurs when particle orbits become stochastic due to resonances with AEs. Above threshold, equilibrium fast-ion density profiles are unchanged despite increased drive, and intermittent fast-ion losses are observed. Fast-ion Dα spectroscopy indicates radially localized transport of the copassing population at radii that correspond to the location of midcore AEs. The observation of stiff fast-ion transport suggests that reduced models can be used to effectively predict alpha profiles, beam ion profiles, and losses to aid in the design of optimized scenarios for future burning plasma devices.

  5. Observation of Critical-Gradient Behavior in Alfvén-Eigenmode-Induced Fast-Ion Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C. S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Stagner, L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; White, R. B.; Zhu, Y. B.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show that fast-ion transport suddenly becomes stiff above a critical threshold in the presence of many overlapping small-amplitude Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs). The threshold is phase-space dependent and occurs when particle orbits become stochastic due to resonances with AEs. Above threshold, equilibrium fast-ion density profiles are unchanged despite increased drive, and intermittent fast-ion losses are observed. Fast-ion D α spectroscopy indicates radially localized transport of the copassing population at radii that correspond to the location of midcore AEs. The observation of stiff fast-ion transport suggests that reduced models can be used to effectively predict alpha profiles, beam ion profiles, and losses to aid in the design of optimized scenarios for future burning plasma devices.

  6. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The 132Sn+ case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osswald, F.; Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Kazarinov, N.; Perrot, L.; Sellam, A.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  7. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: the 132Sn+ case study.

    PubMed

    Osswald, F; Bouquerel, E; Boutin, D; Dinkov, A; Kazarinov, N; Perrot, L; Sellam, A

    2014-12-01

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  8. An evaluation of energy-independent heavy ion transport coefficient approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Utilizing a one-dimensional transport theory for heavy ion propagation, evaluations of typical energy-dependent transport coefficient approximations are made by comparing theoretical depth-dose predictions to published experimental values for incident 670 MeV/nucleon Ne-20 beams in water. Results are presented for cases where the input nuclear absorption cross sections, or input fragmentation parameters, or both, are fixed. The lack of fragment charge and mass concentration resulting from the use of Silberberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters continues to be the main source of disagreement between theory and experiment.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Ion Transport in an ESI-MS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimelshein, Natalia; Gimelshein, Sergey; Lilly, Taylor; Moskovets, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Gas and ion transport in the capillary-skimmer subatmospheric interface of a mass spectrometer, which is typically utilized to separate unevaporated micro-droplets from ions, was studied numerically using a two-step approach spanning multiple gas dynamic regimes. The gas flow in the heated capillary and in the interface was determined by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equation. The capillary-to-skimmer gas/ion flow was modeled through the solution of the full Boltzmann equation with a force term. The force term, together with calculated aerodynamic drag, determined the ion motion in the gap between the capillary and skimmer. Three-dimensional modeling of the impact of the voltage applied to the Einzel lens on the transmission of doubly charged peptide ions through the skimmer orifice was compared with experimental data obtained in the companion study. Good agreement between measured and computed signals was observed. The numerical results indicate that as many as 75% of the ions that exit from the capillary are lost on the conical surface of the skimmer or capillary outer surface because of the electrostatic force and plume divergence.

  10. Numerical modeling of ion transport in an ESI-MS system.

    PubMed

    Gimelshein, Natalia; Gimelshein, Sergey; Lilly, Taylor; Moskovets, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Gas and ion transport in the capillary-skimmer subatmospheric interface of a mass spectrometer, which is typically utilized to separate unevaporated micro-droplets from ions, was studied numerically using a two-step approach spanning multiple gas dynamic regimes. The gas flow in the heated capillary and in the interface was determined by solving numerically the Navier-Stokes equation. The capillary-to-skimmer gas/ion flow was modeled through the solution of the full Boltzmann equation with a force term. The force term, together with calculated aerodynamic drag, determined the ion motion in the gap between the capillary and skimmer. Three-dimensional modeling of the impact of the voltage applied to the Einzel lens on the transmission of doubly charged peptide ions through the skimmer orifice was compared with experimental data obtained in the companion study. Good agreement between measured and computed signals was observed. The numerical results indicate that as many as 75% of the ions that exit from the capillary are lost on the conical surface of the skimmer or capillary outer surface because of the electrostatic force and plume divergence.

  11. Interacting Physical and Biological Processes Affecting Nutrient Transport Through Human Dominated Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlay, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient transport. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient transport in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through transport to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus transport, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and transport. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes affecting nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.

  12. A 3D Model for Ion Beam Formation and Transport Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Todd, D.; Leitner, D.

    2006-02-07

    In this paper, we present a three-dimensional model forself-consistently modeling ion beam formation from plasma ion sources andtransporting in low energy beam transport systems. A multi-sectionoverlapped computational domain has been used to break the originaltransport system into a number of weakly coupled subsystems. Within eachsubsystem, macro-particle tracking is used to obtain the charge densitydistribution in this subdomain. The three-dimensional Poisson equation issolved within the subdomain after each particle tracking to obtain theself-consistent space-charge forces and the particle tracking is repeateduntil the solution converges. Two new Poisson solvers based on acombination of the spectral method and the finite difference multigridmethod have been developed to solve the Poisson equation in cylindricalcoordinates for the straight beam transport section and in Frenet-Serretcoordinates for the bending magnet section. This model can have importantapplication in design and optimization of the low energy beam line opticsof the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) front end.

  13. Benchmark solutions for the galactic ion transport equations: Energy and spatially dependent problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1989-03-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic ion transport (GIT) equations in the straight-ahead approximation. These equations are used to predict potential radiation hazards in the upper atmosphere and in space. Two levels of difficulty are considered: (1) energy independent, and (2) spatially independent. The analysis emphasizes analytical methods never before applied to the GIT equations. Most of the representations derived have been numerically implemented and compared to more approximate calculations. Accurate ion fluxes are obtained (3 to 5 digits) for nontrivial sources. For monoenergetic beams, both accurate doses and fluxes are found. The benchmarks presented are useful in assessing the accuracy of transport algorithms designed to accommodate more complex radiation protection problems. In addition, these solutions can provide fast and accurate assessments of relatively simple shield configurations.

  14. High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on H-beam formation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Roderich

    2009-01-01

    This paper lays out the fundamental working principles of a variety of high-current ion sources for accelerators in a tutorial manner, and gives examples of specific source types such as d. c. discharge- and rf-driven multicusp sources. Penning-type and ECR-based sources while discussing those principles, pointing out general performance limits as well as the performance parameters of specific sources. Laser-based, two-chamber-. and surface-ionization sources are briefly mentioned. Main aspects of this review are particle feed. ionization mechanism, beam formation and beam transport. Issues seen with beam formation and low-energy transport of negative hydrogen-ion beams are treated in detail.

  15. Fast Na/+/-ion transport in skeleton structures. [solid electrolyte applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Hong, H. Y.-P.; Kafalas, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The skeleton structures considered in the investigations consist of a rigid subarray with an interconnected interstitial space in which ions move in three dimensions. The classes of skeleton structures investigated include the Im3 phase of high-pressure KSbO3, the defect-pyrochlore structure illustrated by RbMgAlF6, and the carnegieite structure of high-temperature NaAlSiO4. A description is given of the results obtained in transport measurements involving dense polycrystalline ceramic disks. Results obtained in the case of the Na(+)-ion transport in Na3Zr2PSi2O12 appear particularly promising concerning the possible use of such substances in solid-electrolyte applications.

  16. HZETRN: A heavy ion/nucleon transport code for space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Forooz F.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.

    1991-01-01

    The galactic heavy ion transport code (GCRTRN) and the nucleon transport code (BRYNTRN) are integrated into a code package (HZETRN). The code package is computer efficient and capable of operating in an engineering design environment for manned deep space mission studies. The nuclear data set used by the code is discussed including current limitations. Although the heavy ion nuclear cross sections are assumed constant, the nucleon-nuclear cross sections of BRYNTRN with full energy dependence are used. The relation of the final code to the Boltzmann equation is discussed in the context of simplifying assumptions. Error generation and propagation is discussed, and comparison is made with simplified analytic solutions to test numerical accuracy of the final results. A brief discussion of biological issues and their impact on fundamental developments in shielding technology is given.

  17. Benchmark solutions for the galactic ion transport equations: Energy and spatially dependent problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic ion transport (GIT) equations in the straight-ahead approximation. These equations are used to predict potential radiation hazards in the upper atmosphere and in space. Two levels of difficulty are considered: (1) energy independent, and (2) spatially independent. The analysis emphasizes analytical methods never before applied to the GIT equations. Most of the representations derived have been numerically implemented and compared to more approximate calculations. Accurate ion fluxes are obtained (3 to 5 digits) for nontrivial sources. For monoenergetic beams, both accurate doses and fluxes are found. The benchmarks presented are useful in assessing the accuracy of transport algorithms designed to accommodate more complex radiation protection problems. In addition, these solutions can provide fast and accurate assessments of relatively simple shield configurations.

  18. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassler, N.; Hansen, D. C.; Lühr, A.; Thomsen, B.; Petersen, J. B.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The "-A" fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD-HIT to a heavy ion dose optimization algorithm to provide MC-optimized treatment plans that include radiobiology. Methods: SHIELD-HIT12A is written in FORTRAN and carefully retains platform independence. A powerful scoring engine is implemented scoring relevant quantities such as dose and track-average LET. It supports native formats compatible with the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP. Stopping power files follow ICRU standard and are generated using the libdEdx library, which allows the user to choose from a multitude of stopping power tables. Results: SHIELD-HIT12A runs on Linux and Windows platforms. We experienced that new users quickly learn to use SHIELD-HIT12A and setup new geometries. Contrary to previous versions of SHIELD-HIT, the 12A distribution comes along with easy-to-use example files and an English manual. A new implementation of Vavilov straggling resulted in a massive reduction of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More information about SHIELD-HIT12A and a demo version can be found on http://www.shieldhit.org.

  19. A high-density association screen of 155 ion transport genes for involvement with common migraine

    PubMed Central

    Nyholt, Dale R.; LaForge, K. Steven; Kallela, Mikko; Alakurtti, Kirsi; Anttila, Verneri; Färkkilä, Markus; Hämaläinen, Eija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Heath, Andrew C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Göbel, Hartmut; Todt, Unda; Ferrari, Michel D.; Launer, Lenore J.; Frants, Rune R.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; de Vries, Boukje; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Brand, Jan; Freilinger, Tobias; Pfaffenrath, Volker; Straube, Andreas; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Zhan, Yiping; Daly, Mark J.; Cox, David R.; Dichgans, Martin; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Kubisch, Christian; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wessman, Maija; Peltonen, Leena; Palotie, Aarno

    2008-01-01

    The clinical overlap between monogenic Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) and common migraine subtypes, and the fact that all three FHM genes are involved in the transport of ions, suggest that ion transport genes may underlie susceptibility to common forms of migraine. To test this leading hypothesis, we examined common variation in 155 ion transport genes using 5257 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a Finnish sample of 841 unrelated migraine with aura cases and 884 unrelated non-migraine controls. The top signals were then tested for replication in four independent migraine case–control samples from the Netherlands, Germany and Australia, totalling 2835 unrelated migraine cases and 2740 unrelated controls. SNPs within 12 genes (KCNB2, KCNQ3, CLIC5, ATP2C2, CACNA1E, CACNB2, KCNE2, KCNK12, KCNK2, KCNS3, SCN5A and SCN9A) with promising nominal association (0.00041 < P < 0.005) in the Finnish sample were selected for replication. Although no variant remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing nor produced consistent evidence for association across all cohorts, a significant epistatic interaction between KCNB2 SNP rs1431656 (chromosome 8q13.3) and CACNB2 SNP rs7076100 (chromosome 10p12.33) (pointwise P = 0.00002; global P = 0.02) was observed in the Finnish case–control sample. We conclude that common variants of moderate effect size in ion transport genes do not play a major role in susceptibility to common migraine within these European populations, although there is some evidence for epistatic interaction between potassium and calcium channel genes, KCNB2 and CACNB2. Multiple rare variants or trans-regulatory elements of these genes are not ruled out. PMID:18676988

  20. The influence of erythrocyte maturity on ion transport and membrane lipid composition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Dobešová, Z; Loukotová, J; Nováková, O; Kuneš, J; Zicha, J

    2016-01-01

    Significant relationships between ion transport and membrane lipid composition (cholesterol, total phospholipids and sphingomyelins) were found in erythrocytes of salt hypertensive Dahl rats. In these animals mean cellular hemoglobin content correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Na(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Immature erythrocytes exhibit lower mean cellular hemoglobin content (MCHC) than mature ones. The aim of the present study was to find a relationship between erythrocyte maturity, membrane lipid composition and ion transport activity in Wistar rats aged three months which were subjected to repeated hemorrhage (blood loss 2 ml/day for 6 days) to enrich circulating erythrocytes with immature forms. Immature and mature erythrocyte fractions in control and hemorrhaged rats were separated by repeated centrifugation. Hemorrhaged rats had increased number of reticulocytes but reduced hematocrit and MCHC compared to control rats. Immature erythrocytes of hemorrhaged rats differed from mature ones of control animals by elevated Na(+)-K(+) pump activity, reduced Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity and increased Rb(+) leak. These ion transport changes in immature erythrocytes were accompanied by higher concentration of total phospholipids in their cell membranes. Membrane phospholipid content correlated positively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and cation leaks but negatively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Moreover, they were also negatively related with MCHC which correlated negatively with Na(+)-K(+) pump activity and Rb(+) leak but positively with Na(+)-K(+) cotransport activity. Thus certain abnormalities of erythrocyte ion transport and membrane lipid composition detected in hypertensive animals might be caused by higher incidence of immature cells. PMID:26988297

  1. Two-dimensional boltzmann transport equation approach to simulation of local ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, F. F.; Mozolevski, I. E.; Rogach, V. P.

    1995-05-01

    A new theoretical model and software tool is proposed for simulation of two-dimensional local ion implantation in a target of arbitrary geometry. The program uses an algorithm of numerical solution of the boundary value problem for Boltzmann transport equation in two dimensions and permits to calculate the angular and energy distribution function of the particles moving in a multilayered multicomponent target. The program is essentially time saving and can be implemented on an IBM PC AT standard configuration computer.

  2. Electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulation of turbulent transport in high ion temperature discharge of Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomo-Hiko; Sugama, Hideo; Maeyama, Shinya; Nunami, Masanori; Nakajima, Noriyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Turbulent transport in a high ion temperature discharge of Large Helical Device (LHD) is investigated by means of electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations including kinetic electrons. A new electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulation code GKV+enables us to examine electron heat and particle fluxes as well as ion heat flux in finite beta heliotron/stellarator plasmas. This problem has not been previously explored because of numerical difficulties associated with complex three-dimensional magnetic structures as well as multiple spatio-temporal scales related to electromagnetic ion and electron dynamics. The turbulent fluxes, which are evaluated through a nonlinear simulation carried out in the K-super computer system, will be reported. This research uses computational resources of K at RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science through the HPCI System Research project (Project ID: hp140044).

  3. Electron energy transport in ion waves and its relevance to laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Electron energy transport in plasmas is examined in the context of ion waves which are intermediate between collisionless isothermal ion acoustic waves and collisional adiabatic sound waves. The conductivity is found to be much less than the Spitzer-Haerm result for wavelengths less than 1000 electron mean free paths. This is expected to be relevant to laser-produced ablating plasmas in which the temperature can vary considerably over a distance of 10 to 100 mean free paths. The reduction in conductivity is independent of the wave amplitude thus differing from the reduction due to saturation found recently by numerical solution of the Fokker--Planck equation. At short wavelengths the heat flow approaches an upper limit which depends on the phase velocity of the wave. Diffusive ion wave damping is strong over a large range of wavelengths.

  4. Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    McClements, K. G.

    2012-07-15

    The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

  5. Effects of ozone on airway epithelial permeability and ion transport. Research report, Aug 83-Jan 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, P.; Ranga, V.; Stutts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of ozone inhalation on the permeability to dissolved molecules and the ion transport activity of airway epithelium using in vivo and in vitro techniques. Conscious unrestrained guinea pigs were exposed to 1 part per million (ppm) ozone for three hours in controlled environmental chambers. The rate of appearance in blood of various water-soluble compounds instilled onto the surface of the trachea increased, indicating increased permeability of the airway epithelium. The interpretation was supported by the observation of horseradish peroxidase in the intercellular spaces of the tracheal epithelium from ozone-exposed, but not air-exposed (control), animals. However, when the tracheas were excised after ozone exposure and mounted in a tissue bath before measurement of permeability, no increase was found. When the authors exposed animals to 1 ppm for three hours daily, the increased permeability observed in vivo was no longer demonstrable after the fourth exposure, suggesting that 'adaptation' had occurred. Ozone exposure caused a sharp increase in active ion transport by tracheal epithelium. This is probably due to increased absorption of sodium ion because it was inhibited by 30 micromolar amiloride. The increased transport was observed in excised tissues and was present in tracheas removed from animals up to three days after a single exposure.

  6. Systems biology of ion channels and transporters in tumor angiogenesis: An omics view.

    PubMed

    Munaron, L

    2015-10-01

    Solid tumors require the formation of new blood vessels to support their growth, invasiveness and metastatic potential. Tumor neovascularization is achieved by vasculogenesis from endothelial precursors and by sprouting angiogenesis from preexisting vessels. The complex sequence of events driving these processes, including endothelial activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation, is associated with fluxes of ions, water and other small molecules mediated by a great pool of ion channels and transporters (ICT). This 'transportome' is regulated by environmental factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules. In turn, ICT play a prominent role in the response to angiogenesis-related stimuli through canonical and 'unconventional' activities: indeed, there is an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of several ion channels that could also be annotated as receptors, enzymes, scaffolding proteins, mechanical and chemical sensors. The investigation of ICT structure and function has been far from the experimental oncology for long time and these two domains converged only very recently. Furthermore, the systems biology viewpoint has not received much attention in the biology of cancer transportome. Modulating angiogenesis by interference with membrane transport has a great potential in cancer treatment and the application of an 'omics' logic will hopefully contribute to the overall advancement in the field. This review is an attempt to apply the systems biology approach to the analysis of ICT involved in tumor angiogenesis, with a particular focus on endothelial transportome diversity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  7. Transport rates and momentum isotropization of gluon matter in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-08-15

    To describe momentum isotropization of gluon matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the transport rate of gluon drift and the transport collision rates of elastic (gg{r_reversible}gg) as well as inelastic (gg{r_reversible}ggg) perturbative quantum chromodynamics- (pQCD) scattering processes are introduced and calculated within the kinetic parton cascade Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings (BAMPS), which simulates the space-time evolution of partons. We define isotropization as the development of an anisotropic system as it reaches isotropy. The inverse of the introduced total transport rate gives the correct time scale of the momentum isotropization. The contributions of the various scattering processes to the momentum isotropization can be separated into the transport collision rates. In contrast to the transport cross section, the transport collision rate has an indirect but correctly implemented relationship with the collision-angle distribution. Based on the calculated transport collision rates from BAMPS for central Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies, we show that pQCD gg{r_reversible}ggg bremsstrahlung processes isotropize the momentum five times more efficiently than elastic scatterings. The large efficiency of the bremsstrahlung stems mainly from its large momentum deflection. Due to kinematics, 2{yields}N (N>2) production processes allow more particles to become isotropic in momentum space and thus kinetically equilibrate more quickly than their back reactions or elastic scatterings. We also show that the relaxation time in the relaxation time approximation, which is often used, is strongly momentum dependent and thus cannot serve as a global quantity that describes kinetic equilibration.

  8. The beam bunching and transport system of the Argonne positive ion injector

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, P.K.; Bogaty, J.M.; Bollinger, L.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new positive ion injector (PII) is currently under construction at Argonne that will replace the existing 9-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator as an injector into ATLAS. It consists of an electron-cyclotron resonance-ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a superconducting linac optimized for very slow (..beta.. less than or equal to .007 c) ions. This combination can potentially produce even higher quality heavy-ion beams than are currently available from the tandem since the emittance growth within the linac is largely determined by the quality of the bunching and beam transport. The system we have implemented uses a two-stage bunching system, composed of a 4-harmonic gridded buncher located on the ECR high-voltage platform and a room temperature spiral-loaded buncher of novel design. A sinusoidal beam chopper is used for removal of tails. The beam transport is designed to provide mass resolution of M/..delta..M > 250 and a doubly-isochronous beamline is used to minimize time spread due to path length differences. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Oxide ion transport for selective oxidative coupling of methane with new membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Takao; Fujimoto, Kaoru . Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry)

    1994-05-01

    Oxidative coupling of methane was conducted by using membrane reactors. The nonporous membrane film that consisted of PbO modified by alkaline or alkaline earth compound was supported on porous SiO[sub 2]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] tube. Higher hydrocarbons were successfully synthesized with high selectivity (about 90%). A kinetic analysis was conducted to clarify whether oxide ion transportation through PbO film participated in the oxidative coupling of methane. The evaluated value of the diffusion coefficient of oxide ion transport based on the methane oxidation agreed well with that of published data. The simulated gradient of the oxide ion concentration through the PbO membrane agreed well with that measured by electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. A transient response simulated by using kinetic parameters evaluated from steady-state analysis also agreed well with the experiment. These results prove the validity of the reaction model that consists of surface reactions of methane with oxide ion which is transferred from inside to outside of the membrane reactor. Alkali modifiers on the PbO membrane surface exhibited a promotional effect on the surface reaction of methane coupling. Another membrane reactor containing Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3] showed higher activity than the PbO membrane.

  10. Local Structure and Ion Transport in Glassy Poly(ethylene oxide styrene) Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Chang; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Winey, Karen I.

    2014-03-01

    Polymer electrolytes have attracted attention for a wide variety of applications in energy production such as lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells. The concept of free volume provides important information about ion mobility and chain dynamics in the polymer matrix. Researchers have recently demonstrated that ion transport in glassy polymer can be improved by designing a system with high free volume. We have studied the effect of temperature and humidity on the intermolecular correlations of poly(ethylene oxide styrene-block-styrene) (PEOSt- b-St) block copolymer and poly(ethylene oxide styrene) (PEOSt) homopolymer using in situ multi-angle x-ray scattering across a wide range of scattering angles (q = 0.007-1.5 Å-1) . An increase in backbone-to-backbone distance is observed, indicating an increase in free volume between different polymer main chains. Structural characterization of the polymer segments will be discussed together with conductivity and dielectric results to better understand the ion transport mechanism in the local environment of the polymer system. Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee.

  11. “Uphill” cation transport: A bioinspired photo-driven ion pump

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Ganhua; Li, Pei; Xiao, Kai; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Biological ion pumps with active ionic transport properties lay the foundation for many life processes. However, few analogs have been produced because extra energy is needed to couple to this “uphill” process. We demonstrate a bioinspired artificial photo-driven ion pump based on a single polyethylene terephthalate conical nanochannel. The pumping process behaving as an inversion of zero-volt current can be realized by applying ultraviolet irradiation from the large opening. The light energy can accelerate the dissociation of the benzoic acid derivative dimers existing on the inner surface of nanochannel, which consequently produces more mobile carboxyl groups. Enhanced electrostatic interaction between the ions traversing the nanochannel and the charged groups on the inner wall is the key reason for the uphill cation transport behavior. This system creates an ideal experimental and theoretical platform for further development and design of various stimuli-driven and specific ion–selective bioinspired ion pumps, which anticipates wide potential applications in biosensing, energy conversion, and desalination. PMID:27774511

  12. Ion transport in polycarbonate based solid polymer electrolytes: experimental and computational investigations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Mindemark, Jonas; Morozov, Evgeny V; Costa, Luciano T; Bergman, Martin; Johansson, Patrik; Fang, Yuan; Furó, István; Brandell, Daniel

    2016-04-14

    Among the alternative host materials for solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), polycarbonates have recently shown promising functionality in all-solid-state lithium batteries from ambient to elevated temperatures. While the computational and experimental investigations of ion conduction in conventional polyethers have been extensive, the ion transport in polycarbonates has been much less studied. The present work investigates the ionic transport behavior in SPEs based on poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and its co-polymer with ε-caprolactone (CL) via both experimental and computational approaches. FTIR spectra indicated a preferential local coordination between Li(+) and ester carbonyl oxygen atoms in the P(TMC20CL80) co-polymer SPE. Diffusion NMR revealed that the co-polymer SPE also displays higher ion mobilities than PTMC. For both systems, locally oriented polymer domains, a few hundred nanometers in size and with limited connections between them, were inferred from the NMR spin relaxation and diffusion data. Potentiostatic polarization experiments revealed notably higher cationic transference numbers in the polycarbonate based SPEs as compared to conventional polyether based SPEs. In addition, MD simulations provided atomic-scale insight into the structure-dynamics properties, including confirmation of a preferential Li(+)-carbonyl oxygen atom coordination, with a preference in coordination to the ester based monomers. A coupling of the Li-ion dynamics to the polymer chain dynamics was indicated by both simulations and experiments.

  13. Lunar Ion Transport Near Magnetic Anomalies: Possible Implications for Swirl Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Killen, R. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The bright swirling features on the lunar surface in areas around the Moon but most prominently at Reiner Gamma, have intrigued scientists for many years. After Apollo and later Lunar Prospector (LP} mapped the Lunar magnetic fields from orbit, it was observed that these features are generally associated with crustal magnetic anomalies. This led researchers to propose a number of explanations for the swirls that invoke these fields. Prominent among these include magnetic shielding in the form of a mini-magnetosphere which impedes space weathering by the solar wind, magnetically controlled dust transport, and cometary or asteroidal impacts that would result in shock magnetization with concomitant formation ofthe swirls. In this presentation, we will consider another possibility, that the ambient magnetic and electric fields can transport and channel secondary ions produced by micrometeorite or solar wind ion impacts. In this scenario, ions that are created in these impacts are under the influence of these fields and can drift for significant distances before encountering the magnetic anomalies when their trajectories are disrupted and concentrated onto nearby areas. These ions may then be responsible for chemical alteration of the surface leading either to a brightening effect or a disruption of space weathering processes. To test this hypothesis we have run ion trajectory simulations that show ions from regions about the magnetic anomalies can be channeled into very small areas near the anomalies and although questions remain as to nature of the mechanisms that could lead to brightening of the surface it appears that the channeling effect is consistent with the existence of the swirls.

  14. Transport of Iodide Ion in Compacted Bentonite Containing Ag{sub 2}O - 12111

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Sung Paal; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Heui-Joo; Choi, Jong-Won; Lee, Cheo Kyung

    2012-07-01

    Observations of the transport of iodide through compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O as additive and that without additive were made. Compacted bentonite samples with densities of 1.41 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.60 g/cm{sup 3} were used in the experiment. The amount of Ag{sub 2}O added to the compacted bentonite was in the range of 0.0064 ∼ 0.0468 wt/wt%. Two diffusion solutions were used: one in which iodide ion was dissolved in demineralized water (pure iodide solution), and one in which iodide ion was dissolved in 0.1 M NaCl solution (0.1 M NaCl-iodide solution). Experimental results confirmed that iodide ion was transported by the diffusion process in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O as well as in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The time-lag of diffusion of iodide ion in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O is larger than that in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The increase of the time-lag of diffusion was observed in pure iodide ion solution as well as in 0.1 M NaCl-iodide solution. The apparent diffusion coefficient of iodide ion in the compacted bentonite containing Ag{sub 2}O was smaller than in the compacted bentonite without Ag{sub 2}O. The effective diffusion coefficient decreased as the amount of Ag{sub 2}O in the compacted bentonite increased. (authors)

  15. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of

  16. Methane transport and emissions from soil as affected by water table and vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The important greenhouse gas (GHG) methane is produced naturally in anaerobic wetland soils. By affecting the production, oxidation and transport of methane to the atmosphere, plants have a major influence upon the quantities emitted by wetlands. Different species and functional plant groups have been shown to affect these processes differently, but our knowledge about how these effects are influenced by abiotic factors such as water regime and temperature remains limited. Here we present a mesocosm experiment comparing eight plant species for their effects on internal transport and overall emissions of methane under contrasting hydrological conditions. To quantify how much methane was transported internally through plants (the chimney effect), we blocked diffusion from the soil surface with an agar seal. Results We found that graminoids caused higher methane emissions than forbs, although the emissions from mesocosms with different species were either lower than or comparable to those from control mesocosms with no plant (i.e. bare soil). Species with a relatively greater root volume and a larger biomass exhibited a larger chimney effect, though overall methane emissions were negatively related to plant biomass. Emissions were also reduced by lowering the water table. Conclusions We conclude that plant species (and functional groups) vary in the degree to which they transport methane to the atmosphere. However, a plant with a high capacity to transport methane does not necessarily emit more methane, as it may also cause more rhizosphere oxidation of methane. A shift in plant species composition from graminoids to forbs and/or from low to high productive species may lead to reduction of methane emissions. PMID:24010540

  17. Theoretical analysis of the role of interfaces in transport through oxygen ion and electron conducting membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkar, Anil V.

    This manuscript examines transport through oxygen ion and electronic conducting membranes including electrode/membrane interfaces by explicitly incorporating both ionic and electronic transport through the membranes and across interfaces. Spatial variation of electrochemical potential of oxygen ions, μ, electrochemical potential of electrons, μ (or reduced negative electrochemical potential of electrons, φ=-μ/e, where e is the electronic charge), and chemical potential of molecular oxygen, μ, through membrane and across interfaces are examined as functions of transport properties of membranes and interfacial regions. The analysis shows that description of transport across electrode/membrane interfaces requires two transport parameters—one for ions, and the other for electrons. The transport equations are applied to fuel cells, pressure-driven oxygen separation through mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes, and voltage-driven oxygen separation through predominantly oxygen ion conducting membranes. In fuel cells and MIEC oxygen separation membranes, the μ varies monotonically between the two end values corresponding to those at the two electrodes. Thus, in fuel cells and MIEC oxygen separation membranes, the stability of the membrane is assured as long as the oxygen partial pressure, p, on the fuel side or the permeate side is above the decomposition oxygen partial pressure of the membrane. By contrast, in voltage-driven oxygen separation membranes, μ in the membrane can lie outside of the end values. Thus, in the case of oxygen separation under an applied voltage, the transport properties of the material and the interfaces determine membrane stability. Implications of the analysis concerning the applicability of the so-called the three-electrode system under an applied voltage to investigate electrode polarization are presented. It is shown that the use of the three-electrode system for the estimation of electrode kinetics can lead to

  18. Intracellular Cl- as a signaling ion that potently regulates Na+/HCO3- transporters.

    PubMed

    Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Son, Aran; Hong, Jeong Hee; Yamazaki, Osamu; Ohana, Ehud; Kurtz, Ira; Shin, Dong Min; Muallem, Shmuel

    2015-01-20

    Cl(-) is a major anion in mammalian cells involved in transport processes that determines the intracellular activity of many ions and plasma membrane potential. Surprisingly, a role of intracellular Cl(-) (Cl(-) in) as a signaling ion has not been previously evaluated. Here we report that Cl(-) in functions as a regulator of cellular Na(+) and HCO3 (-) concentrations and transepithelial transport through modulating the activity of several electrogenic Na(+)-HCO3 (-) transporters. We describe the molecular mechanism(s) of this regulation by physiological Cl(-) in concentrations highlighting the role of GXXXP motifs in Cl(-) sensing. Regulation of the ubiquitous Na(+)-HCO3(-) co-transport (NBC)e1-B is mediated by two GXXXP-containing sites; regulation of NBCe2-C is dependent on a single GXXXP motif; and regulation of NBCe1-A depends on a cryptic GXXXP motif. In the basal state NBCe1-B is inhibited by high Cl(-) in interacting at a low affinity GXXXP-containing site. IP3 receptor binding protein released with IP3 (IRBIT) activation of NBCe1-B unmasks a second high affinity Cl(-) in interacting GXXXP-dependent site. By contrast, NBCe2-C, which does not interact with IRBIT, has a single high affinity N-terminal GXXP-containing Cl(-) in interacting site. NBCe1-A is unaffected by Cl(-) in between 5 and 140 mM. However, deletion of NBCe1-A residues 29-41 unmasks a cryptic GXXXP-containing site homologous with the NBCe1-B low affinity site that is involved in inhibition of NBCe1-A by Cl(-) in. These findings reveal a cellular Cl(-) in sensing mechanism that plays an important role in the regulation of Na(+) and HCO3 (-) transport, with critical implications for the role of Cl(-) in cellular ion homeostasis and epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion.

  19. Role of ion transporters in the bile acid-induced esophageal injury.

    PubMed

    Laczkó, Dorottya; Rosztóczy, András; Birkás, Klaudia; Katona, Máté; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Tiszlavicz, László; Róka, Richárd; Wittmann, Tibor; Hegyi, Péter; Venglovecz, Viktória

    2016-07-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is considered to be the most severe complication of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), in which the prolonged, repetitive episodes of combined acidic and biliary reflux result in the replacement of the squamous esophageal lining by columnar epithelium. Therefore, the acid-extruding mechanisms of esophageal epithelial cells (EECs) may play an important role in the defense. Our aim was to identify the presence of acid/base transporters on EECs and to investigate the effect of bile acids on their expressions and functions. Human EEC lines (CP-A and CP-D) were acutely exposed to bile acid cocktail (BAC) and the changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured by microfluorometry. mRNA and protein expression of ion transporters was investigated by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We have identified the presence of a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter (NBC), and a Cl(-)-dependent HCO3 (-) secretory mechanism in CP-A and CP-D cells. Acute administration of BAC stimulated HCO3 (-) secretion in both cell lines and the NHE activity in CP-D cells by an inositol triphosphate-dependent calcium release. Chronic administration of BAC to EECs increased the expression of ion transporters compared with nontreated cells. A similar expression pattern was observed in biopsy samples from BE compared with normal epithelium. We have shown that acute administration of bile acids differently alters ion transport mechanisms of EECs, whereas chronic exposure to bile acids increases the expression of acid/base transporters. We speculate that these adaptive processes of EECs represent an important mucosal defense against the bile acid-induced epithelial injury. PMID:27198194

  20. Ion transport in a polypyrrole-based ion-exchange polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Huanyu; Pickup, P.G. )

    1989-08-24

    Rotating disk voltammetry and ionic conductivity measurements have been used to investigate the transport of I{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4{minus}} in poly(1-methyl-3-(pyrrol-1-ylmethyl)pyridinium) (polyMPMP{sup +}) films. The diffusion coefficient for I{sup {minus}} in polyMPMP{sup +} is strongly dependent on the solvent. In water D{sub iodide,pol} is very high (1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}s{sup {minus}1}) due to significant swelling of the polymer, while in acetonitrile it is over 2 orders of magnitude lower. PolyMPMP{sup +} is significantly more permeable than polypyrrole in water, especially to Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4{minus}}. It is over 1000 times more permeable than the reduced form of polypyrrole. However, in acetonitrile polypyrrole (oxidized) is the more permeable of the two polymers. This difference is explained in terms of the degree of solvation and swelling of the polymers in the two solvents. It is concluded that solvation/swelling is much less significant in acetonitrile.

  1. Antibiotic assisted molecular ion transport across a membrane in real time.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Shang, Xiaoming; Pompano, Rebecca; Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2005-01-01

    The transport of an organic cation across a 4-5 nm liposome bilayer is observed in real time using second harmonic generation. It is proposed that an electrostatic barrier between the inside and outside of the liposome develops as the cation crosses the bilayer. This would explain why the SHG signal does not approach zero at long times. To test this mechanism, the antibiotic valinomycin, which can transport alkali ions across a phospholipid bilayer, is introduced into the system. It is found that the transport time is reduced by a factor of three from 90+/-2 s to 30+/-1 s with 1.25 x 10(-8) M valinomycin concentration, and a factor of fifteen to 6.2+/-0.2 s with 1.25 x 10(-8) M valinomycin concentration. In addition, the SHG signal approaches zero, which further supports the presence of an electrostatic barrier that can be eliminated by the alkali ion transporter valinomycin.

  2. Stormtime ring current and radiation belt ion transport: Simulations and interpretations

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, L.R.; Gorney, D.J.; Chen, M.W.; Schulz, M.

    1995-05-01

    The authors use a dynamical guiding-center model to investigate the stormtime transport of ring current and radiation-belt ions. They trace the motion of representative ions` guiding centers in response to model substorm-associated impulses in the convection electric field for a range of ion energies. Their simple magnetospheric model allows them to compare their numerical results quantitatively with analytical descriptions of particle transport, (e.g., with the quasilinear theory of radial diffusion). They find that 10-145-keV ions gain access to L approximately 3, where they can form the stormtime ring current, mainly from outside the (trapping) region in which particles execute closed drift paths. Conversely, the transport of higher-energy ions (approximately greater than 145 keV at L approximately 3) turns out to resemble radial diffusion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficient calculated for their model storm does not vary smoothly with particle energy, since their impulses occur at specific (although randomly determined) times. Despite the spectral irregularity, quasilinear theory provides a surprisingly accurate description of the transport process for approximately greater than 145-keV ions, even for the case of an individual storm. For 4 different realizations of their model storm, the geometric mean discrepancies between diffusion coefficients D(sup sim)(sub LL) obtained from the simulations and the quasilinear diffusion coefficient D(sup ql)(sub LL) amount to factors of 2.3, 2.3, 1.5, and 3.0, respectively. They have found that these discrepancies between D(sup sim)(sub LL) and D(sup ql)(sub LL) can be reduced slightly by invoking drift-resonance broadening to smooth out the sharp minima and maxima in D(sup ql)(sub LL). The mean of the remaining discrepancies between D(sup sim)(sub LL) and D(sup ql)(sub LL) for the 4 different storms then amount to factors of 1.9, 2.1, 1.5, and 2.7, respectively.

  3. Transport and emittance study for 18 GHz superconducting-ECR ion source at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Kibayashi, M; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A

    2012-02-01

    As the upgrade program of the azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron is at the cyclotron facility of the RCNP, Osaka University for the improvement of the quality, stability, and intensity of accelerated beams, an 18 GHz superconducting (SC) ECR ion source has been installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions, especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by RCNP AVF cyclotron. The production development of several ions such as B, O, N, Ne, Ar, Ni, Kr, and Xe has been performed by Yorita et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311(2008); 81, 02A332 (2010)]. Further studies for the beam transport have been done in order to improve the beam current more for injection of cyclotron. The effect of field leakage of AVF main coil is not negligible and additional steering magnet has been installed and then beam transmission has been improved. The emittance monitor has also been developed for the purpose of investigating correlation between emittance of beam from ECR ion sources and injection efficiency. The monitor consists with BPM82 with rotating wire for fast measurement for efficient study.

  4. Transport of ions through a (6,6) carbon nanotube under electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; Xu, Zhen; Zhou, Zhe-Wei; Hu, Guo-Hui

    2014-11-01

    The transport of water and ions through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is crucial in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Previous investigation indicated that the ions can hardly pass through (6,6) CNTs due to their hydrated shells. In the present study, utilizing molecular dynamics simulation, it is shown that the energy barrier mainly originating from the hydrated water molecules could be overcome by applying an electric field large enough in the CNT axis direction. Potential of mean force is calculated to show the reduction of energy barrier when the electric field is present for (Na+, K+, Cl-) ions. Consequently, ionic flux through (6,6) CNTs can be found once the electric field becomes larger than a threshold value. The variation of the coordination numbers of ions at different locations from the bulk to the center of the CNT is also explored to elaborate this dynamic process. The thresholds of the electric field are different for Na+, K+, and Cl- due to their characteristics. This consequence might be potentially applied in ion selectivity in the future.

  5. Tail-ion transport and Knudsen layer formation in the presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, P. F.; Molvig, Kim; Nakhleh, C. W.

    2013-11-15

    Knudsen layer losses of tail fuel ions could reduce significantly the fusion reactivity of highly compressed cylindrical and spherical targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the class of magnetized ICF targets in mind, the effect of embedded magnetic fields on Knudsen layer formation is investigated for the first time. The modified energy scaling of ion diffusivity in magnetized hot spots is found to suppress the preferential losses of tail-ions perpendicular to the magnetic field lines to a degree that the tail distribution can be at least partially, if not fully, restored. Two simple threshold conditions are identified leading to the restoration of fusion reactivity in magnetized hot spots. A kinetic equation for tail-ion transport in the presence of a magnetic field is derived, and solutions to the equation are obtained numerically in simulations. Numerical results confirm the validity of the threshold conditions for restored reactivity and identify two different asymptotic regimes of the fusion fuel. While Knudsen layer formation is shown to be suppressed entirely in strongly magnetized cylindrical hot spot cavities, uniformly magnetized spherical cavities demonstrate remnant, albeit reduced, levels of tail-ion depletion.

  6. Quantitative estimation of transmembrane ion transport in rat renal collecting duct principal cells.

    PubMed

    Ilyaskin, Alexander V; Karpov, Denis I; Medvedev, Dmitriy A; Ershov, Alexander P; Baturina, Galina S; Katkova, Liubov E; Solenov, Evgeniy I

    2014-01-01

    Kidney collecting duct principal cells play a key role in regulated tubular reabsorption of water and sodium and secretion of potassium. The importance of this function for the maintenance of the osmotic homeostasis of the whole organism motivates extensive study of the ion transport properties of collecting duct principal cells. We performed experimental measurements of cell volume and intracellular sodium concentration in rat renal collecting duct principal cells from the outer medulla (OMCD) and used a mathematical model describing transmembrane ion fluxes to analyze the experimental data. The sodium and chloride concentrations ([Na+]in = 37.3 ± 3.3 mM, [Cl-]in = 32.2 ± 4.0 mM) in OMCD cells were quantitatively estimated. Correspondence between the experimentally measured cell physiological characteristics and the values of model permeability parameters was established. Plasma membrane permeabilities and the rates of transmembrane fluxes for sodium, potassium and chloride ions were estimated on the basis of ion substitution experiments and model predictions. In particular, calculated sodium (PNa), potassium (PK) and chloride (PCl) permeabilities were equal to 3.2 × 10-6 cm/s, 1.0 × 10-5 cm/s and 3.0 × 10-6 cm/s, respectively. This approach sets grounds for utilization of experimental measurements of intracellular sodium concentration and cell volume to quantify the ion permeabilities of OMCD principal cells and aids us in understanding the physiology of the adjustment of renal sodium and potassium excretion.

  7. Transport properties and electroanalytical response characteristics of drotaverine ion-selective sensors.

    PubMed

    Kharitonov, Sergey V

    2005-08-01

    The construction and electroanalytical response characteristics of poly(vinyl chloride) matrix ion-selective sensors (ISSs) for drotaverine hydrochloride are described. The membranes incorporate ion-association complexes of drotaverine with tetraphenylborate, picrate, tetraiodomercurate, tetraiodobismuthate, Reinecke salt, and heteropolycompounds of Keggin structure-molybdophosphoric acid, tungstophosphoric acid, molybdosiliconic acid and tungstosiliconic acid as electroactive materials for ionometric sensor controls. These ISSs have a linear response to drotaverine hydrochloride over the range 8 x 10(-6) to 5 x 10(-2) mol L(-1) with cationic slopes from 51 to 58 mV per concentration decade. These ISSs have a fast response time (up to 1 min), a low determination limit (down to 4.3 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)), good stability (3-5 weeks), and reasonable selectivity. Permeabilities and ion fluxes through a membrane were calculated for major and interfering ions. Dependences of the transport properties of the membranes on the concentrations of the ion exchanger and near-membrane solution and their electrochemical characteristics are presented. The ISSs were used for direct potentiometry and potentiometric titration (sodium tetraphenylborate) of drotaverine hydrochloride. Results with mean accuracy of 99.1+/-1.0% of nominal were obtained which corresponded well to data obtained by use of high-performance liquid chromatography.

  8. The Role of Sarcolipin and ATP in the Transport of Phosphate Ion into the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Becucci, Lucia; Guidelli, Rolando; Karim, Christine B.; Thomas, David D.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In a previous study, sarcolipin (SLN) was shown to form channels selective toward chloride ion when incorporated in a mercury-supported tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM). Its incorporation had only a modest permeabilizing effect on phosphate ion. In this note the resistance of a tBLM membrane incorporating sarcolipin was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in aqueous solutions of 0.05 M sodium phosphate of pH ranging from 5.3 to 8, in the presence of ATP, adenosine monophosphate, and phenylphosphonic acid. At pH 5.3, submicromolar additions of ATP increase the conductivity of the tBLM incorporating SLN up to a maximum limiting value. The dependence of the conductivity on the ATP concentration satisfies the Michaelis-Menten equation, with an association constant of 0.1 μM. Phenylphosphonium ion and adenosine monophosphate exert an inhibitory effect on membrane permeabilization to phosphate ions by ATP if they are added before ATP, but not if they are added after it. An explanation for this behavior is provided. In conclusion, SLN acts as an ATP-induced phosphate carrier exhibiting a behavior quite similar to that of the unidentified Pi transporter described previously. No ion-channel activity is exhibited by the T18A mutant of SLN. PMID:19917222

  9. Alfv?nic Instabilities and Fast Ion Transport in the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zeeland, M; Heidbrink, W; Nazikian, R; Austin, M; Berk, H; Gorelenkov, N; Holcomb, C; Kramer, G; Lohr, J; Luo, Y; Makowski, M; McKee, G; Petty, C; Prater, R; Solomon, W; White, R

    2008-10-14

    Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including Toroidicity and Ellipticity induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE/EAE, respectively) and Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAE) as well as their spatial coupling. These modes are typically studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete current penetration results in a high central safety factor and strong drive due to multiple higher order resonances. During this same time period Fast-Ion D{sub {alpha}} (FIDA) spectroscopy shows that the central fast ion profile is flattened, the degree of which depends on the Alfven eigenmode amplitude. Interestingly, localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the mode location stabilizes RSAE activity and results in significantly improved fast ion confinement relative to discharges with ECH deposition on axis. In these discharges, RSAE activity is suppressed when ECH is deposited near the radius of the shear reversal point and enhanced with deposition near the axis. To simulate the observed neutral beam ion redistribution, NOVA calculations of the 3D eigenmode structures are matched with experimental measurements and used in combination with the ORBIT guiding center following code. For fixed frequency eigenmodes, it is found that ORBIT calculations cannot explain the observed beam ion transport with experimentally measured mode amplitudes. Possible explanations are considered including recent simulation results incorporating eigenmodes with time dependent frequencies.

  10. Transport and emittance study for 18 GHz superconducting-ECR ion source at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Kibayashi, M; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A

    2012-02-01

    As the upgrade program of the azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron is at the cyclotron facility of the RCNP, Osaka University for the improvement of the quality, stability, and intensity of accelerated beams, an 18 GHz superconducting (SC) ECR ion source has been installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions, especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by RCNP AVF cyclotron. The production development of several ions such as B, O, N, Ne, Ar, Ni, Kr, and Xe has been performed by Yorita et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311(2008); 81, 02A332 (2010)]. Further studies for the beam transport have been done in order to improve the beam current more for injection of cyclotron. The effect of field leakage of AVF main coil is not negligible and additional steering magnet has been installed and then beam transmission has been improved. The emittance monitor has also been developed for the purpose of investigating correlation between emittance of beam from ECR ion sources and injection efficiency. The monitor consists with BPM82 with rotating wire for fast measurement for efficient study. PMID:22380182

  11. Apparatus, Method and Program Storage Device for Determining High-Energy Neutron/Ion Transport to a Target of Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W. (Inventor); Tripathi, Ram K. (Inventor); Badavi, Francis F. (Inventor); Cucinotta, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, method and program storage device for determining high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest. Boundaries are defined for calculation of a high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest; the high-energy neutron/ion transport to the target of interest is calculated using numerical procedures selected to reduce local truncation error by including higher order terms and to allow absolute control of propagated error by ensuring truncation error is third order in step size, and using scaling procedures for flux coupling terms modified to improve computed results by adding a scaling factor to terms describing production of j-particles from collisions of k-particles; and the calculated high-energy neutron/ion transport is provided to modeling modules to control an effective radiation dose at the target of interest.

  12. Factors Affecting the Production of Aromatic Immonium Ions in MALDI 157 nm Photodissociation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Ashley, Daniel C.; Keijzer, Karlijn; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Immonium ions are commonly observed in the high energy fragmentation of peptide ions. In a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer, singly charged peptides photofragmented with 157 nm VUV light yield a copious abundance of immonium ions, especially those from aromatic residues. However, their intensities may vary from one peptide to another. In this work, the effect of varying amino acid position, peptide length, and peptide composition on immonium ion yield is investigated. Internal immonium ions are found to have the strongest intensity, whereas immonium ions arising from C-terminal residues are the weakest. Peptide length and competition among residues also strongly influence the immonium ion production. Quantum calculations provide insights about immonium ion structures and the fragment ion conformations that promote or inhibit immonium ion formation.

  13. The role of heavy metal ions on spin transport in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B. B.; Wang, S.; Jiang, S. W.; Yu, Z. G.; Wan, X. G.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength and the associated spin relaxation can be enhanced by introducing heavy metal ions in organic semiconductors. Here, we systematically study the spin transport in two organic semiconductors, tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium (Ir(ppy)3) and tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3), which have similar chemical structures except that Ir(ppy)3 contains a heavy metal ion Ir. As expected, the photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the SOC strength in Ir(ppy)3 is several orders of magnitude larger than in Alq3. Surprisingly, the spin diffusion length in Ir(ppy)3, deduced from magnetoresistance measurements in Ir(ppy)3-based organic spin valves, is longer than in Alq3. Considering the lower carrier mobility in Ir(ppy)3, the spin relaxation time in Ir(ppy)3 is much longer than in Alq3, implying that the SOC strength in Ir(ppy)3 is weaker than in Alq3. The seemingly contradictory results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and magneto-transport can be explained by the SOC strength depending on the electronic states of a material. The weak SOC strength in Ir(ppy)3 observed in magneto-transport measurements is due to the strong ligand field induced orbital moment quenching for Ir3+ and the polarons transporting in the ligands. However, the excitons involved in photoluminescence spectroscopy overlap with the Ir ion and transforms Ir3+ to Ir4+, which has non-zero spin and orbital moments and hence results in high SOC strength.

  14. Collisional model of quasilinear transport driven by toroidal electrostatic ion temperature gradient modes

    SciTech Connect

    Pusztai, I.; Fueloep, T.; Candy, J.; Hastie, R. J.

    2009-07-15

    The stability of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and the quasilinear fluxes driven by them are analyzed in weakly collisional tokamak plasmas using a semianalytical model based on an approximate solution of the gyrokinetic equation, where collisions are modeled by a Lorentz operator. Although the frequencies and growth rates of ITG modes far from threshold are only very weakly sensitive to the collisionality, the a/L{sub Ti} threshold for stability is affected significantly by electron-ion collisions. The decrease in collisionality destabilizes the ITG mode driving an inward particle flux, which leads to the steepening of the density profile. Closed analytical expressions for the electron and ion density and temperature responses have been derived without expansion in the smallness of the magnetic drift frequencies. The results have been compared with gyrokinetic simulations with GYRO and illustrated by showing the scalings of the eigenvalues and quasilinear fluxes with collisionality, temperature scale length, and magnetic shear.

  15. Solute balance of a maize (Zea mays L.) source leaf as affected by salt treatment with special emphasis on phloem retranslocation and ion leaching.

    PubMed

    Lohaus, G; Hussmann, M; Pennewiss, K; Schneider, H; Zhu, J J; Sattelmacher, B

    2000-10-01

    Strategies for avoiding ion accumulation in leaves of plants grown at high concentration of NaCl (100 mol m(-3)) in the rooting media, i.e. retranslocation via the phloem and leaching from the leaf surface, were quantified for fully developed leaves of maize plants cultivated hydroponically with or without salt, and with or without sprinkling (to induce leaching). Phloem sap, apoplastic fluid, xylem sap, solutes from leaf and root tissues, and the leachate were analysed for carbohydrates, amino acids, malate, and inorganic ions. In spite of a reduced growth rate Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations in the leaf apoplast remained relatively low (about 4-5 mol m(-3)) under salt treatment. Concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the phloem sap of salt-treated maize did not exceed 12 and 32 mol m(-3), respectively, and thus remained lower than described for other species. However, phloem transport rates of these ions were higher than reported for other species. The relatively high translocation rate of ions found in maize may be due to the higher carbon translocation rate observed for C(4) plants as opposed to C(3) plants. Approximately 13-36% of the Na(+) and Cl(-) imported into the leaves through the xylem were exported by the phloem. It is concluded that phloem transport plays an important role in controlling the NaCl content of the leaf in maize. Surprisingly, leaching by artificial rain did not affect plant growth. Ion concentrations in the leachate were lower than reported for other plants but increased with NaCl treatment.

  16. Stormtime ring current and radiation belt ion transport: Simulations and interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Larry R.; Gorney, David J.; Chen, Margaret W.; Schulz, Michael

    1995-01-01

    We use a dynamical guiding-center model to investigate the stormtime transport of ring current and radiation-belt ions. We trace the motion of representative ions' guiding centers in response to model substorm-associated impulses in the convection electric field for a range of ion energies. Our simple magnetospheric model allows us to compare our numerical results quantitatively with analytical descriptions of particle transport, (e.g., with the quasilinear theory of radial diffusion). We find that 10-145-keV ions gain access to L approximately 3, where they can form the stormtime ring current, mainly from outside the (trapping) region in which particles execute closed drift paths. Conversely, the transport of higher-energy ions (approximately greater than 145 keV at L approximately 3) turns out to resemble radial diffusion. The quasilinear diffusion coefficient calculated for our model storm does not vary smoothly with particle energy, since our impulses occur at specific (although randomly determined) times. Despite the spectral irregularity, quasilinear theory provides a surprisingly accurate description of the transport process for approximately greater than 145-keV ions, even for the case of an individual storm. For 4 different realizations of our model storm, the geometric mean discrepancies between diffusion coefficients D(sup sim, sub LL) obtained from the simulations and the quasilinear diffusion coefficient D(sup ql, sub LL) amount to factors of 2.3, 2.3, 1.5, and 3.0, respectively. We have found that these discrepancies between D(sup sim, sub LL) and D(sup ql, sub LL) can be reduced slightly by invoking drift-resonance broadening to smooth out the sharp minima and maxima in D(sup ql, sub LL). The mean of the remaining discrepancies between D(sup sim, sub LL) and D(sup ql, sub LL) for the 4 different storms then amount to factors of 1.9, 2.1, 1.5, and 2.7, respectively. We find even better agreement when we reduce the impulse amplitudes systematically in

  17. Energetic Ion Transport and Concomitant Change of the Fusion Reactivity during Reconnection Events in Spherical Tori

    SciTech Connect

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.V. Lutsenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko

    2004-07-06

    Effects of MHD reconnection events on the beam-plasma fusion reactivity and transport of the beam ions are studied. Based on the analysis of fusion reactivity changes induced by MHD events, the conclusion is drawn that the strong drops of the neutron yield during sawtooth crashes observed in the National Spherical Torus experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are associated with both a particle redistribution inside the plasma and a loss of the beam ions. Mechanisms of the energetic ion transport during sawtooth crashes are analyzed, in particular, with the use of the resonance adiabatic invariant derived in this paper. A numerical simulation of the particle motion during a sawtooth crash in NSTX is done with the code OFSEF [Ya. I. Kolesnichenko, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 1325 (2000)] extended for a better description of the particle precession. It is shown that the motion of toroidally passing particles in NSTX can become stochastic under the influence of a crash. This stochasticity, as well as the motion along the resonance island, leads to the escape of some particles from the plasma.

  18. Benchmarking Heavy Ion Transport Codes FLUKA, HETC-HEDS MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronningen, Reginald Martin; Remec, Igor; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.

    2013-06-07

    Powerful accelerators such as spallation neutron sources, muon-collider/neutrino facilities, and rare isotope beam facilities must be designed with the consideration that they handle the beam power reliably and safely, and they must be optimized to yield maximum performance relative to their design requirements. The simulation codes used for design purposes must produce reliable results. If not, component and facility designs can become costly, have limited lifetime and usefulness, and could even be unsafe. The objective of this proposal is to assess the performance of the currently available codes PHITS, FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and HETC-HEDS that could be used for design simulations involving heavy ion transport. We plan to access their performance by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data of benchmark quality. Quantitative knowledge of the biases and the uncertainties of the simulations is essential as this potentially impacts the safe, reliable and cost effective design of any future radioactive ion beam facility. Further benchmarking of heavy-ion transport codes was one of the actions recommended in the Report of the 2003 RIA R&D Workshop".

  19. Simulation of System Error Tolerances of a High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steven M.; Bangerter, Roger O.; Freidman, Alex; Grote, Dave P.; Seidl, Peter A.

    2000-10-01

    A driver-scale, intense ion beam transport experiment (HCX) is being designed to test issues for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) [1]. Here we present detailed, Particle in Cell simulations of HCX to parametrically explore how various system errors can impact machine performance. The simulations are transverse and include the full 3D fields of the quadrupole focusing magnets, spreads in axial momentum, conducting pipe boundary conditions, etc. System imperfections such as applied focusing field errors (magnet strength, field nonlinearities, etc.), alignment errors (magnet offsets and rotations), beam envelope mismatches to the focusing lattice, induced beam image charges, and beam distribution errors (beam nonuniformities, collective modes, and other distortions) are all analyzed in turn and in combination. The influence of these errors on the degradation of beam quality (emittance growth), halo production, and loss of beam control are evaluated. Evaluations of practical machine apertures and centroid steering corrections that can mitigate particle loss and degradation of beam quality are carried out. 1. P.A. Seidl, L.E. Ahle, R.O. Bangerter, V.P. Karpenko, S.M. Lund, A Faltens, R.M. Franks, D.B. Shuman, and H.K. Springer, Design of a Proof of Principal High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion, these proceedings.

  20. Electronic transport and localization in nitrogen-doped graphene devices using hyperthermal ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Adam L.; Cress, Cory D.; Schmucker, Scott W.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; van 't Erve, Olaf M. J.

    2016-04-01

    Hyperthermal ion implantation offers a controllable method of producing high-quality substitutionally doped graphene with nitrogen, an n -type dopant that has great potential for graphene electronics and spintronics applications where high carrier concentration, uniform doping, and minimal vacancy defect concentration is desired. Here we examine the transport properties of monolayer graphene sheets as a function of implantation beam energy and dose. We observe a transition from weak to strong localization that varies as a function of carrier concentration. For nominally equivalent doses, increased N ion energy results in an increasing magnetoresistance magnitude, reaching a value of approximately -5.5% at 5000 Oe, which we discuss in the context of dopant concentration and defect formation. We use a model for the temperature dependence of the conductivity that takes into account both temperature activation, due to the formation of a transport gap, and Mott variable-range hopping, due to the formation of defects, to further study the electronic properties of the doped films as a function of dose and N ion energy. We find that the temperature activation component dominates the behavior.

  1. Towards a unified linear kinetic transport model with the trace ion module for EIRENE

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, J.; Kendl, A.

    2012-01-01

    Linear kinetic Monte Carlo particle transport models are frequently employed in fusion plasma simulations to quantify atomic and surface effects on the main plasma flow dynamics. Separate codes are used for transport of neutral particles (incl. radiation) and charged particles (trace impurity ions). Integration of both modules into main plasma fluid solvers provides then self-consistent solutions, in principle. The required interfaces are far from trivial, because rapid atomic processes in particular in the edge region of fusion plasmas require either smoothing and resampling, or frequent transfer of particles from one into the other Monte Carlo code. We propose a different scheme here, in which despite the inherently different mathematical form of kinetic equations for ions and neutrals (e.g. Fokker–Planck vs. Boltzmann collision integrals) both types of particle orbits can be integrated into one single code. We show that the approximations and shortcomings of this “single sourcing” concept (e.g., restriction to explicit ion drift orbit integration) can be fully tolerable in a wide range of typical fusion edge plasma conditions, and be overcompensated by the code-system simplicity, as well as by inherently ensured consistency in geometry (one single numerical grid only) and (the common) atomic and surface process modules. PMID:22474397

  2. Passive and active ion transport by the urinary bladder of a euryhaline flounder.

    PubMed

    Demarest, J R; Machen, T E

    1984-04-01

    The effects of voltage clamping on the flux ratios and unidirectional and net fluxes of Na and Cl were used to gain insight into the mechanisms of active and passive ion transport across urinary bladders isolated from seawater-(SW) and freshwater-acclimated (FW) flounder, Platichthys stellatus. Although the transepithelial conductance (Gt = 2.77 mS X cm-2) of FW bladders was much greater than that of SW bladders (Gt = 0.40 mS X cm-2), the current-voltage relationships of both SW and FW bladders were markedly nonlinear. Under short-circuit conditions there was a large difference in the serosal-to-mucosal Na flux (JNasm) between SW (0.10 mueq X cm-2 X h-1) and FW (1.71 mueq X cm-2 X h-1) bladders, but their mannitol permeabilities were identical. The results indicate that 1) the paracellular pathway of both SW and FW bladders is Cl selective and Cl movements through the shunt account for a maximum of 90% of Gt in SW bladders and 19% in FW bladders; 2) the larger Gt of FW bladders is due to greater conductance of the apical cell membrane; 3) the majority of the passive ion movement across these epithelia proceeds through nonconductive, presumably transcellular, pathways; and 4) active transport of Na and Cl occurs by neutral coupling to each other and to other unidentified ions.

  3. FINAL REPORT:Observation and Simulations of Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    MURAD, SOHAIL; JAMESON, CYNTHIA J

    2013-10-22

    During the this new grant we developed a robust methodology for investigating a wide range of properties of phospho-lipid bilayers. The approach developed is unique because despite using periodic boundary conditions, we can simulate an entire experiment or process in detail. For example, we can follow the entire permeation process in a lipid-membrane. This includes transport from the bulk aqueous phase to the lipid surface; permeation into the lipid; transport inside the lipid; and transport out of the lipid to the bulk aqueous phase again. We studied the transport of small gases in both the lipid itself and in model protein channels. In addition, we have examined the transport of nanocrystals through the lipid membrane, with the main goal of understanding the mechanical behavior of lipids under stress including water and ion leakage and lipid flip flop. Finally we have also examined in detail the deformation of lipids when under the influence of external fields, both mechanical and electrostatic (currently in progress). The important observations and conclusions from our studies are described in the main text of the report

  4. Ocean acidification affects redox-balance and ion-homeostasis in the life-cycle stages of Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO(2) partial pressures (pCO(2); 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO(2)) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be

  5. Ocean Acidification Affects Redox-Balance and Ion-Homeostasis in the Life-Cycle Stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Rokitta, Sebastian D.; John, Uwe; Rost, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Ocean Acidification (OA) has been shown to affect photosynthesis and calcification in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, a cosmopolitan calcifier that significantly contributes to the regulation of the biological carbon pumps. Its non-calcifying, haploid life-cycle stage was found to be relatively unaffected by OA with respect to biomass production. Deeper insights into physiological key processes and their dependence on environmental factors are lacking, but are required to understand and possibly estimate the dynamics of carbon cycling in present and future oceans. Therefore, calcifying diploid and non-calcifying haploid cells were acclimated to present and future CO2 partial pressures (pCO2; 38.5 Pa vs. 101.3 Pa CO2) under low and high light (50 vs. 300 µmol photons m−2 s−1). Comparative microarray-based transcriptome profiling was used to screen for the underlying cellular processes and allowed to follow up interpretations derived from physiological data. In the diplont, the observed increases in biomass production under OA are likely caused by stimulated production of glycoconjugates and lipids. The observed lowered calcification under OA can be attributed to impaired signal-transduction and ion-transport. The haplont utilizes distinct genes and metabolic pathways, reflecting the stage-specific usage of certain portions of the genome. With respect to functionality and energy-dependence, however, the transcriptomic OA-responses resemble those of the diplont. In both life-cycle stages, OA affects the cellular redox-state as a master regulator and thereby causes a metabolic shift from oxidative towards reductive pathways, which involves a reconstellation of carbon flux networks within and across compartments. Whereas signal transduction and ion-homeostasis appear equally OA-sensitive under both light intensities, the effects on carbon metabolism and light physiology are clearly modulated by light availability. These interactive effects can be attributed

  6. Development of microwave ion source and low energy beam transport system for high current cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, V. S.; Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.; Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.; Nandi, C.; Pal, G.; Thakur, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source and a low energy beam transport system have been developed to study the high intensity proton beam injection into a 10 MeV, 5 mA compact cyclotron. We have extracted proton beam more than 10 mA at 80 kV as measured by the DCCT after the extraction and a well collimated beam of 7 mA (through 1 cm × 1 cm slit) at the faraday cup 1.5 m away from the source. The transport of protons from the ion source in the presence of H2+, H3+ species has been studied using PIC simulations through our transport line which consists of two solenoids. We have also installed a small dipole magnet with similar field as that of the cyclotron along with vacuum chamber, spiral inflector and few diagnostic elements at the end of the beam line. In the preliminary testing of inflection, we achieved 1 mA beam on the faraday cup at the exit of inflector with ∼60% transmission efficiency.

  7. Interaction of calcium with the human divalent metal-ion transporter-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shawki, Ali; Mackenzie, Bryan

    2010-03-12

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency worldwide. Whereas dietary calcium is known to reduce the bioavailability of iron, the molecular basis of this interaction is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1)-the principal or only mechanism by which nonheme iron is taken up at the intestinal brush border-is shared also by calcium. We expressed human DMT1 in RNA-injected Xenopus oocytes and examined its activity using radiotracer assays and the voltage clamp. DMT1 did not mediate {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake. Instead, we found that Ca{sup 2+} blocked the Fe{sup 2+}-evoked currents and inhibited {sup 55}Fe{sup 2+} uptake in a noncompetitive manner (K{sub i} {approx} 20 mM). The mechanism of inhibition was independent of voltage and did not involve intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling. The alkaline-earth metal ions Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+} also inhibited DMT1-mediated iron-transport activity. We conclude that Ca{sup 2+} is a low-affinity noncompetitive inhibitor-but not a transported substrate-of DMT1, explaining in part the effect of high dietary calcium on iron bioavailability.

  8. Ion transport through a charged cylindrical membrane pore contacting stagnant diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Mathias B.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Mani, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Fundamental understanding of the ion transport in membrane systems by diffusion, electromigration and advection is important in widespread processes such as de-ionization by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis and electro-osmotic micropumps. Here we revisit the classical analysis of a single cylindrical pore, see e.g. Gross and Osterle [J Chem Phys 49, 228 (1968)]. We extend the analysis by including the well-established concept of contacting stagnant diffusion layers on either side of the pore; thus, the pore is not in direct equilibrium with the reservoirs. Inside the pore the ions are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium in the radial direction with the surface charge on the pore wall and we obtain a 1D model by area-averaging. We demonstrate that in some extreme limits this model reduces to simpler models studied in the literature; see e.g. Yaroshchuk [J Membrane Sci 396, 43 (2012)]. Using our model we present predictions of important transport effects such as variation of transport numbers inside the membrane, onset of limiting current, and transient dynamics described by the method of characteristics.

  9. THE LONGITUDINAL TRANSPORT OF ENERGETIC IONS FROM IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES IN INTERPLANETARY SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Giacalone, J.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2012-06-01

    We present a study of the longitudinal spread of energetic charged particles from a localized instantaneous compact source on the Sun. Our study utilizes a diffusive-transport model for the propagation of energetic ions in interplanetary space. We show that even for very small values of the ratio of perpendicular to parallel diffusion coefficients-a few percent-the particles spread significantly in longitude. Spatial diffusion and adiabatic energy loss of ions in the interplanetary plasma cause impulsive particle events at Earth's orbit to last a few days. In this time, the combination of transport both along and across the local Parker-spiral magnetic field and the longitudinal motion of the magnetic lines of forces rooted at the Sun as it rotates leads to substantial longitudinal transport of the particles. We show that spacecraft separated by as much as 180 Degree-Sign or more may observe events associated with compact solar sources, such as those from impulsive solar flares. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent multi-spacecraft observations.

  10. The role of ion transport phenomena in memristive double barrier devices

    PubMed Central

    Dirkmann, Sven; Hansen, Mirko; Ziegler, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on the role of ion transport for the dynamic behavior of a double barrier quantum mechanical Al/Al2O3/NbxOy/Au memristive device based on numerical simulations in conjunction with experimental measurements. The device consists of an ultra-thin NbxOy solid state electrolyte between an Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a semiconductor metal interface at an Au electrode. It is shown that the device provides a number of interesting features such as an intrinsic current compliance, a relatively long retention time, and no need for an initialization step. Therefore, it is particularly attractive for applications in highly dense random access memories or neuromorphic mixed signal circuits. However, the underlying physical mechanisms of the resistive switching are still not completely understood yet. To investigate the interplay between the current transport mechanisms and the inner atomistic device structure a lumped element circuit model is consistently coupled with 3D kinetic Monte Carlo model for the ion transport. The simulation results indicate that the drift of charged point defects within the NbxOy is the key factor for the resistive switching behavior. It is shown in detail that the diffusion of oxygen modifies the local electronic interface states resulting in a change of the interface properties. PMID:27762294

  11. Effects of cation and anion solvation on ion transport in functionalized perfluoropolyethers electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timachova, Ksenia; Chintapalli, Mahati; Olsen, Kevin; Desimone, Joseph; Balsara, Nitash

    Advances in polymer electrolytes for use in lithium batteries have been limited by the incorporation of selective lithium binding groups that provide necessary solvation for the lithium but ultimately restrict the mobility of the lithium ions relative to anions. Perfluoropolyether electrolytes (PFPE) are a new class of nonflammable liquid polymer electrolytes that have been functionalized with solvating groups for both lithium ions and fluorinated anions. PFPEs with different endgroups mixed with LiN(SO2CF3)2 salt have shown substantial differences in conductivity and allows us to investigate the effects of varying solvating environments on ion transport. To study the independent motion of cations and anions in these systems, the individual diffusion coefficients of the Li + and (SO2CF3)2 - ions were measured using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). Comparing conductivity calculated using these diffusion coefficients with electrochemical measurements yields an estimation for the number of charge carrier in the system. The amount of salt dissociation, not the mobility of the salt, is the primary driver of differences in electrochemical conductivities between PFPEs with different solvating groups.

  12. Anomalous transport model study of chiral magnetic effects in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yifeng; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Feng

    2016-10-01

    Using an anomalous transport model for massless quarks and antiquarks, we study the effect of a magnetic field on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions. With initial conditions from a blast wave model and assuming that the strong magnetic field produced in noncentral heavy ion collisions can last for a sufficiently long time, we obtain an appreciable electric quadrupole moment in the transverse plane of a heavy ion collision. The electric quadrupole moment subsequently leads to a splitting between the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks. The slope of the charge asymmetry dependence of the elliptic flow difference between positively and negatively charged particles is positive, which is expected from the chiral magnetic wave formed in the produced QGP and observed in experiments at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, only if the Lorentz force acting on the charged particles is neglected and the quark-antiquark scattering is assumed to be dominated by the chirality changing channel.

  13. Ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Cavallo, A.; Cohen, S.; Daughney, C.; Denne, B.; Hinnov, E.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R.; Hwang, D.; Schilling, G.

    1983-12-01

    Radial transport of ions during co- and counter-neutral beam heating in the PLT tokamak has been studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral beam heating, were measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction were observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 10/sup 3/ cm/sec superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 10/sup 4/ cm/sup 2//sec for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the center while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element.

  14. Defective copper transport in the copt5 mutant affects cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium toxicity interferes with essential metal homeostasis, which is a problem for both plant nutrition and the consumption of healthy food by humans. Copper uptake is performed by the members of the Arabidopsis high affinity copper transporter (COPT) family. One of the members, COPT5, is involved in copper recycling from the vacuole toward the cytosolic compartment. We show herein that copt5 mutants are more sensitive to cadmium stress than wild-type plants, as indicated by reduced growth. Exacerbated cadmium toxicity in copt5 mutants is due specifically to altered copper traffic through the COPT5 transporter. Three different processes which have been shown to affect cadmium tolerance are altered in copt5 mutants. First, ethylene biosynthesis diminishes under copper deficiency and, in the presence of cadmium, ethylene production diminishes further. Copper deficiency responses are also attenuated under cadmium treatment. Remarkably, while copt5 roots present higher oxidative stress toxicity symptoms than controls, aerial copt5 parts display lower oxidative stress, as seen by reduced cadmium delivery to shoots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that copper transport plays a key role in cadmium resistance, and suggest that oxidative stress triggers an NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling pathway, which contributes to cadmium translocation and basal plant resistance. The slightly lower cadmium levels that reach aerial parts in the copt5 mutants, irrespective of the copper content in the media, suggest a new biotechnological approach to minimize toxic cadmium entry into food chains.

  15. Effect of counter- and co-ions on the structural transport parameters of sulfoacid cationite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demina, O. A.; Falina, I. V.; Kononenko, N. A.; Demin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion permeability and specific electroconductivity of MK-40 sulfoacid cationite and Nafion 425 membranes are studied experimentally in NaOH, NaCl, and HCl solutions with various concentrations. The resulting concentration dependences of the electrodiffusion characteristics and data on the nonexchange sorption of the electrolytes are used to calculate the structural transport parameters of the membranes in terms of a two-phase conduction model. Analysis of a set of parameters, including the electroconductivity and diffusion permeability of the membrane gel phase, the volume fractions of the conductive phases, and a parameter that reflects their relative positions, the Donnan constant, and the diffusion coefficients of counter and co-ions in the membrane gel phase reveals the effect the nature of counter- and co-ions has on the electrodiffusion, structural, and sorption characteristics of sulfoacid cationite membranes with different types of structure.

  16. Transport coefficients and the Stokes-Einstein relation in molten alkali halides with polarisable ion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Yoshiki; Kasai, Satoshi; Salanne, Mathieu; Ohtori, Norikazu

    2015-09-01

    A polarisable ion model is parameterised for the whole series of molten alkali halides by using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Viscosity, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity are determined using molecular dynamics simulations via the Green-Kubo formulae and confronted to experimental results. The calculated transport coefficients are generally in much better agreement than those obtained with the empirical Fumi-Tosi potentials. The inclusion of polarisation effects significantly decreases the viscosity and thermal conductivity, while it increases the electrical conductivity. The individual dynamics of the ions is analysed using the Stokes-Einstein relation. The anion behaviour is always well represented using the slip boundary condition, while for cations there is an apparent shift from slip to stick condition when the ionic radius decreases. This difference is interpreted by subtle changes in their coordinating environment, which are maximised in the case of Li+ cation.

  17. TATRA: a versatile high-vacuum tape transportation system for decay studies at radioactive-